Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

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August 04, 2015

BiblePlaces Blog

The Gate of Gath

The Jerusalem Post carries a brief notice of the discovery of the Iron Age gate along with two photos.

Archeologists at Bar-Ilan University, headed by Professor Aren Maeir, have discovered the fortifications and entrance gate to the biblical city of Gath in the Philistines, which was once the home of the giant Goliath.


Professor Maeir said that the gate is among the largest ever found in Israel and provides substantial evidence that Gath was once one of the most influential cities in the region.

I think that everyone already agreed that Gath was one of the most influential cities in the region, but finding a gate doesn’t hurt.

Maeir links to several related stories on his blog.

ArcheoNet BE

In memoriam Leon Mooren (1941-2015)

We hebben de droeve plicht het onverwachte overlijden mee te delen van prof. em. Leon Mooren (1941-2015). Als hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven wijdde Mooren verschillende generaties archeologen in in de geschiedenis van de Griekse en Romeinse oudheid, en bracht hen de beginselen van de historische methode bij.

De uitvaartplechtigheid vindt plaats op vrijdag 7 augustus om 11 uur in de Sint-Kwintenskerk in Linden (Lubbeek).

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeologists Unearth ‘Dancing Priestess’ Figurine in Neolithic Settlement

A 7,500-year-old clay figurine from the Neolithic of what has been described as a “dancing...

Corinthian Matters

Corinthian Scholarship, June-July 2015

This summer I have been slowly processing my alerts for scholarship related to the Corinthia. The list below includes all items catalogued in June and July 2015. For a more readable report with abstracts, download this PDF. You may also wish to visit the searchable Zotero Library of 2500+ articles and books at the Corinthian Studies Zotero Page. The new entries are tagged according to master categories .ARCHAEOLOGY AND HISTORY, .NEW TESTAMENT, and .RELIGION.

  • Alexiades, Platon. Target Corinth Canal: 1940-1944. Pen and Sword, 2015.
  • Anderson-Stojanović, Virginia R. “The Domestic Architecture of the Rachi Settlement at Isthmia.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Andriopoulos, D.Z. “Reconstructing and Commenting Polybiu’s Philosophy of History:” Philosophical Inquiry 39, no. 2 (2015): 15–34. doi:10.5840/philinquiry201539221.
  • Antonioli, Fabrizio, Valeria Lo Presti, Alessio Rovere, Luigi Ferranti, Marco Anzidei, Stefano Furlani, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, et al. “Tidal Notches in Mediterranean Sea: A Comprehensive Analysis.” Quaternary Science Reviews 119 (July 1, 2015): 66–84. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.03.016.
  • Arafat, K. W. “The Chigi Painter at Isthmia?” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Arena, Emiliano. “Mycenaean Peripheries during the Palatial Age: The Case of Achaia.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 84, no. 1 (March 1, 2015): 1–46. doi:10.2972/hesperia.84.1.0001.
  • Balomenou, Eleni, and Vasili Tassinos. “An Early Mycenaean Habitation Site at Kyras Vrysi.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Bitner, Bradley J. Paul’s Political Strategy in 1 Corinthians 1-4. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Boersma, Hans, and Matthew Levering, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Bussolotto, M., A. Benedicto, L. Moen-Maurel, and C. Invernizzi. “Fault Deformation Mechanisms and Fault Rocks in Micritic Limestones: Examples from Corinth Rift Normal Faults.” Journal of Structural Geology 77 (August 2015): 191–212. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2015.05.004.
  • Carabott, Dr Philip, Professor Yannis Hamilakis, and Dr Eleni Papargyriou. Camera Graeca: Photographs, Narratives, Materialities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
  • Caraher, William R. “Epigraphy, Liturgy, and Imperial Policy on the Justinianic Isthmus.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Carlson, Deborah N., Sarah M. Kampbell, and Justin Leidwanger, eds. Maritime Studies in the Wake of the Byzantine Shipwreck at Yassiada, Turkey. Texas A&M University Press, 2015.
  • Cosmopoulos, Michael B. Bronze Age Eleusis and the Origins of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Davis, William. “One with Everything: Hölderlin on Acrocorinth.” European Romantic Review 26, no. 1 (January 2, 2015): 59–73. doi:10.1080/10509585.2014.989695.
  • Dijkstra, Tamara. “Burial and Commemoration in the Roman Colony of Patras.” In Processes of Cultural Change and Integration in the Roman World, edited by Saskia T. Roselaar, 154–74. Leiden: BRILL, 2015.
  • Eastman, David L. The Ancient Martyrdom Accounts of Peter and Paul. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2015.
  • Ellis, Stephen J.R., and Eric E. Poehler. “The Roman Buildings East of the Temple of Poseidon on the Isthmus.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R.
  • Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Ferguson, Everett. “Sacraments in the Pre-Nicene Period.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology, edited by Hans Boersma and Matthew Levering, 125–38. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Frey, Jon M. “Work Teams on the Isthmian Fortress and the Development of a Later Roman Architectural Aesthetic.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Frey, Jon Michael. “The Archaic Colonnade at Ancient Corinth: A Case of Early Roman Spolia.” American Journal of Archaeology 119, no. 2 (April 1, 2015): 147–75. doi:10.3764/aja.119.2.0147.
  • Gebhard, Elizabeth R., and Timothy E. Gregory. “Introduction.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Gerstel, Sharon E. J. Rural Lives and Landscapes in Late Byzantium: Art, Archaeology, and Ethnography. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Grasso, John, Bill Mallon, and Jeroen Heijmans. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. Fifth Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
  • Grundeken, Mark. Community Building in the Shepherd of Hermas: A Critical Study of Some Key Aspects. BRILL, 2015.
  • Hafemann, Scott J. Paul’s Message and Ministry in Covenant Perspective: Selected Essays. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015.
  • Haggis, Donald, and Carla Antonaccio, eds. Classical Archaeology in Context: Theory and Practice in Excavation in the Greek World. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015.
  • Hemans, Frederick P. “The Archaic Temple of Poseidon: Problems of Design and Invention.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Houghtalin, Liane. “The Temple Deposit at Isthmia and the Dating of Archaic and Early Classical Greek Coins.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Hurwit, Jeffrey M. Artists and Signatures in Ancient Greece. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Hylen, Susan E. A Modest Apostle: Thecla and the History of Women in the Early Church. Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Jackson, A.H. “Arms from the Age of Philip and Alexander at Broneer’s West Foundation near Isthmia.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Jöris, S. “Intertextuality in 1 Cor 15:54–55. A Call for Comfort and Admonition.” Protokolle Zur Bibel 24, no. 1 (2015): 21–35.
  • Käppel, Lutz, and Vassiliki Pothou, eds. Human Development in Sacred Landscapes: Between Ritual Tradition, Creativity and Emotionality. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2015.
  • Labahn, Michael, and Outi Lehtipuu, eds. People under Power: Early Jewish and Christian Responses to the Roman Power Empire. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015.
  • Last, Richard. Review. “Corinth in Contrast. Studies in Inequality. Edited by Steven J. Friesen, Sarah A. James, and Daniel N. Schowalter. Leiden: PB  – Brill , 2014. Pp. Xv + 273. Paper, $67.00.” Religious Studies Review 41, no. 2 (June 1, 2015): 79–79. doi:10.1111/rsr.12216_33.
  • Leiderwanger, Justin, Carl Knappett, Pascal Arnaud, Paul Arthur, Emma Blake, Cyprian Broodbank, Tom Brughmans, et al. “A Manifesto for the Study of Ancient Mediterranean Maritime Networks.” Antiquity, no. 342 (2014).
  • Linicum, David. “Sacraments in the Pauline Epistles.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology, edited by Hans Boersma and Matthew Levering, 97–108. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Litfin, Duane. Paul’s Theology of Preaching: The Apostle’s Challenge to the Art of Persuasion in Ancient Corinth. Rev Exp edition. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2015.
  • Loughton, Matthew E., and Laurence Alberghi. “Body Piercing during the Late Iron Age: The Case of Roman Amphorae from Toulouse (France).” HEROM 4, no. 1 (May 5, 2015): 52–105. doi:10.11116/HEROM.4.1.3.
  • Loverdou, Sofia. “Greece: The Ancient Diolkos/Summer Fires in Greece.” Heritage at Risk, 2007 2006, 74–76.
  • Maguire, Brian D. “A More Excellent Way: Dispute Resolution and Community Formation in Paul’s Corinthian Ministry.” D. Min., DUKE UNIVERSITY, 2015.
  • Miller, Anna C. Corinthian Democracy: Democratic Discourse in 1 Corinthians. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015.
  • Miller, Stephen G. “Excavations at Nemea, 1997–2001.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 84, no. 2 (June 1, 2015): 277–353. doi:10.2972/hesperia.84.2.0277.
  • Mommsen, H., M. Bentz, and A. Boix. “Provenance of Red-Figure Pottery of the Classical Period Excavated at Olympia.” Archaeometry, May 1, 2015, n/a – n/a. doi:10.1111/arcm.12180.
  • Nanos, Mark D., and Magnus Zetterholm, eds. Paul Within Judaism: Restoring the First-Century Context to the Apostle. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2015.
  • Parry, Ken, ed. Wiley Blackwell Companion to Patristics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
  • Perrin, Nicholas. “Sacraments and Sacramentality in the New Testament.” In The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology, edited by Hans Boersma and Matthew Levering, 52–67. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Pettegrew, David K. “Corinthian Suburbia: Patterns of Roman Settlement on the Isthmus.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Radmacher, Jason P. “Pass the Peace, Please: Embracing the ‘Spiritual But Not Religious.’” Liturgy 30, no. 3 (July 3, 2015): 32–39. doi:10.1080/0458063X.2015.1019267.
  • Raja, Rubina, and Jörg Rüpke, eds. A Companion to the Archaeology of Religion in the Ancient World. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
  • Remijsen, Sofie. The End of Greek Athletics in Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • Risser, Martha K. “City, Sanctuary, and Feast: Dining Vessels from the Archaic Reservoir in the Sanctuary of Poseidon.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Roselaar, Saskia T., ed. Processes of Cultural Change and Integration in the Roman World. Leiden: BRILL, 2015.
  • Siennicka, Małgorzata. “House – Settlement – Province. Social Space in Middle- and Late Helladic Korakou and Corinthia.” Swiatowit Vol. 5 (XLVI, Fasc. A) (2003): 69–90.
  • Spring, Peter. Great Walls and Linear Barriers. Pen and Sword, 2015.
  • Spyridakis, Manos, and Andreas Feronas. “The Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Quality of Life for Residents of Attiki Area. The Experience from the City of Marousi.” Κοινωνική Συνοχή Και Ανάπτυξη (Social Cohesion and Development) 9, no. 1 (2014): 5–28.
  • Sturgeon, Mary C. “New Sculptures from the Isthmian Palaimonion.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Tartaron, Thomas F. “The Settlement at Kalamianos: Bronze Age Small Worlds and the Saronic Coast of the Southeastern Corinthia.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Thomsen, Arne. “Riding for Poseidon: Terracotta Figurines from the Sanctuary of Poseidon.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Tofanelli, Sergio, Francesca Brisighelli, Paolo Anagnostou, George B. J. Busby, Gianmarco Ferri, Mark G. Thomas, Luca Taglioli, et al. “The Greeks in the West: Genetic Signatures of the Hellenic Colonisation in Southern Italy and Sicily.” European Journal of Human Genetics, July 15, 2015. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.124.
  • Walbank, Mary E. Hoskins, and Michael B. Walbank. “A Roman Corinthian Family Tomb and Its Afterlife.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 84, no. 1 (March 1, 2015): 149–206. doi:10.2972/hesperia.84.1.0149.
  • Wiseman, James. “Agonistic Festivals, Victors, and Officials in the Time of Nero: An Inscribed Herm from the Gymnasium Area of Corinth.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Wohl, Birgitta Lindros. “Circular Lamps in the Late Antique Peloponnese.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Yegül, Fikret K. “Roman Baths at Isthmia and Sanctuary Baths in Greece.” In “The Bridge of the Untiring Sea”: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, edited by Elizabeth R. Gebhard and Timothy E. Gregory. Hesperia Suppl. 48. Princeton, NJ: The American school of classical studies at Athens, 2015.
  • Zervos, Orestes H. “An Issue of Irregular Copper Coins of the Early Thirteenth Century from Corinth.” Nomismatika Khronika 26 (2007): 91–93.
  • Zervos, Orestes H. “A Note on Three Unusual Deniers Tournois from Corinth Excavations.” Nomismatika Khronika 23 (2004): 75–83.
  • Zervos, Orestes H. “New Light on an Enigmatic Issue of Late Byzantine Coppers.” Numismatic Circular 117, no. September (2009): 163–64.

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Teaching Tuesday

I’m back to teaching in the fall and am looking forward to getting back into the classroom. I’m teaching a section of History 101 at night in a Scale-Up classroom and a history of our introductory methods class for graduate students, History 501. Both classes involve a bit more preparation than I’ve given them so far, so I thought a teaching Tuesday post might motivate me to start to get my act together with only a few weeks remaining before the start of the semester.

To avoid being overwhelmed, I’m targeting one specific issue in each class: 

1. New Class, New Priorities. The main goal of History 501 is to introduce graduate students to the methods and techniques of graduate level research in history. The course was installed about 5 years ago in an effort to level the playing field among graduate students by offering a bit of remediation for students who hadn’t developed strong research skills in their undergraduate programs or had taken time off between their undergraduate degree and graduate school. The course also provides students with an opportunity to meet the faculty in the department and have them present their specialities over the course of a couple of classes during the semester. This means the students have a basic understanding of oral history, quantitative history, labor history, intellectual history, material culture, digital history, and so on. 

The course, in other words, provides a bunch of details ranging from basic research tips to short, but nuanced introductions to larger research methods. Finding a way to organize priorities in a class like will be a challenge because the class will have to be a bit of everything for everyone. 

2. Balancing Group Work and Individual Performance. The challenge in my History 101 class is a bit more basic. As I have blogged about extensively, the class is built to run in a Scale-Up classroom. Our Scale-Up room offer 20 round tables for 9 students each. This makes the room ideal for group projects and collaborative problem solving and not particularly suitable for individual work or lectures. 

History classes have traditionally focused on lecture and individual work, and introductory level courses even more so. Over the last few years, I’ve created an introductory history class that focuses on collaboration to teach writing, argument, and the basic narrative of the past. The class writes its own history textbook over the course of the semester with each table providing a single module on the Greek, Roman, and Medieval world. Student engagement is generally high and the product is decent. 

The biggest complaint from students is that the effort across the teams is uneven with stronger students doing more than their share and weaker students loitering around the margins. While the complaining is annoying (albeit pleasantly naive about asymmetrical distribution of work in the “real world”), I have come to recognize that I can do more to motive the more marginal students to engage in the process. So, this semester, I need to figure out ways to devote at least 40% of the class to individual effort in the service of the 60% of the class that is given over to group work.

The last two times that I’ve taught the class, I’ve given 20% over to daily assignments – these range from short take home assignments to in-class group work. These were largely designed to “keep students honest” in class by offering immediate rewards and consequences for various in class assignments. The first time I taught the class, I had a midterm exam after the first third of the class designed around basic historical argument skills. I wasn’t entirely pleased with the results of that, however. I was also tempted to assign a short paper and make it due sometime during the first third of the class. Two short papers, each worth 10%, would also be an appealing way to include some individual accountability in the course. 

The goal of these short papers will be demonstrate that skills refined through group work actually emerge in individual assignments and to promote ongoing engagement and collaboration in the course.

More soon as I think through these classes over the course of the next few weeks!

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Touching the Face of the Cosmos

Paul Levinson has been putting together a really fantastic volume which will be called Touching the Face of the Cosmos. He has shared a provisional list of contributors, and also a podcast of an interview with John Glenn, the transcript of which will appear in the book.

I am really excited, not only because my contribution will appear alongside authors like Levinson, Robert J. Sawyer, David Brin, and Guy Consolmagno, but also because my contribution is a short story rather than an academic essay, and so this will be my first published work of science fiction.

I will let you know more details as they become available, but for now, I thought I would share my excitement by directing you to the list of contributors and podcast which are already online.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

National Park Service buries report on effigy mounds scandal

IOWA CITY, Iowa — The National Park Service has shelved a blistering internal report that details a...

Lapis Gabinus: official blog of the Gabii Project

A Perfect Season Comes to an End

It will be a hectic time on site this week until the very moment we finally drop the curtain, but one thing is clear already: this has been a very successful season! After seven straight seasons the archaeological levels in the so-called Area D have been completely excavate, reaching the natural deposits across the entire sector. We now have documented an uninterrupted sequence stretching back to the phase of Gabii's formation. Another major achievement is the conclusion of excavation activities in the Area F building. Our research group looks forward to the next step: study and publication! On the other hand, the important results from Area C have already opened new avenues for the expansion of the excavation areas in 2016. The future fieldwork will provide more evidence on the urban history of the urban core, addressing new research questions.

Such incredible accomplishments would not have been possible without the hard work, unwavering enthusiasm, and passion for archaeology of our 2016 crew. Thank you all! We hope that you will keep in touch with the Gabii Project, and we are looking forward to welcoming you back in the field next year if you wish. A special farewell goes to our long-time friend, supporter and staff member Diane Tincu. We celebrated Diane during our end-of-dig lunch party. To honor her, the project decided to officially name one of the buildings excavated in previous years on site after her: from now on, the Area B House will be known as the Diane Tincu Building. Thank you Diane! We hope you'll change your mind and join us again next season...

ASOR Blog (American Schools of Oriental Research)

Israel’s Exodus from Egypt Featured in Groundbreaking New Book

August Ancient Near East Today

By: Thomas E. Levy

Was there an Israelite Exodus from Egypt? Are there new ways to approach the Exodus from … Read more

The post Israel’s Exodus from Egypt Featured in Groundbreaking New Book  appeared first on The ASOR Blog.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeologists uncover entrance gate and fortification of Biblical city

The Ackerman Family Bar-Ilan University Expedition to Gath, headed by Prof. Aren Maeir, has...

Byzantine News

Download and Read: W. Treadgold, A History of Byzantine State and Society

Click here to download and read the book

Spanning twelve centuries and three continents, the Byzantine Empire linked the ancient and modern worlds, shaping and transmitting Greek, Roman, and Christian traditions—including the Greek classics, Roman law, and Christian theology—that remain vigorous today, not only in Eastern Europe and the Middle East but throughout Western civilization. Though in its politics Byzantium often resembled a third-world dictatorship, it has never yet been matched in maintaining a single state for so long, over a wide area inhabited by heterogeneous peoples.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Musisque Deoque: Un archivio digitale di poesia latina

[First posted in AWOL 2 April 2012, updated 5 August 2015]

Musisque Deoque: Un archivio digitale di poesia latina
Il progetto di ricerca “Musisque Deoque. Un archivio digitale di poesia latina, dalle origini al Rinascimento italiano”, è partito alla fine del 2005 con lo scopo di creare un unico database della poesia latina, integrato e aggiornato da apparati critici ed esegetici elettronici. 

Obiettivo dell’edizione critica tradizionale (o “lachmanniana”, nella terminologia dei filologi classici) è quello di risalire all’archetipo con la recensio, poi eventualmente superarlo con l’emendatio, sino a ricostruire quanto stava più vicino al perduto originale. La forma di pubblicazione è ormai da secoli il libro a stampa, contenitore di un testo rigido, immutabile, stabilito definitivamente dall’editore. Questo faticoso e prezioso lavoro ha offerto, e tuttora offre, risultati di grande efficacia negli studi filologici: ma trova il suo limite nel fatto stesso di cristallizzare una tradizione che è intrinsecamente dinamica...

The “Musisque Deoque. A digital archive of Latin poetry, from its origins to the Italian Renaissance” Research Project, was established at the end of 2005. It aims to create a singular Latin poetry’s database, supplemented and updated with critical apparatus and exegetical equipments. 

Objective of the traditional critical edition (or “Lachmannian” according to the classical philological terminology) is to revisit the archetype with the recensio, and then eventually improve it with emendatio, until the reconstruction closest to the lost original is reached. For centuries, printed book has been the publication form, containing rigid, immutable texts that are definitively determined by editors. This tiring and precious work has since offered, and still does, great incisive results in philological studies. However its limitation lies in the fact that a tradition that is intrinsically dynamic has been immobilized...

Archaeological News on Tumblr

These petroglyphs believed to be drawn 8,000 to 10,000 years ago

A new expedition to the Ukok plateau, some 2,500 metres high in the Altai Mountains close to the...

Cambuskenneth’s lost harbour

The 12th century ruins of the Augustinian Abbey at Cambuskenneth (central Scotland) are often...

Jim Davila (

The Talmud on female beauty

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Bird responds to Kok

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Discoveries at Horvat Kur

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If ISIS takes the Sinai

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Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

Palmyra Exhibit Poses Important Questions

The Smithsonian's Sackler Gallery is putting a magnificent portrait bust removed from a tomb in Palmyra on display to help raise awareness about danger to the site posed by ISIS.  While the Smithsonian (a major proponent of HR 1493 and its creation of a new bureaucracy in the State Department), may hope the exhibit will jump start the bill which appears to have lost some momentum in the Senate, CPO wonders if it will all backfire.  After all, won't it all just help underscore the fact that cultural diffusion helps preserve artifacts while concentration through repatriation only puts them further at risk, at least where a  civil war is going on?

Antiquity Now

Fact or Fiction? Ancient Hurricanes

This hurricane season in the Atlantic has been unusually quiet so far. In fact, Florida is currently experiencing the longest stretch ever without a hurricane making landfall along its coast. It has been nine and a half years since one of these … Continue reading

Jim Davila (

Aramaic children's camp

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

The "ISIL Excavation Videos"

There are some videos doing the rounds which were obtained "from an activist on the Turkey–Syria border"  which purport to show ISIL-run excavations in Deir Ezzor province in eastern Syria. These videos are said to show "the kind of illicit excavations that plague Syria today, as looters descend on historical sites across the country to dig up precious artefacts and sell them off to help fund a gruelling civil war". The date when they were made is unknown. Comments on the page include:
The dig is undertaken with a surprising level of professionalism, showing workers in well-dug excavation pits chiseling around artifacts with care and brushing them clean. The camera pauses on documents from a pre-war excavation sanctioned by the government that suggests the site is Dura-Europos, an important archaeological site that ISIS has looted extensively. 
The latter comment is incomprehensible to me as the page in question shows three embedded videos none of which show any "excavation documentation". 

Having looked at the evidence, I do not think these three videos show what they purport.

What we see is a long rectangular trench dug along the slope of a scarp overlooking a broad river valley. Two other oles of similar size (?) are visible in the background. The bottom of the trench is flat, except for an upstanding berm. This looks like an eroded mudbrick wall or perhaps an upstanding robber-trench fill. There are stone artefacts on the base of the trench near it. In one video we see that in the taller wall are the characteristic tunnels of sand martens which shows this hole has been open some time. This is not any new looters' trench, it is an old eroded archaeological excavation in which people have been digging - there are two alcoves  dug in one long side and a short side.

A group of five young men in western style (takfir) clothing digging, although one has dusty trousers, they are very clean and of a similar age. These four are unlikely to have dug that hole unaided with the help of those little shovels and baskets.

The scenes we see are posed. This is clear in the middle of the three on the page which I think is the earlier of the three. First of all note how they take tools from a pile in the centre of the trench. These probably were taken from an excavation expedition's store - the three shovels are cheap and of the same type. Then men have been put to work on different tasks, note one looks at the camera towards the end of the second film as if to get directions. But in the top film (taken after the tools had been distributed) the men - dressed in the same clean clothes - are in different parts of the trench doing different things. The men are mimicking what they've seen archaeologists do - probably they are local villagers, maybe even took part in this excavation earlier.  The man in the foreground with the Ronaldo top however has no idea how to handle a shovel in this hard earth, and has no spoil bucket. The one in the sky-blue top with the brush in the middle video is not uncovering an artefact; he is brushing the loose spoil from adjacent (posed) exploration off the compacted surface underneath. While this is less reliable as 'proof' of anything, note that the youth with the hand mattock is digging in soil in the bottom of the trench which has hardened like concrete and not material which was exposed just a few hours earlier - another suggestion that this is an old trench used to pose an excavation.

In the top video, the two men digging in the alcove dug in the long wall seem in fact to be cleaning out loose soil which has slipped in from the spoil heap above. The guy with the red kefiya tied round his waist also seems to be digging in loose (slipped?) soil.

The third film, with the artefacts, may be of a different trench. Here a group of soil encrusted pottery vessels, some metal objects and what might be a coin (?) are exhibited, presumably pulled out of fossicking in the side of existing trenches. I think they have been brought together for the film, rather than necessarily being an indicator of what looters aim to get to sell.

To be clear, I am pretty sure this film shows young men acting out looting for the benefit of journalists or 'activists'. The satellite photos show that some open excavation trenches dug by pre-Civil-War expeditions on a number of sites in Syria (see my posts on this last year) have had random opportunistic holes dug in their sides and bases. I think that's whet we see here. The young men we see did not dig these holes in the side of the trench, they are acting out the digging that had been done earlier. The satellite photos however show a different type of looting going on / has been going on, with systematic blanket hole-digging right across whole areas of sites like Apamea and Dura Europos. These are organized looting projects, and it would be useful to have some better (closer range) drone surveillance of these holes.

Mike Giglio has contacted me and stresses something which he did say earlier but perhaps does not come out so well in my post):
I can't say for sure whether it was an ISIS-sponsored dig or whether ISIS controlled that particular area at the time the videos were filmed. As to the documents you mentioned not seeing: there are about 15 videos in the cache I received, and I didn't publish them all. It's very possible that the workers in the video did not make the excavation pit themselves — I think the fact that they are on the site of a pre-war excavation, as both articles note, should make that clear to readers. Your post suggests that I am trying to posit otherwise in the article, but that's not the case.
I was aware that the journalist was being careful in the presentation of this material, but it is already being quoted by others less carefully, so I wanted to make it clear that we need to treat thiis "evidence" with the same circumspection as all the rest.


Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

IV Scuola di Spettroscopia Infrarossa per i Beni Culturali

Il Centro Conservazione e Restauro "La Venaria Reale" organizza la quarta edizione della Scuola di Spettroscopia Infrarossa applicata alla diagnostica dei Beni Culturali. Quest'anno la scuola si svolgerà dal 9 al 12 Novembre 2015 e avrà come focus "le altre spettroscopie e la spettroscopia Raman". Si alterneranno lezioni teoriche e dimostrazioni pratiche.

August 03, 2015

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

Just because you are an Old Testament scholar, that does not make you Moses!

Academia is a cruel trade.  It means a life of loneliness in libraries, mostly reading rubbish articles purely to make sure that you need not pay any attention to them.  Every career ends in oblivion, however many professorships you obtain, however lauded you may be.  A day after you die, some whipper-snapper will publish an article which renders your life’s work obsolete; and you will not be there to reply.

In return many academics develop an arrogance, arising from their alternative role as teachers.  Being surrounded by those who are your intellectual inferiors, if only by virtue of lack of training, cannot be good for a man tempted to believe himself really rather clever.

Sometimes this produces pride, and then hubris, and then, sometimes, hilarious misjudgements.

The classic example is one I witnessed myself.  In the early 1980’s, a group of the most eminent economists of the times, mostly socialists, were foolish enough to write a solemn letter to the Times predicting economic disaster in the name of the “science” of economics.  Unfortunately the 80’s economic boom was less than a year away.  They were never forgiven.

The humanities are far from exempt from similar examples, and I came across one at the weekend.   I was curious to know whether the New English Bible translation was now dead and buried – it is – and in the process came across a paper online, which amused me somewhat, not for its interesting statements about the NEB, but for a couple of predictions about the future of bible translation.[1]  The article was by a certain James Barr, an Old Testament scholar of whom few outside that discipline will now have heard, but whose name was familiar to me from my Oxford days.

The essay was originally delivered as an address in 1987.  In it, he informed his audience:

…there is really no hope, now, that we will have a Standard and agreed- upon English Bible text within the next century, or indeed ever.

Some of the audience must have looked at each other and shaken their heads.  For, at the time that he spoke these words, the NIV was conquering all other versions.  Indeed he knew this, for he felt the need to use some pages of the article attacking it.

Nor was this all.  He felt – rightly – that a standard version was needed.  So how might this best be done?

The only way would be if we worked towards an ecumenical Bible with strong scholarship behind it, and it turned out to be so very good that everyone, just everyone, liked it. But so far we haven’t discovered that vein of gold; it’s behind us, in the King James, but we don’t seem able to find it again.

Again his audience, if they had any sense, must have winced.  We all know what an “ecumenical bible” would be: a bible produced by a committee of people who don’t read or believe in the bible: a chimeraea if ever there was one.  Indeed the article goes on to say that the best translations were always the work of one man.

But he explains:

You will notice that I have at no time tried to tell you what is the best English Bible version;and that is deliberate, partly because I don’t know. I don’t read the English Bible much. I almost always work from the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and I’m not in a position to tell you that this one or that one is the best.

Sadly it is altogether too easy to believe that the author never did read the English bible that much.  Indeed it is rather easy to believe that liberal bible scholars don’t read the bible much.  Why should they?  It can’t be comfortable reading, if you actually read it, rather than dissect it.  It is much easier to ignore the sense of a work, if we make sure that we don’t read it in the language in which we think and live.

It is terribly easy for any of us to disappear up our own backsides, and to lose contact with reality.  In the sciences, the need for reproducability tends to prevent this.  But in the humanities there is nothing to stop a man following a will-o-the-wisp all his life, and it has often happened.  It is not enough to be a scholar of some small part of antiquity; you must connect with reality.  It is not enough to be an Old Testament scholar, fluent in Hebrew and whatever else; it does not make you Moses, and your  religious and political opinions remain those of a man with no better opportunity to test your theories than anybody else.  The false claim to authority will always look foolish as time passes.

In this light, we may pity the author of our article.  Had he read the bible more, and written about it less, he might have avoided the damnation which seems likely to be his.  For the bible is not merely a matter of scholarship, and eternal issues are involved in our study of it.

We are told in the New Testament that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the only unforgiveable sin.  And it means, plainly enough, seeing God at work in this world, and calling it evil.  This Barr did, on an industrial scale during the 70’s and 80’s, as I well remember.  He lived at Oxford, where Christians were very numerous, very educated, often scientists, making converts and building the future.  The work of God there was palpable.  The churches were filling.  Men and women, however politely, were spending time in prayer and evangelism.  Nobody, however stupid, can fail to recognise that this is what happens when the Holy Spirit is at work.

But to him all this was poison.  His hate for the Christians around him was so intense that in 1977 he issued a book attacking us under the curious title of Fundamentalism.  But there are no fundamentalists at Oxford, and never were.  I myself arrived in Oxford in that period.  He meant me, and those like me, who believe in the bible in the same way that every Christian has ever done.  And he hated us precisely because we were very educated and unimpressed by his liberal opinions and contempt for Christian teaching.

His book was effectively rebutted by F.F. Bruce in ‘Fundamentalism’ and the word of God, after which his comments didn’t matter.  But he kept up the invective, although nobody was listening after that.  Indeed the article, for all its talk about “ecumenism”, contains a vicious attack on the NIV and its editors, and upon Christians in general.

You can’t do that kind of thing, and avoid consequences.  Our Lord makes that plain enough; and Christians, in consequence, are fearful of committing that sin.

Poor soul.  I remember seeing his face, apparently raddled with drink – let us hope that it was just bad makeup – on a TV programme once.  He was there to abuse believers, of course.  It is telling that the obituary in the Independent plays down this aspect of his life as discreditable to his reputation, and so it was.

What can we say of him? He did, I believe, some useful work on the theory of translation; he enjoyed a great range of the most lucrative and most prestigious posts that his career had to offer; he was flattered by his peers, and by the state; he was a heretic and an enemy of the church; and then he died and was forgotten save by specialists.

It’s not much of a life, is it?

We must all make sure that under no circumstances do we blind ourselves to facts out of dogma – especially if we flatter ourselves on our open-mindedness – and never, ever, to set our faces against what God is doing, merely because we think it might be mistaken in some way.  Never play with hate.

Let me end with a quotation from C.S.Lewis’ That Hideous Strength, where the fate of the anti-Christian academic Dr Frost is described:

Not till then did his controllers allow him to suspect that death itself might not after all cure the illusion of being a soul–nay, might prove the entry into a world where that illusion raged infinite and unchecked. Escape for the soul, if not for the body, was offered him.

He became able to know (and simultaneously refused the knowledge) that he had been wrong from the beginning, that souls and personal responsibility existed.

He half saw: he wholly hated. The physical torture of the burning was hardly fiercer than his hatred of that. With one supreme effort he flung himself back into his illusion. In that attitude eternity overtook him.

“He half saw: he wholly hated..”.  Isn’t that what we see in the essay? Let us hope that Barr managed to escape the same as Frost.   And … let us beware lest we somehow share it.  Hubris can affect others than liberal clergymen.

  1. [1] James Barr, “Modern English Bible Versions as a Problem for the Church”, In: Bible and Interpretation: The Collected Essays of James Barr, vol. 3, Oxford, 2014, 253-268. Online here.

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 15 (start)

Let’s do a little more of the Annals of Eutychius.  The author returns to his now-lost Sassanid chronicle, which clearly contained fanciful material as well as much history.  Here is the first two chapters.

    *    *    *    *

1. Let us return now to our purpose and to the place in history where we were.  As for Yazdagard, son of Bahram, called “the Sinner”, king of the Persians, he was a brutal man, rough and of perverse conduct. [The Persians] regretted making him their king, but nevertheless they were unhappy at the idea of killing him, because they did not want to accept that their kingship could degenerate so in their king.  It was therefore said that they saw a horse go forward and stop at the door [of the palace] of the king.  The people came around, admiring the beauty of its figure and the perfection of its features, and they informed the king. He came out, admired it and felt great joy.  He ordered them to saddle it, because he wanted to ride it, then he approached it, stroked its head and took it by the forelock and mane.  Then he tried to stroke its back, but when he was behind [the horse], it kicked him, striking him in the liver and killed him.  Then the horse, as if satisfied with what it had done, began to run and no one could catch it.  Then the people exclaimed: “God did this for us, moved with compassion toward us.”

2. The reign of Yazdagard “the Sinner” lasted twenty years, five months and eighteen days. When Yazdagard died, the leaders of Persia came together and said: “We do not intend to elect as our king any of his family that would treat us the same way.”  Yazdagard had a son named Bahram, whom they did not permit to attend at any of their actions.  He then said to some of them: “Do not elect anyone as your king unless he has these seven qualities: that he is better than all of you for: [his] skill in governing, in considering things, for the truth of what he says, for [his] strong courage, for [his] eloquence, for [his] clemency in ‘administration and for [his] knowledge of the treachery that an enemy may attempt”.  They answered: “And where would we ever find such a man?” He said to them: “Promise me, on your honour, that if I show you, you will make him your king.”  They promised him, and having full security in their sincerity he told them:  ”I am the man.” And so it was that they elected him their king.  Bahram, son of Yazdağard, called Bahram Gur (1), reigned over the Persians for eighteen years and eleven months (2).  This was in the twelfth year of the reign of Theodosius the Lesser, king of the Rum.

He reigned over the Persians, treating them well, and they loved him.  Later, however, he preferred to abandon himself with young and entertaining company, to the point that the people began to disapprove, and neighboring kings thought they might take possession of his territory.  In fact, he was attacked by Khagan the Great (3), king of the Turks, at the head of twenty-five myriads of soldiers.  Each king of the Turks was called Khagan.  He marched until he was encamped at as-Sa`id.  Then Bahram was told: “O king, we must tell you to put aside your pleasures.  Come, take care of yourself and the people, look after business, defend and throw off fear”.  Heedless of their words, Bahram left the country and went to the regions of Adharbayğān and Armenia, to live life as a hermit at the local fire temple.  But the people had no doubt that he had behaved in this way just to escape.  Then they met in council and said: “We can not do anything against Khagan.  Let us pay a personal tax as a ransom for our people and our land.”  But Marsi (4), brother of Bahram, and the judge Azadnār (5) said: “We are not willing to participate in this matter.”  At the news of the submission of the population of Persis, Khagan abandoned his military preparations and put down his arms.  Then there went to Bahram a man who told him the news, how the Khagan believed everything peaceful and that he was safe from any surprise.  Bahram then marched against him and surprised him in the night, killed Khagan with his own hands and then exterminated the men who had fled.  Bahram then returned safe and sound, and he took the family of Khagan, his soldiers and their wives, who had been taken prisoner, and put them at the disposal of the population.  When the news spread in the territory of the Turks of what had happened to Khagan, they fled to their more remote lands.  Bahram I commended the governor of Khurasan and his brother Marsi (6) and retired to Adharbaygān.  He stopped nowhere, nor did he enter into any dwelling except as a hermit and offered sacrifices of thanksgiving to God.  When he came to the fire temple of Adharbayğān, he dismounted and walked on foot, until he entered, thus showing the deep respect he had for that place and to thank God.  He then gave orders to hang on the door of the temple the pearls, rubies and precious stones from the sword of Khaqan, a set of pearls.  He then went into Iraq, where he remained for a few days.  Then he marched towards [the country] of Rum with the intention to invade.

When Theodosius, king of Rum, heard the news, he sent a man named Istrātiyūs to see in what state was the kingdom of Bahram.  He returned to the king, and he told him that it was poorly defended.  King Theodosius then thought to raise his hands against Bahram, and he made the necessary preparations and went out against him at the head of his soldiers.  The battle between the two was hard-fought, and many fell on both sides, and both fled.  King Theodosius returned to Constantinople, while Bahram, in disguise, walked and entered the territory of India.

He stayed there for some time without anyone knowing who he was, and they respected him for his strength, for his courage, for his skill in killing wild animals and for his boldness in dealing with them.  One day he learned that there was an elephant in their land that had attacked and killed many people.  He asked them to lead him to it, but they said to him; “You are a foreigner and it is not right to expose you to danger.”  Learning this from the king [of the Indians], he took with him a man to lead him to the neighborhood where was the elephant.  As soon as he saw it, Bahram threw a spear that lodged between the eyes of the elephant, then hit it with a dart and then another, until he killed it.  He cut off its head and brought it to the king.  The king felt great admiration and asked him who he was.  “I”, replied Bahram, “am a Persian nobleman.  But I fell from grace in the eyes of my king, and I have fled away from him, coming here to you, attracted by the fame of your power and your mercy.”  The king had an enemy who had previously spared his life  Then he threatened him and sent to him to demand tribute.  The king was deeply distressed.  But Bahram encouraged him and said: “Do not worry any more, because I will prevent him from hurting you.”  Bahram rode with the king and his army to fight against the enemy.  Then Bahram said to the generals of India: “Look at their backs, and do what I do.”  Bahram then attacked them, dispersed their troops, began to strike men from the shoulder to the back, splitting them in two with a single blow; cutting off the elephant’s trunk with one blow and bringing it down, he unseated the rider, knocking him to the ground and killing him, he took two men by the head, gripping one with his right hand and the other with the left and striking them against each other he bashed out their brains.  Bahram’s men gave themselves to attacking and killing and they carried off great booty.  Then the king and Bahram returned.  The king gave to Bahram his daughter and gave him a gift of Danil (7), Makran (8) and the surrounding areas of Sind.  Bahram asked him to put it in writing and seal it as a guarantee. The king did so.  Bahram then returned to his own kingdom and imposed tribute on those territories that had been given to him, causing their riches to flow into Persia.  Some Persian [authors] have passed down that Bahram Gur was under the tutelage of an-Nu’man b. al-Mundhir the Lakhmid (9), king of the Arabs of the desert, and when Bahram had news of the death of his father Yazdagard, he marched with the Arabs who had followed him up to camp in as-Sawad (10), where he remained to dispute the realm with the noble Persians until they recognized his right and elected him king.

Calenda: Histoire grecque

Le changement : conceptions et représentations dans l'Antiquité gréco-romaine

L'étendue chronologique de la période communément reconnue comme l'Antiquité gréco-romaine inclut nécessairement des phases de changements et de mutations, à divers niveaux. L'objectif de ce colloque jeunes chercheurs, interdisciplinaire et international, est d'étudier la manière dont les Anciens concevaient la notion de changement, que ce soit au niveau personnel, social, culturel ou historique, ainsi que d'analyser les représentations qu'ils en proposaient, tout en se concentrant sur cette question en termes de transformation ponctuelle, d'apparition ou de renouvellement.

Andrew West (Babelstone)

Tangut Texts for Sale

On 23 November 2014, at the Beijing Capital Library an auction of ancient documents was held by the Beijing Debao International Auction Co. (北京德宝2014年秋季古籍文献拍卖会). Among the 376 items under auction were nine lots consisting of Tangut manuscripts and printed texts, ranging from single sheets from manuscript or printed texts to a complete fascicle of a woodblock printed book. The sale of such a

Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

Comic Relief: Palinurus renewed

(Written with time in short supply - a future post might be warranted.)
Before a favoring wind
the fleet sped on. The line in close array
was led by Palinurus, in whose course
all ships were bid to follow.
ferunt sua flamina classem.
Princeps ante omnes densum Palinurus agebat agmen;
ad hunc alii cursum contendere iussi. Aeneid V.832-34

When Dante fails to see Virgil's shadow in Purgatorio 3, he leaps to the conclusion that Virgil is not there. Why does he do this? Because he assumes, or believes, that the same rules apply to Virgil that apply to him. He doesn't entertain the idea that certain rules are unique to him alone here with all these souls.

Manfred could similarly have assumed he was a dead man - not asking for forgiveness because he was too outrageously bad. But instead, in tears, he begs. And enters the ship of the angel.

Nothing prepares us for Manfred. If Dante is the unexpectedly live soul among the dead, Manfred is the soul saved despite all the theocratic power of the popes, the unburial and scattering of his remains along the Verde river. Both play against the figure of Palinurus, Aeneas's helmsman whose death, as Jupiter decrees, enabled the Trojan leader's ship to reach the promised land.
One only sinks beneath th' engulfing seas, —
one life in lieu of many. Aen. 5.
Without burial Palinurus's spirit cannot cross the Cocytus to rest. His failure to arrive (he is suspended -- sospesi -- as Virgil says of all the ancients including himself, who are in Limbo), and this failure is bound up with Aeneas's successful arrival to Cumae with the remnant of Troy.

For a pilgrim such as Dante, arriving on the shore of Purgatory is the equivalent of Aeneas's arrival to Latium. Only here Dante arrives early, and cannot stay. But he finds Manfred, who according to all official accounts ought to be an outcast soul like Palinurus, yet instead not only is assured eternal life, but seizes this opportunity to speed up his way to it.

Throughout the Commedia, the irreducible incalculability of Revelation (the Christian dispensation) is juxtaposed again and again with the ancient Greek and Roman sense of Nature, man, and the divine. As it is here.

Capo Palinuro

One on hand, there are the baleful words of the Sybil, who consoles Palinurus with the notion that his name will be remembered, as it is even today, in the name Capo Palinuro, but who speaks of a threshold that bars his spirit from rest:
desine fata deum flecti sperare precando 
Cease to dream that heaven's decrees may be turned aside by prayer.
                                                        Aen. VI.376
On the other hand, compare the words of Manfred:
Orribil furon li peccati miei;
   ma la bontà infinita ha sì gran braccia,
   che prende ciò che si rivolge a lei.
Horrible my iniquities had been;
   But Infinite Goodness hath such ample arms,
   That it receives whatever turns to it.  (Purg. 3. 121-23)
Canto 3 moves from the cognitive difficulties that arrive with the dawn -- the errors of shadow and light -- to a singular act of salvation, which comes when si rivolge - one turns oneself.

Of course, this turning is both an act and a mode of directionality -- the performance of a navigator who finds his way not via the angle of sun or star, but spontaneously, profoundly, an instant before annihilation.

It is precisely "wrong-way Manfred" who divines the way, metamorphosed into a saved Palinurus. The latitude of the gran braccia brings what can only be termed "comic relief," so long as we take that term of art with a new literalness.

ArcheoNet BE

Nieuwe fase opgravingen The Loop gestart

Vorige week startten archeologen van De Logi & Hoorne met een nieuw onderzoek op The Loop. De opgraving kadert in het infrastructuurproject op de terreinen rondom Flanders Expo in Sint-Denijs-Westrem (Gent). Vorige zomer zijn al enkele fases van de opgraving gerealiseerd. Nu gaan de archeologen in opdracht van NV Grondbank The Loop ongeveer drie vierde van een hectare opgraven, voorafgaand aan de werken.

Midden vorige zomer startte de tot nu toe grootste archeologische onderzoeksfase op The Loop. De terreinen zijn gekend als een belangrijke archeologische vindplaats. Tijdens de eerste fases tussen augustus vorig jaar en februari dit jaar vonden de archeologen op de voormalige buitenparking tussen Ikea en de hallen van Flanders Expo niet alleen een middeleeuws gehuchtje uit de 10de-12de eeuw, maar ook verschillende boerderijen uit de Gallo-Romeinse periode die dateren in de 1ste-2de eeuw, en de restanten die verwijzen naar het gebruik van de terreinen als militair vliegveld tijdens Wereldoorlog I en Wereldoorlog II.

De komende weken gaan de archeologen aan de slag op het parkeerterrein en de braakliggende gronden binnen de tramlus, nabij de hallen van Flanders Expo. Er zijn geen concrete verwachtingspatronen, maar op basis van de opgravingen in de directe omgeving zullen wellicht verschillende archeologische sporen worden aangetroffen. De grootste kanshebbers zijn sporen gerelateerd aan het militaire gebruik tijdens de Wereldoorlogen, bewoningssporen uit de metaaltijden (3de tot 2de millennium voor onze tijdrekening) en Romeinse begravingen. Gezien de ligging op het hoogste punt van de omgeving, wat in het verleden als trekpleister kan gewerkt hebben, vallen andere vondsten op dit moment zeker niet uit te sluiten.

De opgraving is te volgen via en deze Facebook-pagina.

Archaeology Magazine

Siberia rock artNOVOSIBIRSK, RUSSIA—A joint Russian and French team is working to date petroglyphs on the Ukok Plateau in the Altai Mountains. The images are thought to be between 8,000 and 10,000 years old, but because they were drawn on horizontal planes on a windy plateau, it is difficult to date them because sediments have been blown away. “We cannot use here the classic archaeological methods [for dating] and need to find new and innovative ways,” Lidia Zotkina of Novosibirsk State University told The Siberian Times. The team is using microscopes to look at the images and trying to determine if they were inscribed with metal or stone implements on the glacier-polished rhyolite. “Of course if we established that they used metal implements, all our theories about Paleolithic era would be disproved immediately,” Zotkina explained. The team tried to recreate the drawings, and were able to do so after they removed the crust from the rock, sketched an image on it, and then engraved it. “Sooner or later Paleolithic sites will be found and we will get more information about the people who could engrave these images,” she said. To read about another site in Siberia, go to "Fortress of Solitude." 

Egyptian-Middle-Kingdom-SteleWADI EL-HUDI, EGYPT—Three steles dating to the Middle Kingdom period have been discovered by an American-Egyptian expedition led by Kate Liszka and Bryan Kraemer of Princeton University. The three steles may be linked to a fortified settlement located in an area mined by the ancient Egyptians for semi-precious stones. The inscriptions on the stones are faded, but RTI (reflectance transformation imaging) technology is helping scholars to read them. “The area of Wadi El-Hudi contains a number of amethyst mines and many Egyptian expeditions were sent to bring stones from there at the time of the Middle Kingdom to use for jewelry. Two of the discovered steles mentioned the year 28th of Senusret I’s reign as well as information on the expeditions [that] were sent to the site,” Mahmoud Afifi, head of the Egyptian Antiquities Department, told The Luxor Times. To read about another discovery in Eygpt, go to "Tomb of the Chantress." 

BEHBAHAN, IRAN—Traces of a 9,000-year-old settlement and evidence of farming have reportedly been found at Mahtaj Hill in southwestern Iran. “The findings mostly include stone tools such as grindstone and its handle which shows that producing and processing of vegetarian food played an important role in the livelihood of Mahtaj Hill inhabitants,” archaeologist Hojjat Darabi told Mehr News. He added that the site predates the use of pottery in the region. To read about Bronze Age civilizations in Iran, go to "The World in Between."  

ArcheoNet BE

Middeleeuws weekend Raversyde op 8-9 augustus

Dit weekend worden de middeleeuwen opnieuw tot leven gebracht in Raversyde – ANNO 1465 in Oostende. Op zaterdag 8 en zondag 9 augustus kan je je laten onderdompelen in de wereld van ridders, schildknapen en jonkvrouwen. Op het programma staan riddertoernooien en boogschutterswedstrijden, oude ambachten en diverse demonstraties. Rondom de middeleeuwse huizen slaan zo’n honderd re-enactors uit binnen- en buitenland hun tentenkamp op. Meer informatie over het evenement vind je op

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca

Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca
Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca ist der Titel einer Editionsreihe, die von 1882 bis 1909 im Auftrag der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften im Berliner Verlag Georg Reimer erschien. Die Reihe legte im Anschluss an die Aristoteles-Ausgabe der Akademie die erhaltenen antiken Kommentare zu den Schriften des Aristoteles in textkritischen Ausgaben vor, einige davon zum 
ersten Mal. Die Redaktion lag ab 1877 bei Hermann Diels, der auch selbst einige Bände erarbeitete.

Neben den CAG erschien von 1885 bis 1903 das Supplementum Aristotelicum, das in sechs Teilbänden mehrere Werke edierte, die nicht vom CAG erfasst wurden.

Die Bände der CAG und des Supplementum Aristotelicum sind mittlerweile gemeinfrei und vollständig digitalisiert.

BandAutor und TitelEditorErscheinungsjahrDigitalisate
1Alexander Aphrodisiensis, In Aristotelis metaphysica commentariaMichael Hayduck1891Internet Archive
2,1Alexander Aphrodisiensis, In Aristotelis analyticorum priorum librum 1 commentariumMax Wallies1883Google-USA* = Internet Archive
2,2Alexander Aphrodisiensis, In Aristotelis topicorum libros octo commentariaMax Wallies1891Internet Archive
2,3Alexander, quod fertur Michael Ephesius, In Aristotelis sophisticos elenchos commentariumMax Wallies1898Internet Archive
3,1Alexander Aphrodisiensis, In librum de sensu commentariumPaul Wendland1901Google-USA* = Internet Archive
3,2Alexander Aphrodisiensis, In Aristotelis metereologicorum libros commentariumMichael Hayduck1899Internet Archive, Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
4,1Porphyrius, Isagoge et in Aristotelis categoriasAdolf Busse1887Internet Archive
4,2Dexippus, In Aristotelis categorias commentariaAdolf Busse1888Internet Archive, Internet Archive
4,3Ammonius, In Porphyrii isagogen sive V vocesAdolf Busse1891Internet Archive
4,4Ammonius, In Aristotelis categorias commentariusAdolf Busse1895Internet Archive
4,5Ammonius, In Aristotelis De interpretatione commentariusAdolf Busse1897Internet Archive
4,6Ammonius, In Aristotelis analyticorum priorum librum 1 commentariumMax Wallies1899Internet Archive, Internet Archive
5,1Themistii analyticorum posteriorium paraphrasisMax Wallies1900Internet Archive
5,2Themistii in Aristotelis physica paraphrasisHeinrich Schenkl1900Internet Archive
5,3Themistii in libros Aristotelis de anima paraphrasisRichard Heinze1899Internet Archive
5,4Themistii in libros Aristotelis de caelo paraphrasis hebraice et latineSamuel Landauer1902Internet Archive
5,5Themistii in Aristotelis metaphysicorum librum Λ paraphrasis hebraice et latineSamuel Landauer1903Internet Archive
5,6Pseudo-Themistius, In parva naturalia commentariumPaul Wendland1903Internet Archive
6,1Syrianus, In Metaphysica (Β–Γ, Μ–Ν) commentariaWilhelm Kroll1902Internet Archive
6,2Asclepius, In Aristotelis metaphysicorum libros Α–Ζ commentariaMichael Hayduck1888Internet Archive
7Simplicius, In Aristotelis de caelo commentariaJohan Ludvig Heiberg1894Internet Archive
8Simplicius, In Aristotelis Categorias commentariumKarl Kalbfleisch1907Internet Archive
9Simplicius, In Aristotelis physicorum libros quattuor prioresHermann Diels1882Internet Archive
10Simplicius, In Aristotelis physicorum libros quattuor posterioresHermann Diels1895Internet Archive
11Simplicius, In libros Aristotelis de anima commentariaMichael Hayduck1882Internet Archive, Internet Archive
12,1Olympiodorus, Prolegomena et in categoriasAdolf Busse1902Internet Archive
12,2Olympiodorus, In Aristotelis meteora commentariaWilhelm Stüve1900Internet Archive
13,1Philoponi (olim Ammonii) In Aristotelis Categorias commentariumAdolf Busse1898Internet Archive
13,2Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis analytica priora commentariaMax Wallies1905Internet Archive
13,3Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis analytica posteriora commentaria cum Anonymo in librum IIMax Wallies1909Internet Archive
14,1Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis meteorologicorum librum primum commentariumMichael Hayduck1901Internet Archive
14,2Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis libros de generatione et corruptione commentariaGirolamo Vitelli1897Internet Archive
14,3Ioannis Philoponi (Michaelis Ephesii) in libros de generatione animalium commentariaMichael Hayduck1903Internet Archive
15Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis de anima libros commentariaMichael Hayduck1897Internet Archive
16Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis physicorum libros tres priores commentariaGirolamo Vitelli1887Internet Archive
17Ioannis Philoponi in Aristotelis physicorum libros quinque posteriores commentariaGirolamo Vitelli1888Internet Archive
18,1Eliae In Porphyrii Isagogen et Aristotelis Categorias commentariaAdolf Busse1900Internet Archive
18,2Davidis Prolegomena et in Porphyrii Isagogen commentariumAdolf Busse1904Internet Archive
18,3Stephani in librum Aristotelis de interpretatione commentariumMichael Hayduck1885Internet Archive
19,1Aspasii in ethica Nicomachea quae supersunt commentariaGustav Heylbut1889Internet Archive
19,2Heliodori in ethica Nicomachea paraphrasisGustav Heylbut1889Internet Archive
20Eustratii et Michaelis et Anonyma in ethica Nicomachea commentariaGustav Heylbut1892Internet Archive
21,1Eustratii in analyticorum posteriorum librum secundum commentariumMichael Hayduck1907Internet Archive
21,2Anonymi et Stephani in artem rhetoricam commentariaHugo Rabe1896Internet Archive
22,1Michaelis Ephesii in parva naturalia commentariaPaul Wendland1903Internet Archive
22,2Michaelis Ephesii in libros de partibus animalium, de animalium motione, de animalium incessu commentariaMichael Hayduck1904Internet Archive
22,3Michaelis Ephesii in librum quintum ethicorum Nicomacheorum commentariumMichael Hayduck1901Internet Archive
23,1Sophoniae in libros de anima paraphrasisMichael Hayduck1883Internet Archive
23,2Anonymi categoriarum paraphrasisMichael Hayduck1883Internet Archive
23,3Themistii quae fertur in Aristotelis analyticorum priorum librum I paraphrasisMax Wallies1884Internet Archive, Internet Archive
23,4Anonymi in sophisticos elenchos paraphrasisMax Wallies1884Internet Archive

Supplementum Aristotelicum

BandAutor und TitelEditorErscheinungsjahrDigitalisate
1,1Excerptorum Constantini de natura animalium libri duo: Aristophanis historiae animalium epitomeSpyridon P. Lambros1885Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
1,2Prisciani Lydi quae extant, metaphrasis in Theophrastum et Solutionum ad Chosroem liberIngram Bywater1886Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
2,1Alexandri Aphrodisiensis scripta minora. 1: Alexandri de anima cum mantissaIvo Bruns1887Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
2,2Alexandri Aphrodisiensis scripta minora reliqua (quaestiones, de fato, de mixtione)Ivo Bruns1892Internet Archive, Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
3,1Anonymi Londinensis ex Aristotelis Iatricis Menoniis et aliis medicis eclogaeHermann Diels1893Internet Archive, Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive
3,2Aristotelis Res publica AtheniensiumFrederic G.Kenyon1903Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive

Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae

Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae
Das Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae ist eine grundlegende Quellenedition der byzantinischen Historiker, die von 1828 bis 1897 im Bonner Verlag Ed. Weber erschienen. Für die Herausgabe war ursprünglich die Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn zuständig, ab 1831 die Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Listen von Digitalisaten

Übersicht über die Bände

Die Bände des Bonner Corpus sind nicht durchgehend nummeriert. Nur einigen Bänden (vor allem solchen, die unter Niebuhrs Redaktion verfasst wurden) stehen Nummern auf dem Titelblatt, die eine chronologische Anordnung andeuten: I. Dexippos, II. Prokopios, III. Agathias, IX. Leon Diakonos, XIX. Nikephoros Gregoras, XX Johannes Kantakuzenos.
Die folgende Übersicht ist alphabetisch nach den Autorennamen sortiert.
AgathiasAgathiae Myrinaei historiarum libri quinque cum versione Latina et annotationibus Bon. Vulcanii. B. G. Niebuhrius C. F. Graeca recensuit. Accedunt epigrammata1828Internet Archive, Google
Anna KomnenaAnnae Comnenae Alexiadis libri XV. Graeca ad codd. fidem nunc primum recensuit, novam interpretationem Latinam subiecit, Car. Ducangii commentarios suasque annotationes addidit Ludovicus Schopenus. Vol. I1839Internet Archive, Google, MDZ München
Anna KomnenaAnnae Comnenae Alexiadis libri X–XV. Recensuit L. Schopeni interpretationem Latinam subiecit P. Possini glossarum C. Ducangii commentarios indices addidit Augustus Reifferscheid. Vol. II1878Internet Archive, Google
AnonymHistoria politica et patriarchica Constantinopoleos. Epirotica. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1849Internet Archive, Google
Michael AttaleiatesMichaelis Attaliotae historia. Opus a Wladimiro Bruneto de Presle, Instituti Gallici socio, inventum descriptum correctum recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1853Google
Johannes KantakuzenosIoannis Cantacuzeni eximperatoris historiarum libri iv. Graece et Latine. Cura Ludovici Schopeni. Vol. I1828Internet Archive, Google
Johannes KantakuzenosIoannis Cantacuzeni eximperatoris historiarum libri iv. Graece et Latine. Cura Ludovici Schopeni. Vol. II1831Internet Archive, Google
Johannes KantakuzenosIoannis Cantacuzeni eximperatoris historiarum libri iv. Graece et Latine. Cura Ludovici Schopeni. Vol. III1832Internet Archive, Google
Georgios KedrenosGeorgius Cedrenus. Ioannis Scylitzae ope ab Immanuele Bekkero suppletus et emendatus. Tomus prior1838Internet Archive, Google
Georgios KedrenosGeorgius Cedrenus. Ioannis Scylitzae ope ab Immanuele Bekkero suppletus et emendatus. Tomus alter1839Internet Archive, Google
Laonikos ChalkokondylesLaonici Chalcocondylae Atheniensis historiarum libri decem ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1843Internet Archive, Google, Google, Google, Google, Google, Google
Chronicon PaschaleChronicon Paschale. Ad exemplar Vaticanum recensuit Ludovicus Dindorfius. Vol. I1832Internet Archive, Google
Chronicon PaschaleChronicon Paschale. Ad exemplar Vaticanum recensuit Ludovicus Dindorfius. Vol. II1832Internet Archive, Google
Johannes Kinnamos, Nikephoros BryenniosIoannis Cinnami epitome rerum ab Ioanne et Alexio Comnenis gestarum. Ad fidem codicis Vaticani recensuit Augustus Meineke. Nicephori Bryennii commentarii recognovit Augustus Meineke1836Internet Archive, Google
Kodinos KuropalatesCodini Curopalatae de officialibus palatii Constantinopolitani et de officiis magnae ecclesiae liber. Ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1839Internet Archive, Google
Georgios KodinosGeorgii Codini excerpta de antiquitatibus Constantinopolitanis. Ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1843Internet Archive, Google
Konstantinos PorphyrogennetosConstantini Porphyrogeniti imperatoris de cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae libri duo. Graece et Latine e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eisdem commentariis integris. Volumen I1829Internet Archive, Google
Konstantinos PorphyrogennetosConstantini Porphyrogeniti imperatoris de cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae libri duo. Graece et Latine e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eisdem commentariis integris. Volumen II1830Internet Archive, Google
Konstantinos PorphyrogennetosConstantinus Porphyrogenitus de thematibus et de administrando imperio. Accedit Hieroclis Synecdemus cum Bandurii et Wesselingii commentariis. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1840Internet Archive, Google
Dexippos, Eunapios, Petros Patrikios, Priskos, Malchos, Menander ProtektorDexippi, Eunapii, Petri Patricii, Prisci, Malchi, Menandri historiarum quae supersunt e recensione Imm. Bekkeri et B. G. Niebuhrii C. F. Cum versione Latina per Io. Classenum emendata. Accedunt eclogae Photii ex Olympiodoro, Candido, Nonnoso et Theophane, et Procopii Sophistae Panegyricus, Graece et Latine, Prisciani Panegyricus, annotationes Henr. Valesii, Labbei et Villoisonis, et indices Classeni1829Internet Archive, Google
DukasDucae Michaelis Ducae nepotis historia Byzantina. Recognovit et interprete Italo addito supplevit Immanuel Bekkerus1834Internet Archive, Google
Ephraim von AntiochiaEphraemius ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1840Internet Archive, Google
Georgios Synkellos, Nikephoros von KonstantinopelGeorgius Syncellus et Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus ex recognitione Guielmi Dindorfii. Volumen I1829Internet Archive, Google
Georgios Synkellos, Nikephoros von KonstantinopelGeorgius Syncellus et Nicephorus Constantinopolitanus ex recognitione Guielmi Dindorfii. Volumen II1829Internet Archive, Google
Michael GlykasMichaelis Glycae annales. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1836Internet Archive, Google
Nikephoros GregorasNicephori Gregorae Byzantina historia Graece et Latine. Cum annotationibus Hier. Wolfii, Car. Ducangii, Io. Boicini et Cl. Capperonnerii. Cura Ludovico Schopeni. Volumen I1829Google
Nikephoros GregorasNicephori Gregorae Byzantina historia Graece et Latine. Cum annotationibus Hier. Wolfii, Car. Ducangii, Io. Boicini et Cl. Capperonnerii. Cura Ludovico Schopeni. Volumen II1830Internet Archive, Google
Nikephoros GregorasNicephori Gregorae historiae Byzantinae libri postremi ab Immanuele Bekkero nunc primum editi1855Internet Archive, Google
Johannes LydosIoannes Lydus ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1837Internet Archive, Google
Leon DiakonosLeonis Diaconi Caloēnsis historiae libri decem et liber de velitatione bellica Nicephori Augusti e recensione Caroli Benedicti Hasii ... addita eiusdem versione atque annotationibus ab ipso recognitis. Accedunt Theodosii acroases de Creta capta e recensione Fr. Iacobsii et Liutprandi legatio cum aliis libellis qui nicephori Phocae et Ioannis Tzimiscis historiam illustrant1828Internet Archive, Google
Leon Grammatikos, Eustathios von ThessalonikeLeonis Grammatici chronographia. Ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri. Accedit Eustathii de capta Thessalonica liber1842Internet Archive, Google
Johannes MalalasIoannis Malalae Chronographia ex recensione Ludovici Dindorfii. Accedunt Chilmeadi Hodiique annnotationes et Ric. Bentleii epistola ad Io. Millium1831Internet Archive, Google, Google, Google, Google
Konstantin ManassesConstantini Manassis breviarium historiae metricum. Joelis chronographia compendiaria. Georgii Acropolitae annales. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1836Internet Archive, Google, Google
Flavius Merobaudes, CorippusMerobaudes et Corippus. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1836Internet Archive, Google
Niketas ChoniatesNicetae Choniatae historia ex recensione Immanuelis Bekkeri1835Internet Archive, Google
Georgios PachymeresGeorgii Pachymeris de Michaele et Andronico Palaologis libri tredecim. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus. Volumen prius1835Internet Archive, Google
Georgios PachymeresGeorgii Pachymeris de Michaele et Andronico Palaologis libri tredecim. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus. Volumen alterum1835Internet Archive, Google
Paulus Silentiarius, Georg von Pisidien, Nikephoros von KonstantinopelPauli Silentiarii descriptio S. Sophiae et Ambonis. Ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri. Georgii Pisidae expeditio Persica, bellum Avaricum, Heraclias. Recognotiv Immanuel Bekkerus. Sancti Nicephori patriarchae Constantinopolitani breviarium rerum post Mauricium gestarum. Recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus1837Internet Archive, Google
Georgios Sphrantzes, Johannes Kananos, Johannes AnagnostesGeorgius Phrantzes, Ioannes Cananus, Ioannes Anagnostes ex recensione Immanuelis Bekkrei1838Internet Archive, Google
Prokopios von CaesareaProcopius ex recensione Guilelmi Dindorfii. Vol. I1833Internet Archive, Google
Prokopios von CaesareaProcopius ex recensione Guilelmi Dindorfii. Vol. II1833Google
Prokopios von CaesareaProcopius ex recensione Guilelmi Dindorfii. Vol. III1836Internet Archive, Google
Theophanes ConfessorTheophanis Chronographia. Ex recensione Ioannis Classeni. Volumen I1839Internet Archive, Google
Theophanes Confessor, Anastasius BibliothecariusTheophanis Chronographia. Ex recensione Ioannis Classeni. Volumen II. Praecedit Anastasii Bibliothecarii historia ecclesiastica ex recensione Immanuelis Bekkeri1841Internet Archive, Google
Theophanes Continuatus, Johannes Kaminiates, Symeon Metaphrastes, Georgios MonachosTheophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1838Internet Archive, Google
Theophylaktos Simokates, Ioseph GenesiosTheophylacti Simocattae historiarum libri octo recognovit Immanuel Bekkerus. Genesius ex recognitione Caroli Lachmanni1834Internet Archive, Google
Johannes ZonarasIoannis Zonarae annales ex recensione Mauricii Pinderi. Tomus I1841Google
Johannes ZonarasIoannis Zonarae annales ex recensione Mauricii Pinderi. Tomus II1844Internet Archive, Google
Johannes ZonarasIoannis Zonarae Epitomae Historiarum libri XIII–XVIII. Edidit Theodorus Büttner-Wobst1897Internet Archive, Google-USA* = Internet Archive, Google-USA*
ZosimosZosimus ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri1837Internet Archive, Google

Brice C. Jones

The Use of Papyrus Sheets in Ancient Letter Writing

P.Abinn. 21P.Abinn. 21
Letter writers in the ancient world who chose papyrus as their written medium could use a new sheet of papyrus cut from a roll, or an already-inscribed papyrus. In many cases, when the recipient of a letter wished to respond to the sender, he/she would turn the letter over and write (or have a scribe write) his/her response on the back. In very rare cases, writers would wash the text off of a previously inscribed papyrus surface and then compose their letter. In these cases, it probably means that the respondent actually had no other material at his/her disposal. In other words, it was out of necessity that some papyri were re-used for inscription. We find a case of this detailed in one fourth century C.E. papyrus (P.Abinn. 21): "To my Lord and Father Abinnaeus, Alupios. Since I could not find at the moment a clean sheet of papyrus (χαρτίον καθαρὸν), I have written on this (i.e., the back of another letter)." Sometimes, blank papyrus sheets were actually sent directly to the correspondents. In one papyrus letter dated to the reign of Augustus (P.Wash.Univ. 2.106), Dionysian chastises her brother for not sending her a sheet of unwritten papyrus: "You did not send me word or remembrance or a sheet of unwritten papyrus (κόλλημα ἀγράφου). So write to me a letter and send it." And in another letter dated to the third century C.E. (P.Flor. 3.367), the letter writer complains that his would-be correspondent did not use the "letter-writing papyri" he sent him: "For I wrote to you many times and even sent letter-writing papyri (χάρτας ἐπιστολικο[ὺς) so that you would be supplied to write to me." Fresh, blank papyrus was, after all, not free, so it is understandable why this particular writer was frustrated. These sheets probably cost him good money. I suppose availability of new or "clean" papyrus also depended on one's location in relation to vendors, markets, and manufacturers of papyrus. Surely not everyone kept full papyrus rolls in their dwelling for future correspondence (though this is possible for the more well-to-do; on one request for papyrus rolls, see here, at bottom). It has often been stated that papyri could not be bought as individual sheets, but I hasten to agree with Bagnall and Cribiore's conviction that "people could find on the market papyrus stationary and could purchase individual pieces, whether whole sheets or not, and not only rolls" (Women's Letters from Ancient Egypt, 300 BCE – AD 800 [Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006], 36). 

So, next time you go to grab that sticky note, be reminded that the ancients did not have such a luxury!

Archaeology Magazine

Egypt alabaster jar2ASWAN, EGYPT—Human remains, pottery, and alabaster jars dating to the Old Kingdom and the Late Period were unearthed in front of the Temple of Horus at Edfu, according to an announcement made by Mamdouh El Damaty, Egypt’s Minister of antiquities. “The discovered pots are in different shapes and sizes. Some of them are pottery and other made of alabaster. Also an Old Kingdom copper mirror was found,” Nasr Salama, general director of Aswan Antiquities, told The Luxor Times. The artifacts were cleaned and restored and transferred to a storage warehouse for safe keeping. To read about recent excavations at another ancient Egyptian temple, go to "The Cult of Amun."

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Existential Comics: The Wrath of Kant

The latest from Existential Comics brings philosophy, humor, and Star Trek together. And so of course I had to share it.

starTrek1 starTrek2


Jona Lendering (New at LacusCurtius and Livius.Org)

Archaeology in Israel (1)

Jerusalem, "Large Stone Structure"

Jerusalem, “Large Stone Structure”

The study of the ancient world is so fascinating because all those cultures, nations, tribes, states, and civilizations share one characteristic: a great shortage of data. If you want to study an aspect of Antiquity, you need every bit of information you can get: texts, archaeological finds, parallels from other cultures. Antiquity, I’m sure you’ll agree, is the largest and most interesting puzzle the world has ever seen.

Unfortunately, the available information is often inconsistent. Herodotus tells us that Ecbatana was a big city with seven walls, but archaeologists found nothing. Caesar claims to have visited Britain, but not a single camp has been identified.

In situations like these, when information obtained from texts and excavations is asymmetrical, it’s up to the historian to decide what to do next. He might say: “I prefer to believe the written sources. If the archaeologists continue to dig, they will find what we’re looking for.” In other words, as long as archaeological data are absent, you lend maximum credence to your written sources. This approach is called maximalism. The alternative would be to argue “The sources may not be literally true. Unless the archaeologists find something, I must reconsider my way of reading the texts.” If you think you should not believe your source unless it is confirmed archaeologically, that’s called minimalism.

[Continued on the blog of Ancient History Magazine]

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Abandonment and Commemoration in the North Dakota Bakken

I returned home late last night after a productive three days in the Bakken. Our trip had four goals. First and foremost, we wanted to continue to monitor the changes in our study sites. Next, I needed to collect just a bit more information on the area between Killdeer and Watford City for the Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch. We presented some of our research at Capital Lodge in Tioga, North Dakota, and, finally, I wanted to begin to do some research on the memorial landscape of the oil patch. We managed to accomplish all these goals.

1. Study Sites. I reported in March that our study sites appeared to be holding steady despite the dire pronouncements of bust in the oil patch. This August, however, the signs of the downturn were visible in every RV park and man camp that we visited. It would appear that many of the mid-sized RV parks are down to around 60% occupancy despite summer being typically the busiest time of year. Rents at RV parks have come down slightly, and guarded optimism of both residents and managers has give way to talk of alternate plans and exit strategies.


The larger crew camps likewise seem empty. We stayed at a camp where we once had to book a room weeks in advance and navigate a packed dining room for a table. On this visit, our team was probably the only group staying in the camp. 


The most dramatic example of camp abandonment was the 500+ bed American Lodge outside of Watford City. The camp was closed and abandoned after the city cut its power and water. Subsequently, it appears that the camp had bilked investors out of over $60 million dollars in a kind of ponzi scheme. The size and obvious reality of the camp made it clear that project did not begin as a ponzi scheme, but succumbed, in part, to the declining need for workforce housing in general.

2. Man Camp Dialogues. Our man camp dialogues have come at a pivotal time in workforce housing in the Bakken, and our effort to hold one in a workforce housing site was pretty unsuccessful. The declining number of people living in temporary workforce housing sites has made our dialogues as much a historical reflection as a way to address ongoing concerns. 

For the first time in our experiences in the Bakken, a camp refused to allow us to document life at their facility. This camp had also turned down our request to host a man camp dialogue. The camp stands near Williston in Williams County, and recent ordinances appear designed to curtail the future of work force housing. So it seems likely that the owners or management of the camp felt any research on their facility was unlikely to benefit the camp in the short or medium term. 

3. Watford City to Killdeer. The Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch is very nearly complete and the manuscript is almost ready to go to the publisher for review. I took notes on the route from Watford City to Killdeer and Dickinson and this will allow me to include this meaningful diversion to the main course of the Tourist Guide. The forest of drill rigs sitting in storage at Dickinson forms a useful concluding scene to my guide’s itinerary.



In addition to the addition coverage of the guide, the editor in the series that has requested my manuscript suggested that I include a few more people in the guide, so I am going through the routes and making an effort to add some flesh-and-blood to the routes. 

4. Memorial Landscapes. I also plan to add something to the Tourist Guide on the memorial landscape of the Bakken. Through out the region, small, typically road-side memorials have appeared to mark the location of fatal accidents. While these are common throughout the US, they take on a particular poignancy in the Bakken where they often feature in critiques of the oil patch and the changes that they have brought to the local communities.


There are a few of these memorials that are well-maintained and prominent on the Bakken byways and I plan to include them in the Tourist Guide as well as a few of the lesser known memorials that dot the back roads of the region.


James Hamrick (The Ancient Bookshelf)

Using Book Reviews

As a student I have found academic book reviews to be a really helpful resource.  Academic book reviews are just what they sound like: reviews of academic books often found in academic journals.  Academic books go through a peer review process before they are published and hit the shelves to help ensure their quality, but book reviews provide an opportunity for the academic community to begin publicly assessing these works.

As I student, I have found book reviews to be useful in a couple ways:

(1) As companions to a book you're working through.  By reading reviews of a book you're engaging you can get some insights into how the work has been received, and can also find some helpful analysis and critiques of the argument.  In working on my thesis I interacted with a lot of Dennis Macdonald's work on the influence of Homer on the New Testament and other early Jewish and Christian texts.  Book reviews (and MacDonald's response to some of those reviews) were helpful for me, as they alerted me to some of the aspects of MacDonald's work that had not been well received by some scholars.  Since I was making positive use of some of MacDonald's work this allowed me to address some of the criticisms of his work and draw distinctions between what he had argued and the argument I was making.
I have found book reviews to be especially helpful when I am working through a book that is outside of my field.  When you're reading within your field you are better able to critically engage a book.  Sometimes when a work is outside your field you don't really have the background information to weigh the merits of an author's arguments.  And in some cases, you don't have the time to familiarize yourself with a wide range of literature and opinions in that field.  In this case book reviews can alert you to different perspectives on the topic or potential weaknesses in the author's argument (although it seems some reviewers are sheepish about offering criticisms).  They can help you from being unduly influenced by a single work.

(2) As a way of taking the pulse of scholarship and staying abreast of developments.  Book reviews are nice and short.  Reading them is a great way to stay familiar with what is being published, what kinds of arguments are being made and what kind of work is being done.  I find this can be really helpful when it comes to cognate disciplines, for which you don't have the time to read lots of books, but you'd still like to keep an eye on what's going on.

(3) Research paper ideas.  When you're trying to develop a topic for a research paper book reviews can be a helpful source of inspiration.

(4) Finding stuff to read!  One of the big reasons book reviews of all kinds exist is to help people decide what to read.  With so many books and so little time book reviews can help you sift through the many options and decide which books to add to your list.

How to find them: You can look through print journals in your library.  But the best way to find them is to use your library's full text databases.  Your librarian can help you find the right database for what you're looking for.  The databases I use give you the option to limit your search results to book reviews.  If you have a particular book you'd like to read reviews on, you can just search for the title.  If you're looking for reviews on a particular subject, you can enter your search terms and narrow the results to reviews.  So, I am currently doing some research on the Book of Jude: I simply typed "Jude" in the search field and narrowed the results to book reviews.

For the areas this website focuses on, two great, free, online sources for book reviews are the Society of Biblical Literature's Review of Biblical Literature and the Bryn Mawr Classical Review

Francesca Tronchin (Classical Archaeology News)

Intriguing device to measure lunar calendar unearthed at Yeronisos - Cyprus Mail

Intriguing device to measure lunar calendar unearthed at Yeronisos - Cyprus Mail:

A large complex used for food preparation, distribution and storage facilities plus an “intriguing device” for keeping track of the 30-day lunar calendar were investigated during the latest excavations in the islet of Yeronisos off Paphos.

The complex was built along the southern edge of the island during the final years of Ptolemaic-Egyptian rule on Cyprus, the antiquities department said.

The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire

The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire:

Excerpt: ..Whatever happened to the Roman Empire, barbarians from northern Europe had a lot to do with it. And that is not surprising, because the idea of barbarians bringing down the empire is rooted in the sixteenth-century, when the Northern Renaissance and Reformation posited a virtuous northern past to contrast to a debauched and papist south. While the recently discovered manuscript of Tacitus’ Germania provided a ready-made handbook to the authentic superior vigour and virtue of the barbarous Germans. Ever since then the end of antiquity has always been seen as about the opposition between a Roman Mediterranean and a Germanic Barbarian north.

Ancient Egyptian underwater treasures to be exhibited for the first time


Spectacular ancient Egyptian treasures are to be exhibited for the first time having been discovered underwater in the submerged ruins of the near-legendary cities of Thonis-Heracleion and Canopus.

A finely sculpted statuette of a pharaoh and a golden-eyed depiction of god Osiris are among antiquities to be unveiled in a major exhibition in Paris from next month.

The cities were almost erased from mankind’s memory after sinking beneath the waves in the eighth century AD following cataclysmic natural disasters including an earthquake and tidal waves.

Across a vast site in Aboukir Bay near Alexandria, the seabed has been giving up secrets from a lost world in an excavation led by Franck Goddio, a French marine archaeologist. Read more.

Mike Anderson's Ancient History Blog

Roman Fighting Techniques

I wrote an article on July 26th 2011 called Roman Battle Tactics Versus the Phalanx, and last week, a reader commented on that post in a very thoughtful and reasoned way. You would not be able to see his comment unless you looked back at the original article, so I decided to post it here. I will have more to add about this subject shortly.

Posted as a comment by M. Teague

Your points are good but they are strategic advantages, not tactical. To continue, the Romans were full-time professional soldiers who carried an enormous variety of tools and gear to allow them to march far, fast, and fight almost anywhere. Barring dense forest and cliffs, on any sort of open ground and not having to deal with cavalry archers the Romans seemed invulnerable. And I wondered for the longest time why.

I knew that the Roman legion was much more flexible and maneuverable than phalanx, could accommodate men in various positions but that still doesn't account for trying to get past a head-on collision with a (very strong) pike formation. But it sort of came to me when a few months ago I learned that the Roman Gladius is actually only a half-decent stabbing weapon. It is relatively fast, but compared to other weaponry (as actually tested against other swords) it is poor in stabbing. But this was how the Romans were taught to fight. Why would the Romans equip their troops with a poor stabbing weapon and tell them to stab with it all the time? There are even curved swords not designed for thrusting that do better against the gladius. The gladius is a fat sword and it can only penetrate up to a specific point.

Then just recently I saw the documentary (view-able on Youtube) Conquest: Roman Weapons. Peter Woodward in conjunction with reenactors made an excellent examination. A longsword is a better all-around weapon but it required room to wield and the techniques are either tiresome and you fare better with a smaller shield. A spear was good for holding off infantry charges but while cheap is useless afterwards in the thick of a fight. A large ax requires both hands, and a smaller ax while a good tool, requires swinging. The gladius is small and allows a lot of quick thrusts. A falcata or heavy sword was great at chopping and cutting but that is not only tiresome, it is slow compared to rapid short thrusts.

But beyond this was a technique for battle I never considered. The Roman legion was a highly offensive force. Contrary to what I believed (a counter-attack force that received the enemy) they push and drive into an enemy with that large scutum shield, preventing enemies from properly mounting their large attack. It as a weapon drove enemies into the ground and pushed them back into enemy lines. Romans were not tight-fitted in fighting formation, but had a little space 3 feet from man-to-man) between each other which never made sense to me until the demonstration as why.

AND THE BIG conclusion was this: the Romans at the front would use their large curved shields to hold off the initial bunching of a spear formation. Lots of people don't realize the scutum uses a horizontal grip, so when your arm is hanging loosely at your side, you're holding the scutum. This means you didn't have to hold up your arm across your chest or stomach to support that large shield; your shoulder did it for you. Two scutum close together curving around you could hold off 10 thrusting spears. The rank interwoven from behind moved forward, while the spears are planted in or busy working the front Romans, allowing the second rearward to step into gaps (remember, 2 scutum Romans are holding off 10 spears) and then use their gladius to hack apart the spears or drive them out of the way. No more phalanx. If the Romans had a dedicated thrusting weapon, this tactic would be impossible.

The Roman legion could fight the phalanx head-on and decimate it. Playing straight into the phalanx preference of fighting and force it into buckling destruction. The phalanx is a tightly packed bunch of men in which, almost irregardless of your weapon (you can pick any one of 100 around the world in any combination) you were destined to loose. The tight formation is used against itself and loses all advantages from the first advance.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: ReDIVA: Revista Doctoranzilor în Istorie Veche şi Arheologie - The Postgraduate Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology

ReDIVA: Revista Doctoranzilor în Istorie Veche şi Arheologie - The Postgraduate Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
ISSN 2344-6218
ISSN-L 2344-5548
Revista Doctoranzilor în Istorie Veche şi Arheologie (ReDIVA) reprezintă o iniţiativă editorială a doctoranzilor Universităţii „Babeş-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca, cu specializarea în istorie veche şi arheologie. Aceasta a luat naştere din dorinţa de a încuraja şi fructifica cercetarea tinerilor în aceste domenii.

Misiunea revistei este aceea de a oferi doctoranzilor din centrele universitare naţionale și din afara țării un spaţiu de dialog și, în același timp, de a susţine tinerii cercetători în integrarea lor în mediul academic. Din acest motiv, dar și pentru a asigura legătura între generațiile de actuali și viitori doctoranzi, se acceptă şi lucrări ale masteranzilor cu potenţial.
Publicaţia este anuală, iar materialele acoperă domeniul istoriei antice şi arheologiei, sub forma unor articole, note și recenzii. Limbile de redactare acceptate sunt: engleza, franceza, germana, italiana şi spaniola.

Nr. II / 2014

Mariana PROCIUC, Vlad CODREAArchaeozoology and palaeontology of the Subpiatră Cave (Bihor County, Romania)
Aurora PEȚANAn unknown stone structure in Sarmizegetusa Regia’s sacred zone recorded in writings of the 19th century
Mátyás BAJUSZ, Aurora PEȚANTwo bronze bracelets with looped and twisted ends from the notes of Téglás István
Csaba SZABÓDiscovering the gods in Apulum: historiography and new perspectives
Radu Iustinian ZĂGREANU, Claudiu Ionuț IOVA Roman funerary stela from Porolissum
Alexandra TEODORThe roman defensive systems of  Tomis. Some issues in the light of the current knowledge 
Todd L. VanPool, Robert D. Leonard: Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 (Laura-Simona DRAȘOVEAN)PDF
Luca-Paul Pupeză, Veacul întunecat al Daciei. Arheologie și istorie în spațiul carpato-danubian de la sfârșitul secolului II a.Chr. până la începutul secolului I a. Chr., Cluj-Napoca, 2012 (Raluca-Eliza BĂTRÎNOIU)PDF
Ioan Piso, Viorica Rusu-Bolindeț, Rada Varga, Silvia Mustata, Ligia Ruscu (eds.), Scripta Classica. Radu Ardevan sexagenario dedicata, Cluj-Napoca, 2011 (Aurora PEȚAN)PDF
Rada Varga, The Peregrini of Roman Dacia (106-212), Cluj-Napoca, 2014 (Cosmin Mihail COATU)

Kostis Kourelis (Buildings, Objects Situations)

O Young Building, Grand Forks ND

Cast iron transformed commercial architecture in 19th-century American cities. Affording greater span for less footprint, they increased the space for windows and window-shopping. In corner properties, the iron column was capable of supporting the entire weight of the residential upper floors and open up the corner to the public, placing the entrance diagonally to the corner, and allow passage

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Kulturgutschutzgesetz: die rechtliche Seite des Referentenentwurfs

Joachim Walser (Münzenwoche)
Joachim Walser, author of 'Kulturgutschutzgesetz: die rechtliche Seite des Referentenentwurfs' which Ursula Kampmann has published in MünzenWoche looks like the kind of man to enjoy a good laugh. But here in all Bavarian seriousness we have a detailed breakdown of the draft of the Cultural Property Protection Law currently under discussion (updated to take into account the amendments made on 14th July 2015).   It seems from looking at his approach that Mr Walser is a collector (a coin collector?) himself. I expect the Munich translation gnomes are busy scribbling away in their cave next to the Coin Elves, so let's leave more detailed discussion until I can quote from the official Coin Weekly version. But generally, on reading this, it seems to me that the Munich dealers do really seem to be scraping the bottom of the barrel. 

According to Mr Walser, the whole draft law is a travesty, he argues it's even against the Human Rights Convention. He is splitting hairs in a number of the criticisms made, and suddenly in the middle of a section quotes the parable of the Treasure from Matthew 13 - it is wholly unclear why. If, however, the draft law says what he indicates, he has a point in other areas and it is a shame that these more useful remarks get lost in a burden of over-critical dross. For example, he gets really lost in the section on "Widerrechtliche Anforderung an Herkunftsnachweis", citing wholly irrelevant examples from ancient Roman history but failing to develop the point, becoming sucked in by the Cuno-esque "Wer ist aber nun der Nachfolgestaat solcher untergegangenen Kulturen?". This is quite beside the point.

He says if German law is to require of German dealers and collectors that they bear in mind in their transactions involving material from foreign countries the laws of those foreign countries regarding what one can and cannot legally do with antiquities in and from that territory, that the German state (Lander?) should provide them with a complete set of translations into German of all of those laws. Since that is impossible, he says the proposed law is unworkable. The German state however has no obligation to give dealers everything on a plate. If a Munich dealer wants to import cars and car parts from Detroit, it is not the responsibility of the Bavarian land to hand him a German translation of every applicable law of the USA and the countries his trade transits. The car dealer would have to find a lawyer to explain it to him. If an American dentist wants to go lion shooting in Zimbabwe and does not know the laws, it's no use blaming his problems on the fact that they cannot find Zimbabwean wildlife protection laws on the USA Department of State website. If you don't know Albanian antiquities laws, don't try to trade in Albanian antiquities.  If you cannot access legally-obtained Albanian antiquities, don't try to set up business selling Albanian antiquities. Simple. Don't expect everything on a plate all the time. It's immture.

In a subsequent section Mr Walser abandons the idea that this law is about all cultural property, and focuses on the part of the German discussion concerning so-called conflict antiquities. He claims that the reason for the new law is not the desire of the German state to clean up its domestic antiquities market as a state party to the 1970 UNESCO Convention, but specifically to fight terrorist financing, an idea he dismisses as "Falsche Prämissen und fehlende Datengrundlage" (diese Behauptung ist falsch und mit nichts belegt). He does not adduce anby real evidence to support his dismissal, merely piously using another Biblical quote (!) to justify trotting out the dealers' argument:
Es ist denklogisch ausgeschlossen, dass Organisationen, wie die IS, die antike Stätten in großem Umfang zerstören, weil dies bereits Mohammed so praktiziert hat und ihren radikalen Kulturwandel stützt, andererseits ihrer Meinung nach heidnische Kultgegenstände erhalten und veräußern. Diese Organisationen versuchen, die Wurzeln ihrer Länder auszurotten, um eine neue Kultur darauf zu setzen. Es widerspricht dieser Ideologie infolgedessen, alte Kultgegenstände zu erhalten und damit auch, damit Handel zu treiben („analog“ Altes Testament. 5. Buch Mose, Kapitel 7).
Well, that's that then. Moses says you should destroy idols, so no looting is going on anywhere in Syria or Iraq to finance any kind of fighting. So all those holes we see on the satellite photos, and all those busts ripped out of Palmyra tombs, that's the work of naughty Moslem boys who sat at the back of their Koran classes and messed around, so they have no idea what Mohammed or Moses would have done? As I said Mr W. looks like a man who enjoys a laugh.

Blogging Pompeii

Grand Palaestra reopens after seven years & new rooms open at Villa Arianna, Stabia from 2.8.2015

Already a good few days for the reopening of buildings that have received attention from the Grand Pompeii Project, MiBAC announced that the Grand Palaestra reopens today. I haven't been in there since 2001 and can't wait to get back!

As if that wasn't enough exciting news, new rooms (Rms 44 & 45) will be opened at the stunning Villa Arianna at Stabia tomorrow.

You can read more here.

Corinthian Matters

Corinthian Matters: A New Theme

After a long lull, Corinthians Matters is running actively again. It’s summer and I don’t have the pressures of an academic year. Plus, the completion of some long-standing research projects has provided a little more time to develop this site. To mark this new energy, I gave the site a new theme last week. I wanted simpler, more elegant, image-based. The Monet theme is easier on the eye and demands less of the viewer. It is also better for mobile users. The theme does less well with webpage hierarchy, however, so I plan to eliminate some of the stacked sub-pages and simplify the static content. I’m also currently devising secret plans to develop the gazetteer section of the website somewhere else beyond WordPress–even as the bibliographic library lives off site at Zotero.

Note that you can still access the Search feature, Categories, and the Archive via the three little dots in the upper right corner of the page (circled in red in the first image blow). Clicking there will open up the hidden categories, search  box, and other features of the site. Thanks for visiting.



Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Neue Philologische Rundschau

Neue Philologische Rundschau


Von Jahrgang 1.1881 bis 5.1885 erschien die Zeitschrift unter dem Titel Philologische Rundschau ↗ZDB im Verlag M. Heinsius, Bremen.


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient hillfort to be excavated in Lochaber

Archaeologists are preparing for the first ever excavation of an ancient hillfort in Lochaber.Dun...

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

How Dinosaurs Became Extinct

How dinosaurs became extinct

HT Nick Gotts, who got it from Sol Chrom. If there is a serious point, perhaps it is this: sometimes disaster strikes and there’s nothing you can do. But sometimes we inflict it upon ourselves. And worse still, when we divide and compete where cooperation would bring greater benefit, we set ourselves up to be at a disadvantage when some big disaster comes our way – such as a large asteroid heading our way.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient Egyptian underwater treasures to be exhibited for the first time

Spectacular ancient Egyptian treasures are to be exhibited for the first time having been discovered...

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

La Mésie inférieure entre Orient et Occident

Iacob, M. (2013) : Moesia inferior între Orient şi Occident : identitatea culturală şi economică a provinciei în contextul lumii romane, Bucarest [La Mésie inférieure entre Orient et Occident ; identité culturelle et économique de la province dans le contexte du monde romain].

L’intérêt de cet ouvrage consacré, malgré le titre, principalement à l’histoire économique est de respecter les délimitations antiques, et non de rester cantonné comme de trop nombreux travaux aux frontières actuelles de la Roumanie et de la Bulgarie. Les différents aspects de l’économie de cette région entre le Ier et le IIIe s. sont abordés : structures foncières, production, importation, circulation monétaire, structure commerciale…

Le sommaire et le résumé en français :

moesia Iacob

Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

Simulating the Past: Complex Systems Simulation in Archaeology

More videos. Here is a workshop from CAA:

In the last few years approaches commonly classified as computational modelling (agent-based and mathematical modelling, as well as other types of simulation) are becoming increasingly common and popular among the archaeological computing community.

Almost all research activity could be termed ‘modelling’ in some sense, for example, in archaeology we create conceptual models (hypotheses, typologies), spatial models (GIS), virtual models (3D reconstructions) or statistical models to name but a few. Most of them, however, investigate either the elements of the system (individual pots, skeletons, buildings etc.) or the pattern produced by the system elements (cultural similarities, settlement distribution, urban development etc.) and only theorize about the possible processes that led from the aggregated actions of individual actors to population-level patterns. In contrast, simulation allows us to investigate and reconstruct such processes in a formal way, threfore tackling some of the past complexity. It helps us to create ‘virtual labs’ in which we can test and contrast different hypotheses, find irregularities in the data or identify new factors and relationships which we would not suspect of having a significant impact on the system. In short, complexity science techniques have great potential for diverse applications in archaeology and may become a driving force for formalisation of descriptive models for the whole discipline.

The aim of this roundtable is to discuss the potential and challenges of complex systems simulation, including but not restricted to:

the epistemology of computational modelling (what it can and cannot do);
data integration and its use for model validation;
system formalisation and the role of domain specialists;
replicability and reuse of code;
lessons learnt from other disciplines commonly using simulation (ecology, social science, economics etc.)
communication between modellers and the wider archaeological public;
further directions of research.
Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to propose the creation of a new Special Interest Group (SIG) under the auspices of CAA (named: ‘CAA Complex Systems Simulation SIG’), and to discuss a preliminary plan of the proposed activities of the SIG and an outline of how the SIG is to be organised.

Any feedback is much appreciated. To see more videos like these please go to the YouTube channel Recording Archaeology-



Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Aperte le iscrizioni a CREATHON, maratona di idee sul tema cultura e turismo

Nell'ambito di LuBeC - Lucca Beni Culturali, in programma il 8 e 9 ottobre 2015, si svolgerà CREATHON, la maratona di creatività dedicata al turismo e alla cultura nell’era digitale, organizzata con il contributo del Polo Tecnologico Lucchese e della Camera di Commercio.

Jim Davila (

Hurtado responds to Kok

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Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Ricostruzione 3D e tecnologie interattive per la Cripta di Santa Lucia di Brindisi

Il Consorzio CETMA ha recentemente comunicato che nell’ambito del progetto di ricerca IT@CHA – “Tecnologie italiane per applicazioni avanzate nei Beni Culturali”, finanziato dal Programma Operativo Nazionale Ricerca e Competitività 2007-2013, ha realizzato una campagna di rilievi all’interno la Chiesa della Santissima Trinità - Santa Lucia di Brindisi, uno dei luoghi più ricchi di storia della città pugliese. In particolare il progetto ha portato alla ricostruzione virtuale della sua Cripta, di particolare interesse artistico. Proficua la collaborazione con l’Arcidiocesi di Brindisi, la Biblioteca De Leo e l’associazione culturale VivArch. Si riporta il testo della notizia diffusa.

Jim Davila (

Review of the Indy Exhibition

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Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Riqualificazione e restauro: scenari di innovazione

CNR-Istec, l'Istituto del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche dedicato a Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici e CertiMaC, organismo di ricerca (ai sensi del 2006/C 323/01 UE) per l''innovazione e il trasferimento tecnologico, organizzano un seminario tecnico per illustrare i risultati salienti e le traiettorie future delle linee di ricerca sviluppate nell'ambito del Tecnopolo di Faenza per l'Innovazione sui Materiali.

Blogging Pompeii

Reopening of the Basilica following works by the Grand Pompeii Project

In case you missed last week's announcement from the Soprintendenza, the Basilica at Pompeii has reopened after work completed by the Grand Pompeii Project. You can read more here about the works carried out.

At the bottom of the article, in Italian, is a link to photographs (1,2,3,4) showing the difference between the repairs before and after. (I personally very much enjoyed this aspect of the announcement.)

Jim Davila (

Moss on Alexander the Great

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Shlomo Moussaieff z'l'

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Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Fotogrammetria subacquea: il Progetto Bou-Ferrer del relitto romano

Il progetto Bou-Ferrer è dedicato allo scavo e alla valorizzazione di una nave mercantile romana, naufragato nella metà del I secolo d.C. al largo della costa di Villajoyosa (Alicante, Spagna). Si tratta di una grande nave da commercio che trasportava un'importante partita di circa 2500 anfore, realizzate a Cadice, che contenevano alimenti come il garum. Nel 2012, la Direzione Generale dei Beni Culturali, in collaborazione con il Comune di Villajoyosa, Vilamuseu e la Fondazione Generale dell'Università di Alicante, ha lanciato un progetto di ricerca all'avanguardia per la valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale subacqueo conducendo un campagna di scavo archeologico per ottenere più dati su lingotti di piombo a bordo della nave.

Jim Davila (

Archaeology of late-Second-Temple-era Jerusalem

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Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

La stampa 3D per Beni Culturali, Workshop gratuito a Lecce

Il FabLab di Lecce organizza per martedì 4 agosto 2015 presso il MUST, il Museo Storico della Città di Lecce, un workshop gratuito dedicato alla stampa 3D per i beni culturali. L'evento è organizzato all'interno delle attività previste dal SAC Terre di Lupiae, e permetterà di conoscere le tecniche che consentono di eseguire un rilievo 3D di un oggetto e arrivare alla sua riproduzione fisica attraverso la stampa 3D.

Laser per il restauro donati alla Città del Vaticano

Lo scorso 19 giugno il Governatorato dello Stato della Città del Vaticano ha ricevuto in dono dalla Quanta System, azienda del gruppo El.En. e leader mondiale nella produzione di laser medicali, industriali e scientifici, cinque sistemi laser di ultima generazione. Due dei cinque dispositivi verranno messi a disposizione dei Musei Vaticani per il restauro delle opere d’arte, mentre gli altri tre saranno destinati a delle strutture ospedaliere del Sud America.

The Egyptiana Emporium

Museum piece #18 – M14090


Heart scarab of Ramose (Source: Global Egyptian Museum).

Object M14090 is a heart scarab belonging to a man named Ramose which resides in the Liverpool Museum.

Heart scarabs were amulets designed to look like a scarab on the top and the shape of a heart on the bottom. It was placed among the mummy bandages or hung around the neck of the deceased.

This scarab is made from green serpentine and is inscribed with eleven lines of text. The text is taken from the Book of the Dead and is a type of prayer which asks that the heart of the deceased does not betray him when it is weighed.

The Weighing of the Heart ceremony depicted in the Book of the Dead (Source: Wikipedia).

The heart of the deceased was believed to be weighed against the feather of Maat, the goddess of truth and justice, and if it is found to be worthy, the deceased was granted passage to the afterlife. If it was not, the deceased’s heart would be eaten by Ammut, the Devourer, and the deceased would die a second death, never to return.

G.W. Schwendner (What's New in Papyrology)

ZPE 195 (2015)

Albarrán Martínez, M. J., Un reçu de διάγραφον de la collection de la Sorbonne 202

Aly, Sh. A., Eight Greek Tax Receipts from Elephantine 171

Armoni, Ch. – Backhuys, Th., κακινκάκως 190

Baker, P. – Thériault, G., Note sur le décret béotien SEG 26, 130, l. 10 82 – Notes anthroponymiques sur huit inscriptions xanthiennes 115

Bastianini, G. – Maltomini, F., Etopea di Alessandro alla morte di Dario (rilettura di P.Oxy. I 79 verso) 38 

Berkes, L., Großgrundbesitzer im byzantinischen Oxyrhynchos: Bemerkungen zum Apionen-Archiv 219

Caldelli, M. L. – Slavich, C., Fasti di un collegio ostiense a Civitavecchia e altri inediti 259

Chankowski, A. S., Le terme δόγμα comme synonyme du terme ψήφισμα: à propos du décret de la tribu Akamantis SEG 23 (1968), n° 78, l. 1–12 (Reinmuth, Eph.Inscr. 1, l. 1–12), du décret de Latmos SEG 47 (1997), n° 1563 et du décret de Nagidos SEG 39 (1989), n° 1426, l. 19–56 91

Christol, M., Sur l’épitaphe d’un légionnaire de l’armée d’Egypte (AE 2002, 1590a) 297

Cromwell, J., Coptic Writing Exercises in the Petrie Museum with a Concordance of its Published Coptic Texts 205

Curbera, J., Seven Curse Tablets from the Collection of Richard Wünsch 143

Daris, S., Addendum a P.Daris 47 200

Decorte, R., Publishing Laws: an Investigation of Layout and Epigraphic Conventions in Roman Statutes 243

Demirer, Ü. – Kraus, Th. J., Ein Bronze-Amulett aus Kibyra mit Reiterheiligem und griechischem Psalm 90,1 58

Duval, N., Probability in the Ancient Greek World: New Considerations from Astragalomantic Inscriptions in South Anatolia 127

Eck, W. – Holder, P. – Pangerl, A. – Weiß, P., Ein überraschendes Phänomen: Neue Zeugen in zwei Diplomen für die Truppen von Moesia inferior vom 11. Oktober 146 222

Eck, W. – Pangerl, A., Eine Konstitution für die Truppen von Dacia inferior vom 16. Juni 123 unter dem Präsidialprokurator Cocceius Naso und weitere diplomata militaria 231

Gonzales, M., The Honorary Decrees of the Aglaurion (IG II3 1,5 1373, SEG 33.115, and NM 2947) 75

Gräf, B., Zwei Inschriften des Septimius Severus aus Ladenburg: neue Denkmäler aus altbekannten Fragmenten 283

de Haro Sanchez, M., Between Magic and Medicine: The Iatromagical Formularies and Medical Receptaries on Papyri Compared 179

Jim, Th. S. F., Can Soteira Be Named? The Problem of the Bare Trans-Divine Epithet 63 

Johnston, A. C., Another Early Fragmentary Public Inscription from Gabii 255

Jones, C. P., A Letter of Septimius Severus to the City of Syedra 121

Kotyl, M., A New Homeric Papyrus: Iliad VII on Codex Leaf 1

Kruschwitz, P., Three Short Notes on RIB 955 = CLE 1597 295

Lanérès, N., Retour sur deux inscriptions laconiennes: IG V 1, 1317 et IG V 1, 1316 107

Levin-Richardson, S., Calos graffiti and infames at Pompeii 274

Liapis, V., On the Oracular Lamella 2430–2432 from Dodona 85

 Litinas, N., The Nile and its Deltas in Achilles Tatius 44

Luginbill, R. D., Alcman: P.Oxy. 2389, fr. 23 10

Marmouri, Kh., Un couple consulaire à Gigthis: à propos de CIL VIII, 22716 301

Martínez Fernández, A., Un nuevo epitafio de Aptera (Creta) 99

McDonald, K. – Tagliapietra, L. – Zair, N., New Readings of the Multilingual Petelia Curse Tablet 157

Pajón Leyra, I. – Sánchez Muñoz, L., The Magnetic Stone of Posidippus’ Poem Nr. 17: The Earliest Description of Magnetic Polarity in Hellenistic Egypt 30

Prauscello, L. – Ucciardello, G., Sappho 88 Voigt (P.Oxy. 2290 + P.Oxy. 4411): a Re-Appraisal 13

Salem, N. A., Loan of Grain between a Man from an Epoikion and another from Oxyrhynchos 166

Sheppard, A., Reconsidering a Loan Inscription from Epidauros 104

Worp, K. A., Christian Personal Names in Documents from Kellis (Dakhleh Oasis) 193

Corrigendum zu ZPE 194, 131 (Epigraphische Randnotizen Nr. 13) 142

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Collector Cares not a Whit...

Daryl Davis comments on my post "Out of Place Antiquities on the British Market":
"I must admit that I am just such a "blind" collector"
"I care not a whit about antiquities or looting"
This sounds like Sam Hardy's correspondent. The problem is that while others labour on under the misapprehension that if things are explained to them in a way they'll understand, collectors will "come round" to doing what they do in a responsible manner, the sad truth is that there are those that are wilfully blind and really do not care.

Vignette: the self-centred approach to our heritage 

There is a City


You Tube video by 'thereisacity' posted 30th July 2015

Once a year on August 1st, the people of Warsaw pay homage to the fallen heroes that fought for freedom in 1944 during the Warsaw Uprising. The biggest rebellion against German Nazi occupation during WWII cost over 200 000 lives and destruction of the capital.

Both before and after the Uprising, along with murdering entire communities, the Nazis carried out in Warsaw (as well as many other cities of the occupied country) a deliberate policy of annihilating the local culture. This included emptying museums, stealing or destroying the contents, burning libraries, blowing up landmark buildings and monuments, flattening cemeteries, closing cultural institutions and imprisoning or executing their staff. By their brutal and barbarous acts, the occupiers wanted to wipe out the identity of the conquered nation by deleting its material and non-material. Poland and the Polish people resisted, and it seems to me still today place a higher value on cultural property than many other nations in the EU.

It is in this context that it is particularly disturbing to see the German signatures on the anti-best-practice petition premised on the notion of German superiority to the interests of the citizens of the source countries. Shame on you, have you not learnt any lessons?

UPDATE 2nd August 2015
I see a controversial coin dealer in distant California  (pinching my title) has decided to make himself look ridiculous and attempts to use this post in his nasty smear campaign against myself and the country I now live in.  Shame on you. (As for collector Daniel F[riedman], I have no words for that kind of hatemongering). These comments demonstrate what mentally unbalanced people you are in the company of if you collect coins. 

Thomas Paine on the No-Questions-Asked Antiquities Trade

“A long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defense of custom. But the tumult soon subsides. Time makes more converts than reason.”
― Thomas Paine, Common Sense

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Amalthea oder Museum der Kunstmythologie und bildlichen Alterthumskund

Amalthea oder Museum der Kunstmythologie und bildlichen Alterthumskund
Amalthea oder Museum der Kunstmythologie und bildlichen Alterthumskunde wurde von Carl August Böttiger (1760-1835) initiiert und herausgegeben. Die Zeitschrift erschien in nur drei Jahrgängen von 1820-1825.

Amalthea sollte als rein archäologische Fachzeitschrift dem Diskurs über das Altertum und seine materiellen Hinterlassenschaften eine neue Qualität geben, indem der Inhalt der Beiträge auf die Denkmälerkunde, die für Böttiger mit der Archäologie gleichbedeutend war, eingeschränkt wurde. Mit der Zeitschrift sollten alle diejenigen angesprochen werden, die sich mit dem Studium der Altertumswissenschaften auseinandersetzten.

Trotz einiger Abstimmungsschwierigkeiten bezüglich der Höhe der Auflage und der Autorenhonorare zwischen Verleger und Herausgeber war der erste Jahrgang ein Erfolg. Nachdem sich die Herausgabe der nächsten Jahrgänge aber verzögerte, konnten die anfänglichen Verkaufszahlen nicht wieder erreicht werden und der Leipziger Verleger Georg Joachim Göschen stellte die Zeitschrift ein. 

August 02, 2015

Projekt Dyabola Blog

2212 new titles in the ‘Archaeological Bibliography” in July. We support your research.


In the scientific discourse reviews are an important model of communication.  They are  formal assessments with the intention of instituting change if necessary. Using digital, open access publishing to facilitate and to speed up  this process of communication seems sensible. “Archaeological Bibliography” references the most important online review-journals like “Bryn-Mawr-Classical-Review” and the reviews of  the “American Journal of Archaeology“, “Histara“, “Sehepunkte” and “H-Soz-Kult”  (and a lot more) citing the respective links. By clicking on these links in the bibliographical reference, a new window will be opened showing access to the full text.

Additionally in July we have evaluated 163 new monographs and 73 new volumes of periodicals, gaining 2212 new titles for the “Archaeological Bibliography”. You will find the list of new monographs (also in pdf) and periodicals below as ever. The list of the new periodicals has been supplemented with links to the online editions of the respective journals – in addition to the links for the online resources.

Any advice and suggestions regarding content will be highly appreciated: please mail to Dr. Martina Schwarz. Concerning technical support please contact

New monographs (new monographs July 2015/pdf):

  1. A companion to Greek democracy and the Roman Republic. (Malden Mass., Wiley-Blackwell, 2015), ed. Hammer, D.
  2. A companion to Linear B. Mycenaean Greek texts and their world, 3. (Leuven, Peeters, 2014), ed. Duhoux, Y.; Morpurgo Davies, A.
  3. A companion to Livy. (Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015), ed. Mineo, B.
  4. Africani quaestiones. Studien zur Geschichte und Dogmatik des Privatrechts. (Berlin, Springer, 2011), ed. Harke, J.D.
  5. Ahonen, M.: Mental disorders in ancient philosophy. (Heidelberg, Springer, 2014), (Studies in the history of philosophy of mind, 13)
  6. Amato, E.: Traiani Praeceptor. Studi su biografia, cronologia e fortuna di Dione Crisostomo. (Besançon, Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2014)
  7. Ancient and medieval concepts of friendship. (Albany, State University of New York Press, 2014), ed. Stern-Gillet, S.; Gurtler, G.M.
  8. Arqueologia subacuática española. Congreso de arqueología nautrica y subacuática española. (Cádiz, UCA, 2014) 2 Bde.,  ed. Nieto, P., (Colección Ceimar, 6)
  9. Aslanian, S.D.: From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean. The global trade networks of Armenian merchants from New Julfa. (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2011)
  10. Bakchias, dall’archeologia alla storia. (Bologna, Bononia University Press, 2014), ed. Giorgi, E.; Buzi, P.
  11. Barraco, M.E.G.: Villa Mills sul Palatino e la Domus Augustana. (Roma, Arbor sapientiae, 2014), (Antichità romane, 10)
  12. Beekes, R.S.P.: Pre-Greek. Phonology, morphology, lexicon. (Leiden, Brill, 2014), ed. Norbruis, S., (Brill introductions to Indo-European languages, 2)
  13. Bellwood, P.: First migrants. Ancient migration in global perspective. (Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 2013)
  14. Betancourt, P.: Aphrodite’s Kephali. An early Minoan I defensive site in eastern Crete. (Philadelphia 2013), (Prehistory monographs, 41)
  15. Boardman, J.: The Greeks in Asia. (London, Thames and Hudson, 2015)
  16. Bonnet, C.: Les enfants de Cadmos. Le paysage religieux de la Phénicie hellénistique. (Paris, Boccard, 2015)
  17. Carboni, R.: Dea in limine. Culto, immagine e sincretismi di Ecate nel mondo greco e microasiatico. (Rahden, Leidorf, 2015), (Tübinger archäologische Forschungen, 17)
  18. Carthage. Fact and myth. [ ](Leiden, Sidestone Press, 2015), ed. Docter, R.F.; Boussoffara, R.; Ter Keurs, P.
  19. Cascione, C.: Studi di diritto pubblico romano. (Napoli, Editoriale scientifica, 2010)
  20. Casirani, M.: Palazzo Pignano. Dal complesso tardoantico al districtus dell’insula Fulkerii. Insediamento e potere in un’area rurale lombarda tra tarda antichità e medioevo. (Milano, Vita e pensiero, 2015), (Contributi di archeologia, 7)
  21. Chapaoutot, J.: Der Nationalsozialismus und die Antike. (Darmstadt, von Zabern, 2014)
  22. Chaudhuri, P.: The war with god. Theomachy in Roman imperial poetry. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014)
  23. Civitas et civilitas. Studi in onore di Francesco Guizzi. (Torino, Giappichelli, 2013) 2 Bde.,  ed. Palma, A.
  24. Cline, E.H.: 1177 B.C. The year civilization collapsed. (Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2014)
  25. Communities and networks in the ancient Greek world. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015), ed. Taylor, C.; Vlassopoulos, K.
  26. Contested monarchy. Integrating the Roman empire in the fourth century A.D. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015), ed. Wienand, J.
  27. Curty, O.: Gymnasiarchika. Recueil et analyse des inscriptions de l’époque hellénistique en l’honneur des gymnasiarques. (Paris, Boccard, 2015)
  28. Cyprus and the balance of empires. Art and archaeology from Justinian I to the Coeur de Lion. (Boston, American Schools of Oriental Research, 2014), ed. Stewart, C.A.; Davis, T.W.; Carr, A.W., (Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute. Monographs, 5)
  29. Dana, D.: Onomasticon Thracicum (OnomThrac). Répertoire des noms indigènes de Thrace, Macédoine orientale, Mésies, Dacie et Bithynie. (Athènes, Boccard, 2014), (Meletémata, 70)
  30. Das Recht der “Soldatenkaiser”. Rechtliche Stabilität in Zeiten des politischen Umbruchs?(Berlin, de Gruyter, 2015), ed. Babusiaux, U.; Kolb, A.
  31. Daughters of Hecate. Women and magic in the ancient world. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014), ed. Stratton, K.B.; Kalleres, D.S.
  32. Davis, S.J.: Christ child. Cultural memories of a young Jesus. (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2014)
  33. De Haas, F.A.J.; Leunissen, M.; Martijn, M. u.a.:Interpreting Aristotle’s posterior analytics in late antiquity and beyond. (Leiden, Brill, 2010)
  34. Dioses, héroes y atletas. La imagen del cuerpo en la Grecia antigua. Museo arqueológico regional, Alcalá de Henares, marzo – julio 2015. (Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, 2015), ed. Sánchez Fernández, C.
  35. Dressing Judeans and Christians in antiquity. (Farnham, Ashgate, 2014), ed. Upson-Saia, K.; Daniel-Hughes, C.; Batten, A.
  36. Dreyer, B.: Orte der Varuskatastrophe und der römischen Okkupation in Germanien. Der historisch-archäologische Führer. (Darmstadt, Theiss, 2014)
  37. Dürkop, M.: Das Archiv für Religionswissenschaft in den Jahren 1919 bis 1939. Dargestellt auf der Grundlage des Briefwechsels zwischen Otto Weinrich und Martin Pn Nilsson. (Berlin, Lit, 2013)
  38. Eck, W.: Judäa – Syria Palästina. (Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2014), (Texts and studies in ancient Judaism, 157)
  39. Elliott, P.: Everyday life of a scholar on Hadrian’s Wall. (Stroud, Fonthill, 2015)
  40. Evans, C.; Appleby, G.; Lucy, S.: Process and history. Romano-British communities at Colne Fen, Earith. An inland port and supply farm. (Cambridge, Cambridge Archaeological Unit, 2013), (The archaeology of the lower Ouse Valley, 2)
  41. Excavations at Sissi II. Preliminary report on the 2009 – 2010 campaigns. (Louven-la-Neuve, UCL Press, 2011), ed. Driessen, J., (Aegis. Rapports de fouilles, 4)
  42. Festschrift für Rolf Knütel zum 70. Geburtstag. (Heidelberg, C.F. Müller, 2009), ed. Altmeppen, H.; Reichard, I.; Schermaier, M. u.a.:
  43. Figures de dieux. Construire le divin en images. (Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2014), ed. Estienne, S.; Huet, V.; Lissarague,  u.a.:
  44. Firmitas et splendor. Vitruv und die Techniken des Wanddekors. (München, Siegl, 2014), ed. Emmerling,  u.a.:
  45. Francfort, H.P.: Il y a 50 ans… la découverte d’Aï Khanoum, 1964 – 1978. Fouilles de la Délégation archéologique en Afghanistan (DAFA). (Paris, Boccard, 2014)
  46. Gascoyne, A.; Radford, D.: Colchester. Fortress of the war god. An archaeological assessment. (Oxford, Oxbow, 2013), ed. Wise, P.J.
  47. Gerrard, J.: The ruin of Roman Britain. An archaeological perspective. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  48. Gewalt und Gesellschaft. Dimensionen der Gewalt in ur- und frühgeschichtlicher Zeit. Internationale Tagung an der Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg 14.-16. März 2013. (Bonn, Habelt, 2014), ed. Link, T., (Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie, 259)
  49. Gli Etruschi e gli altri. Reggio Emilia terra di incontri. (Milano, Skira, 2014), ed. Macellari, R.
  50. Glogovic, D.: The fifth phase of the Iron Age of Liburnia and the cemetery of the hillfort of Dragisic. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2014), (British archaeological reports. International series, 2689)
  51. Gontijo Leite, P.: Etica e retorica forense. Asebeia e hybris na caracterização dos adversários em Demóstenes. (Coimbra, Universidade de Coimbra, 2014)
  52. Green, S.J.: Disclosure and discretion in Roman astrology. Manilus and his Augustan contemporaries. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014)
  53. Guidobaldi, M.P.; Esposito, D.: Herculaneum. Art of a buried city. (New York, Abbeville Press, 2013)
  54. Guillermo, J.: Sibyls. Prophecy and power in the ancient world. (New York, Overlook Duckworth, 2013)
  55. Harrison, C.: The art of listening in the early church. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013)
  56. Hellenistische Königreiche. (Darmstadt, von Zabern, 2014), ed. Ehling, K.; Weber, G.
  57. Hernández, L.: Vacceos. Historia y romanización de un pueblo prerromano del valle del Duero. (Valladolid, Universidad de Valladolid, 2013), (Historia y sociedad, 172)
  58. Historical and archaeological perspectives on gender transformation. From private to public. (New York, Springer, 2013), ed. Spencer-Wood, S.M.
  59. Hoffmann, B.: The Roman invasion of Britain. Archaeology versus history. (Barnsley, Pen and Sword books, 2013)
  60. Hopewell, D.: Roman roads in north-west Wales. (Bangor, Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, 2013)
  61. Howard-Johnston, J.: Historical writing in Byzantium. (Heidelberg, Verlag Antike, 2014), (Kieler Felix-Jacoby-Vorlesungen, 1)
  62. Implantations humaines en milieu littoral méditerranéen. Facteurs d’installation et processus d’appropriation de l’espace. Préhistoire, antiquitè, moyen âge. Actes des rencontres, 15-17 octobre 2013. (Antibes, APDCA, 2014), ed. Mercuri, L.; González Villaescusa, R.; Bertoncello, F.
  63. Ingemark, D.: Glass, alcohol and power in Roman iron age Scotland. (Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland, 2014)
  64. Itgenshorst, T.: Denker und Gemeinschaft. Polis und politisches Denken im archaischen Griechenland. (Paderborn, Schöningh, 2014)
  65. Kelly, H.: All about history book of ancient Rome. (Bournemouth, Imagine Publ., 2014)
  66. Klee, M.: Germania Superior. Eine römische Provinz in Frankreich, Deutschland und der Schweiz. (Regensburg, Pustet, 2013)
  67. Kosmin, P.J.: The land of the elephant kings. Space, territory, and ideology in the Seleucid empire. (Cambridge Mass., Harvard University Press, 2014)
  68. Kovalenko, S.A.: Sylloge nummorum Graecorum. State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. Coins of the Black Sea region, 2. Ancient coins of the Black Sea littoral. (Leuven, Peeters, 2014), (Colloquia antiqua. Supplements to the journal “Ancient West and East”, 11)
  69. Küter, A.: Zwischen Republik und Kaiserzeit. Die Münzmeisterprägung unter Augustus. (Berlin, Gebr. Mann, 2014), (Berliner numismatische Forschungen. Neue Folge, 11)
  70. Kyriaka in Crete. From the bronze age zp the end of the archaic period. (Nicosia, Leventis Foundation, 2014), ed. Karageorghis, V.; Kanta, A.; Stampolidis, N. u.a.:
  71. La Cecla, F.: Andare per la Sicilia dei Greci. (Bologna, Il Mulino, 2015)
  72. Lamberti, F.: La famiglia romana e i suoi volti. Pagine scelte su diritto e persone in Roma antica. (Torino, Giappichelli, 2014)
  73. Lebedynsky, I.: Les Sarmates. Amazones et lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube (VII siècle avant J.-C. – VI siècle après J.-C.). (Arles, Errance, 2014) 2.éd. rev. et augm.,
  74. Lee, M.M.: Body, dress, and identity in ancient Greece. (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2015)
  75. Levick, B.: Catiline. (London, Bloomsbury, 2015)
  76. Limón Belén, M.: La compaginación de las inscripciones latinas en verso. Roma e Hispania. (Roma, L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2014), (Hispania antigua. Serie historica, 10)
  77. Long, A.A.: Greek models of mind and self. (Cambridge Mass., Harvard University Press, 2015), (Revealing antiquity, 22)
  78. Longo, O.: Saggi sulla civiltà greca. Storia, esegesi, filologia. (Bologna, Pàtron, 2014)
  79. López Montero, R.: La expresión del parentesco en lengua etrusca. Materiales epigráficos para una reconstrucción. (Toledo, Instituto teológico San Idelfonso, 2013)
  80. Low, P.: Ashes, images, and memories. The presence of the war dead in fifth century Athens. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015)
  81. Lupus in fabula. Fedro e la favola latina tra antichità e medioevo. Studi offerti a Ferruccio Bertini. (Bologna, Pàtron, 2014), ed. Mordeglia, C.
  82. Macdonald, E.: Hannibal. A hellenistic life. (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2015)
  83. Magee, P.: The archaeology of prehistoric Arabia. Adaptation and social formation from the neolithic to the iron age. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014)
  84. Marchesini, S.; Roncador, R.: Monumenta linguae Raetica. (Roma, Scienze e Lettere, 2015)
  85. Mari, Z.; Papini, M.: Un nuovo Efesto per il IV sec. a.C. e la villa romana di Palombara Sabina. (Roma, Scienze e Lettere, 2014)
  86. Martin, K.: Demos,Boule, Gerousia. Personifikationen städtischer Institutionen auf kaiserzeitlichen Münzen aus Kleinasien. (Bonn, Habelt, 2013) 2 Bde.,  (Euros. Münstersche Beiträge zu Numismatik und Ikonographie, 3)
  87. Masséglia, J.: Body language in hellenistic art and society. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015)
  88. Medicine, healing and performance. (Oxford, Oxbow, 2014), ed. Gemi-Iordanou, E.; Gordon, S.; Matthew,  u.a.:
  89. Meijer, F.: Denken over Cathago. De erfenis van Duilius. (Doetinchem, Reed Business Information, 2015)
  90. Meinel, F.: Pollution and crisis in Greek tragedy. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015)
  91. Mellis, P.: L’ipogeismo funerario della Sardegna nuragica. Tombe di giganti scolpite nella roccia. (Sassari, Delfino, 2014), (Sardegna archeologica. Scavi e ricerche, 11)
  92. Millar, F.G.B.: Religion, language and community in the Roman Near East. Constantine to Muhammad. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010), (Schweich lectures on biblical archaeology, 2010)
  93. Mittelstrass, J.: Die griechische Denkform. Von der Entstehung der Philosophie aus dem Geiste der Geometrie. (Berlin, de Gruyter, 2014)
  94. Modéran, Y.: Les Vandales et l’empire romain. (Arles, Errance, 2014)
  95. Möller, C.: Die Servituten. Entwicklungsgeschichte, Funktion und Struktur der grundstücksvermittelten Privatrechtsverhältnisse im römischen Recht. Mit einem Ausblick auf die Rezeptionsgeschichte und das BGB. (Göttingen, Wallstein, 2010)
  96. Morgan, K.A.: Pindar and the construction of Syracusan monarchy in the fifth century B.C. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015)
  97. Naaman, P.: The Maronitis. The origins of an Antiochian church. A historical and geographical study of the fifth to seventh centuries. (Collegeville, Cistercian Publications, 2011), (Cistercian studies series, 243)
  98. Narasawa, Y.: Les autels chrétiens du sud de la Gaule (Ve – XIIe siècles). (Turnhout, Brepols, 2015)
  99. Nichols, M.P.: Thucydides and the persuit of freedom. (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 2015)
  100. Nickel, C.: Berichte zur Archäologie an Mittelrhein und Mosel, 18. Martberg, Heiligtum und Oppidum der Treverer, 2. Die Fibeln vom Martberg. Altfunde, Privatsammlungen, Feldfunde, Grabungen. (Koblenz 2011)
  101. Nippel, W.: Klio dichtet nicht. Studien zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Althistorie. (Frankfurt a.M., Campus, 2013)
  102. Norman, L.: The shock of the ancient. Literature and history in early modern France. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2011)
  103. Ogden, D.: Dragons, serpents, and slayers in the the classical and early Christian worlds. A sourcebook. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2013)
  104. Oracles Chalaïques. Fragments et philosophie. (Heidelberg, Winter, 2014), ed. Lecerf, A.; Saudelli, L.; Seng, H.
  105. Parikka, J.: What is media archaeology?(Cambridge, Polity Press, 2012)
  106. Paths to complexity. Centralisation and urbanisation in iron age Europe. (Philadelphia, Oxbow, 2014), ed. Fernández-Götz, M.; Wendling, H.; Winger, K.
  107. Peinado Espinosa, M.V.; Bergamini, M.: Scoppieto, 5. I materiali ceramichi comuni. (Roma, Quasar, 2015)
  108. Perring, D.; Pitts, M.: Alien cities. Consumption and the orginis of urbanism in Roman Britain. (Portslade, SpoilHeap, 2013), (SpoilHeap, 7)
  109. Popescu, M.C.: Hellenistic and Roman pottery in pre-Roman Dacia (2nd century B.C. – 1st century A.D.). (Bucuresti, Arhitectura. Restaurare. Arheologie, 2014)
  110. Proscurcin, P.: Der Begriff ethos bei Homer. Beitrag zu einer philosophischen Interpretation. (Heidelberg, Winter, 2014)
  111. Puglisi, D.: Ceramiche tardo minoico I. Da Haghia Triada (Creta). Contesti, produzioni, funzioni I, i materiali dai primi scavi (1902 – 1914). (Roma, Quasar, 2013), (Thiasos. Rivista di archeologia e storia dell’architettura antica, 4)
  112. Re-ceration. Musical reception of classical antiquity. (Iowa City, Classics Department at the University of Iowa, 2013), ed. Green, P.; Gibson, C.A., (Syllecta classica, 23)
  113. Reconfiguring the Silk Road. New research on East-West exchange in antiquity. The papers of a symposium held at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, March 19, 2011. (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014)
  114. Reinders, H.R.: The city of New Halos and its southeast gate. (Groningen, Barkhuis, 2014), (Groningen Archaeological Studies, 27)
  115. Rhodes, P.J.: Atthis. The ancient histories of Athens. (Heidelberg, Verlag Antike, 2014), (Kieler Felix-Jacoby-Vorlesungen, 2)
  116. Roark, T.: Aristotle on time. A study of the physics. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011)
  117. Roman, L.: Poetic autonomy in ancient Rome. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014)
  118. Sachs, G.: Phokaia und seine Kolonien im Westen. Handelswege in der Antike. (Hamburg, Kovac, 2014)
  119. Sartre, M.; Sartre, A.: Zénobie. De Palmyre à Rome. (Paris, Perrin, 2014)
  120. Schlüter, K.A.: Die Kultstellen im Tierfriedhof von Tuna el-Gebel in frühptolemäischer Zeit. Der Gang C-B und die Kammer C-B-2. (München, Selbstverlag, 2015) Diss. München 2012,
  121. Schmitz, W.: Die griechische Gesellschaft. Eine Sozialgeschichte der archaischen und klassischen Zeit. (Heidelberg, Verlag Antike, 2014)
  122. Schofield, M.: Aristotle, Plato and Pythagoreanism in the first century B.C. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  123. Scholz, P.; Walter, U.: Fragmente römischer Memoiren. (Heidelberg, Winter, 2013)
  124. Scuterini, R.: Le legioni di Roma. Breve storia delle unità legionarie dell’Impero romano. ([Roma], Chillemi, [2014])
  125. Segal, A.: Temples and sanctuaries in the Roman East. Religious architecture in Syria, Iudaea-Palaestina and provincia Arabia. (Oxford, Oxbow, 2013)
  126. Shipley, L.: Experiencing Etruscan pots. Ceramics, bodies and images in Etruria. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2015)
  127. Sintez, C.: Le constructivisme juridique. Essai sur l’épistémologie des jurists, 1. Les origines romaines. (Paris, Mare et Martin, 2014)
  128. Skythen in der lateinischen Literatur. Eine Quellensammlung. (Berlin, de Gruyter, 2015), ed. Gerstacker, A.; Kuhnert, A.; Oldemeier,  u.a.:
  129. Soma 2011. Proceedings of 15th Symposium on Mediterranean archaeology, held at the University of Catanina, 3-5 March 2011. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2015) 2 Bde.,  ed. Militello, M.P.; Öniz, H., (British archaeological reports. International series, 2695)
  130. Spini, G.; Pecchioni, E.: Figli di Enea. L’invenzione delle origini. Eroi e città italiche ai confini tra storia e mito. (Firenze, Press and Archeos, 2014), (Epopee riscoperte, 4)
  131. Stadler, J.: Nahrung für die Toten? Speisebeigaben in hallstattzeitlichen Gräbern und ihre kulturhistorische Deutung. (Bonn, Habelt, 2010), (Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie, 186)
  132. Stein-Hölkeskamp, E.: Das archaische Griechenland. Die Stadt und das Meer. (München, Beck, 2015)
  133. Stevenson, T.: Julius Caesar and the transformation of the Roman Republic. (London, Routledge, 2015)
  134. Stöcklin-Kaldewey, S.: Kaiser Julians Gottesverehrung. (Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2014), (Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum, 86)
  135. Stoneman, R.: Ancient oracles. Making the gods speak. (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2011)
  136. Strauss, B.S.: The death of Caesar. The story of history’s most famous assassination. (New York, Simon and Schuster, 2015)
  137. Techne. La science au service de l’histoire de l’art et des civilisations 32 (2010)
  138. Teyssier, E.: Nîmes, la Romaine. (Nîmes, Alcide, 2007)
  139. The ancient novel and early Christian and Jewish narrative. Fictional intersections. (Groningen, Barkhuis, 2012), ed. Futre Pinheiro, M.P.; Perkins, J.; Pervo, R., (Ancient narrative supplementum, 16)
  140. The Cambridge prehistory of the bronze and iron age Mediterranean. (New York, Cambridge University Press, 2014), ed. Knapp, A. u.a.:
  141. The Dodecanese. Further travels among the insular Greeks. Selected writings of J. Theodore and Mabel V.A. Bent, 1885 – 1888. Travel writings of J. Theodore and Mabel V.A. Bent from their expeditions to the eastern Mediterranean. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2015), ed. Brisch, G.
  142. The menial art of cooking archaeological studies of cooking and food preperation. (Boulder, The University Press of Colorado, 2012), ed. Graff, S.R.; Rodriguez-Alegria, E.R.
  143. Theodor Mommsen und die Bedeutung des Römischen Rechts. (Berlin, Duncker und Humblot, 2013), ed. Fragnoli, I.; Rebenich, S.
  144. Thunø, E.: The apse mosaic in early medieval Rome. Time, network, and repetition. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015)
  145. Trapp, J.: L’archéologie à Metz. Des antiquaires à l’archéologie préventive (1750 – 2008). (Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2015)
  146. Travis, H.: Roman shields. Historical development and reconstruction. (Stroud, Amberley, 2014)
  147. Tully, J.A.N.Z.: The island standard. The classical, hellenistic, and Roman coinages of Paros. (New York, American Numismatic Society, 2013), (Numismatic studies, 28)
  148. Veldmeijer, A.J.; Ikram, S.: Catalogue of the foowear in the Coptic Museum (Cairo). (Leiden, Sidestone Press, 2014)
  149. Vokaer, A.: La Brittle Ware en Syrie. Production et diffusion d’une ceramique culinaire de l’époque hellenistique à l’époque omeyyade. (Bruxelles, Académie royale de Belgique, 2011)
  150. Volken, M.: Archaeological footwear. Development of shoe patterns and styles from prehistory till the 1600’s. (Assen, Spa-Uitgevers, o.J.)
  151. Vössing, K.: Das Königreich der Vandalen. Geiserichs Herrschaft und Imperium romanum. (Darmstadt, von Zabern, 2014)
  152. Wawrzinek, C.: In portum naviagere. Römische Häfen an Flüssen und Seen. (Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 2014)
  153. Weeber, K.W.: Lernen und Leiden. Schule im Alten Rom. (Darmstadt, Theiss, 2014)
  154. White, B.L.: Remembering Paul. Ancient and modern contests over the image of the apostle. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2014)
  155. Wijnendaele, J.: The last of the Romans. Bonifatius, warlord and “comes Africae”. (London, Bloomsburg Academic, 2015)
  156. Wilson, D.; Bagnall, A.; Taylor, B.: Report on the excavation of a Romano-British site in Wortley, south Gloucestershire. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2014), (British archaeological reports. British series, 591)
  157. Wolkenauer, J.: Senecas Schrift “De beneficiis”. (Göttingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 2014)
  158. World hertiage in Iran. Perspectives on Pasargadae. (Farnham, Ashgate, 2014)
  159. Written in space in the Latin West, 200 B.C. to A.D. 300. (New York, Bloomsburg Academic, 2013), ed. Sears, G.; Keegan, P.; Laurence, R.
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  161. Yoder, J.: Representations of Roman rule. Roman provincial governors in Luke-Acts. (Berlin, de Gruyter, 2014), (Zeitschrift für die neutestamentarische Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, 209)
  162. Zackor, J.: Alexander der Grosse auf mittelalterlichen Weltkarten. Domitor mundi?(Berlin, Winter Industries, 2013)
  163. Zerbini, L.: Gli Italici nella Dacia romana. (Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2012)
  164. Zingsem, V.: Die Kölsche Göttin und ihr Karneval. Die Ursprünge des Kölner Karnevals in der Isis-Tradition. (Schalksmühle, Pomaska-Brand, 2015)

New volumes of periodicals:

American Journal of Archaeology 119 (2015) Nr.3 online edition

American Journal of Philology 136 (2015) Nr.2

Analecta Bollandiana 133 (2015) Nr.1

Annali dell’Università degli studi di Napoli 35 (2013)

Antike Welt (2015)  Nr.3

Antike Welt (2015)  Nr.4

Antiquity 89 (2015) online edition

Anzeiger der Philosophisch-Historische Klasse 147 (2012)  Nr.1  online edition

Anzeiger der Philosophisch-Historische Klasse 147 (2012)  Nr.2 online edition

Archaeological Dialogues 22 (2015) Nr.1  online edition

Archaeology 68 (2015)  Nr.4

Archeologia Paris 533 (2015)

Arctos 48 (2014)

Atene e Roma 8 (2014) Nr.1-2

Athenaeum 103 (2015) Nr.1

Atti e memorie. Deputazione di storia patria per le antiche provincie modenesi  36 (2014)

Atti e memorie. Deputazione di storia patria per le antiche provincie modenesi 37 (2015)

Biblica 96 (2015) Nr.1

Blickpunkt Archäologie (2013)  Nr.1

Blickpunkt Archäologie (2014)  Nr.1

Blickpunkt Archäologie (2014)  Nr.2

Blickpunkt Archäologie (2014)  Nr.4

Blickpunkt Archäologie (2015)  Nr.1

Bollettino di archeologia on line 5 (2014)  Nr.2  online resource

Britannia (first view) (2015) online resource

Bryn Mawr Classical Rreview (2015)  Nr.7 online resource

Bulletin archéologique de Provence 36 (2014)

Caiete ARA 6 (2015)

Cambridge Archaeological Journal 25 (2015) online resource

Classical Philology 110 (2015) Nr.3

Classical World 108 (2014-15) Nr.3 online edition

Dialogues d’histoire ancienne 41 (2015)  Nr.1 online edition

Early medieval Europe 23 (2015) Nr.3 online edition

Elenchos 35 (2014)

Epigraphica Anatolica 47 (2014)

Fastionline 330 (2015) online resource

Fastionline 332 (2015) online resource

Fastionline 333 (2015) online resource

Fastionline 334 (2015) online resource

Fastionline 335 (2015) online resource

Fastionline 336 (2015) online resource

Funde und Ausgrabungen im Bezirk Trier 45 (2013)

Geistes-, sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Anzeiger 148 (2013)  Nr.1-2 online edition

Geistes-, sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Anzeiger 149 (2014)  Nr.1-2  online edition

Germania 91 (2013)

Helvetia archaeologica 46 (2015) Nr.181

Hispania antiqua 39 (2015)

H-Soz-u-Kult. Rezensionen (2015)  online resource

Instrumentum 35 (2012)

Journal des savants (2015)

Journal of Early Christian Studies 23 (2015) Nr.2 online edition

Les nouvelles de l’archéologie 140 (2015)

Medicina nei secoli 26 (2014) Nr.2

Numen 62 (2015) Nr.4 online edition

Prakt 167 (2012)[2015]

Reviews in history (2012)  online resource

Revista doctoranzilor în istorie veche si arheologie 1 (2013) online resource

Revista doctoranzilor în istorie veche si arheologie 2 (2014) online resource

Revue historique 317 (2015)

Rivista archeologica dell’antica provincia e diocesi di Como 196 (2014)[2015]

Scripta classica Israelica 34 (2015)

Sehepunkte 15 (2015)  Nr.6 online resource

Sehepunkte 15 (2015)  Nr.7-8 online resource

Tempora 20-21 (2011-12)

The Annual of the British School at Athens (first view) (2015)   online resource

The Cambridge Classical Journal (first view) (2015)

The Classical Review (first view) (2015)  online resource

The Journal of Roman Studies (first view) (2015) online resource

Tijdschrift voor rechtsgeschiedenis. Revue d’histoire du droit. The Legal History Review 83 (2015)

Time and mind. The Journal of Archaeology, consciousness and culture 8 (2015)  Nr.1, Nr.2 online edition

Time and mind. The Journal of Archaeology, consciousness and culture 7 (2014)  Nr.1, Nr.2, Nr.3, Nr.4 online edition

Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Romanistische Abteilung 130 (2013)

Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 63 (2015) Nr.6

Filed under: Archäologische Bibliographie, Projekt Dyabola, Update Announcements Tagged: American Journal o Archaeology, Bryn Mawr Classical Review, dyabola, online publications, Realkatalog, reviews, Subject catalogue

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

July 2015 Biblical Studies Carnival

Lindsay Kennedy has the latest Biblical Studies Carnival, and Phil Long has more information about other details, such as where the carnival will be next month.

All Mesopotamia

rsbenedict: This week’s Sumerian Sunday is for all you...


This week’s Sumerian Sunday is for all you musicians out there. It’s si…ak, a compound verb that means to adjust the strings of a lute.

The ellipsis means that it’s a compound verb. So, in a sentence, it would go si [a bunch of verb prefixes]-ak-[suffix].

Cuneiform from the EPSD.

Follow me on Twitter.

ArcheoNet BE

Expo ‘Vondsten Vertellen’ in Hoogstraten

In het Stedelijk Museum Hoogstraten opende vandaag de tentoonstelling ‘Vondsten vertellen. Archeologische parels uit de Antwerpse Kempen’. Op de expo worden meer dan 100 archeologische voorwerpen tentoongesteld uit het verleden van de Antwerpse Kempen, van de Steentijd tot de Middeleeuwen.

De bewoners van de Kempen lieten veel sporen achter. Paalkuilen van boerderijen, waterputten, greppels, graven… laten allemaal een afdruk achter in de bodem. Werktuigen en gebruiksvoorwerpen geven aan waar ooit bewoning was en welke activiteiten er plaatsvonden. Resten van oude muren brengen huizen uit vervlogen tijden weer tot leven. Deze sporen en vondsten schetsen een beeld van hoe het er vroeger uitzag en wat de toenmalige bewoners dagelijks bezig hield.

Een topstuk is de boomstamput die eind jaren ‘70 werd opgegraven bij de kerkhofmuur in Meerle. De uitgeholde boomstam, die diende als waterput, werd veilig opgeborgen in de kelder van het stadhuis van Hoogstraten waar hij meer dan 40 jaar bleef liggen. Het Stedelijk Museum Hoogstraten wilde echter meer weten en stuurde de boomstam naar het ‘Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium’ met de vraag of zij de boomstam konden dateren met dendrochronologie.

De laatste jaren waren er ook archeologische opgravingen op het toekomstig industrieterrein De Kluis in Hoogstraten. De resultaten en vondsten waren tot nu toe niet bekend. Wil je weten wie er vroeger op de Kluis woonde? Dan kom je voor deze primeur best naar de tentoonstelling!

Praktisch: ‘Vondsten Vertellen – Archeologische parels uit de Antwerpse Kempen’ loopt tot 29 november in het Stedelijk Museum (Begijnhof, Hoogstraten). Open van woensdag tot en met zondag van 14u tot 17u. Meer info op

The Egyptiana Emporium

NEWS: An Old Kingdom discovery in Edfu


(Source: Luxor Times).

“Dr. Mamdouh El Damaty, Minister of Antiquities, announced today a new discovery at Edfu temple. 
The discovery has taken place while the team of Edfu inspectors were doing experimental excavations in the front part of the temple in order to implement the second phase of lowering the ground water project funded by USAID. 

(Source: Luxor Times).

What was discovered?

A group of pottery dates to the Old Kingdom and Late period as well as human remains scattered in the debris with a few burials. Mr. Nasr Salama, general director of Aswan Antiquities, said ‘The discovered pots are in different shapes and sizes. Some of them are pottery and others made of alabaster. Also an Old Kingdom copper mirror was found.’

Mr. Salama added ‘The restoration team of Edfu antiquities managed to clean and do needed restoration work on the discovered antiquities before being transferred to the warehouse.'” – via Luxor Times.

The Heroic Age



Edirom-Summer-School, which will take place 7–11 of September at the Heinz Nixdorf Institute at the University of Paderborn, Germany:

The Edirom-Summer-School 2015 is organized by the Virtual Research Group Edirom and the german eHumanities project DARIAH-DE.

Our courses and workshops follow three level tracks (most held in German):
-The "entrance" track will offer introductions to the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) as well as to our Edirom Tool Set for compiling and publishing digital (music) editions.

-The "advanced" track deals with general workflows and techniques when working with XML files and MEI metadata. We also offer an introduction to tool development with eXist-db.

Within the "workshop" track we will discuss different problems and questions about technical workflows and project organization as well as legal issues concerning different types of "data" in the context of digital research and edition projects.

Please find our full program at Registration is open until the end of July at

In case of any questions concerning the ESS2015, please feel free to contact the organization team at

Benjamin Bohl
The Virtual Research Group Edirom is based at the Musicology Seminar Detmold/Paderborn, which is a co-faculty of the University of Paderborn and the Hochschule für Musik Detmold.
DARIAH-DE is the German part of the EU eHumanities research project Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Please find further information at
The ESS2015 on the internet:
Follow us on Twitter: or #edirom2015

ArcheoNet BE

Tentoonstelling belicht 200 jaar Damse Vaart

De 200ste verjaardag van de Damse Vaart wordt deze zomer gevierd met tal van evenementen. In Damme opende dit weekend een historische tentoonstelling. Wat was de aanleiding tot het graven van de Damse Vaart? Hoe belangrijk was de rol van Napoleon? Welke gebeurtenissen waren van cruciaal belang voor de aanleg van het kanaal? Voor het eerst werd de geschiedenis van de Damse Vaart volledig uitgespit.

De tentoonstelling is chronologisch opgevat. In een eerste deel wordt de periode 1800 tot 1850 belicht. In die periode kreeg het kanaal zijn huidige vorm, weliswaar in verschillende fasen. Onder Napoleon begonnen de graafwerkzaamheden, en tijdens het Nederlandse bewind werden de plannen van Napoleon tot voor Sluis doorgetrokken. Pas in de jaren 50 van de 19de eeuw werd ook het laatste stuk, tot in Sluis, gegraven. Ondertussen werden via sifons, grote waterbouwkundige constructies, twee nieuwe kanalen onder de Damse Vaart aangelegd.

In een tweede deel wordt dieper ingegaan op de verdere evolutie van het kanaal: zijn economische rol tot midden 20ste eeuw, maar ook zijn rol als recreatieve groenzone, de ontwikkeling van de steenbakkerijen, de impact van de twee wereldoorlogen… De dynamietering van de sifons in 1940 betekende het einde van de verbinding tussen Brugge en Sluis. De laatste jaren ligt de nadruk op de toeristische, recreatieve en natuurwaarden van het kanaal.

Je ontdekt het verhaal via historische documenten en kaarten. Via de diverse scheepsmodellen krijgen de bezoekers een idee van de vaartuigen die tussen Brugge en Sluis voeren. Audiovisuele voorstellingen brengen verhalen van buurtbewoners tot leven. Recente foto ’s en kunstwerken vervolledigen de tentoonstelling.

Praktisch: de tentoonstelling loopt nog tot en met 13 september in het stadhuis van Damme. De toegang is gratis. Meer info op

Adam C. McCollum (hmmlorientalia)

Old Georgian phrases and sentences 62 (Raka!)

In Sarjveladze-Fähnrich, 960a, s.v. რაკა (and 1167b, s.v. უთჳსესი), the following line is cited from manuscript A-689 (13th cent.), f. 69v, lines 20-23:

კითხვაჲ: რაჲ არს რაკა? მიგებაჲ: სიტყუაჲ სოფლიოჲ, უმშჳდესადრე საგინებელად უთჳსესთა მიმართ მოპოვნებული

Frage: Was ist Raka? Antwort: Ein grobes Wort, den nächsten Angehörigen gegenüber als leiser Tadel gebraucht.

This is a question-and-answer kind of commentary note on the word raka in Mt 5:22. There is probably something analogous in Greek or other scholia, but I have not checked. For this word in Syriac and Jewish Aramaic dialects, see Payne Smith 3973-3974; Brockelmann, LS 1488; DJPA 529b; and for JBA rēqā, DJBA 1078a (only one place cited, no quotation given). For the native lexica, see Bar Bahlul 1915 and the quotations given in Payne Smith.

For this word in this verse, the Syriac versions (S, C, P, H) all have raqqā, Armenian has յիմար (senseless, crazy, silly), and in the Georgian versions, the earlier translations have შესულებულ, but the later, more hellenizing translations have the Aramaic > Greek word რაკა on which the scholion was written. Before returning to the Georgian scholion above, let’s first have a look at parts of this verse in Greek and all of these languages. Note this Georgian vocabulary for below:

გან-(ხ)-უ-რისხ-ნ-ეს 3sg aor conj (the -ნ- is not the pl obj marker) განრისხება to become angry | ცუდად in vain, without cause | შესულებული dumbfounded, stupid | ცოფი crazy, fool

Part 1

  • πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ
  • kul man d-nergaz ʿal aḥu(h)y iqiʾ
  • ամենայն որ բարկանայ եղբաւր իւրում տարապ֊արտուց
  • A89/A844 რ(ომე)ლი განხოჳრისხნეს ძმასა თჳსა [ცოჳ]დად
  • Ad ყოველი რომელი განურისხნეს ძმასა თჳსსა ცუდად
  • PA რომელი განურისხნეს ძმასა თჳსსა ცუდად
  • At რომელი განურისხნეს ძმასა თჳსსა ცუდად

Part 2

  • ὃς δ’ ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ· ῥακά
  • kul d-nēmar l-aḥu(h)y raqqā
  • որ ասիցէ ցեղբայր իւր յիմար
  • A89/A844 რ(ომელმა)ნ ხრქ(ოჳ)ას ძმასა თჳსსა შესოჳლებოჳლ
  • Ad რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა: შესულებულ
  • PA რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა რაკა
  • At რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა რაკა

Part 3

  • ὃς δ’ ἂν εἴπῃ· μωρέ
  • man d-nēmar lellā (P, H; while S, C have šāṭyā)
  • որ ասիցէ ցեղբայր իւր մորոս
  • A89/A844 NA
  • Ad და რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა: ცოფ
  • PA რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა ცოფ
  • At რომელმან ჰრქუას ძმასა თჳსსა ცოფ

So now we return to the scholion given above.

კითხვაჲ: რაჲ არს რაკა? მიგებაჲ: სიტყუაჲ სოფლიოჲ, უმშჳდესადრე საგინებელად უთჳსესთა მიმართ მოპოვნებული

  • კითხვაჲ question
  • მიგებაჲ answer
  • სოფლიოჲ worldly (< სოფელი)
  • უმშჳდეს-ად-რე < უმშჳდესი quiet, peaceful, calm adv + -რე a particle meaning “a little, slightly”
  • საგინებელად to berate, chide, scold
  • უთჳსესი neighbor, nearby person
  • მოპოვნებული found

Finally, here is an English translation of the scholion:

Question: What is raka? Answer: An impolite word found [when one wants] to berate one’s neighbor in a slightly gentle way.

That is, according to the scholiast there are harsher, stronger vocatives with which to berate someone, but when just a little verbal aggression is needed, raka is the word to choose!

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archeologists begin investigating sunken Chinese warship

SHENYANG, Aug. 2 (Xinhua) – Archaeologists in northeast China have begun an underwater...

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

#GenCon Religion

While there is a Sunday worship service at Gen Con (which I didn’t go to), and on Friday there was a panel about Christianity and gaming, Saturday seems to have been “religion day” at Gen Con this year. There were three sessions dedicated to the topic of religion in gaming and fiction, and I made it to two of them. The third also looked interesting, but was aimed more at writers of fiction than at gaming.

The first was definitely one of the highlights of the convention for me. Rev. Scott Frazier offered the perspective of a college professor who teaches religion, who is also an ordained priest in a small Swedenborgian denomination (the General Church of the New Jerusalem), and who is an avid gamer, on the differences between religion in real life and in fiction and gaming. In role playing games, a character being a cleric means they can turn undead and heal wounds, but most players hope the DM will not bring up the god to which they are a devotee. Real world religions, on the other hand, have doctrinal debates and no shooting of magic missiles. Rarely does the religion of characters reflect the complexity of real life religion.

There were lots of interesting moments, including the discussion of the question of what evil is. A cleric character can cast “detect evil” and they will spot demons – but why not also selfish jerks? What defined evil in the world you have created? Who are the gods in your fictional realm – are they virtues personified, or are they like “teenagers with nukes” doing “frat-boy stuff”? There is a need to work out the “rules” by which certain things work. In the realm of Harry Potter, did the mothers of other people whom Voldemort killed not love them? Does a mother’s love give a +40 bonus on a saving throw? How does magic work in a religion? Is it handed down by an authority figure like a pope, with more of it going to bishops than priests? Or can someone who is viewed by the religious authority as a heretic still have access to spiritual power – and if so, what does that say about the nature of the religion?

A lot of aspects of RPG religion mirror ancient religion more than modern religion in the English-speaking world. Gods had particular domains they were connected with, and the relationships between them and humans were contractual in nature. And so I was thinking once again about how RPGs might help teach about ancient religions.

Rev. Frazier shared some useful questions to ask to help develop at least a small, coherent picture of a fictional religion for use in games or other storytelling.

The second panel featured two authors, both of whom as it happens have contributed to the Doctor Who Role Playing Game: Andrew Peregrine and Gareth Ryder-Hanrahan. Peregrine majored in religion at university, and talked about the work of Ninian Smart, and his seven-dimensional model of religion, and the fact that defining religion is a challenge. There were lots of interesting details in this session too, but one point that connected RPG gamemastering to teaching was the point that questions which are too open-ended will likely lead players – like students – to draw a blank and freeze. And so I think that for this reason if no other it is good for professors and other educators to continue to study – and not just on their own – and/or play RPGs.

Both sessions drew on serious academic study of religion and treated the subject matter in a manner that was well-informed and yet accessible to a general audience.

Let me conclude with a meme image that Jim Linville shared recently, which connects up with another theme that was explored in these sessions, namely monotheism as a problematic element in storytelling, and the aspects of polytheism which gamers often do not grasp sufficiently to explore them effectively in the stories they create through the RPGs they play:

Baal of Yarn

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Germans and UK Cultural Property Law

Yet another article about the German legislation proposals, this one in an art magazine. Once again, we find foreigners struggling to understand Britain's cultural property legislation. I mean its such rocket-science innit? What a shame the Portable Antiquities Scheme has never really got around after eighteen years to explaining to people everywhere how it works. Waste of money that was. This is how the text begins:
The German art market is fighting a sword of Damocles called “Kulturgueterschutz,” a new law proposed in the name of protecting the nation’s cultural property, a law that some dealers vehemently claim could doom the culture of collecting, donating, and publicly showing art works if passed in parliament. The Cultural Property Protection Act, supported by the German minister of culture Monika Grütters, was intended to reform and standardize federal and non-federal laws concerning import, export, and protection of artifacts considered to be cultural heritage in a single cultural-protection law — largely, works considered of extraordinary importance to the culture heritage cannot be exported. Similar laws already exist in France and the UK and changes are needed to meet harmonization demands from the European Community.
The article concentrates on the issue of the state purchase of works of art. The argument being trotted out is that "unlike in France or the UK the new draft of the Cultural Property Protection Act does not clearly provide any right of “pre-emption,” or the state’s option to buy works deemed national treasures at a market price before entering the market". Now, this is rather misleading in the case of what it says about the UK. In the case of Treasure (dugup artefacts of a certain restricted type) public collections (NOT "the state") can buy an object after it has been deemed to be the property of The Crown (and if they can't find the money the object goes on open sale anyway). There is no similar provision for any other kind of cultural property in the UK. As we all know, they go onto the market, and are sold. If the buyer is foreign, an export licence may be (rarwely) refused to give a British collection the chance to raise the equivalent price. If they fail (as has happened just now with the Sekhemet statue) the export licence ban will be lifted and off it goes into the big wide world.

Bearing in mind that caveat, readers can follow some of the other problems art dealers in Germany see with this new law, which perhaps attempts to do too much within the scope of a single all-embracing document. The problems resulting from the sale of dugup conflict antiquities are different from those involving seventy-year old watercolours, 18th century veneered commodes or incunabula.  Again the problem is with treating collectable archaeological artefacts as "ancient art". I would argue that we need to at least split the antiquities off from the rest. 

Stefan Kobel, 'Opinion: With Cultural Protection Proposed, What Will Become of the German Art Market?' Blouin Art Info July 31, 2015.

Antiquities Supply and Demand

Dealers suggest that if museum reserve collections were emptied and "duplicate" artefacts somehow released onto the market, the looting of archaeological sites would cease. Even in the days when there was a free circulation of artefacts on the antiquities market and relatively few export controls, archaeological deposits were emptied of artefacts to sell to collectors. There is an obvious connection between the antiquities market (demand) and the digging up of artefacts from productive sites to supply that demand.  I do not see how any dealer or collector can attempt to deny that with a straight face.

Charles [Karl] Wilda (1854–1907)  Austrian
Orientalist painter, 'The Jade-green Isis' (1884)
oil on panel   45.7 × 29.2 cm 

Peter Konieczny and Sandra Sadowski (History of the Ancient World)

The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire

The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire

Lecture by Michael Kulikowski

Given at Washington and Lee University, on March 2, 2012

Excerpt: Be that is it may, all of these explanations, and hundreds more like them, have in common one fundamental belief: that is whatever happened to the Roman Empire, barbarians from northern Europe had a lot to do with it. And that is not surprising, because the idea of barbarians bringing down the empire is rooted in the sixteenth-century, when the Northern Renaissance and Reformation posited a virtuous northern past to contrast to a debauched and papist south. While the recently discovered manuscript of Tacitus’ Germania provided a ready-made handbook to the authentic superior vigour and virtue of the barbarous Germans. Ever since then the end of antiquity has always been seen as about the opposition between a Roman Mediterranean and a Germanic Barbarian north.

The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire

The post The Accidental Suicide of the Roman Empire appeared first on History of the Ancient World.

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

Discovering a new star archaeological museum


For reasons I shall share in due course, I hitched a ride with the husband who was off to see an icon in Lebanon. I had never been there before, but had always wanted to see Baalbek. One should of course check ahead. It was only by the time that all had been booked that I discovered that Baalbek was very definitely now off limits, But it turned out that there was plenty more good stuff.

We arrived, as you can see, in the middle of a 'rubbish breakdown' (which was being very speedily cleared up by the time we left). This made the walk to the Archaeological Museum on the first morning rather smelly. But blimey, it was worth it. The whole place has been splendidly redone since the war, refitted with some of the best cases I have every seen (I loved the movable magnifying glasses attached to many of them) and has some fantastic things, from Egyptian prehistory on.

Poignantly the last case you pass includes some remnants of antiquities that melted when a shell landed nearby during the war -- though there were also moving tributes to Emir Maurice Chehab who as Director of Antiquities (and with the help of a lot of concrete) seem to have ensured that most things survived more or less unscathed.


For me the highlights included (1) a wonderful Roman sarcophagus that showed the dragging of the body of Hector behind the chariot of Achilles:


(2) a series of fifth-century BC votive babies (a bit cringe-making, but what does this say about images of childhood in antiquity?)


and 3) a couple of extraordinary architectural models -- one of a theatre and one of a temple. What on earth they were for. The labels suggested that they really were working guides for the builders. But they were surely very expensive for that, when some diagrams on a convenient bit of papyrus would surely have been sufficient.


Overall it was a very calm, cool, hopeful -- and actually very beautiful place.


James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Cana Wedding Gift

sticks into bath towels

The cartoon was shared by Allan Bevere, and seems to clearly be one of the Inherit the Mirth series. The request seems as legitimate as the request for help when wine has run out. But if we lived in a universe where such things happened, where would the cut-off point be, and would it not seem unfair and arbitrary to the one disadvantaged by it? One can even believe in a rather traditional sort of Creator God, and still think that a world in which shortages of wine or bath towels are solved through miracles is not the sort of world we live in, nor the sort of world that a benevolent deity would create. The problematic aspects of such a universe seem to outweigh the positives – even just imagining a scene from it in a cartoon.

Al West (West's Meditations)

I'm in a book

    I was looking in Blackwell's bookshop the other day - the big famous bookshop on Broad Street in Oxford - and I came across The Indo-European Controversy by Asya Pereltsvaig and Martin Lewis in the linguistics section. The book is about the controversy surrounding Indo-European origins (unsurprisingly), and more specifically about some of the sillier articles on the subject and their coverage in the media. Pereltsvaig and Lewis covered the same topics on their (former) joint blog, Geocurrents, which I strongly recommend. There's some great stuff there.

Read more »

Jim Davila (

TC 20 (2015)

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Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

New German Law "Fails to Address the Problem of Illicit Antiquities"?

Preservationists who have seen the draft argue that Monika Gruetters' proposed new cultural property law does not go far enough in preventing the circulation of illicit antiquities ('Looted in Mosul, sold in Munich? Germany's clampdown on illicit trade' July 30th 2015).
Critics argue that the current bill - which also includes rules about cultural exports and transfer of ownership within the country - does not go far enough to protect looted art, and that it may even facilitate trade in illegal artefacts already circulating in Germany. "What the draft law does is effectively legalize all looted artefacts that are already on German soil when it comes into effect, which will most likely be early 2016," says Michael Mueller-Karpe, an antiquities expert at the RGZM Research Institute for Archeology. Mueller-Karpe argues that the laxness of Gruetters' draft law is a reflection of the government's reluctance to place the German art market - which already ranks lower than the United States and Britain in terms of turnover - at a competitive disadvantage. "The antiques lobby is very powerful indeed," he says. "I would argue that antiques traders are quite pleased with the legislation, as it effectively gives them a license to buy and sell looted antiquities already in the country."
The debate surrounding illegal antiquities from war-torn countries is likely to continue in the coming weeks, with Gruetters to present the bill to Merkel's cabinet in August. Perhaps, given the track of the public debate, it might be found  more helpful to have a separately-debated law for dugup antiquities and another for the other forms of antiques/bygones, such as paintings, collectors' vehicles, postage stamps, musical instruments and clocks etc.  One can clamp down on things like export licences and legitimating collecting histories, the other can concentrate on other issues.

From Mosul to Munich?

It is precisely from Munich
that many of the petition's
signatories come
Public debate on the antiquities trade is getting rather heated in Germany:
Fears that Germany has become a trade hub for looted antiquities from the Middle East has prompted the government to put forward a draft law on artistic imports. Critics argue it does not go far enough to prevent illicit trade. The headlines sent shockwaves through the German art world. "Looted art: A race against time," weekly newspaper Die Zeit proclaimed, while the conservative daily Die Welt declared Germany "a trade hub for illegal art." An in-depth documentary produced by public broadcaster ARD even claimed to have traced the financing of terrorist organizations including the Islamic State to high-profile auction houses in Munich. "It's pretty simple: exporting looted art from conflict-ridden countries such as Syria and Iraq would not be possible if it wasn't for the solid infrastructure that the European art market provides," says Ulli Seegers, an art historian at the University of Dusseldorf. As a result, Culture Minister Monika Gruetters has put forward legislation to better regulate the import of ancient artefacts from conflict-ridden countries, and she plans to present the draft law to Chancellor Angela Merkel's cabinet next month. "In the future anyone wishing to import historical artefacts into Germany will need a valid export permit for every individual item from the country of origin, and this permit will have to be presented," said Gruetters at a recent conference on illicit excavations. "It is ridiculous that we in Germany spare no costs and effort to designate the provenance of every egg before it makes it to the breakfast table, while a complete lack of transparency reigns in the way we deal with cultural assets worth millions," she added.
Germany ratified the 1970 UNESCO Convention in 2007 but the country's laws were not able to cope with combating  trade in illicit cultural artefacts, and the legislation created to support implementation of the Convention is widely perceived to have failed. Hence the need for a new draft. The proposed form of the new legislation has drawn the ire of art dealers, who argue that the new requirements are not aligned with the realities of the market and place what they call "an unreasonable burden on art dealers". 
The controversy has particular relevance in light of Germany's complicated and highly fraught relationship with looted artworks. The discovery in 2012 of a cache of 1,200 works amassed by a Nazi-era art dealer under dubious circumstances exposed an underlit chapter of German history. "As Germans we have a special responsibility considering the looting of art between 1933 and 1945," says Mueller-Karpe, referring to the theft of what was referred to as "degenerate art" in Nazi Germany. "The outcome of this [law] is of the utmost importance as future generations will have to bear the consequences."
Source: 'Looted in Mosul, sold in Munich? Germany's clampdown on illicit trade' July 30th 2015.

Jim Davila (

Kahana, Sifre on Numbers vol. 4

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MacDonald, Priestly Rule

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Cecil the Lion and Antiquities Buyers

In my opinion few people are as far below contempt as the perverted psychopaths who shoot animals for "fun". I have no words to describe how I feel about this kind of thing.  An American dentist has won contempt and worse in the eyes of many people by going around the world killing creatures and then bragging about it on social media - but then paying 50000 dollars to go to Zimbabwe and there killing  Cecil the lion just outside a sanctuary where the animal was protected. He went out at night with a crossbow and wounded the animal which had been lured out of the reserve onto private land where there was some kind of a permit to allow killing. Sadly he missed and it was up to somebody else to track the severely injured animal and put it out of its misery - before of course skinning it and cutting its head off as a trophy for the killer, who reportedly soon left the country when he found he could not be delivered a big enough elephant to slaughter. Then when he found out people were criticising him, he said "how sorry he was" about killing the lion.

Hunters - The Far Side

The problem with jerks like this is that he failed to ask the right questions - like antiquities buyers. Where did that lion/ pot come from? How did it get here? Although it is "legal" to shoot/ buy it, what other considerations are there? Are there any factors in this transaction of which I am unaware? What actually are the laws of the source country?

The Zimbabwean environment minister has called for the hunter to be extradited from the US to face trial for financing an illegal hunt. Oppah Muchinguri told a news conference that Walter Palmer, 55, was a “foreign poacher” and said she understood Zimbabwe’s prosecutor general had started the process to have him extradited. Please let him go to Ziumbabwe and let them lock him up before he callously kills anything else for the trophies to decorate his den. Let's lock up a few dodgy antiquities dealers too.

Jim Davila (

Penner, The Verbal System of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Lebanon as Corridor for Smuggling Syrian Antiquities

A rather derivative article, focussed on Lebanon: May Abboud Abi Akl, 'Looters find path to export antiquities via Lebanon Al-Monitor July 30, 2015 (translated by Cynthia Milan): 
Lebanon is more of a corridor than a headquarters. The detection operations have been a deterrent to smugglers. Syrian antiquities are being smuggled through other international borders such as Iraq, Turkey and Jordan, especially the occupied Golan. According to data, a large number of smuggled relics go through this channel in particular toward the European countries. [...]  Minister of Culture Raymond Araiji sent a letter to Bokova in March, calling for “setting up a proactive alert system and more vigilance on part of the competent international authorities, which would allow further control over this trafficking.”

Art not Oil, Museum Ethics Update needed

Responding to the Museum Association's draft Code of EthicsArt not Oil Fri, 31st July 2015
 The Museums Association has been consulting to revise its Code of Ethics, and the new draft code is currently open for consultation until 7 August. The Art Not Oil coalition has been engaging with some museums on the specific issue of whether they should be taking money from oil companies. [...]  The revision of the MA Ethics Code is welcome, because it hasn’t been fully evaluated since 2002, and a great deal has changed in the world since then, not least the increase in severe climate change impacts. The Code is important because the MA represents professional standards for the museum sector [...]  The Code also applies to anyone working with museums, including artists, freelancers and companies providing services.
Art Not Oil  invite public participation in the debate on the Code (closing date for comments 7th August). The Code has elements relevant to the artefact hunting issue. This includes some new principles concerning 'Access and public engagement, Stewardship and Integrity' as well as the  wishes and rights of people who contributed to collections, including heirs, descendants and representatives.

Out of Place Antiquities on the British Market

Any Tom, Dick or Hamid can (and do) say "a British find, this artefact is legal and 100% authentic". Yeah, they can SAY that, but where is the proof? Let's take this seller - Benjamin Stocks -  for example. Where is the documentation that something is from a particular place where it is legal for it to be dug up? This artefact for example:
British Found Tudor Period Bronze and White Enamel Cross Pendant British found - Complete ( inc fastening loupe ) For your consideration is a scarce, British found, English Tudor period of circa.1500 A.D date, Ae bronze composition, pendant type cross. This scarce and finest religious devotional implement displays nearly all of its original detail and  form. This scarce artefact is presented in a VF ( very fine ) state of preservation, it is complete and retains its original fastening / suspension loupe. It displays a finest, even and smooth patina. specifications. Ae bronze composition 30.0 mm length 15.0 mm width VF state British found 
The correct archaeological term for such a description is 'poppycock'. There is zero white enamel on it, if there were any it would make it nineteenth century in the region from which I think it is clear this object really comes from, a thousand miles or so to the east of "British found".  [If Saxby's coins wishes to provide documentation for the actual findspot in the UK, I will take back that statement]. The suppedaneum and IC and XC in Cyrillic are dead giveaways. Now why would anyone want to represent something dug up in eastern Europe as "British found"? Work it out for yourselves.

Saxby's has several others:
English Early Medieval Period Ae Bronze Crusades Cross Pendant.circa.1200 A.D (more poppycock, post-medieval Orthodox pendant cross)
British Found Tudor Period Bronze Cross Pendant.VF state (ditto)
English Early Medieval Period Ae Bronze Crusades Cross Pendant.VF (ditto)
British Found Tudor Period Bronze Cross Pendant.VF state circa.1500 A.D (ditto, the description is poppycock, but the object is quite interesting stylistically - a shame that the dealer has obscured where it really came from, showing the damage the no-questions-asked market does even to artefact-centred knowledge).

That lamp is not a British find either, is it? And what about the "British Found Roman Republican Bronze AES Grave Coin. JANVS circa. 188 - 179 B.C?". The more you look into this guy's "British finds", the more your credibility is stretched. And isn't there something missing from the description of the 'Rare circa.1200 A.D British Found Medieval Period Au Gold Annular Ring Brooch'? I thought PAS were supposed to be "monitoring" eBay? Are they any more?

Where did these objects come from, and how did they get to a seller in the UK? What business contacts do they reflect? Why do antiquities dealers consider they can get away with this kind of thing?

The Real Threat to Collecting: Collectors' Attitudes

Focusing on reactions to the proposed German regulations and the opposition of certain sectors of the antiquities trade to change:
"in a world where public image is so vital, the blinkered, arrogant, hideously uninformed, rabidly anti-academic and recklessly intransigent attitudes of that lobby group pose as great, if not greater, a threat to the future of collecting than most of the "anticollecting ideologues" put together".
David Knell, 'The subtle art of passing the buck: it's always someone else's fault' Ancient Heritage Saturday, 25 July 2015.

Vignette: Coin dealers act like petulant kids at times.

Roger Bland Leaves BM

The Russell Square HQ of PAS
Today is Roger Bland's last day at the British Museum, where he has worked more than 35 years. He was appointed a curator in the Department of Coins and Medals in 1979 but was seconded to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport from 1994 to 2003 in connection with his work on the Treasure Act and Portable Antiquities. Roger became responsible for thePortable Antiquities Scheme (a project to record all archaeological objects found by the public in England and Wales), which he had been to a large degree instrumental in setting up. In addition, he was responsible for the Museum’s operation of the Treasure Act. In July 2012 he was appointed Keeper of the Department of Prehistory and Europe (now Britain, Europe and Prehistory, succeeding in that post Jonathan Williams (who had himself been curator of Iron Age and Roman coins at the Museum who went on 'to coordinate the Museum’s international strategy'). Williams became the Museum's Deputy Director ('with overall responsibility for the Museum’s collection and research') and it is he whose reorganization led to the dissolution of the Department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure in May this year and Bland's resignation.

Roger Bland is currently still listed on the BM website as keeper, while on the PAS website his position as Head of Scheme and Treasure  has long been occupied by MichaelLewis.

The fate of the Leverhulme Trust funded project 'ThePortable Antiquities Scheme Database as a tool for archaeological research' in which he was principal investigator remains unknown. It was due to finish this year.

The Heroic Age

Gender and Emotion

Gender and Medieval Studies Conference 2016
The University of Hull
Gender and Emotion
6th – 8th January 2016
Call for Papers

The grief-stricken faces at Edward’s deathbed in the Bayeux Tapestry; the ambiguous ‘ofermod’ in The Battle of Maldon; the body-crumpling anguish of the Virgin witnessing the Man of Sorrows; the mirth of the Green Knight; the apoplectic anger of the mystery plays’ Herod and the visceral visionary experiences of Margery of Kempe all testify to the ways in which the medieval world sought to express, perform, idealise and understand emotion.
Yet while such expressions of emotion are frequently encountered by medievalists working across the disciplines, defining, quantifying and analysing the purposes of emotion and its relationship to gender often proves difficult.  Are personal items placed in early Anglo Saxon graves a means for the living to let go of, or perpetuate emotion, and how are these influenced by the body in the grave?  Do different literary and historical forms lend themselves to diverse ways of expressing men’s and women’s emotion?  How does a character expressing emotion on stage or in artwork use body, gender and articulation to communicate emotion to their viewer?  Moreover, is emotion viewed differently depending on the gendered identity of the body expressing it?  Is emotion and its reception used to construct, deconstruct, challenge or confirm gender identities?
This conference seeks to explore the manifestations, performances and functions of emotion in the early to late Middle Ages, and to examine the ways in which emotion is gendered and used to construct gender identities. 
Proposals are now being accepted for 20 minute papers.  Topics to consider may include, but are not limited to:
·       Gender and emotional expression: representing and performing emotion
·       The emotional body
·       Philosophies of emotion: theory and morality
·       Emotional objects and vessels of emotion
·       Language and emotion and the languages of emotion
·       Preserving or perpetuating emotion
·       Emotions to be dealt with: repressing, curtailing, channelling, transforming
·       Forbidden emotion
·       Living through (someone else’s) emotion
·       The emotions of war and peace
·       The emotive ‘other’
·       Place and emotion
·       Queer emotion
We welcome scholars from a range of disciplines, including history, literature, art history, archaeology and drama.  A travel fund is available for postgraduate students who would otherwise be unable to attend.
Please email proposals of no more than 300 words to organiser Daisy Black at by the 7th September 2015.  All queries should also be directed to this address.  Please also include biographical information detailing your name, research area, institution and level of study (if applicable).
Further details will be available on the conference website:

Peter Konieczny and Sandra Sadowski (History of the Ancient World)

The Prince and the Pancratiast: Persian-Thessalian Relations in the Late Fifth Century B.C.

 The Prince and the Pancratiast: Persian-Thessalian Relations in the Late Fifth Century B.C.

By John O. Hyland

Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, Vol 55, No 2 (2015)

Abstract: Darius II’s invitation to the Olympic victor Poulydamas and Cyrus’ friendship with Thessalian aristocrats were renewals of old ties between Persia and Thessaly and part of Persian intervention in the Peloponnesian War.

Silver drachma of king Darius II - photo by  dynamosquito / Wikipedia

Introduction: Near the end of the fifth century B.C. the famous Thessalian pancratiast Poulydamas of Skotoussa traveled to the Achaemenid court at the invitation of Darius II. Scholars have noted the visit as an instance of cultural interaction, but Persia’s simultaneous involvement in the Peloponnesian War suggests the possibility of diplomatic overtones. A political purpose for Poulydamas’ travel would be especially attractive given the subsequent cooperation between Darius’ son, Cyrus the Younger, and a cabal of Thessalian guest-friends. These episodes may be linked as successive steps in the restoration of the old xenia between Xerxes and Thessalian leaders, dormant since 479. By examining what Persian and Thessalian elites stood to gain from renewing their old partnership, we can shed new light on an under-appreciated dimension of GraecoPersian political relations.

Poulydamas’ victory at the Olympic games of 408 made him a living legend in Greece, a strongman comparable to Herakles (Paus. 6.5.1–9). Plato’s Republic testifies to his fame outside of Thessaly in the first half of the fourth century, citing him as the quintessential example of human bodily strength (338C), and by the time of Alexander’s conquests, no less an artist than Lysippos sculpted his statue for a monument at Olympia. A fragment of Diodorus mentions him in the same breath as the great Milo of Croton (9.14–15), and Lucian alludes to cult honors at the Olympic site in the second century A.D.

The surviving portion of the Olympic base relief (second half of the fourth century B.C.) celebrates Poulydamas’ court visit as a demonstration of Greek might in the face of the Great King. It mocks the solemnity of the Achaemenid royal audience: the enthroned Darius seizes his head and gesticulates wildly; the feet of a helpless Persian dangle in mid air; and Poulydamas turns his back to the King while preparing to throw his victim. Pausanias explains the scene:

Darius, the bastard son of Artaxerxes, who with the support of the Persian demos put down Sogdius, the legitimate son of Artaxerxes, and ascended the throne in his stead, learning when he was king of the exploits of Poulydamas, sent messengers with the promise of gifts and persuaded him to come before his eyes at Susa. There he challenged three of the Persians called Immortals to fight him—one against three—and killed them.

Click here to read this article from Duke University

The post The Prince and the Pancratiast: Persian-Thessalian Relations in the Late Fifth Century B.C. appeared first on History of the Ancient World.

The City in Decline: Rome in Late Antiquity

The City in Decline: Rome in Late Antiquity

By Kevin Twine

Middle States Geographer, Vol.25 (1992)

Roman Forum - photo by Bert Kaufmann / Flickr

Abstract: This paper addresses the question of what happens to cities in long-term decline. It uses as an example perhaps the most famous such city, Rome, whose population declined from about a million persons to 30,000 between the second and sixth centuries AD. The experience of Rome is considered from the point of view of its population, economy, and social structure. An inquiry is made into the methods for estimating ancient Rome’s population. The rate of the city’s population decline is considered, and compared with modem examples. The social structure of Rome is discussed, focusing on how its institutions contributed to its decline. Conclusions and avenues of future research in historical urban geography are suggested.

Introduction: In the fields of urban geography and city planning, much attention has been given to the dynamics of urban growth, while a good deal less has been devoted to long-term urban decline. This is true because most cities in the world are, and have been for some time, growing; however, an increasing number of cities and urban areas are experiencing population declines, in some cases substantial ones, especially in the English-speaking world. These declines have been the subject of extensive studies which focus for the most part on the immediate causes of decay, rather than long-term urban decline.

Perhaps the best-known example of long-term urban decline is the “fall” of Rome, which took place between the second and sixth centuries AD. During this period, the city of Rome experienced a decline of population from around a million persons to about 30,000. This paper reviews the demographic and socioeconomic changes that took place in the City of Rome during its decline. First, the overall societal changes which were taking place in the later Roman empire are summarized. Then, the demographic changes which occurred in the city are discussed, followed by a discussion of Rome’s socioeconomic structure during this period. Finally, conclusions and additional research are suggested relating to Rome itself as well as to long-term urban change in general.

The following is a brief summary of the major events in the history of the Roman empire, focusing on those which deal with its decline.

Eighth century BC: The city of Rome founded.

Third and second centuries BC: Rome establishes dominance on the Italian peninsula, and by the mid second century BC, in the western Mediterranean basin.

First century BC: Following close to a hundred years of civil warfare, Julius Caesar and his adopted son Octavian (Augustus) overthrow the republic and establish a centralized dictatorship (the Principate).

First and second centuries AD: The Roman Empire militarily dominates nearly all of the Mediterranean basin. Roman rulers and generals extract huge quantities of wealth, both material and human, from this territory. The government of the empire remains relatively stable, which allows the population to prosper. The city of Rome has a population of over a million persons. Wealth is concentrated in Rome on a scale seldom seen before or since.

Third century AD: Agricultural production falters, and the diminution of foreign conquests slows the influx of wealth. Fifty years of civil war, combined with increasing pressure from Germanic barbarians to the north, leads to virtual collapse of the government and economy.

284-305 AD: The Emperor Diocletian vastly reorganizes and increases the size of the bureaucracy. Diocletian’s often draconian reforms give the empire a new lease on life which lasts for another century, and his military reorganization succeeds in keeping the barbarians at bay.

Fourth century AD: The basic structural problems of the empire’s economy continue. Agricultural production continues to slip. The overall population of the empire is in decline, making it difficult to fmd enough manpower to keep the economy functioning. The heavy burden of taxation is a major drain; inflation is serious; corruption is rampant.

Click here to read this article from  the Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers

The post The City in Decline: Rome in Late Antiquity appeared first on History of the Ancient World.

August 01, 2015

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

#GenCon 2015 Costumes


Since Saturday is the day of the costume parade and contest, I decided to dress as the Fourth Doctor and show off the scarf my wife made. Here are some photos from the day:

2015-08-01 12.31.03

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The Heroic Age

New Approaches to Old English Biblical Poetry

Kalamazoo 2016 #Kzoo2016

Call for Papers:

51st International Congress on Medieval Studies at Western Michigan University
12-15 May 2016 in Kalamazoo, Michigan

Session Title: New Approaches to Old English Biblical Poetry
Session Organizer: Jill Fitzgerald
Session Sponsor: Dept. of English, United States Naval Academy

This session welcomes papers that examine fresh methodological and critical approaches to Old English poems recounting both Old and New Testament events. Biblical poems such as Genesis A, Genesis B, Exodus, Daniel, and Judith (to name a few) continue to invite scholarly attention because they reveal predominant Anglo-Saxon attitudes towards issues such as lordship, land, inheritance, exile, invasion, migration, corruption, warfare, rebellion, and conquest. Possible paper topics for this panel might include, but are certainly not limited to: those addressing sources (patristic, apocryphal, liturgical, iconographic), cultural and historical contexts, manuscript contexts, translation and the vernacular transmission of biblical concepts, how biblical poems offer insights into early medieval social groups, reforming communities, Christian identity and subjectivity, and how Anglo-Saxons understood their place within salvation history.

Please send abstracts of no more than 300 words and the Participant Information Form to Jill Fitzgerald at by September 15th. The Participant Information Form and additional information can be found at:

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins

Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins
ISSN: 2192-3124

Open Access Journal: Mitteilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung

Mitteilungen des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung

AIA Fieldnotes

Rock Art Foundation Annual Rendezvous

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Rock Art Foundation
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Friday, October 16, 2015 to Sunday, October 18, 2015

The 2015 Rendezvous will be held at the White Shaman Preserve Oct 16 – 18 and we will offer as many rock art tours as possible over the weekend. The Rendezvous cost will be $70 per person (no charge for children 12 and under with parents). RAF tours offered for this year’s gathering will be included and there will not be an extra charge. RAF tours that are planned are: White Shaman, Shumla School Campus, Meyers Springs, Bonfire Shelter, Eagle Cave, and Curly Tail Panther. Read more »


Greg Williams
Call for Papers: 

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Studia graeco-arabica

 [First posted in AWOL 2 April 2011. Updated 1 August 2015]

Studia graeco-arabica
Studia graeco-arabica is the journal on line of the European Research Council Advanced Grant 249431 Greek into Arabic. Philosophical Concepts and Linguistic Bridges. It features critical articles and reviews on the transmission of philosophical and scientific texts from and into various languages – Greek, Syriac, Arabic, and Latin – from late Antiquity to the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 1-11
Riccardo Chiaradonna
According to the anonymous commentator on Plato’s Parmenides the One-being can (under certain conditions) be thought to participate in the first One above being (In Parm., XI-XII). The commentator offers two explanations of this fact, the first of which (In Parm., XI, 5-19) is closely reminiscent of the Peripatetic doctrine of essential predication. Accordingly, the structure of the second One can be equated to that of a species resulting from the composition of a genus (one) and a specific differentia (being / ousia). Several parallels connect this solution with the debates on Aristotle’s theory of predication attested in the Neoplatonic commentaries on the Categories. The parallels with Porphyry’s logical works are particularly valuable. Furthermore, in his Response to Porphyry, Iamblichus presents Porphyry’s account of the divine hierarchy as misleadingly implying that divine beings are species under the same common genus: a position which is virtually identical to that of the anonymous commentator, and finds no parallel in Neoplatonic authors other than Porphyry. This hitherto unnoticed parallel further suggests that Porphyry is the author of the anonymous commentary, as advanced by R. Chiaradonna, “Nota su partecipazione e atto d’essere nel neoplatonismo: l’anonimo Commento al Parmenide”, Studia graeco-arabica, 2 [2012], pp. 87-97.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 13-26
Elisa Coda
Well before Philoponus’ attack against eternalism and Simplicius’ response, taking the form of a colossal commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo, another thinker, the 4th century rhetorician and philosopher Themistius, had embarked upon a running exegesis of the this Aristotelian work. Themistius still had at his disposal the commentary on the De Caelo penned by Alexander of Aphrodisias, lost to us. Notwithstanding its importance, Themistius’ paraphrase of the De Caelo is poorly known: the Greek text is lost; a medieval Hebrew translation made on the basis of a lost Arabic one survives, together with a Latin translation of the Hebrew text, made during the Renaissance. From this unpromising material it is however possible to unravel important issues. This article deals with Themistius’ and Alexander’s exegeses of the meaning of the key terms “generated” and “ungenerated” and argues that Themistius attests the classification made by Alexander, but in his own exegesis endorses the typical Neoplatonic distinction between “generated” as “temporally generated”, on the one hand, and “generated” as “having a cause of its coming into being”, on the other.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 27-52
Philippe Hoffmann
A six-page Prologue introduces the commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo written by Simplicius after 529 AD. As usual in the exegeses typical of the Neoplatonic schools of late Antiquity, this Prologue addresses a series of preliminary questions that are meant to steer the interpretation in its entirety, as well as to frame the text to be commented upon within the reading canon of the Aristotelian works, which were intended to provide the propaedeutics to the reading canon of Plato’s dialogues. Simplicius addresses the question of the scope of De Caelo, discussing the interpretations advanced by Alexander of Aphrodisias, Iamblichus, and Syrianus. According to Alexander, this treatise deals with the universe as a whole, as well as with the five simple bodies contained in it. It was with Iamblichus, who advocated the idea that for each Platonic dialogue there was only one σκοπός, that the unity of a philosophical work was raised to the rank of a general rule. According to Iamblichus, the σκοπός of the De Caelo is the divine body of heaven. As a consequence, the primary elements that depend upon the heavens are included in the treatise. Syrianus deepens the theological tendency implied in Iamblichus’ interpretation: for him, the σκοπός of the De Caelo is primarily the divine body of heaven, and only secondarily the set of sublunar elements. Simplicius treasures the commentary by Alexander; nevertheless, he questions the σκοπός assigned by him: Alexander underestimated the importance of the unity of the treatise, even though his intention to account for each and every question raised by Aristotle was laudable. Contrarily, Syrianus was right in emphasizing the theological vein of the De Caelo, but focussed only on the section on the divine body of heaven, playing down books III and IV as if they were only ancillary, thus forgetting that the σκοπός must account for the whole of the treatise at hand. Between the two positions, Simplicius advocates the idea of a synthetical σκοπός, following in the footsteps of Iamblichus’ interpretation, but taking systematically into account the best of Alexander’s. The σκοπός of the De Caelo is the divine heaven, that “communicates” its perfections to the entire universe. Simplicius’ position is revealed to be very different with respect to that of other commentators like Ammonius and Philoponus, who both considered that the title was self-evident and required no special investigation.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 53-104
Henri Hugonnard-Roche
The aim of this paper is to provide the edition, with translation and commentary, of a short Syriac epistle by Severus Sebokht, bishop of Qenneshre (7th century), in which the author discusses some issues related to Aristotle’s Peri Hermeneias and Analytics. The commentary examines in detail Severus’ Syriac text by comparison with the Greek sources, namely the commentaries by Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ammonius, and Philoponus. In addition, in an appendix a study is included of a part of another epistle by Severus, concerning the existence of the possible, which shows a remarkable similarity with Alexander’s Question II 4.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 /2015, pp. 105-128
Émilie Villey
This contribution presents the text and translation of an unpublished part of the Syriac Treatise on the Astrolabe by Severus Sebokht recently found in a manuscript of Mardin (Turkey). This supplement to the text contains an astronomical exercise applied to the year 523 AD. Thanks to this date and to a detailed analysis of the structure of the text, we are now able to date the Greek treatise used by Severus Sebokht, and to specify how this 7th century Syriac scholar integrated it into his composition. Unfortunately, the name of the Greek author is never given in our document; nevertheless a combination of external information points to Ammonius of Alexandria as to its author.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 129-143
Mauro Zonta
The Syriac author Iwānnīs of Dārā (first half of the 9th century), in his still unpublished Treatise on the Soul, employed a pseudo-Platonic treatise On the Subsistence of Soul’s Virtues among his sources: a treatise whose text is lost in Greek, but is preserved in an Arabic version. A comparison of the Arabic version with the Syriac quotations found in Iwānnīs of Dārā’s work strongly suggests that the former depends upon a lost Syriac complete version, from which the latter was taken, too. The Syriac version also influenced some passages of Severus bar Šakkō’s Book of Dialogues, so showing the diffusion of this text by this way in Near East till to 1240. Moreover, there is a still unknown influence of it upon a passage of a work by a Judaeo-Arabic author, a contemporary and compatriot of Iwānnīs of Dārā: Dawūd al-Muqammiṣ’s Twenty Chapters, where the same Syriac text found in Iwānnīs of Dārā’s own work seems to have been used as a source. This passage of Dawūd al-Muqammiṣ’s work might have influenced even a passage of Aḥmad ibn Miskawayh’s Correction of Morals. In the Appendix, the Syriac terminology of some important passages of Iwānnīs of Dārā’s work are compared with the terminology found in the corresponding passages of some Patristic Greek and Arabic texts.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 145-164
Mariella Menchelli
In this paper some notes on the text tradition of Book I and Book III of Proclus’ Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus are offered, on the basis of new palaeographical studies of the manuscripts Marc. gr. 194, Par. Coisl. 322, Chis. R VIII 58, and on that of the new finding of a paper scroll containing long sections of Book III in Patmos, Monastery of St. John the Theologian. As for Book I, I will show that the manuscripts Marc. gr. 194 (until p. 130.24 Diehl) and Chis. R VIII 58 (from p. 130.24 Diehl) are new primary witnesses, and that the manuscript Par. Coisl. 322 (dated 13th-14th cent.) deserves more attention for the ancient transmission of the text. As for Book III, I will show that the oldest extant source is now the Patmos scroll, near to Marc. gr.195, also for the extant scholia, and presumably to the exemplar belonging to the “Philosophical Collection”.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 165-204
Cristina D'Ancona
Submitted to the conference “Die Blüte der arabischen Philosophie und ihre Früchte in Europa. Festkolloquium zum 75. Geburtstag von Gerhard Endreß” organized by Jörn Thielmann and Cleophea Ferrari in Bochum, November 26-27, 2014, this paper deals with Plotinus’ arguments against total blending (κρᾶσις δι’ ὅλων) and their reception in the formative period of Arabic philosophy. Actual dissection of a body by a body to infinity proves to be impossible: hence, only an incorporeal reality – the soul – can be omnipresent in the body. This Plotinian topic, reminiscent of the interschool polemics of the Imperial age, was transmitted to the Arabic-speaking philosophers through the adapted version of Ennead IV 7[2].
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 205-245
Elvira Wakelnig
The aim of this article is to present and put into context a curious little treatise preserved in a Tehran manuscript with the intriguing title Nawādir min Kalām al-Falāsifa al-Muwaḥḥidīn wa-l-aʿlām al-māḍiyīn, The Most Precious Words of the Philosophers Professing the Oneness of God and of the Authorities of the Past. The treatise contains a collection of sayings of the ancient Greeks like Hermes, Pythagoras and Plato and of the Alexandrians related to the central doctrine of Islam, the oneness of God (tawḥīd). The material recalls the first Christian apologies addressing the pagans in an attempt to win them over to the new religion by demonstrating that already their authorities of the past had believed in only one god. The treatise is, however, strikingly different from other Arabic texts which link Greek philosophers to the tawḥīd as I want to show by excerpts from Christian apologies and the philosophical tradition of al-Kindī.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 247-280
Lenn E. Goodman
Muḥammad b. Zakariyāʾ al-Rāzī, a major contributor to the Galenic tradition in medicine, pursued philosophy as well, as Galen had urged physicians to do. Rāzī believes in critical thinking and intellectual progress. He rejects the authority of prophets: They are, at best, impostors, and the exclusivity of claims to revelation breeds bloodshed rather than salvation. God enlightens us, Rāzī argues, through the gift of reason, not the visions of a few: All of us are capable, if we put our minds to it, of thinking for ourselves, well enough in fact for the soul to make her way back to her true home. Creation, Rāzī argues, resulted from the over-ebullience of a soul too eager for embodiment, too spontaneous to control herself without the gift of reason, and too innocent to foresee that her sufferings would inevitably outweigh the peaceful pleasures she would seek in the world her vivacity sets in motion. Rāzī’s world did begin. But matter, time, space, and soul, as well as God, are eternal. Space and time, pace Aristotle, are absolute. Atoms are uncreated and indestructible. Rāzī hoped for immortality but had no truck with the tales of physical resurrection. He grounds his ethics chiefly on prudential counsels: The appetites are self-enlarging; the passions, self-aggravating and inevitably frustrate. Pleasures, rightly understood, result from the relief of pain or other dislocation. Their optimum is found not in ever more intense sensation but in the respite that awaits us when we rein in desire. The present paper explores the roots of Rāzī’s ethics and cosmology, seeking to understand his affinities with Epicurus and other predecessors including Plato – with Galen frequently the mediator. Rāzī learns from Galen much of what he knows of philosophy. But independence of mind is his most striking philosophical attribute.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 281-298
Frédérique Woerther
The notion of ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was employed for the first time with the meaning of “rhetorical delivery” in Aristotle’s Rhetoric, where it is the target of a short and highly critical analysis. A practice borrowed directly from the theatre, and apparently resistant to any form of technicisation that might give it a legitimate place alongside the other means of rhetorical persuasion, ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was nevertheless extremely effective–as Aristotle acknowledged with undisguised irritation. In the face of Aristotle’s ambivalence, and torn between a purist and idealist conception of rhetoric on the one hand, and the contemporary reality of speech, which required him to recognise a practice of which he could not approve, on the other, what was Averroes’ attitude in his Middle Commentary on the Rhetoric? Dependent on the Arabic version of the Rhetoric where the term ὑπόκρισις (hypokrisis) was – with one exception – translated by the expression أخذ بالوجوه (aḫḏ bi-l-wuǧūh) – “the taking of faces” –, has Averroes followed Aristotle in his hesitations and reticences? Or has he instead chosen to legitimise the use of hypokrisis in rhetorical technique? The analysis of the Rushdian interpretation of the ‘taking of faces’ will allow a better understanding of Averroes’ exegetical method, and grasp of what it meant, to him, to be faithful to the First Master.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 299-320
Mathieu Terrier
This article analyzes the references to Pythagoras, Empedocles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Diogenes in the works of the Šī‘i philosophers of Safavid Iran Mīr Dāmād, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Quṭb al-Dīn Aškevarī. Despite their lacunar knowledge of the aforementioned philosophers, these Persian thinkers saw ancient philosophy – labelled “wisdom” (ḥikma) – both as a speech of truth and as a way of life, a position that is at times reminiscent of Pierre Hadot’s approach to ancient philosophy as a whole. This “wisdom” was part and parcel of their own philosophical project. In their eyes the representation of Greek wisdom is grounded on a historiography connecting the Greek sages to the “niche of the prophetic lights” (miškāt anwār al-nubuwwa). This representation includes, in its theoretical dimension, a pedagogy, a theology, an onto-cosmology, a psychology, and an eschatology. In its practical dimension, it conjugates asceticism with a position of compromise with intra-mundane life. On all these topics, the Šī‘i philosophers try to conciliate the views of the Greek philosophers with the ḥadīṯs of the Imāms.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 321-344
Kerstin Eksell
Classical Greek is known for its abundant use of particles and connectives for organising the textual discourse. In Arabic, on the other hand, such markers are much less frequent, which causes problems in translating from Greek into Arabic. The aim of this study is to examine the transfer of Greek particles into Classical Arabic texts. The material consists of short text samples from the Physics by Aristotle and the Elements by Euclid, both of which were translated by the well-established translator Isḥāq ibn Ḥunayn. The translator seems to have followed a consistent regime of strategies, with the general aim to translate as closely and accurately as possible, while avoiding direct borrowing from Greek. The taxis of the source text was used as a model for the target text, which is characterised by its syntactic iconicity in relation to the source text. It is suggested that a special generic style became established for expressing a scholarly identity of mixed Greek and Arabic origin, different from other stylistic developments of literature within the Arabo-Islamic space.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, pp. 345-363
Torsten Roeder
The project Glossarium Graeco-Arabicum connects the study of writing systems with the field of information science, utilizing the Unicode standard. This paper points out particular historical developments both in philology and informatics that help to develop a modern approach to working in digital poly-alphabetical environments, based on interdisciplinary expertise. A description of how Unicode was implemented to represent ancient Greek and classical Arabic is followed by a historical outline of computer writing systems. Essential aspects are letter collationing, writing directions and user interfaces. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of a bilateral understanding of historical and technical disciplines.
Studia graeco-arabica 5 / 2015, p. 424
Bruno Centrone

See the full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

And see also A Digital Corpus for Graeco-Arabic Studies

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient Irish were first to record an eclipse – 5,355 years ago

Our ancient Irish ancestors carved images of an ancient eclipse into giant stones over 5,000 years...

AIA Fieldnotes

Science Saturdays: International Archaeology Day at the RMSC

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Rochester Society of the AIA/Rochester Museum & Science Center
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Saturday, October 17, 2015 - 11:00am

We will have archaeology-themed toys and books for kids, a small archaeology "dig" and books and magazines to share with parents and other adults interested in archaeology, at tables in the lobby at the Rochester Museum & Science Center. Read more »


AIA Society: 
Call for Papers: 

Michael E. Smith (Publishing Archaeology)

An article that isn't very memorable


I think I fired off the following post to hastily. I took the time to actually read/skim the paper in question, and its really not too bad! In fact, I think it does a good job in synthesizing quite a bit of material on state formation in Postclassic Mesoamerica. So I have posted the paper in case anyone is interested.

I'll leave the post unchanged below. I think it points out an issue about scholarship and publishing that doesn't get discussed too much: the emotional side. I am emotionally invested in my research and publishing. I am a scholar. This is what I do, and I have strong emotions connected with my publications. Most of these are positive. But sometimes when there are unpleasant experiences associated with writing or producing a written work, I end up with a vague negative feeling about that work. In the present case, an unpleasant experience with the edited volume (which tapped into long-standing resentments about how Old World scholars ignore the New World), led me to almost forget about a paper I wrote just a couple of years ago. Hence the post below.

Having a strong emotional investment in one's research is usually a positive thing. It spurs one on, keeps one interested and working, even when rewards are small and obstacles are large. But such emotion can also be a negative force, if a scholar gets so strongly invested in a particular idea or interpretation, a pet theory, that he or she is willing to cut corners and even commit academic fraud to support the notion. Just see the blog Retraction Watch for some of the fraud that goes on in the sciences. So as scholars we need to be constantly vigilant to not let our biases or emotions get in the way of our scholarship.  Well, enough rambling. Here is the initial post:

.      We've all seen papers that don't seem interesting or useful. They look boring and superfluous, and you don't want to read them. I have better things to do!  I just came across such a paper, a book chapter saved as a pdf on my server. I looked at it and tried to figure out why this was published and why I should care. The odd thing is, I am the author! I read the title of the paper and thought, "Yes, this is something I might have written." So I paged through and tried to remember writing this paper. I figured it must be 10 or 15 years old, and that's why I had forgotten. But then I looked it up in my  Endnote file, and found that it was published in 2015! Oh yes, now I recall.

Here is the paper:

Smith, Michael E.
2015    Mesoamerican State Formation in the Postclassic Period. In Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conquest, 500 CE - 1500 CE, edited by Benjamin Kedar and Merry Wiesner-Hanks, pp. 598-624. Cambridge History of the World, vol. 5. Cambridge University Press, New York.

I tend to black out negative experiences. I don't remember them as well as more positive experiences, and I think this is probably a normal psychological strategy. When I was invited to contribute to this work, I was honored, because historian William McNeil was involved. He is a big shot in the field of world history, and the author of one of my favorite books of comparative history, Plagues and Peoples. The volumes are organized by time period. Each volume has one or more prominent editors, and each sponsored a conference to get the authors together. Norman Yoffee edited an earlier volume, which had a bunch of chapters on early cities. He had good authors (many archaeologists), and he did some innovative things with his conference and volume structure. I am jealous of the authors in that volume!

I was not familiar with most of the authors in my volume, all historians. But when paper drafts were circulated, I was appalled. A number of the chapters were syntheses of themes that were supposed to cover the entire world for the target period (topics like education, migrations, demography, gender, courtly culture, and the like). The authors were European historians who either ignored the New World entirely, or else wrote mostly about the Old World with some bad coverage of the New World thrown in. (This seems par for the course in many textbooks in "global history" or "world history") One paper draft had silly, inaccurate, and demeaning descriptions of a New World culture, and the main cited sources were elementary school curriculum materials posted online! I am still astounded that a professional scholar could even think that such a source was acceptable for a publication (particularly when there is in fact a published literature on the topic in question among New World societies in that time period).

I fired off a letter of complaint to the editors, and threatened to withdraw my paper if they couldn't do better than that. Perhaps I should have followed through. When I was invited to their conference, in a nice foreign city I wanted to visit, I turned down the invitation. These were not people I wanted to hang out with. I went ahead with my chapter, and then the book came out I saw that at least the worst problems in the comparative chapters had been fixed. I guess I had my chapter scanned (it turns out it was only a month or so ago), and now I am wondering if it is worth posting online with my other publications.

I should probably read the paper and decide whether to post it or not. My hope is that the chapter is not too bad, and that my negative associations have to do with the volume itself, with the early chapter drafts I saw, with my reservations about "world history," (see prior posts here,   here,   and here) and with my jealousy for not being in Norm Yoffee's volume. Maybe it will turn out to be a memorable paper after all.

Brice C. Jones

Doodles in a New Testament Manuscript

Codex Seidelianus II (University of Hamburg, Cod. 91 in scrin.; Gregory-Aland 013) is a ninth century Greek parchment codex containing the four canonical Gospels. In the margins of two separate pages in this codex, we find some interesting doodles. Ancient scribes and readers doodled often, and in the medieval period, there are thousands of the most interesting examples (see here). But what do we imagine these figures to represent? Are they bishops? Monks? And what is going on with the feet and heads of these figures? Are they holding crosses? What is on the top of the first figure's head? Let your imaginations run wild!
Codex Seidelianus II, Gregory-Aland 013, Cod. 91 in scrin.
Folio 232 (Luke 14:15-22)
Codex Seidelianus II, Gregory-Aland 013, Cod. 91 in scrin.
Folio 228 (Luke 13:19-27)

Végh Zsuzsanna and Simon Zsolt (Agyagtábla, papirusz)

Nyári szünet

Blogunk aug. 1. és aug. 20. között nyári szünetet tart. Persze attól még lehet, hogy posztolunk valamit, de alapvetően nem. Minden Kedves Olvasónknak kellemes nyaralást kívánunk!

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Unearthing a mound of mystery

Writer John Drews charts his journey to discover the true purpose behind the creation of Silbury...

BiblePlaces Blog

Weekend Roundup

This season’s excavations at Tel Kabri uncovered 120 huge wine jars.

Three reliefs have been discovered from the Middle Kingdom site of al-Hoody near Aswan.

Leen Ritmeyer explains the significance of a small window on the Temple Mount.

John Bartlett shares his recollections from excavating with Kathleen Kenyon in Jerusalem.

Ferrell Jenkins shares photos and information about Maresha of the Shephelah.

SourceFlix has released a video short on the Walls of Jericho.

Available at last: Tell er-Rumeith: The Excavations of Paul W. Lapp, 1962 and 1967, by Tristan J. Barako and Nancy L. Lapp.

The British Library and the National Library of Israel are partnering to digitize at least 860 Hebrew manuscripts. The British Library’s current collection is here.

HT: Ted Weis, Joseph Lauer, Agade

Francesca Tronchin (Classical Archaeology News)

ancientart: thegetty: Ancient Bronzes Visit  Los AngelesRare,...



Ancient Bronzes Visit  Los Angeles

Rare, powerful, beautiful, and unusual sculptures from the ancient world demonstrate the innovations in technique, portraiture, and subject matter during the Hellenistic Period. 

What is a Hellenistic bronze? Here’s our explainer on the Getty Iris blog.

Installation views with objects (in order top to bottom) courtesy of The National Archaeological Museum, Athens, the Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Culture and the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Antikensammlung, and Archaeological Museum of Kalymnos.

Wish I could be there!

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Rainstorm exposes ancient tombs in north China

SHIJIAZHUANG, Aug. 1 (Xinhua) – Archeologists have started excavating tombs believed to be...

Francesca Tronchin (Classical Archaeology News)

Immortales: The Hall of Emperors of the Capitoline Museums, Rome

Immortales: The Hall of Emperors of the Capitoline Museums, Rome:

Immortales: The Hall of Emperors of the Capitoline Museums, Rome brings to the United States for the first time a selection of 20 busts from the collection of the world’s oldest museum, the Capitoline in Rome. The exhibition offers a survey of Roman portraiture from the age of Augustus (1st century, B.C.) to the late Roman Empire (5th century, A.D.). Sculpted busts of emperors, empresses, and patricians reveal how portraits helped craft private and public images of distinguished individuals for ancient Roman audiences as well as for posterity.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Petition: Extradite Minnesotan Walter James Palmer to face justice in Zimbabwe.

Petition: "Extradite Minnesotan Walter James Palmer to face justice in Zimbabwe".

On Thursday, the White House said it would review a public petition to extradite nocturnal protected lion-killer Walter Palmer if it receives over 100,000 signatures. If animal-slayer Walter Palmer had a shred of decency in him, he'd return to Africa voluntarily and answer the charges.

Ben Blackwell (Dunelm Road)

Doing Administration and Writing: Mutually Exclusive Options?

The dean over our area has shifted to a couple of new roles here at HBU after doing an excellent job overseeing our School of Christian Thought, consisting of four departments: Theology, Philosophy, Classics and Biblical Languages, and Apologetics. I was tapped on the shoulder to help out, so for 2015-2016 I’ll serve as the interim dean. Of course the transition into this role started this month, as we (John, Jason, and I) were trying to finish up the editing for a volume we put together–Paul and the Apocalyptic Imagination. In particular, we had to write the introduction, and I had done less in other parts, so it was rightly my role to fill. It’s almost finished, but after several days of consistent meetings and issues to solve due to the new role, I was reminded of a quip that Richard Hays passed on to me a year or so back that someone told him when he took over the Dean’s role at Duke:

In the first year in administration you cease to write. In the second year you cease to read. In the third year you cease to think.

(My apologies for forgetting the source of the original quote.)

Though I’m only a week or so into the job, I can see how this is true!

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

From my diary

I’m now on holiday for a week.  I’m going to ignore nearly all correspondence, all comments on the blog, and generally go and do other things.  I have received an awful lot of correspondence lately, and I need a holiday from it.

I may write the odd blog post, but I still won’t be taking calls.  The summer is here, and I want a holiday from all the stuff that I do all the time.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeologists Dig Up Ceramic Head of Dionysus in Ancient Roman City

Archaeologists in Bulgaria’s Danube city of Ruse have discovered a ceramic head of ancient deity...

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

You Won’t Believe The Cosmology


I shared the above Ziggy cartoon once before. But having happened across it again, I was struck by the subversive message of the cartoon. An alien that looks like an angel talks to Ziggy, a human, and then expresses amazement to another of his alien race at the cosmology humans have come up with. The reference is presumably to a religious system that views these aliens as supernatural beings, messengers of the divine.

I think the “ancient aliens” idea is so popular precisely because it provides a way to keep “angels” and “gods” within the framework of a scientific cosmology.

But I suspect that anyone looking back on the “ancient aliens” idea from the perspective of our distant future will likewise scoff at the cosmology some had come up with.

Andrew West (Babelstone)

Fake Khitania

The Chinese art and antiquities market is huge, feeding the insatiable appetite of tens of millions of middle class collectors as well as the growing class of entrepreneurs and nouveaux riches looking for ways to show off their enormous wealth. Chinese auction houses seem to have an endless supply of antiquites, but where does it all come from? I can believe that there are some valuable

Jim Davila (

Friesen, Reading Dionysus

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Brody, Mishna and Tosefta Ketubbot

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Genz, Jesaja 53 als theologische Mitte der Apostelgeschichte

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Buth and Notley (eds.), The Language Environment of First Century Judaea

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The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek

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The Egyptiana Emporium

Ancient Egypt Today


The iconic mask of Tutankhamun (Source: Wikipedia).

ITV commissions four part drama Tutankhamun

“ITV has commissioned the epic and compelling story of Howard Carter’s discovery of the tomb of one of ancient Egypt’s forgotten pharaohs, the boy-king Tutankhamun.

The four-part event mini series written by leading screenwriter Guy Burt (Jekyll and Hyde, The Bletchley Circle, The Borgias) will focus on the legendary personal story of Carter, a solitary man on the edge of society who became an iconic figure and an unlikely hero.

Set against the great sweep of ochre sands, looming cliffs and baking heat of Egypt’s Valley of the Kings, the story unfolds from 1905 when Carter, an eminent British archaeologist who we meet in his early 20’s, is fervently leading an expedition. Amidst the chaos scattered across the Valley floor, Carter’s grim determination to find lost antiquities is only too apparent. He has an easy manner with the Egyptian men who work alongside him, but when tempers fray Carter is hotheaded and puts the dig and his career in jeopardy.

With his license to dig revoked by Cairo’s Antiquities Service, Carter spends years ostracised, dishevelled and living rough and resorting to selling previously discovered archaeological relics to buy food.

A chance meeting with British aristocrat, the very dashing, suave and eccentric Lord Carnarvon, brings a change of fortunes as the enthusiastic amateur needs an experienced archaeologist to help him with a series of random excavations. Carter and Carnarvon begin the most unlikely friendship, in spite of their differences of background and character. Privileged and fast living, Carnarvon keeps faith with Carter and continues to back him when no one else will. After years of searching for the tomb, Carter and Carnarvon successfully discover the last resting place of the boy-king in 1921 against all odds and at great personal expense.

The drama will be executive produced by ITV Studios Creative Director of Drama Francis Hopkinson (Home Fires, Jekyll & Hyde, Lucan, Wallander) and Catherine Oldfield (Home Fires, Collision, Foyle’s War). Simon Lewis (The C Word, The Paradise, Five Daughters) will produce with Peter Webber (Girl with a Pearl Earring, Hannibal Rising, The Stretford Wives) directing the series. Filming will take place in South Africa during the winter of 2015 and early part of 2016.

“Howard Carter’s discovery of the lost tomb of Tutankhamun is legendary,” said Francis. “His all-consuming, obsessive search for the tomb pushed his friendship with Lord Carnarvon to the brink, whilst the adventurous and extrovert aristocrat poured his inheritance into the excavation.”

Catherine added: “This is a fascinating and compelling story with real historical significance. It’s based on true events and reveals how Carter desperately tries to persuade his patron (Carnarvon) to continue to bankroll the excavation. Ultimately it’s the story of what happens when you stake everything on one last roll of the dice.”

ITV Director of Drama Steve November and Controller of Drama Victoria Fea have commissioned the series.

“Tutankhamun is a story of epic proportions,” said Steve. “Against the backdrop of World War One, conflict, murder, corruption, romance and the unlikeliest of friendships, Tutankhamun sees Howard Carter’s determination pay off in spectacular style when he discovers one of the greatest archaeological treasures of the modern world,” added Steve.”

Details of casting will be available in the coming months.

ITV Studios Global Entertainment will distribute Tutankhamun internationally. 

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2015.07.37: Les affaires de Monsieur Andreau: économie et société du monde romain. Scripta antiqua, 61

Review of Catherine Apicella, Marie-Laurence Haack, François Lerouxel, Les affaires de Monsieur Andreau: économie et société du monde romain. Scripta antiqua, 61. Bordeaux: 2014. Pp. 315. €25.00 (pb). ISBN 9782356131089.

2015.07.36: Remembering the Dead in the Ancient Near East: Recent Contributions from Bioarchaeology and Mortuary Archaeology

Review of Benjamin W. Porter, Alexis T. Boutin, Remembering the Dead in the Ancient Near East: Recent Contributions from Bioarchaeology and Mortuary Archaeology. Boulder: 2014. Pp. xv, 261. $70.00. ISBN 9781607323242.

2015.07.35: Making Textiles in Pre-Roman and Roman Times. Peoples, Places, Identities. Ancient Textiles Series Vol. 13

Review of Margarita Gleba, Judit Pásztókai-Szeőke, Making Textiles in Pre-Roman and Roman Times. Peoples, Places, Identities. Ancient Textiles Series Vol. 13. Oxford; Oakville: 2013. Pp. 244. $60.00. ISBN 9781842177679.

2015.07.34: Hellenistic Tragedy: Texts, Translations and a Critical Survey. Bloomsbury Classical Studies Monographs

Review of Agnieszka Kotlińska-Toma, Hellenistic Tragedy: Texts, Translations and a Critical Survey. Bloomsbury Classical Studies Monographs. London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney: 2015. Pp. xvi, 322. $120.00. ISBN 9781472524218.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Crewkerne Commercial Metal Detecting Rally

Crewkerne Charity Metal Detecting Rally 30th Oct - 1st Nov details here, 150 participants, 24 quid each. "We have had a couple of people asking if overseas detectorists are welcome... Yes everyone is welcome, so book your flights too" but you can't take the finds back, can you? The rally organizers will no doubt be running an export-licence-sorting-out-service for finders not based in the UK, except they forgot to mention it.

Member "smelly jelly" wanted to know (Fri Jul 03, 2015 8:29 pm)
Hi, don't think it's mentioned anywhere but is ncmd insurance required [?]
and is told:
Insurance is requested and very helpful as this assures the farmers and others attending
That's the main thing lads, keep up appearances. The actual facts are less important eh? The landowner will not find out will he? Until an accident happens in which case the organizers will be liable and that 3600 quid will not go far then.

HSI Press Release Stupidity in Ohio

Proof positive that there is something very wrong with the US education system (at least in Ohio). I think an investigation is called for - is the anonymous individual who wrote a recent press release simply cognitively challenged, or working for the coin dealers ('ICE, CBP seize illegally imported ancient Roman coins 24th July 2015)? A declaration of interest seems to be in order here.

The guardians of US border propriety  (ICE and HSI) apparently miss a lot crossing US borders, but earlier this month they spotted some suspicious round things and seized them. They turned out to be "ancient Roman coins [...] [of] an estimated value of approximately $1,000". All well and good. The bit of the text as written that will have the coineys jumping up and down excitedly is the justification given in the press release: 
One hundred and ninety ancient Roman coins that were illegally imported into the United States from the United Arab Emirates were seized [...] The ancient coins were originally detained in early July during a routine inspection at the Port of Cincinnati cargo facility by CBP officers before the investigation was turned over to HSI. The intended recipient told investigators the coins were of Middle Eastern origin based on information received from an overseas seller. CBP officers contacted a coin expert to authenticate the coin’s origins and learned they were actually late 2nd or 3rd century Roman coins. Authorities subsequently issued a seizure notice to the intended recipient alleging entry of goods by means of false statements. The intended recipient abandoned the claim to the coins, which will now be repatriated to Italian authorities at a later date
What? What is the matter with America?  A few weeks ago the rest of us were laughing at the coineys who were sending comments to the CPAC because some cynical manipulator had convinced the hard-of-thinking among them that the Italian government "might claim all imperial coins minted and found everywhere as their national property". The idea was absurd, but gullible xenophobic coineys unreflexively swallowed it, provoking Schadenfreud among the rest of us. Ha ha, stoopid coin fondlers.

Then this. It really does look written to order, doesn't it? This is why I think its author needs investigating. The coins were imported from the United Arab Emirates. They were reportedly seized because falsely declared. The buyer says he was told they were from "the Middle East". So according to this report they were seized. There is something missing in this story. What were they declared as, the dodgy 'metal stampings' for example?

Middle East (green) and Roman Empire (red) overlap
clearly visible even to dunces on readily available resources (wikipedia)
For all of my European prejudices concerning the US, the behaviour of some of its citizens, its administration and judiciary, I refuse to believe that the forfeiture documents really do state that the coins were "falsely declared" because "Roman coins cannot be found in the Middle East". Not even in Ohio. Those of us who went to proper schools (and those who can use wikipedia too) know that the area considered the Middle East in American usage overlaps quite considerably with the eastern part of the Roman Empire in the second and third centuries. There is no reason why "ancient Roman coins" cannot have been found on sites in the western parts of the region known as 'the Middle East'.

Yet this is how the ICE reporter is presenting it. Does nobody proofread these press releases?

Then we have the crucial next bit. "The intended recipient abandoned the claim to the coins, which will now be repatriated to Italian authorities at a later date". Wait a second, what "recipient"? The correct technical term is "buyer" and "importer". Mr 'Ohiocoinbuyer' bought coins from a UAE source and the latter shipped them to him making a false declaration, in other words smuggled the coins out of UAE (so, see below). But Ohiocoinbuyer should be investigated as a potential accessory to the offence.

There are two points here. This matter was triumphantly gottcha-announced by ACCG attorney Peter Tompa, when - if the story he reports is an accurate reflection of the extra-legal case presented by ICE/HSI - the Ohio buyer should have been offered by the ACCG ("preserving our right to collect")  support  in fighting this forfeiture case through the US courts as a test case.  This would be a damn sight more useful than the Baltimore illegal coin import stunt on which the ACCG has wasted so much time and money on. Yet the idea never came to them, it seems. Or perhaps they know something about this case which differs from the way it is presented here.

Of course, as usual, in order to avoid transparency, no names are named. 'Ohiocoinbuyer' has not been convicted, so is innocent. Why can the innocent victim of an innocent ICE/HSI misunderstanding not be named so we may all sympathise with his plight? He's lost a thousand dollars at least from this.

Which seller in the United Arab Emirates (Dubai again?) is selling Roman coins in job lots? Which coin collector or dealer in the Ohio region is buying them?

As for the claim that "the coins [...] will now be repatriated to Italian authorities at a later date", if this is true, it reveals not only the US fixation with merely gracefully gifting foreign nations their own cultural property at the expense of investigating and prosecuting the culture crimes which brought it to the US. It also reveals a total disregard for the law, and that US authorities really are as stupid as the coin dealers claim. Unbelievable. The Roman Empire was a big place, modern Italy is only a small part of it.

The obligation of the US is to assure the products of crime are restituted to where the crime was committed. They have the name of the UAE seller who allegedly smuggled the coins to the US, the coins should go to the UAE authorities as evidence and the alleged seller and smuggler should be investigated and, if found to have committed an offence, prosecuted. When completed, the UAE investigation should lead to the repatriation of the artefacts to where they originally came from (for they were not dug up in Dubai). This is the job of the Saudi authorities, not the US acting as world policeman and generous benefactor. The coins are not in the remit of the US authorities to give away to anyone. They are evidence of transnational crime, and it seems pretty obvious to everybody except, it seems HSI, that we need to get tough on transnational crime.

36 coins artistically photographed on a blue background (HSI)
In any case, as a comment on Peter Tompa's blog makes clear, the "experts" which HSI employed appear not to have done a very thorough job of reporting on the seized items. As coiney Duncan Finch points out:
if you look at the terrible photo and at the second row of six legible photos from the top, you will see a very small coin. It is of the so-called Persecution Issue and shows the Tyche of Antioch, and was only struck in Antioch [on the Orontes PMB]. Thus, not Italian, Turkish because while Antioch was the capital of Roman Syria, it is now in Turkey. Maybe that is why they don't have legible photos...
[here is another example of the coin to which he refers, a civic issue of the time of Maximinus II. AD 310-313]. Tompa missed a stroke when suggesting Finch forwards that observation "to the numismatic press" - without realising that his comment reveals the hollowness of the ACCG's "first found argument". Certainly though, a coin of Antioch on the Orontes bought in UAE is far more likely to have been dug up in the eastern parts of the former Roman empire than in its western or central provinces. So why the HSI officers in Ohio want to send it to Italy is a mystery to us all, and certainly open to challenge. Why do the ACCG not institute at least an FOI on this case?

PAS says goodbye to Roger Bland

Roger Bland putting coins in rows for counting
Michael Lewis wrote the first text on the subject of PAS meltdown on the PAS website: 'Thank You and Good Luck Roger'
Upon the retirement of Roger Bland from the British Museum, all in PAS would like to express a massive debt of gratitude to him for all he has done for British archaeology. His work bringing about the PAS and the reform of Treasure has not only ensured that the most important archaeological finds have been acquired by museums up and down the country for local people to learn about and enjoy, but has also led to a great advancement in knowledge through the recording and further study of these finds, and the identification of new sites that have come to light because of them. Best of luck for the future Roger...

Coates will be there to advise Ted Cruz

Art historian Victoria Coates has published a number of essays and books on antiquity and used to work in Cleveland Museum of Art (2010-13: Consulting Curator on the exhibition "The Last Days of Pompeii: Decadence, Apocalypse, and Resurrection"). Now she is National Security Advisor for Ted Cruz. Claire Voon ('Ted Cruz’s National Security Adviser Probably Knows More About Raphael than Russia', July 29, 2015) discusses the relationship between her academic and political work.

Van Crabben Introduces Confusion to Middle East Narrative

Christopher Jones, 'Assessing the Destruction at Hatra' Ancient history et cetera July 27, 2015 discusses the destruction of Hatra  in terms of a video which surfaced "last Saturday" but in fact this is confusion created by a blog aggregator (called "Ancient History Encyclopedia") run by which mixes original content with republication in full of material found elsewhere on the internet.  I am really unclear what this form of "churnalism" is for, but clearly this can lead to confusion.  Events in the Middle East are so fast moving that re-publication of out of date articles with false dates on can only mislead rather than inform. The post published by van der Crabben was in fact written at the beginning of April, and the "last saturday" referred to there was relative to that, and not a new video appearing in July. With ISIL websites constantly being taken down it is difficult enough for those trying to use them to follow destruction of heritage to keep up without false trails being introduced by blog-copiers.

Brice C. Jones

Late Antique Egyptian Monks and Their Boats

I am currently editing a small Greek papyrus that refers to a boat in the harbor of a monastery, which belongs to a certain Victor. Since transportation in Egypt was frequently done by boat along the Nile, it is no surprise that we find many references to boats in the papyri. Boats were most often owned by social elites, such as officials, aristocrats, and wealthy businessmen. What is surprising (at least to me anyway) is that several papyri actually mention boats that were owned by monasteries, bishops, and monks. From two related fourth century papyri (P.Col. 7.160 and 161), we learn that a bishop by the name of Hierapollon owned four boats. In P.Harr. 1.94 (fourth century), we learn that a Christian priest named Apollonius, son of a bishop named Dionysus, was the owner of a boat. P.Oxy. 34.2729, a fourth century Christian letter, mentions the boat of Thodoros the bishop. These boats were most likely the private property of well-to-do Christian clergy or their churches/monasteries. Jean Gascou has argued that monasteries made their boats available to the service of the state. Certainly, from the documentary record, we can see that some monastic communities were holders of much property and other kinds of assets. Perhaps some monks retained portions of their pre-monastic wealth. Some of these possessions were used to generate income and establish monastic estates. We learn of the leasing of part of a water wheel (P.Oxy. 16.1900), a boat anchor (SB 8.9683), and land (P.Ross.Georg. 3.48). Anyway, monastic life didn’t always mean empty, unadorned, and dark cells. Some monastic circles were participating in the lively economy of Byzantine Egypt just like everyone else. And some apparently had boats!

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: August 1

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. I'll have houseguests next week, so I may or may not be posting the Bestiaria, but if I'm out of commission this coming week, I'll be back in business the next week.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): Kalendae Augustae, the Kalends of August!

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Lykaon; you can also see the legends for the current week listed together here.


3-WORD MOTTOES: Today's 3-word motto is Meliora spero sequorque (English: I hope for and pursue better things).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word proverb is Aequa mors est (English: Death is impartial).

RHYMING PROVERBS: Today's proverb with rhyme is: Linque coax ranis, cras corvis, vanaque vanis (English: Leave croaking to the frogs, cawing to the crows, and foolishness to the fools).

VULGATE VERSES: Today's verse is Unusquisque propriam mercedem accipiet secundum suum laborem (I Cor. 3:8). For a translation, check out the polyglot Bible, in English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek, at the Sacred Texts Archive online.

ELIZABETHAN PROVERBS: Here is today's proverb commentary, this time by Taverner: Satius est initiis mederi quam fini: Better it is to remedie the beginninges then the endes. Stoppe a disease, saith the Poete Ovide, while it is in the comminge. Medicine is south for to late, whan by long continuance of time the disease catcheth ones strength.

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is In Fortunam Modicam. Click here for a full-sized view.

And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:

Omnis est rex in domo sua.
Each man is king in his own home.

Unus nihil, duo plurimum possunt.
One can do nothing; two can do many things.


FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Testudo et Iuppiter, a story about how the turtle got her shell (this fable has a vocabulary list).

MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Puer et Paedagogus, a story about a teacher's misplaced priorities.

Iuppiter et Testudo

Latin Sundials. Below you will find an image of a sundial, and for detailed information about the Latin motto see this blog post: CARPE DIEM.