Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

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December 12, 2019

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Earliest rock art hunting scene is 44,000 years old and is found in Sulawesi

Leang Bulu’ Sipong 4 in Sulawesi. Source: Nature 10.1038/s41586-019-1806-yvia Nature, 11 December 2019: Really exciting news out of Sulawesi, about really old rock art again. Leang Bulu’ Sipong 4, a cave in the Pangkep region is home to what is thought to be the oldest hunting scene in the world, and also the oldest depiction of therianthropes (half-animal, half humans). The paintings are dated to 44,000 years using uranium-series dating - comparable to other rock art sites in Sulawesi and Borneo - and make them the oldest such examples currently known in the world!

December 11, 2019

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Athenian Agora Preliminary Reports

[First posted in AWOL 7 May 2017, updated 11 December 2019]

Athenian Agora Preliminary Reports

[Agora Report] 2019 Excavations: Agora 2019 - Summary Report

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in four sections: in Section ΝΝ in the southwest corner of the archaeological site, and in the northwest corner of the Agora in Sections ΒΖ, ΒΘ East and ΒΘ West. Section ΝΝ ... 10 Jun-2 Aug 2019


[Agora Report] 2018 Excavations: Summary Report - Agora 2018

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in Sections ΒΘ, ΒΖ and Ω. In Section ΒΘ the investigations continued in the area in front of and above the Stoa Poikile. In ΒΘ East, built into a late structure, a large inscribed ... 11 Jun-3 Aug 2018


[Agora Report] 2017 Excavations: Agora Volunteer Report 2017

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations took place in three sections, ΒΘ, ΒΖ and ΟΟ, covering a time span from the 14th century B.C. to the 12th century A.D. In Section ΒΘ work continued in later layers over and in front of the Stoa ... 12 Jun-4 Aug 2017


[Agora Report] 2016 Excavations: Agora 2016 - Summary Report

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in the northwest corner of the agora square in Sections ΒΘ and ΒΖ in and around the classical building identified as the Painted (Poikile) Stoa, and in the southwest corner ... 13 Jun-5 Aug 2016


[Agora Report] 2015 Excavations: Agora Excavations Season Summary 2015

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in three areas: in Byzantine levels over the Painted Stoa in Section ΒΘ; at the north end and beneath the Classical Commercial Building in Section ΒΖ; and in Section ΟΟ in ... 8 Jun-31 Jul 2015


[Agora Report] 2014 Excavations: Agora Excavations Preliminary Report - Summer 2014

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations in 2014 were carried out in three sections: ΒΘ, ΒΓ and ΒΖ. In Section ΒΘ, overlying the Painted Stoa, the Byzantine houses of the 11th century A.D. were further exposed in the western part ... 9 Jun-1 Aug 2014


[Agora Report] 2013 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2013 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in several areas, spanning Mycenaean to Byzantine times. Full exploration in Section ΒΘ East was prevented since the Byzantine walls could not yet be removed, but a trial trench ... 10 Jun-2 Aug 2013


[Agora Report] 2012 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2012 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in four areas during the 2012 season: three in the area of the Painted Stoa at the northwest corner of the Agora (sections ΒΗ, ΒΖ, ΒΘ), and one in the Panthenaic Way (section ... 11 Jun-3 Aug 2012


[Agora Report] 2011 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2011 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in three sections, two of them overlying the Painted Stoa (ΒΗ and ΒΘ) and one in the Panathenaic Way (ΒΓ). In Section ΒΓ, excavations were concentrated on the Panathenaic Way ... 13 Jun-5 Aug 2011


[Agora Report] 2010 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2010 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations took place in five sections: ΒΗ, ΒΘ, ΒΖ, Γ and Δ. In Section ΒΗ, excavation continued and late fills overlying the Stoa Poikile were cleared. A good cross-section of the stoa foundations was ... 15 Jun-6 Aug 2010


[Agora Report] 2009 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2009 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were conducted in four sections: Γ, ΒΘ, ΒΗ and ΒΖ. In Section Γ, the investigation of the Classical buildings south of the Tholos continued with the aim to find out if they were civil, commercial ... 8 Jun-31 Jul 2009


[Agora Report] 2008 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2008 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations took place in three sections, two north of Hadrian Street (ΒΗ and ΒΘ) and one in the old area south of the Tholos (Γ). In Section ΒΗ, layers in, over and behind the building identified as the ... 10 Jun-1 Aug 2008


[Agora Report] 2007 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2007 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavation continued this year in the sections ΒΖ, ΒΗ and Γ. In Section ΒΖ South, two areas were investigated: the north-south road and the areas west of the road. In the road, hard-packed gravel surfaces ... 13 Jun-3 Aug 2007

[Agora Report] 2006 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2006 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... This summer the 75th anniversary of the beginning of the excavations and the 50th anniversary of the reconstruction of the Stoa of Attalos were celebrated. Excavation were concentrated on two areas: northwest ... 13 Jun-4 Aug 2006

[Agora Report] 2005 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2005 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in three sections in the summer of 2005: BZ, BH and Γ. In section BZ, mostly Roman levels were excavated, dating from the 1st to the 5th centuries A.D. Much more of the north-south ... 13 Jun-5 Aug 2005

[Agora Report] 2004 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2004 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... All the work during the season 2004 was concentrated on the northwest corner of the Agora north of the Panathenaic Way. In BZ North, the last remains of Byzantine fills and walls were removed and Hellenistic, ... 7 Jun-16 Jul 2004

[Agora Report] 2003 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2003 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations in 2003 were carried out largely in the northwest corner of the Agora known as Section BZ. The area was divided into two parts: the north-south road and areas to the west, and east of the road ... 13 Jun-25 Jul 2003

[Agora Report] 2002 A Portrait of an Imperial Priest: A Portrait of an Imperial Priest

John McK. Camp II ... A Roman portrait head was found on the north slopes of the Acropolis. The crown on his head indicate that the man was a priest of the imperial cult. Imperial worship in Athens is attested as early as the ... 19-20 Jun 2002

[Agora Report] 2002 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2002 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations continued in the northwest corner of the Agora (sections ΒΕ and ΒΖ) and in the Eleusinion area (ΕΛ), and a trial trench was opened up in the Panathenaic Way (Σ). In section ΒΖ, the exploration ... 10 Jun-2 Aug 2002

[Agora Report] 2001 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2001 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out at the northwest of the Agora in sections ΒΖ and ΒΕ, and in the area of the Eleusinion in section ΕΛ. In Section ΒΖ, the investigation of the settlement of the 11th century ... 11 Jun-3 Aug 2001

[Agora Report] 2000 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 2000 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in three sections, two to the northwest, (ΒΖ and ΒΕ) and one to the southeast of the Agora square (ΕΛ). In Section ΒΖ the investigation of the remains of the 11th century settlement ... 6 Jun-28 Jul 2000

[Agora Report] 1999 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 1999 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Most of the work this season was concentrated in the northern half of Section ΒΖ where the Byzantine levels were further explored. Street walls along both sides of the north-south road were revealed and ... 7 Jun-30 Jul 1999

[Agora Report] 1998 Excavations: Preliminary Report on the 1998 Excavation Season

John McK. Camp II ... Most work this year was concentrated to a new area at the extreme northwest, where a modern building had been demolished. Fill from modern to Byzantine times were excavated. The principal feature uncovered ... 8 Jun-31 Jul 1998

[Agora Report] 1997 Excavations: Agora Excavations 1997 Season Preliminary Report

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in two separate areas: under the Middle Stoa in the Agora square, and just north of the northwest entrance of the Agora. The excavations produced material covering a wide chronological ... 10 Jun-1 Aug 1997

[Agora Report] 1996 Excavations: 1996 Excavation Summary

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in two areas: in early levels underneath the west end of the Middle Stoa, and in and around the Classical commercial building north of the Stoa Poikile. The result of the 1996 ... 10 Jun-2 Aug 1996

[Agora Report] 1995 Excavations: Agora Excavations 1995 Preliminary Report

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations continued in the areas of the Panathenaic Way, west of the Stoa Poikile, and in and around the Classical commercial building north of the Stoa Poikile. In the Panathenaic way the exploration ... 12 Jun-4 Aug 1995

[Agora Report] 1992 Excavations: Report on Excavations in the Athenian Agora 1992

T. Leslie Shear, Jr ... This is a report on the archaeological excavations in the Athenian Agora during 1992. The investigations continued in two areas: on the south side of Hastings Street and along the north side of Hadrian ... 8 Jun-7 Aug 1992

[Agora Report] 1991 Excavations: Report on Excavations in the Athenian Agora 1991

T. Leslie Shear, Jr ... This is a report on the archaeological field work conducted in the Athenian Agora during the period from December 1990 to December 1991. The actual excavation period was preceded by the demolition of a ... 10 Jun-9 Aug 1991


[Agora Report] 1990 Excavations: Report on Excavations in the Athenian Agora 1990

T. Leslie Shear, Jr ... This is a report on the archaeological field work conducted in the Athenian Agora during the period from December 1989 to December 1990. The actual excavation period was preceded by preparatory operations ... 4 Jun-3 Aug 1990

[Agora Report] 1972 ΒΔ: Excavation Summary Section ΒΔ: 1972

Stephen G. Miller ... With the exception of the removal of certain modern intrusions, the recovery of a few layers of a late Roman road, and the discovery of the westward continuation of the southern foundation of Roman Building ... 22 Mar-20 Jun 1972

[Agora Report] 1971 Topographical Notes: Topographical Notes: Northeast Corner of the Agora

S. G. Miller ... Two monuments, a milestone and a large poros base, discovered during earlier excavations, are discussed in an attempt to understand their purpose, history and original location.

[Agora Report] 1971 ΒΔ: Excavation Summary Section ΒΔ: 1971

Stephen G. Miller ... This season's work in Section ΒΔ was confined to the eastern half of the section. The area was somehow disturbed, partly by a trench dug by Koumanoudes in 1890. Remains of roads, drains and buildings were ... 22 Mar-21 Sep 1971

[Agora Report] 1971 Ω: Excavation Summary Section Ω: 1971

John McK. Camp II ... Roman House H was fully exposed and the underlying Early Roman and Greek remains were explored ... 22 Mar-27 May 1971

[Agora Report] 1970 ΒΔ: Excavation Summary. Section ΒΔ: 1970

Stephen G. Miller ... This is a report of the first year of excavation in Section ΒΔ, a problematic area due to its limitation by the railroad on the south and the Hadrian Street on the north, and to the disturbances made by ... 6 Mar-15 Aug 1970

[Agora Report] 1970 Ω: Excavation Summary Section Ω: 1970

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were centered around a large late Roman complex know as the Roman House H. In addition, a late Hellenistic cistern was dug under the northwest corner of the house ... 24 May-22 Aug 1970

[Agora Report] 1969 ΟΟ: Excavation Summary Section ΟΟ: 1969

John McK. Camp II ... Further excavations were conducted in Section ΟΟ, supplementing those done earlier. The large Roman complex, now known as the Southwest Bath, were completely explored. Cuts to the north of the building ... 13 May-6 Jul 1969

[Agora Report] 1969 Ω: Section Ω 1969

John McK. Camp II ... Excavations were carried out in the Late Roman complex known as Philosophical School C, and in House D, a private house of the 5th c. B.C. which underlies the north half of the school. A second house of ... 8 Jul-23 Aug 1969

[Agora Report] 1968 Κ: Excavation Summary Section K: 1968

S. Grobel ... Excavations in Section Κ were conducted in the Marble Worker's Establishment, a series of rooms grouped around a courtyard. A cistern-well was discovered and excavated, as was a pit and a pyre burial ... 17 Jun-17 Aug 1968

[Agora Report] 1968 ΟΟ: Excavation Summary Section ΟΟ 1968

M. Alison Frantz ... The excavation of the Roman Bath east of the Poros Building was resumed in order to clarify aspects on plan and chronology of the building. It was discovered that there had been a bath in the area from ... 17 Jun-31 Jul 1968

[Agora Report] 1967 Ε: Section Ε: 1967

T. Leslie Shear, Jr ... The campaign of 1967 included both excavation and architectural study of various monuments in Section Ε along the east side of the Great Drain. Excavation took place in and about the Peribolos of the Eponymous ... 4 Jun-2 Aug 1967

[Agora Report] 1966 Κ: Agora Excavation Summary 1966

Gerald Lalonde ... Excavation was carried out beneath the modern road south of the Theseion and the Southwest Fountain House. The purpose was to investigate the coarse of the roadway and its adjacent monuments at successive ... 4 Jul-2 Sep 1966

[Agora Report] 1961 Κ: 1961: Season's Report for Section K

Homer A. Thompson ... A report on the completing of the exploration of the Heliaia, the Southwest Fountain House and the southwest entrance to the Agora, as well as some work of conservation and path-making in the area ... 24 Jul-19 Aug 1961

[Agora Report] 1960 Κ: The Heiaia

Homer A. Thompson ... A summary account taking cognizance of the result of the exploration of the ancient building, the Heliaia, carried out in July and August, 1960 ... 15 Jul-5 Sep 1960

[Agora Report] 1959 Ψ: Section Ψ Supplementary Exploration: July-August 1959

Eugene Vanderpool ... Excavations in Section Ψ did not go to the bottom throughout the area; considerable masses of early fill were left. Instead, late disturbances and test cuts down to bedrock revealed enough of both stratification ... 29 Jul-20 Aug 1959

[Agora Report] 1958 Υ: Section Υ: 1958 Excavation Report

Dorothy Burr Thompson ... Two areas at the north foot of the Areopagus were uncovered. The first area did not yield much of interest due to modern disturbances. Excavations of a well, three pits and a water channel produced however ... 3 Mar-3 May 1958

[Agora Report] 1958 Φ: Excavation Report 1958

Dorothy Burr Thompson ... This report covers the excavations in the southwestern side of Section Φ and in the area under Aischanes Street. The section had been excavated down to the Classical level in the previous season. Part ... 12 Mar-15 May 1958

[Agora Report] 1957 Excavations Φ, Χ, Ψ: Sections Φ, Χ, Ψ, April-June 1957

A. L. Boegehold ... Three private dwellings, already known from the preliminary excavation of 1937, formed the major themes of the investigation this year: Southwest House, Polygonal House and Late Roman House and Water Channel ... 10 Mar-12 Aug 1957

[Agora Report] 1956 ΠΠ: Section ΠΠ March-June, 1956

A. Boegehold ... The ruins unearthed in section ΠΠ represent six roughly defined periods: 4th century B.C. to Hellenistic, Augustan, pre-Herulian, post-Herulian, Byzantine and Turkish. The results of the excavation are ... 20 Feb-29 Jun 1956

[Agora Report] 1954 Excavations ASCSA: Reports from ASCSA Excavations around Greece

John L. Caskey ... A general review of the ASCSA activities in the summer of 1954. The School's excavations at Lerna, the University of Chicago's excavation at Isthmia, and the University of Cincinnati's excavation at Pylos ... 25 Jun-2 Sep 1954

[Agora Report] 1954 Excavations Ζ, Κ, Μ, ΜΣ, Τ: Agora Excavations July-August 1954

Homer A. Thompson ... A general report on the activities at the Agora during the summer 1954. Modest excavations were carried out in the southwest and southeast corners of the square. The restoration of the Stoa of Attalos ... 1 Jul-31 Aug 1954

[Agora Report] 1954 Water Supply for Agora Park: Water Supply for the Agora Park

Eugene Vanderpool ... An account on the water supply situation for the Agora Park. Since the wells at the Agora would not provide enough water, the Water Company was approached and an estimation was presented on how to best ... 19 Aug 1959

[Agora Report] 1954 Ζ: Section Ζ, 1954 Excavation Report

Dorothy Burr Thompson ... The area excavated in 1954 fn Section Ζ φell within the Middle Stoa to the east, the Great Drain to the north and west, and the terrace walls to the south. Various parts had been previously excavated under ... 16 Apr-6 Jul 1954

[Agora Report] 1954 Κ: Section K Excavation Report: 1954

Eugene Vanderpool ... Report on the excavations of the Southwest Fountain House, the Aqueduct east of the Fountain House, and of the adjustments of levels at the southwest corner of the Middle Stoa ... 1 Apr-5 Jun 1954

[Agora Report] 1953 Κ: Section Κ 1953

Eugene Vanderpool ... Excavations was carried out in the building fill in the area south of the Middle Stoa, and in the area between the South Stoa and the Fountain House. Work was also done to the porch of the Fountain House ... 23 Feb-30 Jul 1953

[Agora Report] 1953 Συνοπτική Έκθεσις Πεπραγμένων: Συνοπτική Έκθεσις Πεπραγμένων

Sophokles Lekkas ... This report, written in Greek by the chief foreman of the Agora excavations, is a synopsis of supplementary work that took place in and around the excavation area. The works included, among others, demolition ... 22 Sep 1952-31 Jan 1953

[Agora Report] 1951 Excavations: Excavation in the Athenian Agora: 1951

Homer A. Thompson ... A report on the 1951 excavations presented at the Open Meeting of the ASCSA, March 20, 1952. Field work was concentrated in the market place proper, and large areas in the west, north central and southeastern ... 9 Apr-31 Aug 1951

[Agora Report] 1952 Excavations Ε, Η, Ν: Sections Ε, Ν, Η 1952

Homer A. Thompson ... Mycenaean graves were excavated in section Ε. Section Ν was disturbed by late pits, bothroi and walls. Excavation was carried out through Roman levels. The area seemed to have been leveled out and raised ... 4 Mar-31 May 1952

[Agora Report] 1951 Ε: Excavation and Cleaning along the East Side of the Great Drain, 1951

R. C. Wood ... There had been four major Byzantine dwelling units in the northern part of section Ε. Two of them had been removed during earlier campaigns. Excavations manage to establish the outline of the four houses, ... 9 Apr-7 Jul 1951

[Agora Report] 1951 Ζ: Section Ζ 1951

Homer A. Thompson ... The remaining pieces of the so-called Byzantine wall were removed, as well as a late Roman wall. Excavations in front of the Civic Offices revealed a hard road surface from the 3rd century A.D. More than ... 21 May-13 Jun 1951

[Agora Report] 1950 ΟΟ: Section ΟΟ: Excavation Summary February, 1950 The Poros Building

Margaret Crosby ... A report on the excavation of the Poros Building in Section ΟΟ. As a result of the investigation, the plan of the building, as suggested in 1948, was considerably modified. Revealed is a building with ... 21-26 Jun 1950


[Agora Report] 1949 ΟΟ: Section ΟΟ 1949 Grave Area

Margaret Crosby ... A report on the excavation in the immediate vicinity of the Early Geometric burial found in 1948 in Section ΟΟ. Two Geometric graves were uncovered, and also walls and drainage systems belonging to the ... 28 Mar-9 Nov 1949

[Agora Report] 1948 Excavations: Report on the Agora Excavations May, 1947-April, 1948

Homer A. Thompson ... A report on the activities in the Athenian Agora during the period May 1947 to April 1948. The 1947 excavation lasted from March 10 to November 1. The efforts were concentrated on completing the exploration ... 10 Mar-1 Nov 1947

[Agora Report] 1948 Excavations 6th Week Summary: Agora Excavations 1948 Fifth and Sixth Weeks: April 5 - April 17

Homer A. Thompson ... Report on the 5th and 6th week of the 1948 season in Section Κ. Excavations were carried out from 5-17 April 1948 and focused on the area of the Fountain House and the area west of the Aeropagus. E. Vanderpool ... 5-17 Apr 1948

[Agora Report] 1948 Excavations ΝΝ, ΞΞ: Sections ΝΝ-ΞΞ 1948 Early Houses

Rodney S. Young ... Excavations were confined to a strip on the west side of the Great Drain where four houses of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. were excavated and examined in their relationship to the Great Drain. In the ... 13 Mar-29 Apr 1948

[Agora Report] 1948 Κ: Section Κ 1948

Eugene Vanderpool ... The removal of a long narrow dike, formed by the modern Eponymon Street, was completed, and the ancient remains below were exposed for future exploration ... 8 Mar-24 Apr 1948

[Agora Report] 1948 ΟΟ: Section ΟΟ 1948

Margaret Crosby ... Work in Section ΟΟ was concentrated on the east and west ends of the north side of the section: parts of the ancient east-west street were explored; ca 20 meters of the Great Drain was clearly exposed; ... 8 Mar-26 Apr 1948

[Agora Report] 1948 ΠΠ: Section ΠΠ 1948

Mabel Lang ... The western and northern parts of Section ΠΠ were brought down to Roman level. Revealed were Roman houses (North House and South House), drains and roads (East-West Road with two drains underneath it, ... 16 Mar-29 Apr 1948

[Agora Report] 1947 ΝΝ: Section ΝΝ: 1947

Rodney S. Young ... Excavation continued in section ΝΝ with the aim of clearing the area for the new museum. Because of the unforeseen depth of filling, the area remained unfinished. Several features were dug and examined ... 10 Mar-3 Nov 1947


[Agora Report] 1947 ΟΟ: Section ΟΟ: Preliminary Summary 1947

Margaret Crosby, Eugene Vanderpool ... Excavations in Section ΟΟ were taken place in four parts: the modern and Turkish road levels were removed; a part of the Great Drain, and drains connected with it, were examined; high Roman levels of Building ... 17 Mar-14 Aug 1947

[Agora Report] 1947 ΠΠ: Section ΠΠ 1947 Season Preliminary Report

Arthur W. Parsons Margaret Crosby ... The early part of the excavation season in Section ΠΠ was concerned almost exclusively with the removal of the Asteroskopiou Street, a road going back to the 1st or 2nd century A.D. The work of the remainder ... 28 Apr-11 Aug 1947

[Agora Report] 1946 Excavations ΝΝ, ΞΞ: Sections ΝΝ - ΞΞ Excavation Summary 1946

Rodney S. Young ... The objective of this year's excavation was to clear the southern part of the section to bedrock. Features earlier investigated (the 6th century cemetery, the Hellenistic-Early Roman terrace and one large ... 31 May-14 Aug 1946

[Agora Report] 1946 Χ: Section X Miscellaneous Notes Compiled in Summer of 1946

Margaret Crosby ... This report is a summary of the excavations taken place in 1937 as well as in 1946. Some pottery indicate habitation in the area from the Geometric period. Two shallow graves of the 6th and 5th centuries ... 27 May-21 Jun 1946

[Agora Report] 1939 ΜΜ: Section ΜΜ Season of 1939

Homer A. Thompson ... Section Μ was to be refilled this year and supplementary explorations took place to resolve some remaining obscurities. The most significant discovery was a road running northwest-southeast, probably the ... 20 Feb-8 Apr 1939

[Agora Report] 1939 ΝΝ: Section ΝΝ Season of 1939

Rodney S. Young ... Section ΝΝ lies at the mouth of the valley between Pnyx and Areopagus, which was the important thoroughfare from the Agora to the Pnyx and to the southern parts of the city, as well as to the Piraeus Gate, ... 26 Sep 1938-24 Jun 1939

[Agora Report] 1939 Ψ: Section Ψ Season of 1939

Eugene Vanderpool ... During the 1939 campaign in Section Ψ, several wells were dug that had been discovered but left unfinished or undug in 1938: Great Hole and Early Well at 33/Z (N 18:8); Tiled Roman Well at 18/H (N 17:1); ... 11 Apr 1939

[Agora Report] 1939 ΩΔ: The Odeion

Homer A. Thompson ... The exploration of the Odeon was resumed and the remainder of the late accumulation around the foundations of both the Odeion and the overlying late Roman building were removed, and the pre-Odeion ground ... 1 Jun 1938-23 Jun 1939

[Agora Report] 1938 Excavations Β, ΟΕ: Area of the Tholos and Metroon Provisional Historical Sketch, June 1938

Eugene Vanderpool ... After some years of excavations in the area around the Tholos and the Metroon, this report outlines the development and the history of this part of the Agora. Only the notebook pages from the 1938 excavation ... 1 Mar-6 Jul 1938

[Agora Report] 1938 Ψ: Section Ψ Season of 1938

Eugene Vanderpool ... Finds from Section Ψ span from Turkish down to the Neolithic and Geometric times. Several wells and cisterns from various periods were found and explored. The most extensive remains in the section belong ... 24 Jan-18 Jun 1938

[Agora Report] 1938 Ω: Section Ω 1938

M. Crosby ... Section Ω lies in the east end of the north slope of the Areopagus, well to the southeast of the market square proper. Excavation showed, as expected, that the area was a residential district throughout ... 16 Jan-17 Jun 1938

[Agora Report] 1937 Excavations Η, Ρ: Sections Rho and Eta 1937

James H. Oliver ... Byzantine settlements in Sections Η and Ρ were removed and the foundations of the Temple of Ares exposed. The most noticeable feature was the road serving as the main thoroughfare in the neighborhood from ... 24 Feb 1937

[Agora Report] 1937 Tholos: Investigations in the Area of the Tholos 1937

Homer A. Thompson ... An overview of the work carried out in the area of the Tholos in 1937. The 6th century B.C. accumulation was stripped away revealing a complex of foundation walls, of limestone polygonal construction, ... 5 Apr 1937-21 Jul 1947

[Agora Report] 1937 ΛΛ: Section ΛΛ 1937 Excavation Summary

Dorothy Burr Thompson ... Excavations in Section ΛΛ revealed that the original contour of Kolonos Agoraios had been much sharper than in modern times. No traces of early graves were found in the area; first sign of habitation is ... 1 Feb-23 Jun 1937

[Agora Report] 1937 Ν: Section Ν 1937

R.H. Howland ... Report on the excavation in the northern end of Section Ν, which started at Byzantine level and went down to the first classical level. A strip of the Byzantine and Vandal road was the largest area exposed ... 25 Jan-30 Mar 1937

[Agora Report] 1937 Υ: Section Υ 1937 Excavation Summary

Rodney S. Young ... Section Υ had suffered from modern leveling operations and in some parts there were no visible antiquities. In the southeast corner were traces of Proto-Geometric grave cuttings. Excavation revealed the ... 1 Oct 1936-24 Apr 1937

[Agora Report] 1937 Φ: Section Φ Season of 1937

Eugene Vanderpool ... In antiquity the area included in Section Φ lay outside the Agora proper and were apparently occupied only by houses and small buildings. The earliest period of which any considerable remains were found ... 25 Jan-17 Jun 1937

[Agora Report] 1937 Χ: Section Χ 1937

Margaret Crosby ... The area signified as Section Χ lays outside the Agora proper and no signs of any public buildings were found. The area seems to have been used for private houses from the end of the 6th c. B.C. Apart ... 25 Jan-18 May 1937

[Agora Report] 1936 ΚΚ: ΚΚ Excavation Report 1936

Dorothy Burr Thompson ... Section ΚΚ, the area inside the modern fence around the so-called Theseion, was cleared to bedrock in order to determine the entire history of that portion of Kolonos Agoraios. Excavation revealed that ... 10 Feb-13 Mar 1936

[Agora Report] 1936 ΜΜ: Section ΜΜ Summaries for 1936

Homer A. Thompson ... Three main ancient features were excavated within Section ΜΜ: the North Stoa, the South Building and the ancient East-West Street passing between the two buildings. After the destruction of the buildings, ... 10 Feb-25 May 1936

[Agora Report] 1935 ΟΕ: Gleanings from the West Side of the Agora Spring of 1935, Section ΟΕ

Homer A. Thompson ... An account, based on archaeological evidence so far discovered, on some of the buildings in the west side of the Agora: Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios and vicinity, Sanctuary of Apollo Patroos, Sanctuary of ... 27 Jan 1934-30 May 1935

[Agora Report] 1935 ΩΔ: The Odeum

Homer A. Thompson ... A rectangular building with poros foundations was excavated in the central part of the eastern area of the excavation. The southwest corner, lying in Section Μ, was excavated in 1934 and the rest of the ... 2 Apr-27 Jun 1935

[Agora Report] 1934 Β: 1. The Tholos. A Brief Sketch of the History of the Building as Revealed by the Excavations of 1934 2. The Bouleuterion

Eugene Vanderpool ... A report mainly about the results of the excavations of the Tholos and the Bouleuterion, but a notebook index attached refer to all features excavated during 1934. A list of coins associated with the construction ... 15 Jan-19 May 1934

Open Access Journal: CEDRUS: Akdeniz Uygarlıkları Araştırma Dergisi

[First posted in AWOL 29 November 2015, updated 11 December 2019]

CEDRUS: Akdeniz Uygarlıkları Araştırma Dergisi
ISSN: 2147-8058
e-ISSN: 2148-1431
Akdeniz Uygarlıkları Araştırması Enstitüsü tarafından hazırlanan Cedrus, Tür­kiye tarihsel coğrafyası perspektifinde Akdeniz Hav­zası’nın kültür-tarih birikimini inceleyen Eskiçağ, Ortaçağ ve Yeni-Yakınçağ tarihi uzmanları için tartışma zemini bulacakları disiplin­lerarası bir süreli yayın olmayı hedeflemektedir. CEDRUS, farklı disiplinlerden gelen bilim insanları arasında diyaloğun geliştirilmesi, var olan bilginin güncellenmesi ve yaygınlaştırıl­ması süreçlerine katkı sağlayacak özgün ve bilim­sel çalışmaları akademi dünyasının ilgisine sun­mayı amaçlar. CEDRUS uluslararası hakemli bir dergi olup yılda bir kez yayımlanır.

The aim of the CEDRUS: The Journal of Mediterranean Civilisations Studies, an interdisciplinary publication, is to offer a forum for discussion to researchers focusing upon the Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern and Modern Periods and for the analysis of the cultural-historical background of the Mediterranean Basin within the extensive perspective of Turkey’s historical geography. CEDRUS aims to bring together original academic studies that can contribute to the process of developing shared perspectives and approaches between scholars from different disciplines and of revising and synthesizing the currently available knowledge for the attention of the academic world. Cedrus is a peer-reviewed journal published each year.

Hakkı Levent KESKİN
Cedrus VII (2019) 1-39. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201901
Geliş Tarihi: 04.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 29.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 41-58. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201902
Geliş Tarihi: 04. 05.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 01.06.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 59-76. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201903
Geliş Tarihi: 18.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 24.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 77-105. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201904
Geliş Tarihi: 11.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 02.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 107-121. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201998
Geliş Tarihi: 02.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 13.03.2019

Öz & Abstract

Mustafa BULBA
Cedrus VII (2019) 123-167. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201906
Geliş Tarihi: 25.12.2018 | Kabul Tarihi: 01.02.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 169-194. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201907
Geliş Tarihi: 03.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 14.03.2019

Öz & Abstract

Ayşen SİNA
Cedrus VII (2019) 195-214. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201908
Geliş Tarihi: 17.05.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 10.06.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 215-237. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201909
Geliş Tarihi: 01.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 07.03.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 239-265. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201910
Geliş Tarihi: 16.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 04.04.2019

Abstract & Öz

Cedrus VII (2019) 267-298. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201911
Geliş Tarihi: 03.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 15.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 299-331. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201912
Geliş Tarihi: 18.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 02.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Nizam ABAY & Cüneyt ÖZ
Cedrus VII (2019) 333-344. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201913
Geliş Tarihi: 11.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 06.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 345-364. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201914
Geliş Tarihi: 05.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 15.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 365-387. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201915
Geliş Tarihi: 19.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 01.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 389-414. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201916
Geliş Tarihi: 07.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 02.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Mesut KINACI & Kansu EKİCİ
Cedrus VII (2019) 415-439. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201917
Geliş Tarihi: 12.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 06.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus (2019) 441-448. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201918
Geliş Tarihi: 03.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 25.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Handegül CANLI
Cedrus VII (2019) 449-461. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201919
Geliş Tarihi: 16.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 25.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 463-485. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201920
Geliş Tarihi: 10.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 20.04.2019

Abstract & Öz

Cedrus VII (2019) 487-496. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201921
Geliş Tarihi: 29.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 05.06.2019

Abstract & Öz

Cedrus VII (2019) 497-510. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201922
Geliş Tarihi: 02.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 08.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 511-543. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201923
Geliş Tarihi: 05.05.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 02.06.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 545-555. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201924
Geliş Tarihi: 13.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 25.03.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 557-573. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201925
Geliş Tarihi: 05.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 19.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Fevziye EKER
Cedrus VII (2019) 575-587. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201926
Geliş Tarihi: 20.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 19.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 589-605. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201927
Geliş Tarihi: 12.02.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 16.03.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 607-625. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201928
Geliş Tarihi: 10.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 17.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 627-662. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201929
Geliş Tarihi: 27.12.2018 | Kabul Tarihi: 01.02.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 663-679. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201930
Geliş Tarihi: 13.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 04.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 681-694. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201931
Geliş Tarihi: 06.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 20.05.2019

Öz & Abstract

Serkan KILIÇ
Cedrus VII (2019) 695-703. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201999
Geliş Tarihi: 01.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 04.04.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 705-721. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201933
Geliş Tarihi: 19.04.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 01.06.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cengiz MUTLU
Cedrus VII (2019) 723-740. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201934
Geliş Tarihi: 02.05.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 07.06.2019

Öz & Abstract

Cedrus VII (2019) 741-755. DOI: 10.13113/CEDRUS.201997
Geliş Tarihi: 05.03.2019 | Kabul Tarihi: 02.05.2019

Öz & Abstract


José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

Etimología de Oncineda

Andaba mirándome el mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional que he enlazado en la página Estella de Wikipedia y me he dado con el paraje de Oncineda. No sé por qué, se me ha ocurrido investigar su etimología y ha sido coser y cantar. Y aquí la traigo, porque no es la que muchos parecen dar por hecha.

Oncineda parece una corrupción de un supuesto *Encineda o bosque de encinas. Pero en etimología que una solo vocal no encaje es razón suficiente para sospechar, y para descartar una etimología si se encuentra otra mejor. Movido de esa sospecha le he preguntado a Google si encuentra algo que me cuadre, y me ha dicho que sí, que Oncina de la Valdoncina en León, sin ir más lejos. Lo bueno es que la etimología de ese topónimo ya está identificada a la perfección. Viene del latín uncus ‘gancho’, que da un adjetivo femenino uncina ‘curvada, ganchuda’ que puede referirse a un camino, a una villa o a un río curvado y puede convertirse en un sustantivo ‘curva’. La explicación le viene a Oncineda que ni pintada, porque el topónimo nombra al paraje que está al otro lado del río, más allá de la curva pronunciada que traza el río Ega en Los Llanos.

Para entender la adición del sufijo -eda, solo queda suponer que, una vez dejó de usarse como nombre común el término uncina ‘curvada’, los hablantes entendieron que el topónimo Oncina era una forma deformada del término encina, y como no habría una sino muchas en el lugar, como ocurre hoy en toda la comarca de Tierra Estella, lo convirtieron en bosque añadiendo el sufijo -eda que se usa en «fresneda», «olmedo», etc.

Recoge José María Jimeno Jurío en su artículo «Estella/Lizarra. Toponimia» estas variantes documentadas: Olzineda (1287); Onzineda, Oncineda (C.m.a.: 1524); Honçineda (1673); Oncinera (1674); Onçineda junto a la Cruçijada (1674); Onceneda (1675). Solo la primera supone una dificultad: la /l/ sugiere que el topónimo deriva del latín vulgar ilicina ‘encina’, un derivado tardío del latín clásico ilex. Pero la presencia desde el principio del sufijo -eda indica que la confusión de oncina ‘curva’ con encina —si es que la hubo, ojo— ya había ocurrido en época medieval.

Digo yo.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Humanity's Oldest Cave Art Shows Shape-Shifting Supernatural Hunters

Researchers discovered cave paintings depicting what may be part-animal, part-human figures — decked...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Romans One by One

Romans One by One
Welcome to Romans1by1!
Romans 1by1 is a population database recording people identified in Greek and Roman epigraphy. The areas integrally covered at this point are the provinces of Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior, Dacia and Pannonia Superior.
Notes & Feedback
Romans 1by1 is a dynamic tool and can be considered a constant work in progress If you encounter any errors or broken functionality, please get in touch with the editors (Contact Us). User feedback is vital for the successful development of the platform.
Terms of use:
The information available through Romans 1by1 is published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence.
Citation model: copy URL link for the personal file (as, where 526 is the person’s unique ID)

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

Symbolic Egyptian Head Cones Were A Reality, Archaeologists Find

Beeswax cones have been found for the first time in ancient Egyptian graves, sparking discussion about their purpose.

The Archaeology News Network

Roman-era shipwreck discovered off coast of Greek island of Kefalonia

A Roman shipwreck, dating to the time of Jesus Christ, has been found near Kefallonia, an Ionian island of Greece. Greek scientists published the findings from the ‘Fiscardo’ shipwreck in the Journal of Archaeological Science. Credit: Ionian Aquarium (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Known as Fiscardo, due to its close proximity to a fishing village of the same name, the shipwreck is dated from the 1st...

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The Heroic Age

*REMINDER: CALL FOR PAPERS Eighth Annual Symposium on Medieval and
Renaissance Studies June 15-17, 2020*

*Proposal Deadline: December 31, 2019 *Saint Louis University
Saint Louis, Missouri

This is a reminder that the deadline for proposal submissions for the Eighth
Annual Symposium on Medieval and Renaissance Studies
<> (June 15-17, 2020) is fast approaching, so get
your abstracts ready! We invite proposals for papers, complete sessions,
and roundtables. Any topics regarding the scholarly investigation of the
medieval and early modern world are welcome. Papers are normally twenty
minutes each and sessions are scheduled for ninety minutes. Scholarly
organizations are especially encouraged to sponsor proposals for complete
sessions. The goal of the Symposium is to promote serious scholarly
investigation into all topics and in all disciplines of medieval and early
modern studies. The Symposium is also host to the 47th Annual Saint Louis
Conference on Manuscript Studies
the longest-running annual conference in North America. Opportunities for
undergraduate submissions are also available via the *Tirones Mediaevales*
sessions – see the website <> for more

The *plenary speakers* for this year will be *David Abulafia*, of Cambridge
University, and *Barbara Rosenwein*, of Loyola University, Chicago.

The deadline for all submissions is *December 31, 2019*. *Late submissions
will be considered if space is available.* Decisions will be made in
January and the final program will be published in February.

For more information or to *submit your proposal online* go to:

The Archaeology News Network

Researchers analyze Paleo-Indian artifacts to better understand ancient dietary practices

New research from anthropologists at McMaster University and California State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB), is shedding light on ancient dietary practices, the evolution of agricultural societies and ultimately, how plants have become an important element of the modern diet. An ancient bowl found at La Consentida, Mexico [Credit: Shanti Morell-Hart]Researchers examined plant remains found on ceramic artifacts such as bowls,...

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Isotope analysis from 1,400-year-old Maya mass grave of Uxul points to prisoners of war

Several years ago, Maya archaeologists from the University of Bonn found the bones of about 20 people at the bottom of a water reservoir in the former Maya city of Uxul, in what is now Mexico. They had apparently been killed and dismembered about 1,400 years ago. Did these victims come from Uxul or other regions of the Maya Area? Dr. Nicolaus Seefeld, who heads the project that is funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation at the University...

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Archaeological News on Tumblr

Gold and Jewels Found on Minoan Island Devoted to the Color Purple

A storehouse of ancient treasures, including precious jewels and gold beads, has been uncovered by...

L’Association Française pour l’étude de l’âge du Fer (Le Blog de l'AFEAF)

Appel à communication – Le caché dévoilé. Technologies LiDAR et 3D appliquées à la recherche architecturale dans l’archéologie des âges des métaux

La Commission Scientifique « Âges des métaux en Europe » de l’UISPP organise un colloque sur les technologies LiDAR et 3D appliquées à la recherche architecturale en archéologie des âges des métaux. Le colloque se déroulera du 6 au 9 juin 2020 à Ávila (Espagne). -Le caché dévoilé. Technologies LiDAR et 3D appliquées...

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

The Bakken Hundreds (A Draft)

Over the last week or so, Bret Weber and I have been working on a little article for an edited collection called “Archaeology Out of the Box.” Our work has been inspired by Lauren Berlant’s and Kathleen Stewart’s book, The Hundreds and, as I blogged about last week, it involves 100 word insights into our field work drawn from our field notes, interviews, published pieces, and photographs.

The piece isn’t done, but it’s far enough along to share, I think. To my mind, this piece is among the most compelling that we’ve put together. At the same time, I suspect we’ll work to balance the sensational with the everyday as we add a few more “hundreds” to assemblage, but the rhythm of encounters presented here feel quite authentic to me.


The Bakken Hundreds

The Bakken Hundreds is an experiment in understanding six seasons of archaeological fieldwork in North Dakota’s Bakken oil patch (2012-2018). Our study focused in particular on workforce housing during the Bakken boom and involved both archaeological documentation and hundreds of hours of interviews. The authors alternated presenting 100 word statements from our notebooks, interviews, and publications loosely following the method of composition used by Lauren Berlant and Kathleen Stewart in their book, The Hundreds (2019). The passages offer a window into the material and social conditions of the Bakken as well as the authors’ reading of these conditions. 

(MC 65) Riker Brown, Camp Owner, August 21, 2013, ($106.42–West Texan Intermediate Crude Price per Barrel at that time)

RB :Right. So we went with the RVs and actually, this is like a family park. We have kids on bikes and dogs. We promote families, dogs, kids. So it’s temporary housing but some of these people bring their families for the summer and they’ll go back for the winter, but they’ll stay here.

Bret Weber (BW): Mom and the kids are here when school’s out?

RB: Right.


(MC 40) Camp Manager, July 31, 2015 ($47.12)

The owner was interested in transitioning the RV park to a more permanent mobile home park. This involved fixing significant code violations – especially the water and sewage pipes being in the same trench – and installing a $500,000 septic system. Camp makes no money. Despite the optimism, the camp appears rather rough with abandoned RVs, lots of abandoned equipment, and a run down playground. Some trash. Owner noted the difficulties in keeping the camp clean. Thinking of installing wind breaks, trees, and snow fences. – Caraher Notes on Blaisdell RV Park 


(MC 75) Diane Skillman, camp resident, October 4, 2014 ($89.74)

DS: Well I think everybody keeps a bit of water running just to keep it from freezing. Although, they did freeze up there at the other end.

BW: Is that the water tank over there?

DS: No, that’s the poop tank. [laughs]

BW: Oh, so where do you get your water from then … it’s ground water?

DS: Yeah, he has a well and everybody is pumped into that, and then he’s got, well last year that froze 


To enter Stanley proper, turn left from old US 2 onto MainStreet. About a half mile south, Main Street passes beneath the Highline, which is carried on a deck-girder concrete bridge dating to the 1930s. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, reflecting the importance of rail to this part of the state. Today, Amtrak’s Empire Builder continues to serve Stanley from a small, modern railway station on the east side of Main Street. Farther south on Main Street is the Two Way Inn and Bar, which offers a delicious patty melt in authentic surroundings for the oil patch.

Caraher and Weber 2017, 41.


(MC 14) William Nelson, camp resident and ‘fisherman,’ Aug 11 2012 ($85.38)

WN:  I’m a consultant and my specialty is fishing. When they lose things in holes, I fish

it out. It’s not everybody’s favorite but… people on rigs don’t want to see me coming but when they need me, then there it is.


(MC 14) Don Ashton, owner of the land under the camp, Oct 28 2016 ($48.70). 

Well, I bought the land in ’85. I’ve been living here since ’81. All the investors come out of

South Dakota, Rapid City, to see if I wanted to do kind of trailers … they said they were gonna put in water and sewer for ‘em, and that never happened … They had big dreams and everything. I gave them a longer term lease, cause they said, oh they wanted long, you know, maybe do it a motel or a hotel, so they figured maybe 10 acres or so … Then I found out they were trying to sell this 110 acres out from underneath me and I got pissed off and took them to court. 


(MC 77) Juan Gonzales, camp resident, May 3, 2015 ($59.15) : 

It’s not easy, you know, living out here, but, I mean it is a good way- me, for example, I’m

young, I started out at a young year, it’s a good way so I can get a good start at life and then, invest in a home where I’m going to be able to live and move on later as soon as everything calms down here. I think a lot of people are taking advantage of it and making the best of all this stuff and they’re gonna-whoever’s taking good advantage of it is gonna be making- is gonna have a good future.



MC 77, March 6, 2015 ($49.61) Photo W. Caraher.


(MC 10) Eugenio & Adelina, Camp residents, Feb 9, 2013 ($95.72)

Eliseo- For people that want to just work and come home and sleep, you know it’s a nice little place to stay at, but you know, there’s, you have to watch out who you live around, you know, you can’t trust a lot of people— 

Ariel- It’s good money but everything else is so dang expensive that you can make the same anywhere else—


(MC 10) David Donaldson, camp resident July 11, 2015 ($52.74). 

I heard there used to be a lot of meth out here, but you know, nothing that I ever really had a problem with [it], so. But yeah, you know, just a million different personalities and people living with their kids and family, and a lot of drinking and fighting, just, I’ve seen pretty much everything you can possibly think of out here, that just random stuff. You come home and everybody’s just got chairs set up around your camper having a fire outside your camper, and you can’t get any sleep and, blowing flames out of their mouth with alcohol in front of the little kids… 


Gene Veeder, Executive-Director McKenzie County, Jobs Development Authority, August 11, 2014 ($97.65)

your law enforcement and your sheriff’s department are all transporting so it’s pretty hard for them to, if they have to go to even Bismarck, you know, it’s an all-day trip and their entire trip is spent transporting prisoners so it’s way more costly than we originally thought.

BW: What’s the local police force, the size?

GV: We have city and county. We have gone from 6 sheriff deputies to 19. Police force went from 2 to 9. We’ve always got openings of course too.


(MC 40) Donny Bringwatt, camp resident–just arrived from Texas, January 16, 2016 ($29.42)

BW: Right. So when the work starts what will the work cycle be? How many days on, how many days off?

DB: [inaudible] 

BW: I don’t know what that means.

DB: It means you start in the mornings, and you work till, however many hours a day you can work … seven days a week

BW: Yeah

DB: We’re here to work, we’re not here to, you know

BW: … well right now, you’re not working, so you’re cooking a ham, what else do you do when you-?

DB: [inaudible] [laughs] I’m just cookin’ a ham, I’m gonna eat it [laughs] Play dominos, play poker.


(MC 28) Will Oldman & his roomate, Feb 19 2013 ($93.13) 

WO: As long as you don’t go to the strip clubs from what I hear (laughs) I’ve heard some pretty horrible stories about some strip club, I think it was in Watford, closed it down because guys were getting raped in the bathroom, viscously I mean— 

Roomate: Crime has gone up almost 100% around here, compared to what it ever was, just a quiet town where you could leave your keys in your door open, keys in your car and stuff like that, nowadays you can’t do that and uh not only that but the women that are here fear for their lives …


(MC 11) Description of the material outside two units, August 10, 2012 ($92.87).

Massive built deck, grill, plants, fence, dog run. stone, satellite tv, ramp leading to deck, potted plants, hanging plants, plywood around the base of a planted tree. Scrap wood underneath various garden features, propane tanks, table set on cinderblocks, outdoor bed, tarp, pallets, trashcan.

Pallet deck, kids toys, wading pool, small table, camp chairs (some kids sized), potted plants, plywood, small fence between unit and road, toy truck, strange tubs, propane tanks, water jugs, grill, cooler, satellite TV.


(MC 11) Angela & Bob Williams, December 13, 2014 ($57.81) 

AW: Lots of insulation. That, you’ll find a ton throughout the park. Any insulation, any wood. If you can get their hands on it they’ll take it. So many people skirting and mudrooms are built from recycled materials. You know, it’s just used over and over and over.

Ben W: It’s like, ‘well I’m moving if you want it, and make a little modifications,’ you know.

AW: If it’s coveted, everyone wants a mudroom. If you leave behind a mudroom…

Ben W: But now they knock the mudrooms down, they don’t give people opportunity to take them anymore.


Mudroom Guidelines

1. Mudrooms require plans be submitted to Park Management.
2. Mudrooms smaller than 5×10 may be made and will require no deposit.
3. Any Mudrooms larger than 5×10 will require an additional $300 clean-up deposit.
4. Maximum Mudroom size is 20×8.
5. Maximum height of Mudroom is no higher than the RV.
6. No Mudroom additions may fully enclose the trailer (may not extend over the top).
7. RV must be able to be removed from lots without obstructions (no part of any mudroom may extend behind or in front of RV).

Posted at MC 11, dated November 7, 2012 ($86.07)


Barb Bendle, Aug 10, 2012 ($92.87) MC11

Mudrooms yeah. We do check them out and make sure they meet the fire code and that they’re not built shoddily, so that if the wind comes up 80 mph, it’s not going to blow away. That’s what we do. Right. So it’s safe for people. So it’s not blowing down and hitting the next trailer or anything. My husband looks at their plot plans that we have them draw. Little plan telling us what they want to do and then we usually okay it because you know, we want them to have a little piece of land.  (trying to light a lighter/cigarette in the wind)




Roy Harrison & Garfield Washington, July 11, 2015 ($52.74), the RV Graveyard

BW: So you’re bringing trailers when people abandon them?

RH: Yeah, when people abandon their vehicles and whatnot… We had other things we were doing, but this was the most cost effective way. We were taking an excavator and we were crushing them and cycling the metal and the wood out and putting them in different dumpsters and just having them hauled off that way, just picking them all up at once and just shoving them in a dumpster and trashing it.

MW: Well during the wintertime if we are lucky we burn them.

BW: Who- Does the county allow you to do that?

MW: They did let you burn, when you know, when you can, with the snow, and (when) the wind’s not gonna affect it, and the land around it…


IMG 2951

Battery tank explosion near Alexander, ND from March 7, 2015 ($49.61).


Bret Weber, first trip to the Bakken, Jan 31, 2012 ($99.56)

We drove west out of town on Hwy 23, went south on 22, and then looped back west (probably on hwy 73), then north eventually turning east again on hwy 23.  We seemed to pass a number of smaller, ad hoc ‘man camp’ areas with various vehicles and RVs. The main thing that we witnessed was the night sky illuminated by dozens of flares—15-20 foot flames that burst straight into the air to burn off the natural gas that wells produce.


P1140668Photo of a memorial set up to Brendan Wegner who died in a well blow out in September 14, 2011 ($87.96) (photo from August 1, 2015 ($47.12)).


Clark Brewsman Feb 2013 ($95.72)  MC4 “The longest I ever worked was 57 hours, with a two hour nap. You don’t want to do it, but when the oil’s coming out of the ground it won’t stop and it needs to be tended to.”


(MC 16) Sally Burnick, camp resident October 28th, 2016 ($48.70)

SB: When the oil, when the oil tanked up there, and the oil went away, I lost my job, his overtime got cut, so our primary home, we couldn’t afford the big mortgage on it anymore, so that got foreclosed on, and we had another little rental house that we sold at a huge loss.

BW: So, how much stuff did you bring with you?

SB: We got rid of a lot of our stuff, like almost, we had a 3,000 square foot house, we got rid of almost all the furniture, almost all the artwork … Most of our stuff is in a storage shed packed into our horse trailer, um, we kept a couch, TV, entertainment center, DVDs, you know, knick knacks we were really fond of, family heirlooms … Everything else went, so we’re down to what’s in the horse trailer, our storage shed, our boat, and our camper [laughs]


Mark, Aug 9, 2012 ($92.87), MC8

M: They guaranteed 60 hours a week and holiday pay. 

BW: You’ve been here a month, have you ever worked 60 hours a week?

M: No. I’ve only worked 1 week so far. One full week.  I can’t stay much longer because I’m going broke. When I show up every morning, they give me 2 hours for showing up. And this week, so far, I have 6 hours. So I can’t make it. I’m buying my own food and paying rent and trying to pay bills at home … I’m getting the hell out of North Dakota.


Camp 8 August 2012 aerial  72 of 232

A kite photograph of MC8 outside Tioga, North Dakota. Note the regular arrangement of units, the elevated walkways between units, and the small common building with a flat roof in the center right of the image. (Photo by R. Rothaus, 2012.) 


Claudia Nielsen Aug 10 2012 ($92.87) MC10

CN: He’s from San Antonio, Texas. I met him while I was bartending, of course, I wasn’t drinking but I was working. What else do you do out here besides work and drink? So we just hung out a couple times and actually he proposed to me after about a week so, it happened really really fast. But when you know, you know.  We’re both out of 6-year marriages and I have actually, my kids are in Helena, Montana. Yeah he’s a very successful man so it’s going really well. He was in a mancamp actually so he’s enjoying the freedom of sharing my camper with me now.


(MC 65) Riker Brown, Camp Owner near Watford City, August 2, 2015 ($41.80)

BW: Are you seeing changes in the people who are living here now from a couple years ago?

RB: I’d say a lot of change. A lot more families, a lot more couples. 

BW: More permanent?

RB: More permanent. Or there’s, like the guys been out here so the next time he can bring his wife out, he’s kind of got it figured out, he’s got it like, he’s got an RV park, so then they bring, or have their wives come on out. Yeah. But first it was way more, you know, single guys, three guys living in a trailer, you know, but now, we’re seeing way more families.


Sue Christiansen Aug 9 2012 ($93.36) MC6

SC: Like the living conditions are terrible here. Like people are shitting behind, in the trees, past the trees right there. There’s flies everywhere… We’re like brothers, like a family, brothers and sisters out here, like a family. We’re close, tight-knit family. Like all my men, like I owned, I own a construction company called Christianson Construction so we were working, we were all contracted in Idaho but a bunch of just got together. My husband and his boss decided to uh come up here by themselves in the winter last year. It was terrible in the winter too. Terrible fricking conditions.


(MC 10) Richard Scrum, Camp Owner in Wheelock, ND, August 10, 2012 ($92.87)

RS: Well I had to put in power and water and sewer. The campers had full hookups here. It took me a while. I did it all by cash. I don’t use credit so I did everything in cash. Anything you do is really expensive out here. They want, for example, my well is bad here. They messed it up, the previous owners messed it up one night and I uh put $6,000 into fixing it and didn’t get it fixed yet. They said I have to put another $10,000 into just drilling a new well. I haven’t done it. I just put in a holding tank and I haul my water from Ray. It’s uh, there’s no city services here. The power’s the only city service and gas, I guess, we do have natural gas which is nice. But as far as water and sewer, you’re on your own.


With the collapse of oil prices in 2014, our work in the Bakken has come to focus increasingly on various forms of abandonment, as the number of temporary workers in the Bakken declined concurrently with the oil-rig count. Numerous coffee-makers in an abandoned RV revealed signs of methamphetamine use, trashed trailers smeared with human feces showed frustration and anger, and squatters’ occupying empty rooms at defunct crew camps reflect a shifting reality.

Caraher, Weber, Rothaus 2017, 200.


(MC 16) Shana Berritt, newcomer and camp resident, October 28, 2016 ($49.72)

SB: Um, don’t count on the oil field.

BW: Don’t count on an oil field?

SB: Don’t count on it, um, when it’s good it’s great, but when it tanks, it affects an entire community, if you haven’t been smart about it, you haven’t squirreled any money away, you’re going to be in trouble when it all drops off. [laughs] we learned the hard way, um, you know, my dad has seen the oil field rise and fall a couple times, and he kinda tried to warn us, but, you know, we said the oil field is so big, it’s going to last forever [laughs]


Our approach to documenting workforce housing drew on recent directions in archaeology and architectural history. First, archaeology of the contemporary world informed our work, and particularly this subfield’s interest in sites of short-term or ephemeral occupation. Zimmerman’s (2010) archaeology of homelessness, the archaeology of contemporary protest sites, photographic documentation of graffiti, and the archaeology of tourism collectively demonstrate how archaeological approaches to contemporary sites of contingency have the potential to inform issues of immediate social and political concern (Schofield and Anderton 2000; Graves-Brown and Schofield 2011; Kiddey and Schofield 2011, 2014).

Caraher, et al. 2017.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

These mysterious Egyptian head cones actually existed, grave find reveals

Look closely at paintings of ancient Egyptians and you might spot something strange: cones the size...

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

#Thelxinoe ~ Your Morning Salutatio for December 11, 2019

Hodie est a.d. III Id. Dec. 2772 AUC ~ 15 Poseideion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

In the News

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Classicists and Classics in the News

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Fresh Bloggery

Fresh Podcasts

The (actually kind of) thrilling story of a weaving contest between a goddess and a woman challenging the cruelty and tyranny of the Olympians leads us into three stories: Pandora’s box; the great flood of the Grecian world; and the love story of Idas and Marpessa, two people who saw the gods taking whatever and whoever they wanted, and said “no.”

Book Reviews

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Professional Matters


‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

If it thunders today, it portends a hot summer and many imports from foreign lands.

… adapted from the text and translation of:

Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

Archaeology in Poetry, Poetry in Archaeology

Time, and particularly the problem of the recoverability of the past in the present, has been a major theme in poetry, at least since the emergence of romanticism. In Four Quartets, T.S Eliot explores the possibility of seeing ‘time past’ through the experience of particular places. George Seferis’s The King of Asine focuses more concretely on the present-day remains of the least famous of Homer’s cities, Asine in the Argolid. Anne Carson’s work is replete with fragments from different times which are brought together and reordered, without fusing into a timeless whole.

Often it is poetry, whether that of Holderlin or of Pindar, that provides the lens through which the remains of the past (in Heidegger’s case the sanctuary of Olympia) can be re-experienced. In some cases, the gap between time past and time present is emphasised – the past is irrecoverable and can only be experienced poetically. A radically different approach has been taken by J.H. Prynne, perhaps the most ‘difficult’ of contemporary poets writing in English, who has explored the concepts that archaeologists (ranging from Gordon Childe, to James B. Griffin and Richard Bradley) use in their interpretations of the past.

This session seeks to explore the potential of these links. What are the resources and limitations of the attempt to re-experience the past ‘poetically’? What does it mean for archaeological practices and concepts to be explored in poetry and criticism? How might archaeology best learn from and draw on the resources of poetry? What can be learned from comparative reflection on the processes and procedures of the poet, the archaeologist, and the literary critic? How do poetry and archaeology represent conflicting or complementary responses to the phenomenon of the fragment? This session will explore the ways in which poetry and archaeology can, perhaps together, explore the relationship between time present and time past.

Organisers: James Whitley (Cardiff University) and Josh Robinson (Cardiff University)

In Cimmerian Darkness: An archaeological reading of J.H. Prynne

J.H. Prynne is well known for his sometimes oblique references to general issues in archaeology. ‘A Note on Metal’ contains some very specific references to both Childe and J.B. Griffin, and can be interpreted as a standalone example of archaeological theory as well as being a poem. This paper, however, explores one of his earlier poems where there is no apparent reference to anything archaeological: ‘In Cimmerian Darkness’. If the poem is ‘about’ anything (a general difficulty with any poem by Prynne) it is about astronomy. This paper argues that it also references, through its title, a variety of archaeological issues. The reference here is to something specific to be found in the Fitzwilliam museum in Cambridge (the Brough stone from Westmoreland). In this way, this poem too is saying something about the relationship between ‘time present and time past’. It is perhaps an illustration that, in poetry, time is not linear (like a string) but somehow crumpled up – points in time, in different periods, intersect. This paper will try to explore the implications of this for archaeological interpretation in general.

James Whitley (Cardiff University)

Burial and Poetry: Exploring the limits of a metaphor

Both burials and poems are sites of careful crafting which remain richly expressive and emotive long after their compositional moment has passed. Archaeologists often speak of ‘reading’ burials and Martin Carver, in his contribution to Treasure in the Medieval West (2000), has argued that burials are poetry. Nevertheless, the ‘language’ in which they are ‘written’ is remote and ambiguous. This paper explores the uses and limits of thinking of burials as poetry, and of the act of interpreting them as a kind of literary analysis, and asks how the metaphor might be deployed to offer insights into the distant past and archaeology’s methodological present.

We draw on the literary critical concept of ‘close reading’ to investigate the poetry of burials at different levels. The excavation report, a document normally shrouded in scientific language, forms a departure point as we move from attempts to read modern burial descriptions as poetry to discussions of how far we can ‘translate’ the burial into poetry that is readable on literary terms. A case study from the Early Bronze Age of Scotland provides the background to our argument that apparently inarticulate graves offer fertile ground for different sorts of ‘reading’.

Mark Haughton (Cambridge University) and Susie Hill (Cambridge University)

At the Traverse of the Wall: Archaeological transformations in Thomas Percy and David Jones

By comparing the uses of archaeology in [1] Thomas Percy’s Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (1765) and [2] David Jones’s Anathemata (1952), this paper will offer examples of the particular modes in which archaeology is permitted to enter and transform poetic texts under different cultural conditions and generic expectations. The hybrid genre of philological poetry, which is applicable to both texts, enables an account of negotiations between poetry, philology, and archaeology across time periods and institutional contexts.

The historical study of philological poetry is intrinsically multi-temporal and alert to the archaeological layering of textual objects. Between the periods of the two texts in question here, the concept of archaeology moves from a general sense roughly correspondent to ‘all history’ towards the specialist recovery and study of ancient monuments and artefacts. This paper is less interested in interpreting the content of particular archaeological moments in the two works than it is in how their different conditions enable and inflect those moments formally, paratextually, and in terms of the selection of specific material for inclusion, and how these processes are affected by changing notions of archaeological knowledge.

Luke McMullan (New York University)

Canalchemy: A collaborative walking performance series along the Glamorganshire Canal

‘Canalchemy’ is a participatory performance poetry project taking place over the course of 2017 through various collaborative multimedia site-specific performances at different locations along the route of the deleted Glamorganshire canal, beginning at the ruined blast furnace of Cyfarthfa ironworks near Merthyr Tydfil on spring equinox and ending on winter solstice at Sea Lock in Cardiff Bay where the canal entered the sea. The project alloys the temporal constraints of the astrological year to the invisible outline of the lost waterway as a structural spine, to provide a mobile space in which to trace the scars of communities in the sacrifice zones of the South Wales coalfield, where metallurgical and mineral alchemy was exploited on an industrial scale. In this paper, I will present a selection of video documentation of the performances and discuss the project’s stochastic and plurivocal approaches in its use of collage poetics, participatory performance and multimedia documentation. Examples can be found at:;

Steven Hitchins

Scribe and Scripture: Poets’ experience of a sacred Medieval landscape

The Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida occupied a remote and topographically distinctive landscape on the west edge of the Cambrian Mountains in mid Wales. Interpreting the design of the monastic precinct and its environs has required an appreciation of the physical, spiritual, and practical geography of the space, within which water is both resource and symbol.

Many 20th century Welsh writers have documented visits to the remaining ruins of the abbey through poetry, including Hedd Wyn, John Ormond, Harri Webb, Gillian Clarke, R.S. Thomas, Moelwyn Merchant, Ruth Bidgood, and Gwyneth Lewis. Some have a deep understanding of the historical and theological significance of the site, its association with the Medieval court poet Dafydd ap Gwilym, and the archaeology of the monastery; others responded instinctively to the sensation of being in, and moving through, a natural and cultural space.

This paper explores whether such accounts can provide surrogates for the experience of previous actor, and whether archaeologists may benefit from incorporating awareness of their own sensory responses in their attempts to interpret the past. I will reflect on my own practice as a poet and archaeologist with specific reference to the writing of my Strata Florida poem ‘Scribe and Scripture’.

Martin Locock (University of Wales Trinity St. David)

Iconography, Hybrid Art and Self-Portrait in H.D.’s Helen in Egypt

H.D.’s Helen in Egypt emerges as a combination of ‘picture writing’ and text (Simpson 67). Through the figure of the mythological Helen of Sparta as her ‘alter ego’ and by breaking any spatiotemporal boundaries, H.D. mentally re-visits the temple of Amen in Egypt as well as that of Thetis in Greece, and re-visualises Helen’s story via the poem’s fragmented, visual mythopoeia, a pictography which imitates the hieroglyphs as well as the images deriving from both temples respectively (Gelpi cited in Hokanson 2016, 332). Furthermore, H.D.’s utilization of the (visual) palimpsest enables her to re-experience Helen’s past by interpreting the ‘hieroglyphlike images’ as well as the images of human figures, objects, and deities depicted in the aforementioned temples through multiple perspectives so as to capture ‘some timeless reality’ that ‘lays beneath the changing visible world’ to invoke Kant’s comment on Cubism (Simpson 67; Kant cited in Cooper 9). By rendering Helen the poet in her poetic text, H.D. offers an alternative way of recovering the past, whereas her use of the palimpsest ‘flattens’ time ‘so that the past is not then but now’, according to Alicia Ostriker, exemplifying how the past can reflect the present and vice versa (28).

Areti Katsigianni (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)

The Archaeology News Network

A new early whale, Aegicetus gehennae, and the evolution of modern whale locomotion

A newly discovered fossil whale represents a new species and an important step in the evolution of whale locomotion, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Philip Gingerich of the University of Michigan and colleagues. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae of Aegicetus. Compared with earlier whales, Aegicetus has a more elongated body and tail and smaller back legs, and it lacks a firm connection between the...

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American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Inscribed narratives of the rescue and ransom of exiles and captives

December 11, 2019 12:00 - Adele Scafuro, Professor of Classics (Department of Classics, Brown University, USA)

The Archaeology News Network

Deciphering the equations of life

Research led by the University of Arizona has resulted in a set of equations that describes and predicts commonalities across life despite its enormous diversity. Elephants are an example of organisms that have few, but large, offspring. Elephants also put more energy into rearing their offspring than many animals, such as fish, which lay their eggs and leave them behind [Credit: University of Arizona]"Our study develops a general...

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Jim Davila (

Masada essays in the JP

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Nazoreans (and Nazareth) and Enochic Judaism?

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James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

This Is The Way (and Emails Instead of Meetings: #StarWars Edition)

I’m sure I’m not the only religion professor who is a Star Wars fan whose ears perked up when the Mandalorian said A former student of mine shared this meme with me, pointing out that the early Christians referred to their movement as “The Way”: Mike Duncan writes in the first post in a series […]

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2019.12.20: Corpus des inscriptions d'Atrax en Pélasgiotide (Thessalie). Études épigraphiques, 7

Review of Athanásios Tziafálias, Richard A. Bouchon, Laurence Darmezin, Jean-Claude Decourt, Bruno Helly, Gérard Lucas, and Isabelle Pernin, Corpus des inscriptions d'Atrax en Pélasgiotide (Thessalie). Études épigraphiques, 7. Athènes; Paris: 2016. €92,00. ISBN 9782869582651.

2019.12.19: Corpus inscriptionum Iudaeae/Palaestinae. Volume IV: Iudaea/Idumaea Part 1, 2649-3978

Review of Walter Ameling, Hannah M. Cotton, Werner Eck, Avner Ecker, Benjamin Isaac, Alla Kushnir-Stein, Haggai Misgav, Jonathan Price, Peter Weiß and Ada Yardeni, Corpus inscriptionum Iudaeae/Palaestinae. Volume IV: Iudaea/Idumaea Part 1, 2649-3978. Berlin; Boston: 2018. Pp. xxvi, 1580 (2 vols.). $345.98. ISBN 9783110543643/4.

2019.12.18: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Collection of Mediterranean Antiquities, Volume 3, The Metal Objects and the Gems. Monumenta Graeca et Romana, volume 22

Review of Beaudoin Caron, John M. Fossey, Tzveta Manolova, Paul Denis, Mylène Choquette, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Collection of Mediterranean Antiquities, Volume 3, The Metal Objects and the Gems. Monumenta Graeca et Romana, volume 22. Leiden: 2019. Pp. xii, 217. €99,00. ISBN 9789004383296.

Archaeology Magazine

Carved Limestone Slab Uncovered in Chichen Itza

YUCATÁN, MEXICO—According to a report in The Yucatán Times, a team of archaeologists led by José Francisco Osorio León and Francisco Pérez Ruiz of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History has found 1,000-year-old pieces of a limestone table inscribed with hieroglyphs and human figures in the so-called Temple of the Snails at Chichen Itza. Together, the stones measure about five feet long by four and one-half feet wide. The images include possible prisoners of war tied with ropes. Osorio León said the table was carved in Chichen Itza, and moved to the Temple of the Snails from another location. “It is thought that the stone table served as an altar,” he explained. To read about ritual objects found in a cave at Chichen Itza, go to "Maya Subterranean World," one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2019.

Early Roman Military Camp Unearthed in Bulgaria

LOM, BULGARIA—Archaeology in Bulgaria reports that traces of a first-century A.D. fort, including part of a fortress wall, a street with a canal, and a small barracks, have been uncovered at the ancient city of Almus, which is located on the Danube River in northwestern Bulgaria. It had been previously thought that the Romans first built a fortress at the site in the late third or early fourth century A.D. Valeri Stoichkov of the Lom Museum of History explained that the barracks was just large enough to house a contubernium, the smallest unit of soldiers in the Roman army. Inside the structure, which had been burned down, researchers uncovered a gold phalera—a medal awarded to military officers—as well as fragments of pottery from Italy and Gaul. By the second or third century A.D., a luxurious roofed building, plastered and painted in Pompeian red, stood on the site. It may have served as housing for senior officers and as a customs office. To read about the discovery of a Roman oil vessel in the grave of a Thracian man, go to "Bath Buddy."  

Ancient Artifacts Found at Cairo's Heliopolis Temple

Cairo Heliopolis StatueCAIRO, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that a mudbrick wall dating to the New Kingdom period, blocks from colossal royal statues dating to the Middle Kingdom period, and Old Kingdom moulds for the manufacture of faience amulets and capital fragments of palm columns have been uncovered at the Heliopolis Temple site, which is located in the Matariya area of northern Cairo. “It came as a surprise that these layers directly overlay a stratum of the prehistoric settlement of Heliopolis,” said Aymen Ashmawi of the Egyptian Antiquities Department. Stone tools, debris from the crafting of stone tools, and pottery were also recovered. Additionally, fragments of carvings were found in two pits at the site. The carvings include slabs bearing images of Ramesses II, who ruled from about 1279 to 1213 B.C.; the base of a brown quartzite statue of Seti II, who ruled from about 1200 to 1194 B.C.; and a red granite statue that could depict either of the goddesses Isis or Hathor, or one of the queens of Ramesses II. For more on the sacred site of Heliopolis, go to "Egypt's Eternal City." 

December 10, 2019

Calenda: Histoire romaine

Fellowships (post doc) — Center for Advanced Study “RomanIslam - Center for Comparative Empire and Transcultural Studies”

As a University of Excellence, Universität Hamburg is one of the strongest research universities in Germany. As a flagship university in the greater Hamburg region, it nurtures innovative, co-operative contacts to partners within and outside academia. It also provides and promotes sustainable education, knowledge, and knowledge exchange locally, nationally, and internationally. The Center for Advanced Study “RomanIslam. Center for Comparative Empire and Transcultural Studies” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), invites applications for Resident Fellowships (post doc) starting in the year 2020. The fellowships are available for a duration between one and twelve months.

Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

Please Comment on the Proposed MOU's with Turkey and Tunisia

            The United States Department of State has proposed new Memorandums of Understanding (MOU’s) with Turkey and Tunisia.  Both proposals will be extremely problematical for coin collectors as MOU's could impose embargoes on the import of a wide variety of widely collected Greek, Carthaginian, Roman Provincial, Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic coins.  Further information about the January 21, 2020 Cultural Property Advisory Committee (CPAC) meeting and how to comment before the January 7, 2020 deadline can be found here: 

A.  Background for Coin Collectors

             There are large numbers of coin collectors and numismatic firms in the US.  Very few collectors do so to “invest.”  Most collect out of love of history, as an expression of their own cultural identity, or out of interest in other cultures.  All firms that specialize in ancient coins in the US are small businesses. Private collectors and dealers support much academic research into coins.  For example, an American collector collaborated with academics to produce an extensive study of Seleucid coins. A further clamp down on collecting will inevitably lead to less scholarship.

            While what became the Cultural Property Implementation Act (CPIA) was being negotiated, one of the State Department’s top lawyers assured Congress that “it would be hard to imagine a case” where coins would be restricted.   In 2007, however, the State Department imposed import restrictions on Cypriot coins, against CPAC’s recommendations, and then misled the public and Congress about it in official government reports.  What also should be troubling is that the decision maker, Assistant Secretary Dina Powell, did so AFTER she had accepted a job with Goldman Sachs where she was recruited by and worked for the spouse of the founder of the Antiquities Coalition, an archaeological advocacy group that has lobbied extensively for import restrictions.  Since that time, additional import restrictions have been imposed on coins from Algeria, Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Italy, Libya and Syria. 

            The cumulative impact of import restrictions has been very problematical for collectors since outside of some valuable Greek coins, most coins simply lack the document trail necessary for legal import under the “safe harbor” provisions of 19 U.S.C. § 2606.  The CPIA only authorizes the government to impose import restrictions on coins and other artifacts first discovered within and subject to the export control of either Turkey or Tunisia. (19 U.S.C. § 2601). Furthermore, seizure is only appropriate for items on the designated list exported from the State Party after the effective date of regulations.  (19 U.S.C. § 2606).  Unfortunately, the State Department and Customs view this authority far more broadly.  In particular, designated lists have been prepared based on where coins are made and sometimes found, not where they are actually found and hence are subject to export control.  Furthermore, restrictions are not applied prospectively solely to illegal exports made after the effective date of regulations, but rather are enforced against any import into the U.S. made after the effective date of regulations, i.e., an embargo, not targeted, prospective import restrictions.

      B.  What You Can Do

                Admittedly, CPAC seems to be little more than a rubber stamp.  Still, to remain silent is to give the cultural bureaucrats and archaeologists with an ax to grind against collectors exactly what they want-- the claim that any restrictions will not be controversial. 

            For comments, please use, enter the docket [DOS-2019-0043] and follow the prompts to submit your comments.  Alternatively, click this Federal Register link and click on the Green “Submit Formal Comment” Button which should pull up a screen that allows you to comment: note comments may be posted only UNTIL January 7, 2020 at 11:59 PM.

            Please also note comments submitted in electronic form are not private. They will be posted on Because the comments cannot be edited to remove any identifying or contact information, the Department of State cautions against including any information in an electronic submission that one does not want publicly disclosed (including trade secrets and commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2605(i)(1)).

C.  What Should You Say?

What should you say?  Provide a brief, polite explanation about why CPAC should deny or limit any import restrictions. Consider the following points:

  • The governing statute requires that restrictions only be applied on artifacts "first discovered in” Turkey or Tunisia. But hoard evidence demonstrates that many Greek, Carthaginian, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic coins circulated extensively outside the confines of those modern nation states.  The State Department and U.S. Customs have already recognized this fact for higher denomination Greek coins struck in Greece.  To be consistent, any restrictions should not touch higher denomination coins from Turkey or Tunisia, including Roman Provincial Silver, tetradrachms, and gold coins.  Nor should restrictions be placed on Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic coins struck in these countries. Such imperial coins circulated throughout the Empires for which they were made and beyond.  
  • The governing statute requires restrictions only be placed on artifacts of "cultural significance." But coins -- which exist in many multiples-- do not meet that particular criteria.
  • The governing statute requires that less drastic remedies be tried before import restrictions. But neither Turkey nor Tunisia has tried systems akin the UK Treasure Act and Portable Antiquities Scheme before seeking restrictions.
  • The governing statute requires that restrictions be consistent with the interests of the international community in cultural exchanges. But restrictions diminish the ability of American collectors (particularly Turkish or Tunisian Americans) to appreciate the cultural heritage of these countries and greatly limit people to people contacts with other collectors in Europe.
  • Much of what Turkey would be allowed to “claw back” if a MOU is granted are cultural artifacts of displaced Greek, Armenian and Jewish populations.  That simply should not be allowed to happen as it would only reward Turkey for its harsh policies to ethnic and religious minorities. 
Finally, you don’t have to be an American citizen to comment—you just need to be concerned enough to spend twenty or so minutes to express your views on-line. 

Addendum (Dec. 9, 2019):  For more information about the requests and the process, see the Cultural Heritage Center's post about the upcoming CPAC meeting:

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Digital Bank on Aegean Subjects DBAS

Digital Bank on Aegean Subjects DBAS - @egeanLab
logo dbas
DBAS - @egeanLab starts in 2005 as the portal of the Laboratory of Aegean Civilisations of the University of Florence. With the name of "Data Bases about Aegean Subjects", it was initially created as an online resource containing tools for scientific consultation, such as highly specialised Data Bases. Along the years it developed in something more complex and includes now a wider range of contents, especially digitization of museum collections and excavation materials, with scientific and educational aims. Consequently, we decided to maintain the same acronym while changing the whole name in "Digital Bank on Aegean Subjects". Since 2015 the Project belongs to the "Laboratori e centri di ricerca" of the Department SAGAS and the structure of the team has been updated.

Le Collezioni egee del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze. Il catalogo digitale

Le Collezioni egee del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze. Il catalogo digitale

a cura di Anna Margherita Jasink, Luca Bombardieri, Giulia Dionisio, Cristian Faralli

Il catalogo digitale è una banca dati dedicata alle collezioni egee del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze, allegato on line del volume omonimo edito da Firenze University Press. Il catalogo è consultabile anche dal portale di ricerca on-line DBAS (DataBases about Aegean Subjects). 
Nell'architettura del catalogo digitale, la scheda è l'elemento base che raccoglie il complesso delle informazioni relative ad ogni oggetto catalogato. È stata costruita sulla scorta della scheda catalografica del volume con l'aggiunta di voci di maggiore dettaglio relative ad aspetti della tecnologia di produzione (ad esempio per i reperti ceramici: la definizione degli impasti con la descrizione qualitativa e quantitativa delle tempere e degli inclusi) e ad elementi morfo-tipologici. Ogni scheda presenta inoltre un repertorio che comprende immagini a colori (ed una ampia scelta di foto di dettaglio) e una serie di tavole con disegni acquerellati a colori. 
È stato costruito un sistema di queries visualizzato attraverso una maschera di ricerca facilmente consultabile che permette ricerche, singole o incrociate, su quattro campi principali:
1) Provenienza,
2) Datazione,
3) Classe,
4) Tipologia.

Per ognuno dei campi è stata impostata una serie di opzioni di ricerca standard che consentano di facilitare l'interrogazione della banca dati e la consultazione dei risultati ottenuti. La query su un singolo campo, o incrociata su più campi, produce una lista di records e dunque un elenco di oggetti che rispondono ai criteri di ricerca impostati.

Specifiche tecniche

La banca dati si trova su un server Linux. La piattaforma per lo sviluppo delle applicazioni web prevede un'architettura basata sull'utilizzo di Apache 2.2.11 (Unix) per l'interfaccia alla rete, di MySQL 5.0.81-community per la banca dati relazionale e dei linguaggi HTML e PHP per la visualizzazione e l'esecuzione delle pagine dinamiche.

Firenze University Press
+39 0552743051 - fax +39 0552743058
Borgo Albizi, 28 - 50122 Firenze

Anna Margherita Jasink, Luca Bombardieri (a cura di), Le collezioni egee del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2010

Iconography and archaeology of pre-Roman Italy

Iconography and archaeology of pre-Roman Italy

Icar assembles objects from pre-Roman Italy (Etruscan, Italic and Italiote from the 8th century BC to the Hellenistic period) with figured scenes.

It brings together an abundant iconographic (descriptions, photographs, drawings and modern engravings) and bibliographic documentation, focusing on the archaeological and artistic context, the history of the collections and the interpretation of the figured scenes. A presentation of the objectives and goals of Icar database can be found here.
Three complete corpora are presented :
  • pre-Roman painting : Etruscan, Campanian and Apulian frescoes
  • archaic reliefs from Chiusi
  • hydriae from Cerveteri
as well as complete collections of modern and contemporary graphic documentation :
  • watercolors, tracing copies and facsimiles of Augusto Guido Gatti (first quarter of the 20th century) for the Galleria della pittura etrusca in facsimile of the Archaeological Museum of Florence
Two search modes are offered :
  • Icar, for pre-Roman figured scenes
  • IcarDoc, for reproductions illustrating pre-Roman figured scenes
The programm is conceived and directed by Natacha Lubtchansky, Professor at the François-Rabelais University of Tours - CeTHiS, the computerization carried out by Sylvain Mottet and the Digital Workshop of the Maison des sciences de l’Homme Val de Loire, and the scientific recording of the data is placed under the responsibility of Annick Fenet, AOROC-ENS-Paris.

Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi (Stone Pages' Archaeonews)

Nine Bronze Age carved stones unearthed in Orkney

A team from ORCA Archaeology, carrying out exploratory excavations at the proposed site of an electrical substation development in Orkney (Scotland), has unearthed nine, half-metre tall stone-carved objects. Some of...

Silk fabrics detected in a Neolithic burial in China

Chinese archaeologists led by Zhao Feng of the China National Silk Museum developed a technique called enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the presence of silk in carbonized residue in an...

Public help document damage to historic Scottish sites

Members of the public are helping to document the effects of weather and vandalism at some of Scotland's most ancient monuments. As they are uploading images of ancient sites, experts...

Ostrich eggshell beads tracks cultural shifts in ancient Africa

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History's Department of Archaeology present an expanded analysis of African ostrich eggshell beads, testing the hypothesis that larger beads...

Prehistoric ring cairn discovered in Gloucestershire

A previously unknown Bronze Age monument has been discovered hidden in woodland in the Forest of Dean (Gloucestershire, England) following an airborne laser scan. The ritual monument, known as a...

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Η φωτογραφία που μας άγγιξε. Χίλιες λέξεις για μια εικόνα από ιστορικούς  και αρχαιολόγους

December 10, 2019 19:00 - LECTURE Πολυξένη Αδάμ-Βελένη, Γενική Διευθύντρια Αρχαιοτήτων, Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού & Αθλητισμού Δημήτρης Αθανασούλης, Έφορος Αρχαιοτήτων Κυκλάδων, Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού & Αθλητισμού Ειρήνη Κασάπη, Δρ Ρωσικής Εκκλησιαστικής Ιστορίας, ΕΚΠΑ, Επιστημονική Συνεργάτις ΙΙΕ/ΕΙΕ Νίκη Τσιρώνη, Βυζαντινολόγος, ΙΙΕ/ΕΙΕ & εταίρος Βυζαντινών Σπουδών CHS-Harvard

Ancient DNA and the Dorian invasion? Perspectives on migration and the Bronze Age collapse ca. 1200 BC

December 10, 2019 19:00 - ANNUAL OPEN MEETING Dr. Barry Molloy, University College Dublin

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Hypothekai: Journal of the History of Ancient Pedagogical culture

Hypothekai: Journal of the History of Ancient Pedagogical culture
ISSN: 2587- 7127
A journal on the history of ancient pedagogical culture is a peer-reviewed international academic journal established in September 2017. The “Hypothekai” journal publishes research materials on the study, preservation and popularization of ancient pedagogical culture in its historical dynamics. Throughout its pages, within the framework of the themes identified, a wide range of topical issues of the formation of ancient education and the development of ancient educational practices in different historical periods are considered. The journal is published yearly. The languages are Russian and English. The journal’s founder is its editor.

“Hypothekai” is an open access journal. All articles are made freely available to readers immediately upon publication. Our open access policy is in accordance with Chapter 70 “Copyright Law” of the Russian Civil Code and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition - it means that articles have free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Full-text versions of articles are available for reading and non-commercial distribution under the international license "Attribution - Non-commercial use 4.0" (Creative Commons Attibution 4.0).

The information about all the articles published is archived in Russian Electronic Scientific Library and “CyberLeninka” Electronic Scientific Library. The direct URL to the journal issues and article metadata (title, author, keywords, abstracts, etc.). The articles’ full texts are stored on the journal’s server and can be accessed through this page.

The title of this collection is Hypothêkai – a polysemantic word (“instructions”, “advice”, “precepts”), which should not mislead the reader: they will not be taught by the ancient texts or tired by some clever advice. This title was suggested by Brett M. Rogers, a specialist in ancient pedagogy and lecturer at the University of Puget Sound, whose knowledge of ancient texts is leagues ahead of mine. I would like to express my deep gratitude to him for this idea as well as for our scientific discussions, during one of which he pointed to the fragments of the precepts of the centaur Kheiron “Hypothêkai of Kheiron” (“Precepts of Kheiron”) often ascribed to Hesiod. According to the legend, that lost poem of collected wisdom was passed to humans by the centaur Kheiron, the famous mentor of Achilles. The collection title just alludes to that lost work, inviting to a deep study of ancient texts. I wish to express a heartfelt gratitude to my colleague, Professor Vitaliy G. Bezrogov for his support and his inspirational insistence on the highest academic standards.\
2017 Issue 1. Mark Tullius Cicero’s concept of education through culture 💾
2018 Issue 2. Teaching through the theater and in the theater: ancient pedagogy of the stage 💾
2019 Issue 3. Education in Late Antiquity 💾
The theme of the third issue is "Education in Late Antiquity". The period of Late Antiquity was a time of rapid transformation of all spheres of social life, the emergence of new and the development of old cultural and religious traditions. In the era of the decline of the Roman Empire the traditions of ancient education experienced their last floutish, marked by activities of such outstanding mentors as Libanius and Choricius, Marius Victorinus and Themistius, Ausonius Hymerius, the functioning of such important educational centers as the schools Athens, Alexandria, Gaza, Burdigala, Beritus. We dedicate the third issue of "Hypothekai" to the studies of a wide range of factors that provided this socio-cultural phenomenon and the interaction of old and new elements of the education life of the Mediterranean world III - VII centuries. The third issue is available in libraries receiving a compulsory copy through the Russian book chamber, as well as in the library of Martin Luter University of Halle-Wittenberg (Collegienstraße, 62a, Lutherstadt Wittenberg), library of University of Lisbonthe library of University of Coimbra (General Library of the University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Férrea, 3000-447 Coimbra), the library of University of Porto (Reitoria da U.Porto, Praça Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal), the library of University of Warsaw (Dobra 56/66, 00-312 Warszawa), the library of Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (ul. Konarskiego 2, 08-110 Siedlce), the library of the Pedagogical Institute of  Jagiellonian University in Krakow (Romana Ingardena 3, Kraków), the library of the Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University, The library of Moscow Pedagogical State University, the library of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, the Volgograd Regional Universal Scientific Library named after Maxim Gorky.
Section 1. Educational practices of Late Antiquity
Michael A. Vedeshkin. The missing link of the «Golden Chain»: Aedesius and the neoplatonic school of Pergamon [In Russian with English abstract] DOI:10.32880/2587-7127-2018-3-3-13-59
Maya S. Petrova. Donatus’ Ars grammatica and educational practices of Late Antiquity: Sergius — Cledonius — Pompeius [In Russian with English abstract] DOI:10.32880/2587-7127-2018-3-3-60-86
Viktoria K. Pichugina. Homo Ineptus or Homo Sapiens: Joannes Stobaeus and his “universal knowledge” in the educational space of Late Antiquity [In Russian with English abstract] DOI:10.32880/2587-7127-2018-3-3-87-103
Nikolay N. Bolgov, Anna M. Bolgova. Priscian grammarian and his heritage [In Russian with English abstract] DOI:10.32880/2587-7127-2018-3-3-104-120
Attachment. Priscian. Fragments [trans. from Latin into Russian and notes by Nikolay N. Bolgov and Anna M. Bolgova] DOI:10.32880/2587-7127-2018-3-3-121-145
Section 2. Time and space of education in Late Antiquity 

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Buried Christian (and Pagan) Basilica Discovered in Ethiopia's 'Lost Kingdom' of Aksum

An ancient church from the fourth century, containing both early Christian and what may be pagan...

The Heroic Age

16-17 April, 2020
Utrecht University

In the ancient, late antique, and the early medieval worlds, city walls
both projected strength and indicated insecurity. These impressive and
prominent constructions dominated the urban landscape and oriented the
movement of citizens. Likewise, these enclosures sought to delineate those
who did and did not belong, physically marking the inclusion of its
citizens as well as signifying the exclusion of whoever and whatever
threatened to harm the physical, symbolic, and ritual integrity of the
city. City walls were visible from afar, drawing visitors in and
advertising the city’s status from a distance. At the same time, the wall’s
overlapping layers of legal, ritual, and symbolic significance structured
narrative and normative texts across these epochs.

This international workshop seeks to bring together an international and
interdisciplinary group of scholars to work on these interrelated aspects
of ancient and early medieval walls in the Mediterranean and northwestern
Europe throughout the first millennium CE. Our keynote address will be
given by Hendrik Dey, and our confirmed speakers include Rachele Dubbini,
Penelope Goodman and Nicholas Purcell. We invite proposals for 20 minute
papers from specialists working in various disciplines, including
archaeology, history, literary studies, and art history. This workshop will
examine the commonalities and discrepancies across these disciplines, both
in terms of their methodological and theoretical approach as well as
querying the extent to which city walls functioned in a variety of
different contexts present throughout the ancient and medieval world.

Please send an abstract of no more than 300 words, plus a short
bibliography to the organizers Saskia Stevens, Megan Welton, and Kay Boers
at by January 31st, 2020.

*Muros et Moenia* is generously supported by the NWO-VICI Project
“Citizenship Discourses in the Early Middle Ages, 400-1100,” the Utrecht
Center for Medieval Studies, Ancient History and Classical Civilisation at
Utrecht University, and OIKOS - the Dutch National Research School in

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Evaluating the Role of Domestic Dogs from Archaeological Contexts

December 10, 2019 17:00 - FITCH-WIENER LABS SEMINAR Ms. Meagan Dennison, The Malcolm H. Wiener Laboratory for Archaeological Science, ASCSA and Department of Anthropology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Current Epigraphy

PhD Scholarship in “Epitaphs and Social Change in Late Antique Italy (300-600 CE)” at St Andrews

Posted on behalf of Carlos Machado

Application window December 2019 to 16 January 2020, for entry in autumn 2020

The University of St Andrews is pleased to offer a full scholarship funded by St Leonard’s Postgraduate College, to support an exceptional student undertaking doctoral research in the following project:

Remembering the Dead on the Edge of Empire: Epitaphs and Social Change in Late Antique Italy (300-600 CE)

Project Desciption

This project will examine the transformations of north Italian society between 300 and 600 CE, analysing key developments in the relationship between memory, identity, and social power. Focusing on funerary inscriptions as part of the strategies for social promotion used by inhabitants of Italian cities – including both migrant and ‘indigenous’ groups – it will examine their contribution to the redefinition of the communities in which they lived. The resulting thesis will provide an original picture of late antique Italy, giving voice to new and often neglected social groups and identities. It will also focus directly on a relatively neglected, yet crucially important, set of Late Antique data – inscribed epitaphs. Scholars have recently paid great attention to funerary rites as a means of establishing social standing within a community. Our proposed project goes one step further, focusing on how this activity continued beyond death and burial – through the medium of inscribing words on stone. In doing this, it will represent an innovative and ground-breaking study in late antique studies, whether in terms of its interdisciplinary methodology, approach, and results.

Late antiquity was a period of profound transformations, as imperial structures of power crumbled, Christianity redefined traditional cultural values, and social hierarchies were redrawn. North Italian society was particularly marked by these developments, as Roman emperors and ‘Barbarian’ kings established their courts in the region, fostering social and cultural changes that gave the area North of Rome a specific identity. This project will challenge existing frameworks through an analysis of this area’s rich but still neglected corpus of funerary inscriptions, placing our understanding of late antique history on a much firmer and sophisticated base. Christian epigraphists consider this material in terms of its religious aspects, overlooking its potential for historical studies. Epitaphs recorded the name and standing of a variety of agents across a wide social and economic spectrum; being commissioned by the living, they affirmed social and cultural identities, publicising different views of the social world. They provide information about social structures, gender relations, and personal identities. They thus constitute a crucial source of information for the social history of a world otherwise only accessible through the writings of a narrow group of men. In spite of being relatively overlooked, late antique epitaphs are readily available to scholars, being published in epigraphic collections like Inscriptiones Christianae Italiae and the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.

This project will require establishing a corpus of inscriptions that will serve as basis for the research and identifying potential case-studies such as well documented cities like Aquileia or provinces like Tuscia et Umbria, for which there is a wealth of comparative material. Quantitative analysis will help to identify the trends that defined the period, and the qualitative and stylistic examination of these texts will be used to assess the forms of personal display adopted by different agents in affirming their ambitions, identities, and standing in late antique society. Focus on case studies will not only make this study feasible, but will also allow the incorporation of archaeological evidence (including field trips), providing a more comprehensive and complex picture of local life, including migrant populations. Probing the chronological and geographical edge of the later Roman empire, sitting at the crossroads between history, archaeology, and Christian epigraphy, this project will thus provide a crucial reconsideration of social and economic developments which shaped the very construction of Europe and the modern world.

The successful candidate will be supervised by Dr Carlos Machado and Professor Caroline Humfress and based in the School of Classics and the School of History.


Geographical criteria

No restrictions.

Domicile for fee status

No restrictions.

Level of study

Postgraduate Research (Doctoral)

Year of entry

2020-2021 academic year; applicants should be able to start their degree in September 2020. In exceptional circumstances, candidates may be allowed to start their degree at any of the approved entry points during the 2020-2021 academic year.


School of Classics and School of History

Additional criteria

Applicants must not already (i) hold a doctoral degree; or (ii) be matriculated for a doctoral degree at the University of St Andrews or another institution.


What does it cover?

Duration of award

Up to 3.5 years. The successful candidate will be expected to have completed the doctorate degree by the end of the award term. The award term excludes the continuation period and any extension periods.

Value of award

The award covers full tuition fees for the award term as well as an annual stipend payable at the standard UK Research council rate (the 2019-2020 annual rate is £15,009).

Tuition or maintenance award

Tuition and maintenance.


Finding out more

For more information, see the university’s website.

The post PhD Scholarship in “Epitaphs and Social Change in Late Antique Italy (300-600 CE)” at St Andrews appeared first on Current Epigraphy.

The Archaeology News Network

Travelling back in time through smart archaeology

The British explorer George Dennis once wrote, "Vulci is a city whose very name … was scarcely remembered, but which now, for the enormous treasures of antiquity it has yielded, is exalted above every other city of the ancient world." He's correct in assuming that most people do not know where or what Vulci is, but for explorers and historians—including Duke's Bass Connections team Smart Archaeology—Vulci is a site of enormous...

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Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Live stream of the conference “The Lydians and Their Neighbors”

Live stream of the conference “The Lydians and Their Neighbors”

Ethnolinguistic Identities and Cultural Contact in Anatolia around
700-330 BC

Friday, December 13, 2019
Live-stream the event: (best viewed with Safari or Internet Explorer)


Organized by Rostislav Oreshko and hosted by the Center for Hellenic Studies, the workshop on “The Lydians and Their Neighbors” aims to take another look at what constitutes the most inherent and defining features of the Lydian people and the Lydian culture – from material culture to religious beliefs and to language and social organization.

Compitum - événements (tous types)

Dignitas et urbanitas. Aspects et contraintes des normes sociales de Cicéron à Pline le Jeune

Titre: Dignitas et urbanitas. Aspects et contraintes des normes sociales de Cicéron à Pline le Jeune
Lieu: Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III / Montpellier
Catégorie: Soutenances de thèse / HDR
Date: 11.12.2019
Heure: 14.00 h

Information signalée par Marc Cholvy

Dignitas et urbanitas. Aspects et contraintes des normes sociales de Cicéron à Pline le Jeune, dans les milieux sénatoriaux et équestres, à Rome et en Italie, de la fin de la République au Haut-Empire.


Soutenance de thèse de M. Patrice AVILA, le mercredi 11 décembre 2019 à 14 h, à l'Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3 (Site Saint-Charles 1, Salle des Actes

sur le sujet suivant :
Dignitas et urbanitas, aspects et contraintes des normes sociales de Cicéron à Pline le Jeune, dans les milieux sénatoriaux et équestre, à Rome et en Italie, de la fin de la République au Haut-Empire.

Composition du jury :
• Mme Agnès BÉRENGER, Professeure, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3, directrice de thèse
• M. Martin GALINIER, Professeur, Université de Perpignan -Via Domitia
• M. Antonio GONZALES, Professeur, Université de Franche-Comté
• Mme Valérie HUET, Professeure, Université de Bretagne Occidentale

Résumé de la thèse:

Entre la fin de la République et le Haut-Empire, la société romaine amorce, définit et affirme une identité qui deviendra celle de la romanité. Mêlant traditions romaines et ajouts des cultures conquises et rencontrées, notamment la civilisation hellénistique, l'élite de la société romaine, élabore une culture d'élite qui deviendra le marqueur de rang de tout un groupe se reconnaissant par des pratiques culturelles et sociales les identifiant et les différenciant de leurs contemporains. Cette thèse aborde les normes sociales qui régissent la vie quotidienne des élites romaines, notamment l'ordre sénatorial et équestre, et les contraintes auxquelles les individus doivent se soumettre. Organisée autour de trois grands axes que sont les individus, les grands temps-forts de la vie quotidienne et les lieux de vie, cette recherche brosse le portait d'une société héritière d'une lourde tradition réinterprétée et transmise par une élite qui se perçoit comme la garante de la pérennité d'une identité, de vertus et de valeurs romaines. La diversité de cette approche permet de constater la diffusion d'un modèle socioculturel dans l'élite mais aussi dans la société et l'empire. Hommes, femmes, enfants, affranchis, comme esclaves tous concourent à donner une image relevant des normes et des convenances sociales qui régissent la haute société romaine. Tous sont au service de la familia et du maître en particulier. Le but étant de correspondre à un modèle qui fait des gens de l'élite sociale, une élite de la vertu : les boni uiri.

Lieu de la manifestation : Montpellier, Université Paul-Valéry
Organisation : Université Paul-Valéry
Contact : marc.cholvy[at]

Jo Cook (Computing, GIS and Archaeology in the UK)

Improving Documentation With a Codesprint

This is a bit of a meta-post, since I’m cross-posting an article I wrote on our company blog on a documentation code-sprint a couple of weeks ago. Lots of fun was had by all, and it was also a good learning experience- but I won’t repeat myself, just head over here for a read if you’re interested:

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Legacy Data, Digital Heritage, and Time: A Response

My old pal Andrew Reinhard of the American Numismatic Society and a PhD candidate at the University of York kindly agreed to comment on my post from yesterday. Because he interwove his responses to my original post, I thought it would just be easier to repost yesterday’s post with his comments included. His comments are in italics.

Over the last couple of weeks, I continue to think about the role of legacy data in archaeology. This is for a paper that I’ll give next month at the annual Archaeological Institute of America. I’ve started to work through my ideas here and here.

At first, I imagined that I’d give a fairly routine paper that focused on my work with notebooks at the Princeton Cyprus Expedition at Polis on Cyprus. As readers of this blog know, a small team of us have worked to analyze over 20 years of excavations at Polis and to move the data from a largely analogue, notebook system, to a relational database that we can query. This has not only allowed us to understand the relationship between the excavation, ceramic assemblages, and architecture, but also moved us toward a secondary goal of publishing the data from Polis.

This is something similar to what the American Numismatic Society has done with the notebooks of E. T. Newell. We have the printed notebooks, they have been scanned and tagged, are available as open access to the public, and give us insight into the first Golden Age of numismatics, both the people and the artifacts and related context. The trick is doing a third step: publishing what we’ve learned. We can do all of this cool, useful stuff post-digitization, but the results must be published both digitally and in print. More about the necessity of the analogue below.

At the same time that I was working on this stuff, I was also continuing to think about time and archaeology and reading some recent works including Marek Tamm and Laurent Olivier’s Rethinking Historical Time: New Approaches to Presentism (2019) as well as some turn of the century works like F. Hartog’s Regimes of Historicity: Presentism and Experiences of Time (2015). These works consider the changing nature of time and heritage in archaeology and argue that emergence of the contemporary “heritage industry” particularly after 1989 (and September 2001) demonstrates a changing notion of time in which heritage largely serves the various needs of the present. This contrasts to an earlier regime of time which emphasized the past as evidence for progress into the future.

I’m coming at the issue of heritage-time from looking at active software use. Classical civilizations found the archaeologist thousands of years removed from acts of creation, use, modification, discard, and destruction. Digital archaeologists find themselves watching as digital landscapes, sites, and artifacts undergo those stages over the course of an hour, often less. The notion of digital time is so absurd that we must observe it at the quantum level, understanding that Deep Time happens concurrently with things occurring literally at the speed of light. How are archaeologists equipped to handle an archaeology of the immediate? This issue is not limited to digital data, but also to anything that is mass-produced. The speed of waste now when compared to what it was 2,000 years ago is logarithmic. Archaeologists are yet not able to keep pace

It was interesting that the Tamm and Olivier book includes no sustained discussion of how the changing regimes of time influence the use of digital tools in archaeological practice.

I think it’s important to mention here that I see “digital archaeology” as having two major threads that are not independent of each other: 1) digital archaeology is archaeological investigation of anything facilitated by the use of digital tools, and 2) digital archaeology is the archaeological investigation of digital things, which can include, but is not limited to synthetic worlds, software of any kind, and the firmware, middleware, and hardware used to create, distribute, and allow access to those digital spaces.

This is all the more striking because the Hartog’s change in the nature of the past maps loosely onto our embrace of digital technology to facilitate to documentation and analysis of archaeological field work. One might argue that older techniques of documentation with their dependence on paper sought to create an archive that was designed as much for the future as for the present. We anticipated more sophisticated ways of analyzing our work and sought to document our practices, methods, and assumptions as carefully as possible. The practice of carefully archiving one’s field notes – typically on site – was fundamental to our notion of responsible excavation.

It shouldn’t matter why archaeological documentation is created, only that it is. At the point of its creation, archaeological documentation is of its own time, which can tell future researchers a bit about the conditions of the creation of the interpretation of archaeological data. Archaeological documentation, while of its own time, is also of all time, that is to say that it occupies past, present, and future all at once. Researchers at the initial point of interpretation will author documentation with conscious or unconscious political, social, and economic bias as they work to answer their research questions. They need to bear in mind, however, that while this interpretation is important in the present about the present and the past, that their interpretation will not be the only one. They will not have thought of all of the research questions. They will miss things in the data that only temporal distance from the project’s “conclusion” can yield. Ideally data should be agnostic and amoral, but data are anything but. Archaeologists can, however, write for the present knowing that future generations will revise the work and there’s nothing to be done about it.

More recently, digital tools become a key component to documenting field work. Archaeologists have produced what Andy Bevin has called a “digital deluge” of data from our surveys, excavations, and research projects. The need to archive this data has remained significant, but, at the same time, there’s a growing quantity of “legacy data” that past projects have accrued. The concept of legacy data demonstrates an immediate awareness of the division between past data practices (whether digital or not) and contemporary needs. The expanding discourse on data preservation practices, archival format, and “best practices,” “standards” and meta-data traces our anxieties in the face of rapidly changing technologies and protocols. The fear, I’d suggest, is less about the future of our data and more about its present utility. This follows the increasingly blurred line between the archiving of data and its publication. The potential for re-use in the present has shaped much of the conversation about legacy data. 

All data are legacy data, which includes data created and interpreted today. Any data “preserved” digitally are fugitive. Databases serve the purpose of now, one year from now, and maybe ten years from now. I remember talking to Sebastian Heath about the future of filetypes. Should we be concerned about what types of files we use for data entry, for publication? His opinion (and this was several year ago and might have changed, but I agree with him now and still) was that it didn’t really matter. If we want to access a legacy filetype badly enough, we’ll find a way. But ultimately this all depends on persistent electricity, internet, the “cloud”, and functioning hardware. All are doomed in the long view. So what are we going to do about it? I’d suggest paper versions of record. Super-engraved blocks of permanent material that will outlive every server farm? But then, if data ever survive that long, will future humans and non-humans (including A.I. entities) care? I don’t think it matters. It’s the moral obligation of the archaeologist to record, interpret, publish, and preserve data from any given project with as much care as possible on the unlikely chance that someone 100 years from now will return to it and be able to do something useful with it.

Legacy data, however, is about more than just reuse in the present. In fact, the formats, tools, and technologies that made data collected in the past useful in the past remain a key element to understanding how digital data came to be, how it was encountered, and how it was interpreted. The details about data how a project produced or collected – or the paradata – remain significant, but more than that, the technologies used to produce, store, and analyze data in the past are fundamental to understanding archaeological practice.

I find myself waiting for the publication of the historiography of 21st-century archaeological method and practice, but published in 2020, and not at the end of the century. Such an omnibus publication would surely advance the state of the discipline, prompting conversations about “best practices,” although what’s best for one type of practice might not be best for another kind.

Scholars of video games, of course, already know this. Rainford Guins in Game After: A Cultural Study of Video Game Afterlife (2014) for example, has considered the role of the arcade, the video game cabinet, the art present in a video game cartridge, and the design of the video game console as well as its place in the home. For Guins the game code is just part of the video game as a cultural artifact. He documents the challenges associated with preserving vintage arcade games and the balance between allowing the games to be played and the wear and tear of regular use on cabinets, controllers, and increasingly irreplaceable CRT monitors. The impulse to preserve “legacy games,” if you will, allows us to make sense of these objects as complex cultural artifacts rather than simply vessels for digital code. 

I think video game archaeologists (myself included) continue to fetishize the artifact over its context, and that needs to change, perhaps decentralizing the role of the game itself and instead placing it within a ring-of-context: what forces caused this game to be created, and where does the game slot in with everything else that’s happening at the point of its creation. We study the game-artifact as a way of participating in the greater knowledge-making of the past 50 years.

In an archaeological context, then, legacy data is about more than the code or the digital objects, but also about the range of media, technologies, tools, and practices that made this data possible. Our interest in the utility of digital data risks reducing digital heritage to an evaluation of present utility. If, as Roosevelt et al. famously quipped “Excavation is Destruction Digitization: Advances in Archaeological Practice,” we might also argue that our modern impulse to digitize or adapt legacy data is a destructive practice, “Digitization is Destruction.”

I don’t think so largely because in most(?) cases, the artifact or site once digitized still exists in its analogue form. Lots of copies keep stuff safe, so as long as copies of data are kept and openly distributed at the point of their creation, we theoretically should have “originals” floating around even as other copies are ported forward to other formats for contemporary use.

This isn’t to suggest that we stop engaging legacy data as important sources of archaeological information or that we only engage it using 30 year old IBM PC with a SCSY port Zip drive. Instead, I’m suggesting that our approach to legacy data gives us a useful way to reflect on the changing notion of time in archaeological practice and perhaps even speaks to the complicated relationship between archaeology and heritage practices. 


True, but I worry about the speed at which the recent past creates massive piles of stuff for archaeologists to inherit and inhabit. This “data deluge” can be sanely managed through the use of bucket cores as an analogy for the  sampling of data flows. For example, a game I am studying (Death Stranding) contains human-created items (signs, towers, roads, etc.) that are created and destroyed several times an hour. The archaeologist would need to sit at the screen 24/7/365 to record all that is happening. Now, over time, the same events happen in the same places, although with subtly different placements, volume of creation, and names of creators. Is it necessary for the archaeologist to mine all of the data all of the time, or, in the case of human-occupied digital environments, can one take a sample every day, week, or month, and be satisfied that the sample is representative? I think so, but in doing so we might miss out on those anomalies—a day of no creation, or a day of the creation of something odd/funny. Perhaps by sampling data often over a very long period of time, those anomalies will appear just as part of standard sampling. The only way to find out is to try.

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

“Feasting in excess”: a fingerprint phrase in quotations of Gregory Nazianzen on the Nativity

I came across this (rather useless) page, which contained the curious claim:

In 389AD, St Gregory Nazianzen, one of the four fathers of the Greek Church criticized customs of ‘feasting in excess” and “dancing” at Christmas. This criticism arose because these festive excesses were hangovers from the pagan midwinter festivals like Saturnalia when celebrants suspended normal life and pleasure ruled.

The second sentence is the opinion of the writer, who is trying to tie Christmas to paganism somehow.  But what is the reference to Gregory?

If we search for ‘”feasting in excess” “dancing” Gregory Nazianzus’ in Google we get a longer phrase, “feasting to excess, dancing, and crowning the doors” – note the change from “in” to “to” – from the Daily Telegraph and the Times Literary Supplement in 2016.  The latter is reviewing (mainly) Mark Forsyth, A Christmas cornucopia : the hidden stories behind our Yuletide traditions, also 2016, and quoting from it.  This in turn seems to derive from Ronald Hutton, Stations of the Sun, 2001, which uses the exact same words, and gives a reference to “Golby and Purdue, Modern Christmas“.  But we can jump back to 1902, with W.F.Dawson, Christmas: Its Origin and Associations, whose quote is longer still:

against feasting to excess, dancing, and crowning the doors (practices derived from the heathens); urging the celebration of the festival after an heavenly and not an earthly manner.

In turn we find William Sandys in 1833 (Christmas Carols, ancient & modern, p.xiii) exactly the same words, but not in quotes, but as Sandys’ own words.  It is delightful to find, popping up here, the practice of turning indirect speech into direct speech, so common in bogus quotations.

Further back yet, in 1808, we find a quotation at some length in the works of Bishop Hall, although not containing the “excess” bit:

Amongst the rest, that of Gregory Nazianzen is so remarkable, that I may not omit it; as that, which sets forth the excess of joyful respect, wherewith the Ancient Christians were wont to keep this day. “ Let us,” saith he *, “ celebrate this Feast; not in a panegyrical but divine, not in a worldly but supersecular manner: not regarding so much ourselves or ours, as the worship of Christ, &c. And how shall we effect this ? Not by crowning our doors with garlands, nor by leading of dances, nor adorning our streets; not by feeding our eyes; not by delighting our ears with songs; not by effeminating our smell with perfumes; not with humouring our taste with dainties; not with pleasing our touch; not with silken and costly clothes, &c. not with the sparkling of jewels; not with the lustre of gold; not with the artifice of counterfeit colours, &c. let us leave these things to Pagans for their pomps, &c. But we, who adore the Word of the Father, if we think fit to affect delicacies, let us feed ourselves with the dainties of the Law of God; and with those discourses especially, which are fitting for this present Festival.” So that learned and eloquent Father, to his auditors of Constantinople.

The reference is to the “Oration upon the Day of the Nativity of Christ”.  But this itself is a reprint as there is an edition from 1738.

Earlier yet, in 1725, we find in Henry Bourne’s Antiquitates Vulgares, p.154:

Gregory Nazianzen, in that excellent Oration of his upon Christmas-Day, says, Let us not celebrate the Feast after an Earthly, but an Heavenly Manner; let not our Doors be crown’d; let not Dancing be encourag’d; let not the Cross-paths be adorned, the Eyes fed, nor the Ears delighted, &c. Let us not Feast to excess, nor be Drunk with Wine, &c.

And we can go still further, with the same quotation in the sermons of Hugh Latimer (d. 1555), the protestant Bishop of London burned by Bloody Mary, here in a 1758 reprint, on p.782.

I would guess, therefore, that we are looking at a passage of the sermon of Hugh Latimer, which has been transmitted to us, through a side-channel of quotations and re-quotations for nearly 500 years.  It has not been transmitted unaltered, but somehow it has come through.

By contract we can find the NPNF translation of Gregory’s Oration 38: On the Nativity, here. It seems to have influenced these popular works not at all.

Therefore let us keep the Feast, not after the manner of a heathen festival, but after a godly sort; not after the way of the world, but in a fashion above the world; not as our own but as belonging to Him Who is ours, or rather as our Master’s; not as of weakness, but as of healing; not as of creation, but of re-creation.

V. And how shall this be? Let us not adorn our porches, nor arrange dances, nor decorate the streets; let us not feast the eye, nor enchant the ear with music, nor enervate the nostrils with perfume, nor prostitute the taste, nor indulge the touch, those roads that are so prone to evil and entrances for sin; let us not be effeminate in clothing soft and flowing, whose beauty consists in its uselessness, nor with the glittering of gems or the sheen of gold or the tricks of colour, belying the beauty of nature, and invented to do despite unto the image of God; Not in rioting and drunkenness, with which are mingled, I know well, chambering and wantonness, since the lessons which evil teachers give are evil; or rather the harvests of worthless seeds are worthless. Let us not set up high beds of leaves, making tabernacles for the belly of what belongs to debauchery. Let us not appraise the bouquet of wines, the kickshaws of cooks, the great expense of unguents. Let not sea and land bring us as a gift their precious dung, for it is thus that I have learnt to estimate luxury; and let us not strive to outdo each other in intemperance (for to my mind every superfluity is intemperance, and all which is beyond absolute need), – and this while others are hungry and in want, who are made of the same clay and in the same manner.

VI. Let us leave all these to the Greeks and to the pomps and festivals of the Greeks, who call by the name of gods beings who rejoice in the reek of sacrifices, and who consistently worship with their belly; evil inventors and worshippers of evil demons. But we, the Object of whose adoration is the Word, if we must in some way have luxury, let us seek it in word, and in the Divine Law, and in histories; especially such as are the origin of this Feast; that our luxury may be akin to and not far removed from Him Who hath called us together.

There is probably a more modern translation, but these too have most likely stood forth in a void.

It is interesting to see this alternative form of transmission.  Probably the same process is the origin of many a “fragment” in late authors.

The Archaeology News Network

Breathing new life into the rise of oxygen debate

New research strongly suggests that the distinct 'oxygenation events' that created Earth's breathable atmosphere happened spontaneously, rather than being a consequence of biological or tectonic revolutions. Credit: University of LeedsThe University of Leeds study, published in the journal Science, not only shines a light on the history of oxygen on our planet, it gives new insight into the prevalence of oxygenated worlds other than...

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David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

#Thelxinoe ~ Your Morning Salutatio for December 10, 2019

Hodie est a.d. IV Id. Dec. 2772 AUC ~ 14 Poseideion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

In the News

In Case You Missed It

Greek/Latin News

Fresh Bloggery

Fresh Podcasts

In this episode, we will look more closely at the reign of Rome’s second king, Numa Pompilius, who was said to have established most of Rome’s religious institutions and traditions almost single-handedly. We’ll consider Numa’s role in the more prolonged foundation narrative of Rome, and see how his work is still relevant to the world in which we live today\

Social Media is not just for modern folk. In ancient Pompeii, people also shared what they thought, who they met with, what they ate… It’s just, they had to use different technology.

Cicero was renowned for his oratorial skills and has gone down in history as ‘eloquence itself’, but in Ancient Rome he was also a politician, who was on the wrong side of Mark Antony as Rome tore itself in pieces following the assassination of Julius Caesar.

Dr Andrew Wright, a Special Honorary Associate at the University of Sydney’s Department of Ancient History and Classics told the story of Cicero’s life and death to Sarah Macdonald.

From Alexandria to Ai-Khanoum, the Hellenistic period would give rise to some of the most impressive cities in the world as the royal dynasties sought to make their mark on the landscape with ambitious building projects and military settlements. We’ll trace the path of a Hellenistic city from foundation to megalopolis, what exactly makes them “Hellenistic”,  and look at a variety of topics including their impacts on disease and human health and their overall legacy in the lands they were built upon.

This bonus episode contains two talks we gave at our university in November. Mark spoke about “The ‘Anglo-Saxon’ Problem: Language and Racism in Medieval Studies” and Aven spoke about “Defining ‘Race’ in the Ancient Mediterranean and Today”.


Dramatic Receptions

Professional Matters


‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

If it thunders today, it portends a massive epidemic, but an abundance of fish.

… adapted from the text and translation of:

Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

The Archaeology News Network

Sailing stone track discovered 'hiding in plain sight' in dinosaur fossil

A sandstone slab prized for its detailed dinosaur footprints may also contain the track of a sailing stone or "walking rock." Paleontologist Paul Olsen from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory announced this discovery in a recent presentation at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union. He and his colleagues think the trail of the walking rock is evidence of a brief freezing event in the tropics some 200 million years ago—the first...

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Oxygen shaped the evolution of the eye

Convergent origins of new mechanisms to supply oxygen to the retina were directly linked to concurrent enhancements in the functional anatomy of the eye. Vascular networks in the retina of a goldfish. The retinal vasculature is divided into the separate layers. Capillaries on the outer side of the retina (red and pink), capillaries on the inner side of the retina (purple and blue), and capillaries  inside the retina (not found...

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Jim Davila (

Sabar, Veritas

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James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

The Future of Gen Ed Recap, Part 5

As I’ve been doing in past summaries of this event, let me start with recent news and other such sources that relate to this topic. First, an article in the Christian Science Monitor recently made the point: By its very nature liberal arts studies force students to dip into topics they’ve never thought about. Who […]

Jim Davila (

Review of Aufrecht, A Corpus of Ammonite Inscriptions (2nd ed.)

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Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2019.12.17: Divine Bodies: Resurrecting Perfection in the New Testament and Early Christianity

Review of Candida R. Moss, Divine Bodies: Resurrecting Perfection in the New Testament and Early Christianity. New Haven: 2019. Pp. 208. $45.00. ISBN 9780300179767.

2019.12.16: Response: Defouw on Beck on Defouw, The Subtlety of Homer

Response , Response: Defouw on Beck on Defouw, The Subtlety of Homer.

2019.12.15: The Brothel of Pompeii. Sex, Class, and Gender at the Margin of Roman Society

Review of Sarah Levin-Richardson, The Brothel of Pompeii. Sex, Class, and Gender at the Margin of Roman Society. Cambridge: 2019. Pp. xix, 243. $99.00. ISBN 9781108496872.

News, Blogposts and Jobs on (Association Internationale d’Épigraphie Grecque et Latine: AIEGL)

VII Seminario Avanzato di Epigrafia Greca (SAEG) – I Circolare

Cari Amici e Colleghi,

come preannunciato in chiusura dell’ultimo Seminario Avanzato di Epigrafia Greca (Venezia, 16-18 gennaio 2019), siamo lieti di comunicarvi che il prossimo SAEG avrà luogo presso Sapienza-Università di Roma dal pomeriggio del 20 alla mattina del 22 gennaio 2021.

Compitum - publications

J.-P. Richard, Shakespeare pornographe. Un théâtre à double fond


Jean-Pierre Richard, Shakespeare pornographe. Un théâtre à double fond, Paris, 2019.

Éditeur : Editions rue d'Ulm
246 pages
ISBN : 978-2-7288-0622-5


Nul, au temps de Shakespeare, n'a su autant que lui transmuer l'obscénité verbale en énergie dramatique, jusqu'à produire sous l'intrigue officielle de ses pièces un tout autre spectacle, fait des péripéties salaces du langage lui-même.
C'est à cette production parallèle, à cet autre théâtre, le plus souvent désopilant, que nous sommes invités à assister ici. On y découvre un pan méconnu du génie créateur de Shakespeare. Car ce montreur d'hommes est aussi un pornographe hors pair, assurément le plus doué de sa génération. De sa première à sa dernière (39e ?) pièce, il a cultivé systématiquement une double entente saturée d'obscénité, qui va bien au-delà de la trouvaille ponctuelle, dans le cadre d'une véritable stratégie dramaturgique de l'équivoque.
Ce voyage d'exploration pourra éclairer les anglicistes, les traducteurs ou les gens de théâtre. Il se lit aussi comme un recueil des mille et un contes grivois qui composent, pourrait-on dire, le Décaméron de Shakespeare.
Cette publication montre notamment à quel point le latin sert de ressort à Shakespeare en matière de pornographie verbale par le biais de la traduction, on y (re)découvre un autre Shakespeare, tristement oublié, profondément populaire (comme en son temps !), foncièrement rabelaisien chaque pièce y est perçue comme une anamorphose, l'une de ces « perspectives dépravées » tant prisées dans les arts à l'époque – à saisir également l'œil / l'oreille en coin.

Lire la suite...

Archaeology Magazine

Possible Viking-Era Grave Discovered in Estonia

TŌNISMÄE, ESTONIA—Estonian Public Broadcasting reports that a tenth-century A.D. burial site has been found in the ancient county of Rävala, near Estonia’s northern coast, where cenotaphs made of Viking sword fragments were discovered last year. Mauri Kiudsoo of Tallinn University said the grave had been damaged by plowing, but archaeologists were able to recover fragments of spearheads, bridles, scythes, and single-edged combat knives, in addition to a crossbow-shaped brooch with poppy heads that had been damaged by fire and disfigured with spring scissors, which were also recovered from the grave. “It cannot be claimed absolutely, but it is likely the two cenotaphs are dedicated to Rävala warriors who perished in one or two battles or campaigns far from home,” Kiudsoo said. It had been previously suggested that the monuments commemorated the deaths of Scandinavian warriors. Although the same types of swords were used by people living across the Baltic Sea region, jewelry was crafted in local styles. “Crossbow-shaped brooches were usually worn by warriors from southwestern Finland and northwestern Estonia,” Kiudsoo explained. The construction style of the grave also indicates it was dug by Rävala residents. For more on Viking-era discoveries in Estonia, go to "The First Vikings." 

Artifacts Recovered From 1,400-Year-Old Tombs in Eastern China

NANCHANG, CHINA—Xinhua reports that archaeologists from the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology have recovered more than 700 artifacts from 73 tombs in eastern China. Most of the tombs in the cemetery have been dated to the Six Dynasties period, between A.D. 220 and 589. The artifacts include furniture, figurines, and weapons made of porcelain, pottery, metal, and stone. The porcelain is thought to have been crafted in central China’s Hunan Province, and Jiangxi and Zhejiang Provinces in eastern China, and shipped along the Yangtze River. To read about a Song Dynasty tomb found underneath a modern house, go to "Underground Party."

Unusually Shaped Stones Unearthed in Prehistoric Orkney

Scotland Shaped StonesORKNEY, SCOTLAND—The Scotsman reports that nine roughly shaped stones have been unearthed at the site of a structure located near the center of Orkney’s main island. The objects, which are estimated to be 4,000 years old, stand about 20 inches tall and appear to have shoulders, a neck, and a head. Three of the stones had been incorporated into one of the two hearths in the structure. Another was found in one of a partial ring of holes that may have supported standing stones. The remaining shaped stones were found scattered around the structure’s second hearth. Three cists, or stone-lined burial chambers, were also uncovered. Researchers from the Orkney Research Center for Archaeology and the University of the Highlands and Islands think the shaped stones may have held mooring ropes fastened to the roof. Further study of abrasion and wear marks on the stones could offer more information on how the stones and the building were used. To read about the recent discovery of a Viking drinking hall in the Orkneys, go to "Skoal!"

December 09, 2019

Geoff Carter (Theoretical Structural Archaeology)

i aten't dead . .

i aten't dead [1]
Many, many thanks to Mr Tobias Page and his team at the Freeman Hospital for saving my life, and all in Ward 2 who were responsible for my recovery.  For the record I am currently tubeless and functioning satisfactorily; longer term prospects are yet to determined, but I am expecting further surgery. 
My family have been a tremendous support and have rallied round magnificently.  A very special thanks to Z & C, and for all the messages of support from readers.
An uncertain future, combined with lying in a hospital ward for days and nights does incline one towards a degree of introspection.   I have have kept returning to a parting shot from my erstwhile Professor, Ian Haynes, that I needed to find different route to market.  As his institution had just relieved me of my life savings, my overdraft would not run to establishing my own University, so blogging became the simplest route to the world and the Theoretical Structural Archaeology blog was created on the 18th August 2008.
However, it is time to create a new and more direct route to market for this type of archaeology while I am still able.

Bitter Pill
While an understanding of the archaeology of structures based on maths and mechanics may seem perfectly rational there are special circumstances to take into account.
  1. The brutal reality is that certain individuals at Newcastle University with the tacit approval of others have ensured and will continue to ensure that my work cannot be accepted until I am dead.
  2. I cannot dumb the science down to the level Russell brand archaeology; thus, even my most basic methodological considerations have had to be peer reviewed in America. [2]
  3. If I write a book, there is a danger, however slight, that Universities might start selling my work to their students.
  4. My experience of "commercial archaeology" with Tyne & Wear Museums had convinced me, just as in education, cost was the only factor, quality, in the form of interpretation was an expensive luxury.
  5. Finally, as a local of the North East, I am not really expected to able to participate in higher education, and sadly, I am no longer young, attractive or fiscally solvent enough to be of interest to an academic.
Thus, at there age of 60 money, career, pensions and security are now meaningless concepts, and the future of my research brought into focus by the Big C.   Since my work is not be acceptable in any form while I am alive, I have decided in the future to concentrate on making videos.

Moving Pictures
Ironically, because no public money has been spent on this research, I can choose to provide it free in the form of video on a platform like YouTube. 
However, the biggest benefit is not being obliged to dumb it down, and being free to debunk costly courses and have some fun at their expense. Once something is “peer reviewed” is is fair game to be ridiculed; clever people supposedly took this seriously and read it prior to publication, perhaps even money changed hands.
There are three areas which I am drawn to, which mirror aspects of this blog;
  1. Methodology
  2. Specials – application of methodology
  3. Humour, reviews and stories

1. Understanding engineered archaeological structures
I have started the first part of the course on structural archaeology, the art is done and the script written, only the difficult bit of putting all together is left to do.
The research into the assembly of prehistoric timber structures is ongoing, and there are innumerable data sets on which ideas can be tested. Thus, while my interest lies in actually doing this work, I will have discipline myself to collating the ideas from the last 10 years of articles into a new and hopefully more coherent format.
Digital 3D archaeology; when I started using 3D CAD for archaeology in 1986 it was of little practical value, not only because the available PCs {80386} were too slow to run it, but, more fundamentally, being able to fit a cone on top of a cylinder and call it a roundhouse was meaningless. By the same token, the current ability to create very real virtual spaces does not necessarily serve the purposes of structural archaeology.

Architectural software, although predicated on the idea that architecture will be regular and rectilinear, can be used to create an engineering model that is accurate and can be tested. Also, creating “walk-through“ is an ideal way to explain the complex modelling required to interpret some of the larger archaeological structures. Despite remarkable rendering capabilities of modern software, this sort of structural archaeology does not view an imagined visual representation as the end product of an analysis.
The evidence can sustain reverse–engineered modelling, which may produce “alternatives”, but these archaeological data sets do not do self-portraits. [3]

2. Fun, fun, fun at the Horse Toilets [4]
The three part video on Hadrian’s Wall is very much a first attempt, it’s a relatively new media and I was still under-invested in technology.  While my work on the Roman Wall is an example of an evidenced based approach, it has become a time consuming distraction.
Writing a book has proved almost impossible because so little of the existing scholarship can be relied upon; often it is little more than a restatement of unverified ideas, some dating back to the dark ages. Unforgivably, given the range of modern techniques now available, some more modern efforts at archaeology, re even more hapless.   I am hoping to make a more succinct and technical discussion of this aspect of my research, as well as other “Specials”; however, my focus is methodology rather than application.

3. Whe’s wee’d in wor chips

Some of the ideas being peddled by Universities are so vacuous, that cartoons and humour are probably the easiest way of debunking this bunkum. I had fun dismantling the very silly BBC program History of Ancient Britain, featuring Neil Oliver intoning a particularly mindless linguistic salad.
In addition, perhaps as a result of a career in the commercial world, many of my encounters with academic and “commercial” archaeology stand out as weird, bizarre, and a little less than sane. All this lends itself to a more anecdotal and humour driven style of presentation; brief fireside chats, a light-hearted look at what some academics and archaeologists have been doing for their money.

Me journey . . . 
I was brought up in an education system which was evidenced based, and I had the privilege of being taught archaeology by archaeologists had had done some serious digging, admittedly, a lot of it they never wrote up, but that's another story.   My career in archaeology lasted little longer than a modest world war, and was ultimately cut short by being left a single parent with four children to support. 
Throwing my self on the mercy of the capitalist system, I started my own consultancy building applications and integrating data & telecoms platforms for business all over Northern Britain. With ISDN, the growth of call centres and the dominance of Windows based networking, these technologies were increasingly available out of the box, in addition, driving 50,000 miles a year eventually proved injurious to my health.
Computing had been transformed, and was now practical tool for this type of archaeology; Luckily, for twenty years I had continued to work on the issues of “assembly” critical for modelling, so I would have something structural to build.
Perusing these ideas with the decision to go all in financially and do PhD at Newcastle turned out to be life changing . Unfortunately, what I joined was a mire of mediaocracy and mendacity left following the mass resignation of the majority academic staff who moved to York.
It turned out, that higher education is the one industry where the customer has to carry the can; when I complained, my work was dismissed as worthless, without even the courtesy of reading it first. [5]
In any other sector the way I was treated would constitute false prospectus, conspiracy to defraud, fraud and theft, but in the post-truth zeitgeist of Arts Education loyalty is what matters.

Caveat Emptor
As a victim of the one sided conflict between my tutor’s imaginary past [6] and the evidence, I have had to live with consequences, watching the evil spread to my family and friends.  So, naturally, I will continue to advocate against this type stupidity and/or dishonesty in this new video format.
Hopefully, I can prevent some students wasting their money on this type of coprolite, by providing for free what Universities have proved incapable of providing at any price.


[1] Just look it up on google . . . 
[2] With Bill Kennedy in Redmond, Brian G,. Genheimer, Robert A., (Eds) 2015; Building the Past: Prehistoric Wooden Post Architecture in the Ohio Valley-Great Lake, University of Florida.
[3] Luckily, there is no shortage of experts on how prehistoric people viewed their imaginary landscapes in the academic sector.
[4 ]Auxiliary Barracks in a New Light: Recent Discoveries on Hadrian's Wall
N. Hodgson and P. T. Bidwell, Britannia Vol. 35 (2004), pp. 121-157
[5] Even the Post-graduate Dean, supposedly an adult in the room, was apparently  too poorly educated, duplicitous, or both to understand that how people who left no records perceived buildings that we have never seen is not a real thing; it is not archaeology, is borderline necromancy.  Purporting to communicate with the Dead is regarded as fraudulent under the law, particularly, since the Witchcraft Act of 1735, but more recently, following losses of WW2, by the 1951 Fraudulent Mediums Act, [replaced by EU Consumer Protection Regulations in May 2008].
[6] Dr Jane Webster Newcastle University's expert in Iron Age Building Cosmology.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

The Digital Cicognara Library

The Digital Cicognara Library
The Digital Cicognara Library is an international initiative to recreate in digital form the remarkable private book collection of Count Leopoldo Cicognara (1767–1834). Though assembled in the Romantic era, Cicognara’s collection of some five thousand early imprints still comprises the foundational literature of art and archaeology. Cicognara’s famous, two-volume inventory of his library, the Catalogo ragionato dei libri d’arte e d’antichità, published in 1821 and often reprinted, remains an essential tool for scholars and bibliophiles.
Still in development, this site currently features the 1821 Catalogo ragionato combined with modern bibliographic descriptions plus a limited number of images. The full Digital Cicognara Library will be built out gradually over the coming months. When complete, the application will consist of the full text of the Catalogo, integrated with digital images and full text of every title in the corpus, including black-and-white facsimiles of the original volumes in the Vatican; one or more high-resolution, color facsimiles of unique copies from partner libraries; and thorough bibliographic information. Thanks to generous support from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation and partner institutions, the Digital Cicognara Library will be an open-access resource.

The Ancient Sculpture Association

The Ancient Sculpture Association
The Ancient Sculpture Association is an international platform aiming to promote the study of ancient sculpture. In universities around the world, sculpture has a somewhat dusty image, as a topic that used to be in vogue in nineteenth-century archaeological scholarship. That this image is unjustified is clear from exciting recent studies in both the appearance and meaning of ancient sculpture. Statues had and have a life of their own, which makes them invaluable tools in studying the society that produced them, and teaches us much about people of the past, as well as present.
The importance of bringing the fascination of ancient sculpture back to both general and specialist audiences has become clear over the past years by the rapid loss of ancient statues to purposeful destruction in Africa and the Near East, as well as to looting all over the world. Sculpture, like other ancient artefacts, tells us where we come from, and its preservation is the preservation of our pasts.

The Galen Project

The Galen Project
The Galen project, officially known as Human Nature: Medical and Philosophical Perspectives in the Work of Galen of Pergamum, is a NWO-funded research project directed by prof. dr. Teun Tieleman, Professor of Ancient Philosophy and Medicine at Utrecht University

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Stunning Warrior Grave — Complete with Chariot, Horses — Uncovered in England

Inside a 2,200-year-old grave, archaeologists have discovered a stunning Iron Age shield, along with...

Turkish Archaeological News

House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus

House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus

Ephesus has had a long tradition of being a centre of religious pilgrimage. The earliest pilgrims arrived to worship the Anatolian goddess known as Kybele. Later, this deity merged with the Greek goddess Artemis and was venerated at the great Artemision, attracting the pilgrims from all over the Mediterranean region. These ancient cults of female deities were later echoed in the worship of St. Mary, mother of Jesus, that supposedly spent the last years of her life in Ephesus. According to this tradition, Mary arrived at Ephesus together with St. John and lived there until her Assumption (according to the Catholic doctrine) or Dormition (according to the Orthodox beliefs). The House of the Virgin Mary (Meryem Ana Evi in Turkish) which can be still visited today, is a place where, according to the beliefs of many people, Mary, the mother of Jesus, spent the last years of her life. However, similarly to the history of St. John, there are many questions and uncertainties regarding this location.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Sealings on tiles and bricks from the Early Byzantine Nikopolis, in Epirus. The production of stamped ceramic materials in Greece, 5th-7th c. A.D. (an overview)

December 09, 2019 17:00 - LECTURE Δρ Κωνσταντίνα ΓΕΡΟΛΥΜΟΥ (Εφορεία Αρχαιοτήτων Μεσσηνίας - Τμήμα Βυζαντινών και Μεταβυζαντινών Αρχαιοτήτων και Μουσείων)

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: The Study Group for Roman Pottery (SGRP) Newsletter

The Study Group for Roman Pottery (SGRP) Newsletter
Study Group for Roman Pottery
Information about the group is disseminated via a newsletter, which provides details of meetings, working parties, ongoing research and publications. The current newsletter is sent to members immediately and older newsletters are available online.
The newsletter is edited by Andrew Peachey, to whom any suggestions should be addressed.
Click the relevant link for the PDF version.

    New Open Access Journal: Esclavages & Post-esclavages

    Esclavages & Post-esclavages
    Esclavages & Post-esclavages
    Créée en 2019, Esclavages & Post-esclavages est une revue internationale semestrielle, exclusivement numérique. Pluridisciplinaire et multilingue, elle explore les spécificités des situations d’esclavages et de post-esclavages dans le monde, de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Elle est éditée par le Centre international de recherches sur les esclavages et post-esclavages (CIRESC). 

    See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies


    Stefano Costa (There's More Than Just Potsherds Out There)

    Total Open Station 0.5

    Total Open Station 0.5 is here!

    This release is the result of a short and intense development cycle.

    The application is now based on Python 3, which means an improved handling of data transfers and a general improvement of the underlying source code.

    An extensive test suite based on pytest was added to help developers work with more confidence and the documentation was reorganized to be more readable.

    There are only minor changes for users but this release includes a large number of bugfixes and improvements in the processing of data formats like Leica GSI, Carlson RW5 and Nikon RAW.

    The command line program totalopenstation-cli-parser has four new options:

    • --2d will drop Z coordinates so the resulting output only contains X and Y coordinates
    • --raw will include all available data in the CSV output for further processing
    • --log and --logtofile allow the logging of application output for debugging

    If you were using a previous version of the program you can:

    • wait for your Linux distribution to upgrade
    • install with pip install --upgrade totalopenstation if you know your way around the command line on Linux or MacOS
    • download the Windows portable app from the release page: this release is the first to support the Windows portable app from the start – for the moment this release supports 64-bit operating systems but we are working to add a version for older 32-bit systems.

    But there’s more. This release marks a renewed development process and the full onboarding of @psolyca in the team. With the 0.6 release we are planning to move the repository from the personal “steko” account to an organization account and improve the contribution guidelines so that the future of Total Open Station is not dependent on a single person. Of course we have already great plans for new features, as always listed on our issue tracker.

    If you use Total Open Station please let us know and maybe give us a star ★ on GitHub.

    Antiquitas (Sciences de l'Antiquité à l'Université de Lorraine)

    Le Nombril d’Aphrodite, une histoire érotique de l’Antiquité

    Christian-Georges Schwentzel, professeur d’histoire ancienne à l’Université de Lorraine (Metz), publie Le Nombril d’Aphrodite, une histoire érotique de l’Antiquité, aux éditions Payot.

    Hic habitat felicitas (« Ici habite le bonheur ») : telle est l’inscription pour le moins explicite qui accompagnait l’image d’un phallus en terre cuite à l’entrée d’une boulangerie de Pompéi. Les Égyptiens du XIIe siècle av. J.-C. mirent en scène sur un papyrus digne d’un Kamasutra des couples se livrant à des poses acrobatiques. Quant aux Sumériens, ils traçaient déjà il y a 4000 ans des vers pornographiques sur leurs tablettes en cunéiforme.

    La plastique sensuelle des statues antiques des dieux, déesses et autres amazones et hermaphrodites témoigne de l’emprise de la mythologie sur le quotidien de nos lointains ancêtres sumériens, égyptiens, grecs ou romains. Douze de ces statues, dont la Vénus de Milo à l’excitant nombril creusé dans le marbre, nous convient ici à un voyage dans l’imaginaire fantasmatique et les pratiques sexuelles des hommes et femmes de l’Antiquité, dans des sociétés profondément inégalitaires et à dominante patriarcale. Distinguant radicalement l’épouse et la prostituée ou l’homme libre et l’esclave sexuel, mais non les hétérosexuels des homosexuels, ces pratiques nous permettent finalement de mieux comprendre l’érotisme de notre XXIe siècle, entre domination masculine et prise de conscience féminine.  

    Voir l’ouvrage sur le site des Éditions Payot.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Rhythmic perception in humans has strong evolutionary roots

    Rhythm is a fundamental aspect of music, dance and language. However, we do not know to what extent our rhythmic skills depend on ancient evolutionary mechanisms that may be present in other animals. "In our study, we explored whether other animals can detect an isochronous beat (in which all signals  are separated by the same interval) and distinguish non-isochronous beats, regardless of other irrelevant features such as tempo"...

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    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Legacy Data, Digital Heritage, and Time

    Over the last couple of weeks, I continue to think about the role of legacy data in archaeology. This is for a paper that I’ll give next month at the annual Archaeological Institute of America. I’ve started to work through my ideas here and here.

    At first, I imagined that I’d give a fairly routine paper that focused on my work with notebooks at the Princeton Cyprus Expedition at Polis on Cyprus. As readers of this blog know, a small team of us have worked to analyze over 20 years of excavations at Polis and to move the data from a largely analogue, notebook system, to a relational database that we can query. This has not only allowed us to understand the relationship between the excavation, ceramic assemblages, and architecture, but also moved us toward a secondary goal of publishing the data from Polis.

    At the same time that I was working on this stuff, I was also continuing to think about time and archaeology and reading some recent works including Marek Tamm and Laurent Olivier’s Rethinking Historical Time: New Approaches to Presentism (2019) as well as some turn of the century works like F. Hartog’s Regimes of Historicity: Presentism and Experiences of Time (2015). These works consider the changing nature of time and heritage in archaeology and argue that emergence of the contemporary “heritage industry” particularly after 1989 (and September 2001) demonstrates a changing notion of time in which heritage largely serves the various needs of the present. This contrasts to an earlier regime of time which emphasized the past as evidence for progress into the future. It was interesting that the Tamm and Olivier book includes no sustained discussion of how the changing regimes of time influence the use of digital tools in archaeological practice.

    This is all the more striking because the Hartog’s change in the nature of the past maps loosely onto our embrace of digital technology to facilitate to documentation and analysis of archaeological field work. One might argue that older techniques of documentation with their dependence on paper sought to create an archive that was designed as much for the future as for the present. We anticipated more sophisticated ways of analyzing our work and sought to document our practices, methods, and assumptions as carefully as possible. The practice of carefully archiving one’s field notes – typically on site – was fundamental to our notion of responsible excavation.

    More recently, digital tools become a key component to documenting field work. Archaeologists have produced what Andy Bevin has called a “digital deluge” of data from our surveys, excavations, and research projects. The need to archive this data has remained significant, but, at the same time, there’s a growing quantity of “legacy data” that past projects have accrued. The concept of legacy data demonstrates an immediate awareness of the division between past data practices (whether digital or not) and contemporary needs. The expanding discourse on data preservation practices, archival format, and “best practices,” “standards” and meta-data traces our anxieties in the face of rapidly changing technologies and protocols. The fear, I’d suggest, is less about the future of our data and more about its present utility. This follows the increasingly blurred line between the archiving of data and its publication. The potential for re-use in the present has shaped much of the conversation about legacy data.

    Legacy data, however, is about more than just reuse in the present. In fact, the formats, tools, and technologies that made data collected in the past useful in the past remain a key element to understanding how digital data came to be, how it was encountered, and how it was interpreted. The details about data how a project produced or collected – or the paradata – remain significant, but more than that, the technologies used to produce, store, and analyze data in the past are fundamental to understanding archaeological practice.

    Scholars of video games, of course, already know this. Rainford Guins in Game After: A Cultural Study of Video Game Afterlife (2014) for example, has considered the role of the arcade, the video game cabinet, the art present in a video game cartridge, and the design of the video game console as well as its place in the home. For Guins the game code is just part of the video game as a cultural artifact. He documents the challenges associated with preserving vintage arcade games and the balance between allowing the games to be played and the wear and tear of regular use on cabinets, controllers, and increasingly irreplaceable CRT monitors. The impulse to preserve “legacy games,” if you will, allows us to make sense of these objects as complex cultural artifacts rather than simply vessels for digital code.

    In an archaeological context, then, legacy data is about more than the code or the digital objects, but also about the range of media, technologies, tools, and practices that made this data possible. Our interest in the utility of digital data risks reducing digital heritage to an evaluation of present utility. If, as Roosevelt et al. famously quipped “Excavation is Destruction Digitization: Advances in Archaeological Practice,” we might also argue that our modern impulse to digitize or adapt legacy data is a destructive practice, “Digitization is Destruction.”

    This isn’t to suggest that we stop engaging legacy data as important sources of archaeological information or that we only engage it using 30 year old IBM PC with a SCSY port Zip drive. Instead, I’m suggesting that our approach to legacy data gives us a useful way to reflect on the changing notion of time in archaeological practice and perhaps even speaks to the complicated relationship between archaeology and heritage practices.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Secrets of orangutan language revealed

    "Climb on me", "climb on you" and "resume play" are among the requests wild orangutans make to each other, researchers say. Credit: Tim Laman/BBCIn the first in-depth study of gestures among wild orangutans, University of Exeter scientists identified 11 vocal signals and 21 physical "gesture types". Sounds included the "kiss squeak" (a sharp kiss noise created while inhaling), the "grumph" (a low sound lasting one or two seconds made...

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    BiblePlaces Blog

    Weekend Roundup, Part 3

    Here’s a gem: a video about the excavations at Corinth made in 1945.

    The first season of The Holy Land: Connecting The Land With Its Stories with John (Jack) Beck is now available on YouTube.

    The Bible and Interpretation has an abridged version of a chapter from Margreet Steiner’s new book, Inhabiting the Promised Land: Exploring the Complex Relationship between Archaeology and Ancient Israel as Depicted in the Bible. This chapter surveys the history of modern scholars trying to locate the patriarchs in various periods.

    A new exhibit at the Oriental Institute reveals the original colors of Assyrian reliefs.

    Analysis of clay jar lids from the Qumran caves reveals residue of papyrus, supporting the theory that scrolls were once stored in the jars.

    Ferrell’s Favorite Foto #33 is of the Cave of Adullam.

    John Byron is on The Book and the Spade discussing the subject of his new book, A Week in the Life of a Slave (and Part 2).

    The Temple Mount Sifting Project is now enjoying a new state-of-the-art greenhouse.

    If you’ve ever been to an academic conference, you may appreciate this series of videos, especially the last one.

    Biblical Archaeology Society is selling many DVDs for $5.

    A couple of sets of Lois Tverberg’s excellent books are available for reduced prices this month.

    HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Nine 'amazing' Bronze Age figurines found at Orkney dig

    Archaeologists working at the site of a proposed electricity sub-station in Orkney have found nine...

    The Archaeology News Network

    When penguins ruled after dinosaurs died

    What waddled on land but swam supremely in subtropical seas more than 60 million years ago, after the dinosaurs were wiped out on sea and land? Illustration of the newly described Kupoupou stilwelli [Credit: Jacob Blokland, Flinders University]Fossil records show giant human-sized penguins flew through Southern Hemisphere waters - along side smaller forms, similar in size to some species that live in Antarctica today. Now the newly...

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    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    [Papers] Archaeobotanical Progress in South and South East Asia

    via Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, December 2019: a collection of papers related to the archaeobotany of South and Southeast Asia. Some papers are even open access.

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #Thelxinoe ~ Your Morning Salutatio for December 9, 2019

    Hodie est  a.d. VII Id. Dec. 2772 AUC ~ 11 Poseideion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

    … an extremely slow day (I think my rss feeds might be having issues)

    Fresh Bloggery

    Fresh Podcasts

    Cicero was renowned for his oratorial skills and has gone down in history as ‘eloquence itself’, but in Ancient Rome he was also a politician, who was on the wrong side of Mark Antony as Rome tore itself in pieces following the assassination of Julius Caesar.

    Dr Andrew Wright, a Special Honorary Associate at the University of Sydney’s Department of Ancient History and Classics told the story of Cicero’s life and death to Sarah Macdonald.

    Book Reviews

    Dramatic Receptions


    ‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

    Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

    If it thunders today, it portends the downfall of a famous man.

    … adapted from the text and translation of:

    Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

    The Archaeology News Network

    480-million-year-old fossils reveal sea lilies' ancient roots

    Sea lilies, despite their name, aren't plants. They're animals related to starfish and sea urchins, with long feathery arms resting atop a stalk that keeps them anchored to the ocean floor. Sea lilies have been around for at least 480 million years--they first evolved hundreds of millions of years before the dinosaurs. For nearly two centuries, scientists have thought about how modern sea lilies evolved from their ancient ancestors. In...

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    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events


    December 09, 2019 12:00 - SEMINAR Δρ. Αθανασία Κυριάκου (Μέλος του Εργαστηριακού Διδακτικού Προσωπικού στο Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας του Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης)

    Jim Davila (

    Scroll residue in a Dead Sea jar lid?

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Babylon now

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Vocation and Interreligious Engagement at #NetVUE2019AAR #AARSBL19 Part 2

    The next speaker at the Interfaith/Interreligious Studies and Vocation workshop was Jacqueline Bussie, who said that her institution has an interfaith peacebuilding center with a name that does not immediately convey what they do. They developed an Interfaith Studies minor at Concordia, an ELCA school that was once predominantly Lutheran, but now is much more diverse, as their context […]

    Bryn Mawr Classical Review

    2019.12.14: Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Augustan Rome: Rhetoric, Criticism and Historiography. Greek culture in the Roman world

    Review of Richard L. Hunter, Casper C. de Jonge, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Augustan Rome: Rhetoric, Criticism and Historiography. Greek culture in the Roman world. Cambridge; New York: 2019. Pp. ix, 300. $105.00. ISBN 9781108474900.

    2019.12.13: Blut auf Pharsalischen Feldern Lucans Bellum Ciuile und Vergils Georgica. Hypomnemata, Band 206

    Review of Markus Kersten, Blut auf Pharsalischen Feldern Lucans Bellum Ciuile und Vergils Georgica. Hypomnemata, Band 206. Göttingen: 2018. Pp. 358. €100,00. ISBN 9783525310557.

    Compitum - publications

    V. A. Korshunkov, Греколатиника: отражения классики


    Vladimir A. Korshunkov, Греколатиника: отражения классики, Moscou, 2018.

    Éditeur : НЕОЛИТ
    528 pages
    ISBN : 978-5-9500805-6-2
    1490 р.

    Помещённые в этой книге заметки и очерки знакомят с античной культурой и цивилизацией, с греко-римским наследием в современном мире. Предоставляются важнейшие сведения о классических языках — древнегреческом и латинском. В разбираемых сюжетах поясняются, комментируются, исследуются греческие и латинские слова, фразы, языковые явления, а также античные, библейские, средневековые культурные и бытовые ситуации. Книга будет полезна старшеклассникам, студентам, аспирантам и всем, кого интересуют историко-культурные традиции Западной Европы и России.


    Source : Academia

    Archaeology Magazine

    Africa’s Ostrich Eggshell Beads Offer Hints of Cultural Contact

    Ostrich Shell BeadsJENA, GERMANY—Jennifer Miller of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and Elizabeth Sawchuk of Stony Brook University tested the idea that the size of beads made from ostrich eggshells can be used to track cultural shifts in ancient Africa, according to a statement released by the Max Planck Institute. Such beads date back to more than 40,000 years ago and have been unearthed throughout Africa. Miller and Sawchuk measured 1,200 beads recovered from 30 archaeological sites spanning a 10,000 year period in southern and eastern Africa and compared the data with other archaeological evidence of cultural change. The researchers confirmed that larger beads appeared in southern Africa some 2,000 years ago, when people began to herd sheep and goats, but did not replace existing bead styles. The larger bead size may have been introduced by the people who brought domesticated animals to the region, they explained. In eastern Africa, however, bead styles did not change at the time herding was introduced, although beads made by foragers in eastern Africa were similarly sized to the larger beads made by herders in southern Africa. The researchers conclude that peoples from southern and eastern Africa may have had contact with each other as herding spread, but the experience did not extinguish local traditions. To read about the spread of pastoralism, go to "Herding Genes in Africa."    

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    History, Silence and Discourse

    Olga Tokarczuk
    Polish writer Olga Tokarczuk received the Nobel prize for literature last night. Her acceptance speech was not broadcast live by the state media in her home country. Here's a fragment:
    'Something that happens and is not told ceases to exist and dies. Not only historians, but also (and perhaps above all) all sorts of politicians and tyrants know this. Whoever has and tells the story rules' [Olga Tokarczuk, December 7, 2019]*
    Certainly not the first time that this has been said, but the silence of part of the media is so eloquent.

    *"Coś, co się wydarza, a nie zostaje opowiedziane, przestaje istnieć i umiera. Wiedzą o tym bardzo dobrze nie tylko historycy, ale także (a może przede wszystkim) wszelkiej maści politycy i tyrani. Ten, kto ma i snuje opowieść – rządzi."

    Archaeology Magazine

    Pompeii Mosaic May Depict Surveyors’ Tool

    Pompeii House of OrionMILAN, ITALY—Massimo Osanna, director of the Pompeii Archaeological Park, and Luisa Ferro and Giulio Magli of the Polytechnic University of Milan, suggest that images in a floor mosaic in a Pompeian house may be related to the practice of surveying, according to information released by the Polytechnic University of Milan. Roman survey technicians, known as gromatici, employed a cross-shaped instrument called a groma. A cord hanging from each of the perpendicular arms of the cross ended with a weight or plumb bob that could be used to create plumb lines. Thus, the tool allowed surveyors to establish true vertical and horizontal lines when planning towns and aqueducts. One groma has been uncovered at Pompeii, but their use has only been known from texts dating to the medieval period. Osanna and his colleagues explained that one of the mosaic images in the House of Orion resembles those seen in a medieval text. It consists of a square inscribed in a circle, which is cut by two perpendicular lines. One of the lines aligns with the longitudinal axis of the structure’s atrium. A second image, made up of a circle inscribed with a cross, appears to depict a groma. The researchers think the owner of the home may have belonged to the surveyors' guild, or the structure may have been used for guild meetings. To read more about recent research at the ancient city, go to "Digging Deeper into Pompeii's Past."

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    [Talk] The Assumption of an Astronomical Platform in Cambodia of the VII–VIII Century

    Choeung Ek siteAnother interesting talk by Dr Olivier de Bernon at the Siam Society next week, about the Choeung Ek site near Phnom Penh. The Assumption of an Astronomical Platform in Cambodia of the VII–VIII CenturyDate: Friday 20 December 2019Time: 7 pmVenue: The Siam Society, Bangkok The circular structure of Choeung Ek, hardly discernable at ground level […]

    Ancient Kedah’s history from Indian sources

    Sungai Batu in Kedah. Source: Berita Harian 20191207via Berita Harian, 07 December 2019: While there are no inscriptions found in the Bujang Valley, Indian sources such as poems from the first millennium and Chola Kingdom edicts highlight the knowledge of a polity in Kedah that was distinct from Srivijaya. Article is in Bahasa Malaysia.

    [Book] History, Memory, and Territorial Cults in the Highlands of Laos: The Past Inside the Present

    via CRC Press: A new book by Pierre Petit on territorial cults in Highland Laos.

    New book traces Tamil community’s presence in region dating back 2,000 years

    Indian Heritage Centre book launch. Source: Straits Times 20191207via Straits Times, 07 December 2019: A new book published by the Indian Heritage Centre of Singapore explore's the 2000-year-old history of the Tamils in Southeast Asia.

    December 08, 2019

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies

    Scandinavian Journal of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
    ISSN: 2002-0007
    The Scandinavian Journal of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies is a peer-reviewed journal which encourages scholarly contributions within Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies from the Late Antique period to the present, emphasizing philology and history. The journal continues the Scandinavian Journal of Modern Greek Studies, which was published in four volumes (2002 – 2010), and is produced in collaboration by the University of Lund and Uppsala University. International contributions are highly welcome. The SJBMGS is an open-access journal, distributed free of charge both online at and in print.

    Current Issue

    Vol 4 (2018)

    Published: 2019-06-20

    Full Issue


    ASOR YouTube Channel

     [First posted in AWOL 16 August 2013, updated 8 December 2019]

    The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) is a non-profit 501 (c)3 organization that supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. 

    ASOR is apolitical and has no religious affiliation

    Add to queue

    3:35 Now playing

    Tel Hazor Bronze Age Photo Gallery

    2.9K views6 years ago

    Colleen Morgan (Middle Savagery)

    INELIGIBLE Exhibition: Shoe

    Last February Doug Bailey emailed me (and many others) to see if we’d participate in a unique experiment: he would mail us artifacts from the excavations that preceded the recent construction of San Francisco’s Trans Bay Transit Center that were deemed unworthy of archival. His prompt:

    In accepting the invitation, you commit to repurpose (disassemble, take apart, grind up) the artefacts that you receive so that they become the raw materials with which you will make creative work. There are no other limitations, instructions, or guidelines, beyond the suggestion that the work you make should engage contemporary social or political issues and debates. Engagement may relate to San Francisco and its current energies (e.g., the tech revolution, disenfranchisement, home/houselessness). Engagement may flow from your personal reaction to your assemblage of artefacts, or to your own personal, professional, or local political experiences, desires, and frustrations.

    A few months later, I received a box with some disintegrating leather inside. I put it on my desk and thought about it for a while. I’ve been teaching filmmaking to Master’s students for a couple of years now, but most of my time behind a camera has been spent making promotional videos for York in my publicity administrative role. I really wanted to engage creatively with film again and this was the perfect chance.

    The Ineligible prompt also included the line:

    Ineligible urges contributors not to think of the material as archaeological, as artefactual, or as historic.

    Well, damn. So over the summer I put the shoe in peoples’ hands and filmed it. Though these people happen to be archaeologists, I think I was able to draw out different encounters with materiality, beauty, and our association/disassociation with the lives of our objects. To be honest, I think I failed in that part of the prompt, but these are the stories we wanted to tell.

    I was prompted to write an artist statement, and I wrote this clumsy thing:

    As an anarchist, a mother, an archaeologist, I’m deeply concerned with making kin through the investigation and care of objects, places, and people. Finding a politics of joy and intimacy, and building things together as a way to resist Empire. In this short film I gave an alienated object, a child’s shoe, to my kin, the caretakers of the discarded to understand and reanimate this object, even as it disintegrated in our hands.

    I was delighted when it was selected to be shown at the Ineligible exhibition curated by Doug Bailey and Sara Navarro at the International Museum of Contemporary Sculpture in Santo Tirso, Portugal. The exhibition opens March 6, 2020.


    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    [Short course] Singapore, Southeast Asia and the Sea

    Source: NUS Museumvia NUS Museum: A short course by Prof. John Miksic on the archaeology of Singapore and the Maritime Silk Route. Closing date for registration is at the end of this week (15 Dec 2019)

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #Thelxinoe ~ Weekend Edition for December 8, 2019

    Hodie est  a.d. VIId. Dec. 2772 AUC ~ 12 Poseideion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

    In the News

    In Case You Missed It ~ Long Reads

    Classics and Classicists in the News

    Greek/Latin News

    Fresh Bloggery

    Landscape Modery

    Book Reviews

    Dramatic Receptions

    Professional Matters


    ‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

    Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

    If it thunders today, it portends a virulent disease, but an abundance of crops and a plague on the flocks.

    … adapted from the text and translation of:

    Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

    Jim Davila (

    Pretend to be a Time Traveler Day 2019

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    BiblePlaces Blog

    Weekend Roundup, Part 2

    Aaron’s tomb in Jordan will re-open to Israeli tourists after the site was closed following a group that allegedly prayed there.

    A researcher claims that the world’s oldest chess piece was discovered in Jordan.

    Sara Toth Stub explains what happened to Petra after it was abandoned by the Nabateans.

    It’s not clear where Egyptians came up with five million African sacred ibises, but a DNA study shows that they were not raised in breeding farms.

    Archaeologists have discovered five lion mummies in excavations in Saqqara.

    3-D scans of the bust of Nefertiti are now available online.

    The Ilisu dam will soon flood Hasankeyf, one of the oldest known and continuously inhabited settlements in the world.

    The Central Baths at Pompeii have now been opened to tourists.

    A reconstruction of the god Moloch is part of an exhibit on Carthage in Rome.

    Cyrus, king of Persia, is the latest subject in Bryan Windle’s series of bioarchaeographies.

    Save the date: the annual conference of the Institute of Biblical Context, now redubbed the Infusion Bible Conference, will be held on June 8 to 10, 2020 in west Michigan. The topic is “Paul and His Roman World.”

    Gift subscriptions are now available for Walking the Bible Lands.

    HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer, Explorator, Keith Keyser

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    UK Artefact Hunting: Pretend Seasonal Generosity Shields Total Lack of Transparency

    ebay: how many UK antiquities
    sellers actually have title?
    Heritage Action have a resident pig-farmer that is not afraid to say what no British archaeologist would even ever suggest ('Metal detecting: Farmer Brown is feeling Christmassy' 8th Dec 2019)
    Dear Fellow Landowners,
    It’s that time of year when thousands of us will be offered a bottle of whisky to thank us for allowing people to detect for the past year. But before you swoon in a flood of rural gratitude may I suggest you respond by saying:
    “How kind! However, it would warm the cockles of my heart far more if, instead, you reveal to me, right now, your eBay trading name.”
    (It’s very clear some people are paying a very high price for their whisky!)
    Seasons Greetings, Silas Brown [...]
    .This refers to the spate of posts we see each year (those of us that watch them, most pro-detecting archies in Britain never do) on metal detecting forumes where artefact hunters boast to each other how 'generous' they are to the landowners that let them loot the archaeological record for collectables. They often buy 'him a bottle of wine and flowers for his wife' , or 'make up a showcase of [cheap duplicate] finds from their land' (this suggests that in giving them back, they took them away without showing the landowner in the first place). Anyway, two metal detectorists this year don't have to bother about what kind of wine they'd buy John Francis Cawley, 4th Baron Cawley and tenant farmer Yvonne Conod as this year they'll be spending Christmas in jail precisely because they walked off with items they did not show the landowner to get title 

    Friday Retrospect: Unfulfilled Threat

    This video, though promised, never surfaced. I guess that means this was just more of the same usual old artefact collectors' bullshit.

    Wednesday, 28 March 2012

    FLO Filmed Trying to Buy Antiquities?

    Metal detectorist Graham Chetwynd  made the following announcement on the Heritage Action Facebook page a while back:
     you do have good and bad in everything i have a FLO on dvd film of my mate's pocket camera offering us under counter deals for his own collection for item's we have found 1 being a palistave axe head and 1 socketed.
    Mr Chetwynd claims that "the footage" (surely it would be a digital file, or do metal detectorists have Stone Age video equipment?) "will be seen when it is arranged to have the biggest impact". I would say the eve of "Britain's Secret Treasures" coming out was just such a time if Mr Chetwynd wanted to do the PAS maximum damage.

    If the FLO was offering to buy items he knew were stolen (nighthawked, from an unreported hoard) then yes that would be illegal (although how do we know that he did not also have a hidden camera running and this was part of a PAS sting?). If however the two objects were the product of legal metal detecting, then there is in fact nothing illegal about an FLO offering to buy them for a collection. Collecting artefacts is not illegal in England and Wales. That is the whole point of the PAS. I would not be surprised if a number of FLOs had private collections of archaeological artefacts (perhaps the PAS could supply some figures on that). If they have been legally obtained and properly dealt with, there is not even anything in the IFA Code of Practice which says they cannot. So what is the problem, what will this alleged "film" achieve? It might open up the debate about collecting though. Bring it on.

    Vignette: caught on camera
    What simpletons and liars some artefact hunters are.

    TAKE A GOOD LOOK at this behaviour, for these are precisely the sort of people the PAS wants to grab more and more millions of public quid to make into the "partners" of the British Museum, archaeological heritage professionals and to whom they want us all to entrust the exploitation of the archaeological record. Take a good look and decide what you think about that as a "policy".  

    Chainsaw-Wielding Detectorist, 'Forbidden to Contact the Man with the Glasses'

    Nice bloke, tattoos, metal detector,
    loud mouth, aggressive manner,
    chainsaw, dangerous driver ((Image: Stuart Abel/ Devon Live)
    Armed police were called to a violent incident in Buckfastleigh, Devon, earlier on this year, which ended in court this week. The person involved Graham Chetwynd has featured in this blog before due to the manner in which he chose to participate in discussions on artefact hunting. Like this example:
    graham 25/08/2013 at 11:48: Mr barford we will meet soon and then we can have A PROPER CHAT .just me and you see you soon Graham xx
    Nigel S 25/08/2013 at 12:07:
    Mr Chetwynd, I take it that’s a physical threat, like the late-night telephoned one you delivered to me. Paul isn’t a member of Heritage Action but I’ll pass it on to him.
    graham 25/08/2013 at 13:32:
    Take it exactly how you want to but its a promise to be honest. 
    Nice people, these metal detectorists. He was arrested after the incident (Stuart Abel, 'Man accused of wielding chainsaw in Devon town to face a jury' Devon Live 9th September 2019)
    A man accused of wielding a chainsaw outside his home in a Devon town is to face a judge and jury. Graham Chetwynd, aged 50, allegedly threatened people in Buckfastleigh with weapons including the saw and a baseball bat, a court heard. He faced a judge to deny three offences during the incident which saw him arrested by armed police on January 14. Chetwynd, from Glebelands in the town, appeared at Plymouth Crown Court to plead not guilty to affray, or threatening unlawful violence. He also denied driving his Mitsubishi dangerously in his home street. Chetwynd finally pleaded not guilty to causing criminal damage to a man’s glasses. Judge Timothy Rose set down a trial to last three to four days, starting on December 3. Chetwynd was released on bail on condition he does not contact the man with the glasses.
    Rough area, Glebelands, Buckfastleigh (Crown Court Reporter, 'Tantrum teen stabbed neighbour' Mid Devon Advertiser Friday, 12 February 2016):
    Cannabis user Connor Beasley got into an argument with his neighbour when he complained about his behaviour and armed himself with a knife. Victim Graham Chetwynd suffered a slash wound to his shoulder during the encounter at his home in Buckfastleigh, Exeter Crown Court was told.[...] Beasley, now aged 19, of Fore Street, Exeter, admitted wounding and possession of an offensive weapon and was jailed for six months, suspended for two years [...] Judge Erik Salomonsen told him: "I have to bear in mind your age at the time of this incident. You lost control of yourself at your home and smashed your guitar and threatened to smash your amplifier. "You went next door where there was an altercation and you went back home to fetch a knife from the kitchen which you used to wound Mr Chetwynd.
    That's the Graham Chetwynd that is a member of the Totnes Metal Detecting Club:
    ...skinny bloke with tatoos...[...] got an e-trac [emoticon] Lovely bloke [emoticon], an e-trac and a chainsaw.
    Anyway, the upshot was that his driving's seen as more of a threat than his chainsaw threats:
    Stuart Abel, 'Man admits wielding chainsaw outside his Devon home' Devon Live 4th December 2019):
    A man has admitted wielding a chainsaw outside his home. Graham Chetwynd, aged 50, brandished the machine as part of a violent confrontation before he was arrested by armed police. Chetwynd was due to face a jury at Plymouth Crown Court after denying affray, dangerous driving and causing criminal damage to a man’s glasses in Buckfastleigh. The defendant, of Glebelands, has now admitted affray and criminal damage. Chetwynd pleaded guilty to the lesser offence of careless driving in his home street – which was accepted by the Crown Prosecution Service. His barrister Brian Fitzherbert said he faced a ban from the road under the points system but would argue against disqualification because he would suffer “exceptional hardship”.
    He would not be able to go out artefact hunting with his e-trac. And he would not be able to drive across to Poland to have that "PROPER CHAT"...

     TAKE A GOOD LOOK at this behaviour, for these are precisely the sort of people the PAS wants to grab more and more millions of public quid to make into the "partners" of the British Museum, archaeological heritage professionals and to whom they want us all to entrust the exploitation of the archaeological record. Take a good look and decide what you think about that as a "policy".  

    Jim Davila (

    Bonesho on foreign holidays in rabbinic literature

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Ancient Jordanian rock art

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Vocation and Interreligious Engagement at #NetVUE2019AAR #AARSBL19 Part 1

    I was delighted to attend the NetVUE (Network for Vocation in Undergraduate Education) pre-conference workshop in San Diego last month. The Religion program at Butler University has been exploring the possibility of offering a minor in interreligious engagement ever since I read an article by Eboo Patel proposing an interfaith curriculum, and I realized that […]

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins Found on Archaeological Site and Among Human Remains Sells for £90k [UPDATED]

    PAS 'in action'
    Yet another deposit of Aethelred II coins was found two years ago during collection-driven exploitation of the archaeological record and has surfaced (apparently only now) in the news and we are selectively informed about it:
    A hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins discovered in a field by an amateur detectorist has fetched £90,000 at auction - three times its original estimate The collection, made up of 99 "silver pennies" thought to be 1,000 years old, was found buried on farmland in Suffolk in March 2017. Among them is a rare "small cross mule" coin, which was sold to a European collector for £13,640 alone. Detectorist Don Crawley said he was "totally amazed" at the outcome. The hoard was found under the remains of a Saxon church believed to have been demolished soon after the Norman conquest in the 11th Century [...].(BBC, 'Suffolk hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins sells for £90k' 04 December 2019)
    Then we get the trite de rigeur narrativisation "the coins may have been buried by a pilgrim who was making penitence and feared "the impending apocalypse of the Millennium," the auction house suggested" - which is of course completely at odds with the fundamental tenets of Christianity at the time, so rather than being an 'explanation', such an act would been to be explained. Anyway this Mr Crawley, who reportedly dug through the church remains to get to the coins is a builder from Bucklesham, near Ipswich, who [de rigeur, added human interest element of the trope] "said he made the find on his first visit to the field". Now, we know that a number of older parishes were amalgamated with each other on the Norman Conquest, was Mr Crawley deliberately targeting the central place of one such parish, and is the site of the church (and manor) of this one scheduled? Is that why its name is not revealed? And if it is not scheduled, why isn't it? The article goes on to say 'Excavations carried out in the area later revealed human bones on the site' [while other versions have Mr Crawley finding them while he was digging up coins - if that is so, why according to these texts were the coins reported and not the human remains?]. So why is this ancient site with human remains not protected from hobbyist grave robbing? More human interest blabber quotes the searcher:
    "After walking up an incline in the field, my detector gave off a strong signal and within a short space of time I had recovered 93 coins," he said. "The finds officer was called in [afterwards] and they [sic] investigated the site which turned out to be a long-forgotten Saxon church."
    But [as de rigeur element number three of the UK media's coverage of this type of heritage destruction ] the state media company goes on about the monetary value of the haul
    The entire hoard was originally expected to fetch between £30,000 and £50,000 when it went under the hammer in 84 lots at Dix Noonan Webb auctioneers in London earlier. Antiquities specialist, Nigel Mills, said the sale showed "how the prices realised at auction for a newly-found hoard can exceed everyone's expectations."
    There was a mule that sold for 13.6k and a rare coin from the Melton Mowbray mint that fetched £8,400. So why was the treasure disclaimed if the contents contain such rare and informative (?) items? Why are the objects not in public collection where we can all have access to them? Why, if an EXCAVATION was carried out to study the context of deposition of these items, do the coins themselves - from the archaeological context reportedly identified as a result - not form part of the excavation archive - of which they so obviously should be an integral part? Where is the report of this excavation made (by whom?) two years before part of the excavation archive was split up and sold off? Where and when will it appear? What precedent does it set that professional archaeologists carry out a piece of field research and then two years later some of the objects from it turn up on the market in private hands, and sold to scattered collectors? Is that in any way a betrayal by professional archaeologists of the public trust placed in them? I would say so - what does the CIfA say about archaeologists that agree to carry out projects where the end result is a selling off of the finds?

    More to the point, what kind of place has the UK reached when the BBC is not asking these questions on behalf of the public interests?

    Or, indeed, where a public-funded body set up two decades ago to safeguard those public interests in portable antiquities is not loudly raising these questions in the public forum every time this happens? The PAS is not paid to remain silent, but to agitate for best practice, which they cannot do by sitting on their collective butts on their public-funded office chairs keeping out of sight with their fluffy heads hidden behind the parapet.

    UPDATE 6.12.19 More on this story
    Sam Blanchard, 'Metal detectorist unearths a stash of 99 immaculately preserved Anglo-Saxon coins worth up to £50,000 dating back to the reign of Ethelred the Unready 1,000 years ago', Mail, 23 September 2019

    Jack Elsom, 'Treasure-hunter, 50, who unearthed 99 silver Anglo-Saxon coins in farmer's field in Suffolk is 'amazed' when 1,000-year-old hoard sells for £90,000', Mail, 5 December 2019

     Anon, 'Hoard of silver coins to be sold at auction' express and star Nov 28, 2019 ('Builder and metal detectorist Don Crawley holds a collection of Anglo Saxon silver pennies which form part of a hoard of 99 Anglo-Saxon silver pennies which he unearthed in Suffolk Mr Crawley, who had not visited the site before, also found the remains of human bones')

    Ellena Cruse, 'Metal detectorist makes pretty penny after ancient coins he found in Suffolk field sell for £90,000 at auction' 5th December 2019
    ('The explorer also found the remains of human bones at the farmer’s field').
    A display case holds a collection of Anglo Saxon
    silver pennies found in Suffolk (PA Wire/PA Images) 
    This is how the British Museum handled the coins when recording them? Torn scraps of paper as labels? Wow. 

     Press Association, 'Hoard of silver coins fetches £90,000 at auction' This is Money, 4 December 2019

    Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

    Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: December 8

    Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email. Plus, it's December; you can find out more about the month of Latin carols at the Gaudium Mundo blog.

    HODIE: ante diem sextum Idus Decembres

    O praeclarum custodem ovium, lupum!
    O wolf, renowned guardian of the sheep!

    Quidquid agis, fac illud agas virtutis amore;
       Hoc semper teneas, et bene semper ages.

    Post nubila Phoebus.
    After the clouds, sunshine.

    Nihil gratius est pace.
    Nothing is more welcome than peace.

    (reload for more)

    December 07, 2019

    Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi (Stone Pages' Archaeonews)

    Ancient Hunter-Gatherers teach how to produce thermo-stable paint

    Ancient Hunter-Gatherers had used natural materials to create paint and pigments for hundreds of thousands of years but until recently it was not known how they had actually made it....

    Pre-Inca temple dedicated to Water Cult discovered in Peru

    Tucked away in northwestern Peru, in the Zana Valley, in an area known as Oyotun, you can find the Huaca El Toro site, where archaeologists from the Royal Tombs of...

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Survey: Latin Programs in North America

    Survey: Latin Programs in North America
    You are invited to participate in this research survey because you are a classics or Latin instructor at a North American college or university. The purpose of this research is to gather and report on current practices in post-secondary Latin language classrooms and their outcomes. We expect that this survey will take about 10 minutes to complete.

    Participation is entirely voluntary, and you may withdraw at any time. Completion of the survey constitutes your consent to participate in this research. All data obtained will be anonymous. We ask that you do not provide any information that could identify you personally.

    The data collected for this research will be stored until the study is complete. Projected future use of these data includes conference presentations and printed publication.

    If you have any questions concerning this research study please contact Blanche McCune at

     This research study has been reviewed by the Human Research Protection Program at the College of Charleston and covers all relevant requirements of the EU General Data Protection Regulations. For information about the review process, please contact the Office of Research and Grants Administration, or 843-953-5885.

    If you wish to participate, please proceed to the questionnaire by clicking “Next.” If not, click “Exit this survey.” If you would like to leave the survey at any time, just click "Exit this survey".

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    A miscellany of things

    Here are a couple of things that I noticed recently, and might be useful to others.

    Following an enquiry, I find that there is a translation of Theophylact on Matthew online here.  This is certainly better than the $70 needed to obtain the 1992 translation of the same work, at here.

    Next, the physical remains of ancient Rome are always interesting.  Piranesi printed a drawing of the rear of the Pantheon, with what he claims are the remains of the Baths of Agrippa, completed before 12 BC and therefore one of the original public baths of thermae:

    I was able to find online some photos of the same area, here.

    Much of the baths still stood in the 17th century, despite use as a quarry for building materials.  It would be interesting to track down the older sketches that apparently exist.

    Finally I saw something about the Ethiopian canon of the bible.  It is a common atheist jeer online is that the Ethiopian canon of the bible is larger than the normal, insinuating – the argument is rarely made explicit – that this proves that the bible does not exist, or is not by God, or something of the kind.  I’ve never worried about the odd additions to the Ethiopian canon, since Ethiopia was not converted to Christianity until the canon was pretty much set, and the isolation of that community, the little that we know about it, and its unusual circumstances could result in any amount of oddity.  One Ethiopian emperor used to eat pages of the bible when he was feeling ill, for instance.  This is not a very educated world.

    But I spent a little time looking into this.  The Wikipedia article contains very poor sources.  The only one of any value seemed to  be by G.-A. Mikre-Sellassie,[1]  This says on p.119:

    It is rather difficult to determine what exactly the official Canon of Scriptures of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is. As R.W Cowley has rightly observed, one of the problems in this study is that in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church “the concept of canonicity is regarded more loosely than it is among most other churches”.[46] Apparently, the two terms, protocanonical and deuterocanonical, employed among many churches nowadays, are not known within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

    46. R.W. Cowley, “The Biblical Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today” in Ostikirchliche Studien, 23 (1974), 318-323. In this short article the author has attempted a careful study of the Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

    This is not encouraging.  In fact the article did not give any kind of history of how the canon came to be – a common problem.  In general one gained the idea that in Ethiopian history the church was rather more important than the scriptures were, and the apocrypha might have a near-canonical status, or not, as times demanded.  Perhaps our own view on canon is shaped by the Reformers here, and is more precise than might have been the case either than in antiquity or the middle ages?  If so, the Ethiopians are merely continuing a late-antique vagueness, albeit shaped by their own unusual world.

    One of the key sources is apparently E. Ullendorf, Ethiopia and the Bible: the Schweich Lectures 1967, OUP (1968).  This I could not access, but a Google Books preview gave me p.31 f., which gives an account about the translation of the Old and New Testaments into Ge`ez:

    I don’t think that we need to rely on this very much.  Ullendorf also discusses the equally traditional idea that the bible in Ethiopian was translated by Arabic; and it seems to be a fact that many Ethiopian versions of ancient texts derive from an Arabic translation.  However I quickly drowned in the number of books and articles that I would have to read to know more!

    That’s it for now.  More next time!

    1. [1]Mikre-Sellassie, Gebre-Amanuel (1993). “The Bible and Its Canon in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church,” The Bible Translator 44 (1): 111-123.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Kleos: Amsterdam Bulletin of Ancient Studies and Archaeology

    Kleos: Amsterdam Bulletin of Ancient Studies and Archaeology
    Kleos: Amsterdam Bulletin of Ancient Studies and Archaeologyis a peer-reviewed, open access (post)graduate journal that publishes original research papers in the fields of ancient history, classics and archaeology. Kleos also provides reviews of recent books, conferences and exhibitions. Published under the auspices of the Amsterdam Centre for Ancient Studies and Archaeology (ACASA), it primarily aims at offering (post)graduate students in the above-mentioned fields the opportunity to share their research, gain experience in publishing, and improve their scientific skills. Submissions by established scholars are also welcome. Kleos is issued online.
    By Mattia D’Acri
    In 510 BC the city of Sybaris, an ancient Achaean colony founded in 720/710 BC, was destroyed by the city of Kroton through the deviation of the Crathis riverbed, according to Strabo. Some seven decades later, in 444 BC, the same site saw the foundation of the Panhellenic colony of Thurii, situated just above the remains of the ancient settlement. While the centuries preceding the destruction of Sybaris and following the foundation of Thurii are widely documented both archaeologically and historically, research on the intermediate period between the lives of the two cities has been based almost entirely on historical and numismatic sources, without serious reference to the regional archaeological data. During this seventy year period, contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, life in Sybaris and its territory continued, as testified by archaeological evidence from the city and its chora. This paper focuses on this particular historical period, drawing on that evidence, especially ceramics and related contexts, and provides an initial interpretation of the data in its regional context, re-establishing a forgotten connection between the Achaean colony and its Panhellenic successor.
    Mattia D’Acri is a graduate of the Scuola di Specializzazione in Archeologia – Matera and is currently a PhD student in the Classical Archaeology program at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His main interest is the study of ceramics, with particular focus on the Protohistoric and Archaic periods in central-southern Italy. He has done fieldwork at Rome (S. Omobono; Regia), Gabii, Francavilla Marittima and many others. Moreover he published different papers on various aspects, especially of the pottery assemblages recovered from these sites
    By Sander Egberink
    Ever since Paul Zanker published his book ‘Forum Augustum’ in 1968, debate has existed on the Forum of Augustus as a ‘propaganda-forum’. In this article a novel approach is suggested to add to this debate by borrowing the notion of ‘appropriation’ from culture history. In order to make it a suitable approach for the study of ancient monuments, the three questions of how, why and who serve as analytical tools to study the process of appropriation. The case under study is the group of Republican statues at the forum, more specifically the statue of Pompeius Magnus. The result of the analysis is twofold: 1) appropriation is a useful notion for the study of monuments where the past played a pivotal role; 2) psychological preparations, selection critera and deliberate alterations, and the design of comparison for visitors were all highly relevant in the appropriation of the Republican past in the Forum Augustum.
    Sander Egberink is a bachelor student of history at the University of Amsterdam. He specialises in early Roman Imperial history and the role of the Roman past in Fascist Italy. He views history through a cultural lens. He spent half a year in Bologna with an Erasmus grant where he developed his Italian language skills and took a course with the KNIR on nationhood. He plans to start a researchmaster in Ancient History at the UvA the next academic year.
    By Eline Verburg
    This paper critically re-evaluates the publication history of the Tomba Campana in Veii from its discovery until today. The Tomba Campana is of great value for Italian archaeology because of its unique and early wall paintings and rich grave goods. However, its modern post-excavation history is turbulent and controversial. The aim of this paper is to give a short overview of the events surrounding the discovery of the tomb and its contents both during and after the discovery, in order to add new elements to the line of interpretation of F. Roncalli, F. Delpino, The introduction will discuss the publications from the 19th and 20th centuries. Following this introduction, a short biography will be given about the discoverer, Giovanni Pietro Campana. Subsequently, the contents of the tomb will be discussed. Lastly the paper will contextualise the ‘discovery’ within the context of how antiquarians dealt with authenticity in the field of archaeology in the early 19th century, the period in which the tomb was discovered.
    During her Bachelor in Archaeology & Prehistory at the University of Amsterdam Eline Verburg (1993) became fascinated by the archaeology of Pre-Roman Italy, the Etruscan culture in specific. After having finished a Minor in Museumstudies, she studied one year at the oldest University of Europe, the Università di Bologna, where she attended lectures in Etruscology. In January 2018 she completed her Research Master in Archaeology with a thesis titled: ‘New Research on an Old ‘Discovery’: the Tomba Campana.
    By Martine Diepenbroek
    Very early-on in Greek history mountaintops were already used as watch-towers and signalling stations from which messages could be sent over long distances by fire signals. In these earliest examples it was only possible to send one prearranged message, something that was often not sufficient in case communicating parties needed to communicate on urgent matters. The 4th-century BC military author Aeneas Tacticus accordingly invented a method for fire signalling, whereby a series of messages could be sent related to events that often occur in warfare. The system might have been used as a cryptographic device. Due to errors in Aeneas’ system, Polybius improved another system based on the same principles, which in turn formed the basis for the modern ‘Polybius square’, used by the Germans for their ADFGX- and ADFGVX-ciphers: secret cipher systems used in the First World War. There is no clear evidence linking Aeneas’ fire signalling method directly to the German ciphers. However, it will be shown that Polybius used Aeneas’ system in his own fire signalling method. Polybius’ method in turn impacted the development of the Polybius square and its use in the ADFGX and ADFGVX ciphers. By analysing the ancient history of Polybius’ method for fire signalling and the merits of applying this to the use of the square in the German ciphers, it will be shown how an ancient fire signalling method inspired modern ciphers.
    Martine Diepenbroek is a Dutch PhD student at the University of Bristol (UK). In her PhD thesis she works on the role of ancient cryptography and steganography in confidential correspondence in Greco-Roman warfare. A key figure in this field was the 4th-century BC military author Aeneas Tacticus. In her thesis she thoroughly analyses Aeneas’ work ‘How to Survive Under Siege’, and compares this to other ancient sources on cryptography and  steganography.
    • ARCHON: a platform for Dutch academic archaeology
    • Congress review: Women and Pilgrimage in the Ancient and Pre-Modern World
    • Discussion article: I Know What You Did Last Summer

    Authors and abstracts KLEOS Issue 2, 2018

    Here you can find information on the contributors and abstracts of the Kleos Issue currently being prepared.
    Kleos cordially invites researchers to send in abstracts for the Kleos Issue 2, 2018!

    OnScript: Conversations on Current Biblical Scholarship

    OnScript: Conversations on Current Biblical Scholarship
    OnScript is a podcast featuring author interviews about noteworthy recent releases in biblical studies.

    Archives: Posts

    • Larry Hurtado – Destroyer of the Gods

      Episode: This is a re-release. Larry Hurtado passed away recently, and in memory of his contributions to biblical studies, we’re re-releasing this 2016 episode. Apologies for the sound quality. Larry […]
    • Josh McNall – The Mosaic of Atonement

      Episode: What hath penal substitution to do with recapitulation? Or Christus Victor with moral influence? Turns out, quite a lot. Of the making of many books and ideas on atonement there […]
    • Chris Tilling – Barth on Romans (Part 2)

      Episode: Chris Tilling presents his work on Karl Barth’s Romans commentary. He argues that Barth’s reading of Romans is worth the attention of biblical scholars, even though Barth is a systematic theologian. […]
    • Chris Tilling – Barth on Romans (Part 1)

      Episode: Chris Tilling presents his work on Karl Barth’s Romans commentary. He argues that Barth’s reading of Romans is worth the attention of biblical scholars, even though Barth is a systematic theologian. […]
    • Philip Ziegler – Militant Grace

      Episode: Philip Ziegler joins Erin Heim to discuss apocalyptic theology, Pauline literature, and the implications of both for Christian discipleship. They discuss Ziegler’s new book, Militant Grace, which constitutes a […]
    • Seth Heringer – Theology and History

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    Open Access Journal: CAARI News: Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute

    [First posted in AWOL 20 November 2010. Updated  7 December 20919]

    CAARI News: Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute
    ISSN 0890-4545
    The CAARI News is issued in electronic form three to five times a year.  See below for the most recent newsletters.
    Previously CAARI News was issued in print form in the Spring and Fall covering activities at CAARI, as well as events around the world relevant to Cypriot archaeology and related history and art. Browse the back issues of the newsletter here.

    October 2019
    It’s time to apply for CAARI Fellowships! Read about recent lectures at CAARI.  Dr. Daniel Coslett describes his work on “Re-presentations of Antiquity in Colonial and
    Postcolonial Nicosia”. See CAARI’s recent additions to the library of material published in the Cyprus Jewish Internment Camps between 1946 and 1949.

    July 2019
    Read about recent the conference in honour of A. Bernard Knapp and about the 38th Annual CAARI Archaeological Workshop.
    Dr. Anna Spyrou, the Edgar J. Peltenburg Fellow, describes her research into the human-cattle relationship in Cypriot Prehistory. Learn about surprising holdings in CAARI’s Archives.

    May 2019
    Read about our new US headquarters and then learn about our 2019-2020 Fellows including three graduate student fellows, two CAARI/CAORC postdoctoral fellows, the Senior Scholar in residence and our first Edgar Peltenburg postdoctoral scholar. Finally read Catherine Deans-Barrett’s recollections about CAARI over her 18 years working on the island.

    Newsletter March 2019
    March 2019
    Read about a CAARI’s new state-of-the-art Leica microscopes in our thin-section lab made possible by a generous gift from Mrs. Leslys Vedder in memory of her hustand, Dr. James F. Vedder. And Dr. Annemarie Weyl Carr provides a unique look at “Hell in the Sweet Land”, an examination of Asinou’s Last Judgment.

    Νewsletter December 2018
    December 2018
    Learn about research at CAARI with reports from Dr. Hanan Charaf (CAARI Senior Scholar in Residence) on Cypriot Bronze Age pottery found in Lebanon and from Dr. Henry Shaprio (CAARI/CAORC Fellow) on Armenian Pilgrims in Ottoman Cyprus.
    And Dr. Ann-Marie Knoblauch provides an in depth look at how 1870s New York reacted to Luigi Palma di Cesnola and his collection of Cypriot Antiquities.

    Newsletter October 2018
    October 2018
    Read about research at CAARI with reports from Sarah Douglas (Danielle Parks Memorial Fellowship) on Gender and Status on Prehistoric Cyprus: Rethinking Bronze Age Burial Data (c. 2500-1340 BC),
    Kellie Youngs (Anita Cecil O’Donovan Fellowship) on The Transmission and Innovation of Faience and Glass Technologies of Cyprus in the Late Bronze Age, Ian Randall (Helena Wylde Swiny and Stuart Swiny Fellowship) on Dining and Connectivity at times of Crisis on the South Coast of Cyprus and Dr. Laura Swantek (CAARI/CAORC Fellow) on Social Complexity on Cyprus before and after Urbanism.

    July 2018
    Read about CAARI’s 40th Birthday Bash. Learn about the new Edgar J. Peltenburg Postdoc Research Fellowship. And get educated about the history of Proto-Aeolic column capitals.

    May 2018
    Catch up on news from our director.  Find out about our new Fellows.  Read about Craig Harvey and William Caraher’s recent research. And catch up on CAARI’s 40th Birthday preparations.

    March 2018
    Catch up on news from our director.  Read about students from Lycoming College pioneering a new program at CAARI.  See a recent gift to CAARI – Cobham’s own copy of Excerpta Cypria. Learn how to give books or conservation to CAARI.  And catch up on CAARI’s 40th Birthday preparations.

    December 2017
    Catch up on news from our director.  See a new painting by Glynnis Fawkes that now graces CAARI.  Read about a new CAORC grant awarded to Cyprus.  And catch up on CAARI’s 40th Birthday preparations.

    October 2017
    Catch up on news from from our 2017 Fellows.  Read about two new books by Professor Birgitta Lindros Wohl. And catch up on CAARI’s 40th Birthday preparations.

    August 2017
    Catch up on news from CAARI’s 36th Summer Archaeology Workshop and conference “Melusine of Cyprus” honoring CAARI Trustee Annemarie Weyl Carr. Read about CAARI’s new garden in action, Prof. Charles Stewart’s Research at CAARI, and our appreciation of Dr. Andrew McCarthy’s six years as CAARI director. And learn about Digital Cobham, CAARI’s new research tool.

    June 2017
    Meet the 2017-2018 CAARI Fellowship recipients. Keep up with news about preparations for CAARI’s 40th Birthday in 2018. Read Ann-Marie Knoblauch’s notes about casts made from Cesnola’s Cypriot sculptures.

    March 2017
    Meet Lindy Crewe, CAARI’s new director who will take over the reins at CAARI at the end of June, 2017. Read about the CAARI Symposium Environment, landscape and society: diachronic perspectives on settlement patterns in Cyprus held in February 2017. Keep up with news about CAARI’s 40th Birthday in 2018.

    January 2017 
    Learn about CAARI’s new Petrographic Thin-Section Laboratory. Meet Dr. China Shelton, CAARI’s Boston administrator.
    Catch up on a new pioneering publication by CAARI scholars: Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future: The Potential of Digital Archaeology (co-edited by Erin W. Averett, Jody M. Gordon, and Derek B. Counts)  published in October 2016. And a new scarce periodical has been added to the CAARI library: a complete run of “Al HaSaf” (On the Verge) a weekly magazine published by students and graduates of the Pinhas Rutenberg JDC Seminary for Guides in Cyprus between 1948 and 1949 in the Cyprus internment camps run by the British government to hold Jews who had immigrated or attempted to immigrate to Palestine after World War II.

    October 2016
    Read summary reports from our 2016 fellows. Learn about CAARI’s commitment to the renewal of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the United States. And meet Bryan Wilkins, CAARI’s new president.

    July 2016
    Read about the inauguration of our new library wing in June 2016 and about the summer Archaeology Workshop in July 2016. Learn about a new book by CAARI Alumna Gloria London:  Ancient Cookware from the Levant.  An Ethnoarchaeological Perspective. And read about how an unexpected benefaction has helped rebuild CAARI’s garden.

    May 2016
    Read about the 2016 CAARI Fellows and we provide an update on the near completion of our library expansion.

    February 2016
    An invitation to the inauguration events for our new library wing and an update on its construction.

    November 2015
    Read the lastest update about the library expansion construction.

    July 2015
    Read about the new garden over the library expansion.

    March 2015
    Read about the 2015 CAARI Fellows, snow in Nicosia and excavating for the new library expansion.

    Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

    Néapolis de Scythie

    Cette cité, capitale du royaume scythe tardif de Crimée (IIe-Ier s. av. J.-C.), est identifiée avec les vestiges retrouvés à Simferopol. Ce site, qui est celui du musée présente des ressources en ligne consacrées à ce site  : photographies de … Lire la suite

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    St Nicholas and the story of the three schoolboys murdered by an inn-keeper and stashed in a pickling cask

    Saints’ Lives are a form of folk story.  These circulated widely in the middle ages, sometimes as ballads or plays, and they gained additional material from the need to tell a good story.  Tracing these stories back to a literary source can be time-consuming.

    Today is St Nicholas’ Day, so an investigation of this sort seems appropriate.  A correspondent wrote to me a couple of days ago as follows:

    One legend that is popular in the [medieval stained-glass] windows and also illuminated manuscripts of the same period is the legend of the three children resurrected from the pickling vat. I gather that this is a much later version of a legend of three scholars drugged and murdered. I cannot find any real source or text for this legend in Latin or a European language…

    This legend is in fact known as the “Miracle of the Three Clerics”, in the short titles given by Charles W. Jones to the legends in his Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari and Manhattan, p.497-8.  But they are clearly youths, who have just received the tonsure, so we also have The Three Clerks, The Three Boys/Schoolboys, and so on.

    Here is a 1390 illustration:

    St Nicholas and the resurrection of the three murdered students. From the De Grey hours, via Wikipedia.

    None of the early Greek legends contain this story, nor is it found in the Golden Legend, nor in the Roman breviary.  But it does appear in early French verse, and it is very popular indeed in artistic depictions, where it is the most popular of the miracles of St Nicholas.  By the 14th century in English wall paintings, St Nicholas almost always appears in the “Raising to Life of the Three Boys”.[1]

    McKnight in his useful 1919 book on St Nicholas[2] gives this summary of the story:

    Still another story in which St. Nicholas appears as the guardian angel of schoolboys, is the one dealing with the resuscitation of the three schoolboys murdered on their journey home. The story, which appears in a number of variant forms, relates how three boys, on their journey home from school, take lodging at an inn, or as some versions have it, farmhouse. In the night the treacherous host and hostess murder the boys, cut up their three bodies, and throw the pieces into casks used for salting meat. In the morning St. Nicholas appears and calls the guilty ones to task. They deny guilt, but are convicted when the saint causes the boys, sound of body and limb, to arise from the casks.

    McKnight states in quotes that the story is “not known among the Greeks, who are so devoted to St. Nicholas”, and gives a reference for that quote to C. Cahier, Caractéristiques des saints dans l’art populaire, Paris, 1867, vol. i.  He adds that:

    Its earliest record is said to be that in the French life of St. Nicholas by Wace. With the incident in the story, Wace connects the great honor paid to St. Nicholas by schoolboys. “Because,” says Wace, “he did such honor to schoolboys, they celebrate this day [Dec. 6] by reading and singing and reciting the miracles of St. Nicholas.”

    Wace was a Norman poet, who wrote a Life of St Nicholas in French verse, drawing upon two versions of the Life by John the Deacon, and adding seven episodes which seem to come from popular legends of the time.  The story of the Three Boys appears as verses 213-226.  There is in fact an edition, study and translation of this text in English by Jean Blacker and friends, with a Google Books preview.[3]  I was only able to see the French text, which begins “Tres clercs alouent a escole.” (p.284)  Fredell (below) gives the text as follows:

    Treis clercs alouent a escole.
    – N’en ferai mie grant parole. –
    Li ostes par nuit les occist,
    Les cors mussat, I’aver en prist. (216)
    Seint Nicholas par Deu le sout,
    Sempres fu la si cum Deu plout.
    Les clercs a l’oste demandat,
    Nes pout celer si les mustrat.  (220)
    Seint Nicholas par sa preere
    Mist les almes le cors arere.
    Pur ceo qu’as clercs fit cel honur
    Funt li clers la fest a son jur  (224)
    De ben lire et ben chanter
    Et des miracles reciter.

    Unfortunately the preview breaks off, and does not give the English on p.285.

    From the prefatory material I learn that the miracle is not found in any of the early Latin prose texts either.  It does appear in Latin hymns dating from the eleventh century and from three extant rhymed versions of the legend that predate Wace.  It also appears in a Latin play preserved in the Fleury playbook.  These details the editors obtained from the most recent edition, that of Einar Ronsjö, pp.42-45, although this is inaccessible to me.[4]  There are 5 manuscripts, the earliest, A (Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal 3516, f. 69v-73v), dating to 1267 or 1268.

    Wace states that his poem is an adaptation of one or more Latin texts.  The main source was the Life written by John the Deacon in Naples ca. 880, which exists in two different versions, the original and an interpolated version.  The first of these was that printed in 1479 by Boninus Mombritius in his Vitae sanctorum. This was Wace’s main source.  But he seems also to have known another version, interpolated with extra episodes, which was printed by Falconius in the S. Nicolai acta primigenia in 1751.  There is also a Latin version that fuses both, which appears in 11th century manuscript Paris, BNF, lat. 5607.

    The most useful article that can be readily accessed is Joel Fredell’s account, “The Three Clerks and St. Nicholas in Medieval England”.[5]  Fredell tells us that “The Three Clerks”, a Latin drama from ca. 1100 found in British Library Additional 2241, apparently from Hildesheim in Germany.  He also summarises the various versions of the story:

    In its simplest form, in Wace’s c. 1150 Life, three clerks on their way to school stop at an inn; they are murdered by the innkeeper for their traveling money. St. Nicholas then appears and resurrects the students. Wace’s version of the tale only briefly covers the murder, concentrating on the resurrection for much of its fourteen lines.

    The roughly contemporary Fleury version adds a number of details not seen in Wace or any earlier extant sources. Here a scheming wife urges her husband to murder the clerks, and Nicholas pretends to be a customer demanding “fresh meat” – a strategy which leads to the discovery of the murder and the couple crying miserere to Nicholas. The revived clerks pray to St. Nicholas before singing a Te Deum to close.

    This play in fact seems to conflate the Three Clerks murder/resurrection with another “apocryphal” episode in the life of Nicholas also known primarily from Wace: the Murdered Merchant. A merchant goes on pilgrimage, loaded with offerings, to a shrine to St. Nicholas. A wicked innkeeper murders the merchant for his wealth, cuts up the body, and salts it down in a pickling vat. St. Nicholas resurrects the merchant in the night, who greets the astonished innkeeper in the morning and convinces the latter to atone for his crime by coming along to the shrine of St. Nicholas and asking for mercy.

    The Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 779 MS of the SEL [=Southern English Legendary] (before 1450) seems to contain the crowning development of the Clerk/Merchant fusion of meat, mercy, and meretricious wife found in the Fleury play-book. The Three Clerks here is a 99-line episode at the end of the life of Nicholas. The innkeeper has become a butcher who, in response to his wife’s suggestion that they can profit from the clerks as guests, offers lodging and then murders them. When the butcher discovers that the clerks are penniless, the wife suggests grinding and salting the bodies, using the meat for pies and pasties to sell in order to make something out of the murder. The butcher obligingly grinds up the students and salts them down in a pickling tub. Nicholas appears as the couple are hawking the pies and pasties, asks for “clean meat,” forces the couple to take him to the salting tub where they kneel and beg forgiveness, and raises up the reconstituted students from their pickle. The clerks close the episode with a prayer to St. Nicholas and a shortened vernacular Te Deum.

    The slightly earlier version in Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, Trinity College MS 605 (c. 1400) disposes of the episode in six lines, placing the students in a vat simmering under a brown sauce, from which St. Nicholas saves them with no dialogue, pleas, or prayers.9

    This latter version is preceded by a longer episode also found in Wace and subsequently rare in the written canon of Nicholas’s life, but documented in stained glass and painting. When the boy Nicholas is to be ordained bishop of Myra, his landlady is so excited to view the ordination that she leaves her baby in bathwater over a fire. When she returns the baby is playing with the simmering bubbles, his “cors tendre et nu” miraculously unharmed; the grateful mother gives full credit to the saintly intervention of Nicholas

    Fredell states that the miracle may have been “official” in France, but apocryphal in England!

    A depiction of the three schoolboys in the cask at Barefreston Church in Kent.

    From all this I think we may infer that the story arose in Normandy in the early 11th century, as a folk-story, and went on to massive artistic success.  Curiously there is even a retelling by Balzac, Les trois clercs de sainct Nicholas.

    Let’s finish with a couple of images of the story, from English churches.

    From Oakley in Suffolk
    From Horstead in Norfolk.
    Historiated initial ‘D'(e) depicting St Nicholas resurrecting three murdered children from a pickling vat at the beginning of the reading for 6 December. Stowe 12; ‘The Stowe Breviary’; England, E. (Norwich); between 1322 & 1325; f.225r . Via Twitter
    Full page from Stowe Breviary.

    I also found an 11th c. manuscript, Paris, BNF lat. 18303, online here containing the life and miracles of St Nicholas.

    1. [1]Fredell, p.181.
    2. [2]George H. McKnight, St. Nicholas: His Legend and His Role in the Christmas Celebration and Other Popular Customs, Putnam (1919).  Online at, and also at Project Gutenberg.
    3. [3]Wace, The Hagiographical Works: The <i>Conception Nostre Dame</i> and the Lives of St Margaret and St Nicholas. Translated with introduction and notes by Jean Blacker, Glyn S. Burgess, Amy V. Ogden with the original texts included, Brill (2013).  Preview here.  Manuscripts p.237. Outline of the story episodes p.241. Notes on p.347.  Also see Le Saux, A companion to Wace, 2005, p.51 f for an extended discussion of the St Nicholas piece.
    4. [4]Einar Ronsjö, La Vie de saint Nicolas, par Wace, poème religieux du XIIe siècle, publié d’après tous les manuscrits, Études Romanes de Lund, 5 (Lund: Gleerup; Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1942).
    5. [5]J. Fredell, “The Three Clerks and St. Nicholas in Medieval England”, Studies in Philology 92, 181-202. JSTOR.

    Turkish Archaeological News

    Church of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus

    Church of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus

    The Church of the Virgin Mary was the first of churches dedicated to the mother of Christ. It is also the most significant building from Christian times in Ephesus. It was erected in the 3rd century within an earlier building. Architecturally, the structure can be described as a basilica with a nave and two aisles. The aisles were divided into shorter parts, which could serve as shops. Today, the best-preserved section of the structure is a cylindrical baptistery, located in the northern part of the atrium. In the central part of the baptistery, there was a pool, where the baptised people could be fully immersed in water.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: ΠΗΓΗ/FONS: Revista de estudios sobre la civilización Clásica y su recepción

    ΠΗΓΗ/FONS: Revista de estudios sobre la civilización Clásica y su recepción
    EISSN: 2445-2297
    Imagen de la Página Inicial de la Revista
    Fundada en 2016 ΠΗΓΗ/FONS es una revista electrónica de periodicidad anual editada por el Instituto de Estudios Clásicos sobre la Sociedad y la Política "Lucio Anneo Séneca" (UC3M). PEGE publicará artículos, notas, discusiones y reseñas de filosofía, filología clásica, historia antigua y teoría política clásica, prestando especial atención a la recepción del legado clásico en la tradición posterior


    ΠΗΓΗ/FONS Vol. 3

    Tabla de contenidos

    Descargar ΠΗΓΗ/FONS

    Descargar ΠΗΓΗ/Fons Vol. 3


    Veronika Konrádová
    Manuel Knoll
    Juan Felipe González Calderón
    Carmen García Bueno
    Michele Curnis
    Gian Franco Gianotti

    Reseñas bibliográficas

    Francisco L. Lisi
    Manuela Callipo
    Federica Pezzoli
    Michele Curnis
    Ana María Rodríguez González
    Francisco L. Lisi
    Juan Signes Codoñer
    Michele Curnis

    Noticias del Corpus Philosophorum Graecorum et Romanorum (CPhGR)



    Revisores del nº 2 (2017)


    ΠΗΓΗ/FONS Vol. 1

    BiblePlaces Blog

    Weekend Roundup, Part 1

    “Colorful remains of mosaics from a 3rd century synagogue in the ancient town of Majdulia are the earliest evidence of synagogue decoration in the Golan.”

    “A group of archaeologists, architects and researchers petitioned the High Court of Justice . . . to stop a controversial plan to build a cable car to the Western Wall in Jerusalem’s Old City.”

    The latest in the Life Lessons from Israel video series focuses on the Talmudic Village of Katzrin.

    Aviva and Shmuel Bar-Am write about a number of small archaeological sites in Pisgat Zeev, a northern suburb of Jerusalem.

    Israel21c: Fabulous photos of 5 picturesque places to visit in Israel. The sites include Banias, En Gedi, Masada, Beth Shean, and Caesarea.

    Archaeologists are hoping to continue excavations at el-Ahwat, possibly the biblical Harosheth HaGoyim, before modern construction destroys remains.

    Israel’s Good Name visited the Horns of Hattin during a reenactment of the famous battle between the Crusaders and Saladin.

    Carl Rasmussen reports on his visit to the “real” Bethsaida.

    Luke Chandler, Ferrell Jenkins, Chris McKinny, and BibleX note the release of three new volumes in the Photo Companion to the Bible series.

    HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Pakistan Detectors Technology Islamabad

    This jerk tried to sneak a metal detector advert onto THIS blog through a comment:
    A metal detector finds the treasures and gold that society has forgotten about or counted as lost. It can also find weapons that may have been buried deep in the ground.
    There's a link that goes to this visually-riveting material note the Urdu for metal detector is "mataldetector", "shaft" and "coilsize" are other calques. Said with a snarl, apparently.

    This seems a good subject for an archaeological drinking game, every time you hear the work "goldetector" and/or  "mataldetector", you take another swig of your favourite drink.  As-salāmu `alaykum to you too mate. Tell us again, how deep your machines go...


      Wa ʾantum fa-jazākumu-llāhu khayran, but keep this stuff off my blog please.

    ArcheoNet BE

    De recente opgravingen op de Mercuriussite in Grobbendonk

    De recente opgravingen op de Mercuriussite in Grobbendonk hebben heel wat interessante informatie over de Romeinse vicus opgeleverd. Op woensdag 11 december geeft projectleider Liesbeth Claessens (All-Archeo) een lezing over de resultaten van het archeologisch onderzoek. Deze lezing vindt plaats om 20u in woonzorgcentrum De Wijngaard. Meer informatie op

    Jim Davila (

    Lars Hartman (1930-2019)

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood

    I began writing this just after seeing the movie about Mr. Rogers starring Tom Hanks (who looks like him at least in part because he’s related to him). The movie is very creatively done, framed as though it were an episode of Mr. Roger’s Neighborhood. I’ve long admired how Rogers, a Presbyterian minister, put his […]

    Bryn Mawr Classical Review

    2019.12.12: Angelo Poliziano. Greek and Latin Poetry. I Tatti Renaissance library, 86

    Review of Peter E. Knox, Angelo Poliziano. Greek and Latin Poetry. I Tatti Renaissance library, 86. Cambridge, MA: 2019. Pp. 448. $29.95. ISBN 9780674984578.

    2019.12.11: Rural Granaries in Northern Gaul (6th century BCE-4th century CE): From Archaeology to Economic History. Radboud Studies in Humanities, Volume 8

    Review of Stéphane Martin, Rural Granaries in Northern Gaul (6th century BCE-4th century CE): From Archaeology to Economic History. Radboud Studies in Humanities, Volume 8. Leiden: 2019. Pp. xi, 182. €83,00. ISBN 9789004389038.

    2019.12.10: Le duc de Luynes et la découverte de la Grande Grèce. Mémoires et documents sur Rome et l'Italie méridionale. Nouvelle série, 9

    Review of Francesca Silvestrelli, Jean Pietri, Le duc de Luynes et la découverte de la Grande Grèce. Mémoires et documents sur Rome et l'Italie méridionale. Nouvelle série, 9. Naples: 2017. Pp. 86. €15,00 (pb). ISBN 9782918887782.

    Archaeology Magazine

    Puerto Rico’s Possible Ancient Cooking Techniques Examined

    CARDIFF, WALES—Cardiff University announced that researcher Philip Staudigel and his colleagues at the University of Miami and Valencia College studied possible cooking techniques used by the first residents of the island of Puerto Rico some 2,500 years ago. The scientists employed a type of chemical analysis known as clumped isotope geochemistry to analyze some 45 pounds of fossilized clamshells, and found that some of the shellfish were exposed to high heat, as if they had been barbecued, rather than boiled in water at a lower temperature. Staudigel suggests that pottery technology, which would have been necessary for boiling the clams in water, may not have been in widespread use. Some of the clams had been exposed to lower levels of heat, he added. They may have been placed on top of clams that had been placed directly over cooking fires. To read about a cave on an island west of Puerto Rico that contains both Taino and European inscriptions, go to "Spiritual Meeting Ground," one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2016.

    Roman-Era Eggs and Bread Basket Recovered from Watery Pit

    England Roman EggBUCKINGHAMSHIRE, ENGLAND—BBC News reports that four hen’s eggs and other items were recovered from a watery pit in central England by a team of researchers led by archaeologist Edward Biddulph of Oxford Archaeology. All but one of the extremely fragile eggs, which are often associated with fertility, rebirth, and the gods Mithras and Mercury, broke during the excavation, releasing a potent rotten egg stench, Biddulph explained. Other rare organic materials, believed to have been tossed into the pit in the late third century A.D., include leather shoes, wooden tools, and a basketry tray made of woven oak bands and willow rods. Biddulph suggested that bread placed on the tray and the eggs may have been cast into the pit as an offering during a funeral procession. To read about 2,500-year-old eggs recovered from a Chinese tomb, go to "Picnic for the Afterlife."

    December 06, 2019

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Monograph Series: Des princes

    Des princes
    ISSN (Édition imprimée): 1621-1235
    ISSN électronique: 2680-1035
    Sous la direction de Isabelle Cogitore
    La question du prince intéressait traditionnellement les historiens. Avec la mort des idéologies, la chute du Mur de Berlin et le regain d'intérêt pour la rhétorique, elle redevient un problème littéraire. En effet, il s'agit de retrouver, d'analyser, pour ainsi dire de l'intérieur, une représentation de la politique telle qu'on la vivait avant la Révolution. Avec l'école des Annales, les historiens ont redécouvert que les désirs comptent autant que les réalités, les mots et la gestuelle qui les accompagne autant que les faits. Un programme de travail s'ensuit : regarder tous ces écrits que sont éloges, entrées, adresses de toute sorte comme des textes à part entière. Ils parlent d'amour, amour du prince pour ses sujets et des sujets pour leur prince, selon un jeu subtil, dont le concept d'oppression ne rend pas compte. Trouver des angles d'attaque, des outils critiques adaptés, voire de nouvelles méthodes de travail, dans certains cas éditer des textes qui le méritent, tel est le propos de la collection.

    Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times

    Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times 
    Lichtenberger, Achim, Tal, Oren, Weiss, Zeev (Hrsg.)
      Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times

    Panel 8.6

    Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19. International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten steht die Survey-Archäologie und die Untersuchung von Stadt-Hinterland-Beziehungen im Fokus der mediterranen Archäologie. In der südlichen Levante wurden diese Ansätze bisher jedoch nur selten verfolgt. So wurden nur wenige Städte dieser Region durch systematische intensive oder extensive Surveys untersucht. Dieser Band ist der städtischen Infrastruktur gewidmet und konzentriert sich auf die Untersuchung der Beziehungen zwischen Städten und ihrem Hinterland. Hierbei fokussiert er sich auf Haupt- und Nebenverwaltungszentren in Judäa / Palästina und Arabien unter römischer und byzantinischer Herrschaft (1. bis 7. Jh. n. Chr.). Während die Erforschung der historischen Geographie der südlichen Levante eine lange Tradition hat, haben sich heutzutage die Forschungsfragen gewandelt und die Erforschung von Mikroregionen und ihres Hinterlandes steht nun in vielen Fällen im Mittelpunkt der Projekte. Solche Studien können nur systematisch durchgeführt werden, wobei multidisziplinäre Ansätze und hochauflösende Analysen verwendet werden, um alle Arten von Zonen städtischer Siedlungen und Verbindungen innerhalb des Standorts und seiner Peripherie und seines Hinterlandes zu untersuchen. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes bieten einen ersten Versuch, die städtischen Siedlungen in der südlichen Levante aus einer vergleichenden Perspektive zu betrachten.

    Achim Lichtenberger ist Professor für Klassische Archäologie und Direktor des Archäologischen Museums an der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster sowie Leiter der Forschungsstelle Antike Numismatik.
    Oren Tal ist Professor an der Universität Tel Aviv und lehrt Klassische Archäologie mit dem Schwerpunkt Naher Osten. Er ist zudem Direktor des Apollonia-Arsuf Excavation Projekts und Ko-Direktor des Tell Iztabba Excavation Projekts.
    Zeev Weiss ist der Eleazar L. Sukenik Professor für Archäologie am Institut für Archäologie der Hebräischen Universität von Jerusalem. Ausgebildet in klassischer Archäologie, ist er auf römische und spätantike Kunst und Architektur in den Provinzen Syrien-Palästina spezialisiert.
    Bentz, Martin, Heinzelmann, Michael
    Lichtenberger, Achim, Tal, Oren, Weiss, Zeev
    Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times: Introductory Notes
    Pini, Nicolò
    Semi-urban or Semi-rural Settlements: A New Definition of Urban Centres Required?
    Gendelman, Peter, ‘Ad, Uzi
    Caesarea Maritima – A View from Outside: The Periphery of the Roman and Byzantine Metropolis
    Patrich, Joseph
    The City and Its Territory – A Digital Archaeological-Cartographical Approach: The Case of Caesarea Maritima
    Gersht, Rivka, Gendelman, Peter
    Architectural Decoration in Roman and Late Antique Caesarea Maritima and Its Periphery: Production, Importation and Reuse
    Tal, Oren
    Apollonia/Sozousa: Its Immediate Hinterland in Byzantine Times
    Weksler-Bdolah, Shlomit
    Aelia Capitolina: The Roman Colony and Its Periphery
    Weiss, Zeev
    Sepphoris: The City and Its Hinterland in Roman Times
    Lichtenberger, Achim, Raja, Rubina
    The Chora of Gerasa/Jerash
    Kennedy, Will M.
    A Cultural Landscape Characterization of the Petraean Hinterland in Nabataean-Roman Times: An Overview
    Schöne, Christian, Heinzelmann, Michael, Erickson-Gini, Tali, Wozniok, Diana
    Elusa – Urban Development and Economy of a City in the Desert
    Empfohlene Zitierweise
    Lichtenberger, Achim , Tal, Oren und Weiss, Zeev (Hrsg.): Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterlands in Roman and Byzantine Times: Panel 8.6 , Heidelberg: Propylaeum, 2019 (Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World – Proceedings of the 19. International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Cologne/Bonn 2018, Band 44).
    Dieses Werk ist unter der
    Creative Commons-Lizenz 4.0 (CC BY)veröffentlicht.
    ISBN 978-3-947450-77-0 (PDF)
    Veröffentlicht am 06.12.2019.

    Online Open Access Catalogue: Ancient Carved Ambers in the J. Paul Getty Museum

    Ancient Carved Ambers in the J. Paul Getty Museum

    This catalogue presents a group of remarkable amber carvings from the J. Paul Getty Museum’s collection—the second largest body of this material in the United States and one of the most important in the world. The fifty-six Etruscan, Greek, and Italic carved ambers date from around 650 to 300 B.C.
    Offering a full description of each piece, including typology, style, chronology, provenance, condition, and iconography, the catalogue is preceded by a general introduction to ancient amber. Through exquisite visual examples and vivid excerpts from classical texts, this book examines the myths and legends woven around amber—its employment in magic and medicine, its transport and carving, and its incorporation into jewelry, amulets, and other objects of prestige.
    This open-access catalogue is available for free online and in multiple formats for download, including PDF, MOBI/Kindle, and EPUB. A paperback reference edition is also available for purchase.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Cuneiform reveals shared birthplace

    Assyriologists in Leiden have been conducting research into ancient clay tablets from the Middle East for 100 years already. What exactly do these clay tablets tell us? And why is Leiden such a good place to study them? Credit: Leiden UniversityProfessor of Assyriology Caroline Waerzeggers strides through the library of the Netherlands Institute for the Near East (NINO), dodging past students and bookshelves, before she comes to a...

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    Early El Greco painting found in Crete

    A rare painting attributed to famous painter “El Greco” (Dominikos Theotokopoulos) was found near the city of Chania in Crete, according to statements made byByzantine Antiquities Commissioner Michalis Andrianakis during the Conference on the Archaeological Work of Crete in Rethymnon. Credit: PatrisAccording to these announcements, an icon of St. Catherine and the Virgin Mary of Odigitria was found in the Church of Our Lady of Tsivara...

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    ArcheoNet BE

    Twee projecten ontvangen subsidie archeologisch syntheseonderzoek

    In het kader van de projectsubsidies voor archeologisch syntheseonderzoek zijn twee projectvoorstellen geselecteerd, die in totaal 300.000 euro zullen ontvangen.

    Eind augustus werd al 660.000 euro toegekend aan vier projectvoorstellen. Vlaams minister Matthias Diependaele kent nu twee bijkomende subsidies toe aan volgende projectvoorstellen:

    Vlaams Erfgoed Centrum bvba: Potstallen, een landbouwinnovatie uit de Romeinse tijd van Vlaamse bodem? (158.000 EUR)

    Een potstal is een veestal waarin de mest van dieren vermengd met strooisel blijft liggen, en dus ‘opgepot’ wordt. Hoewel zulke potstallen uit de Romeinse tijd met enige regelmaat worden gevonden en er in het verleden al onderzoek naar is gedaan, ontbreekt tot op vandaag een evaluerende studie naar dit fenomeen. Bouwend op ouder onderzoek en tien jaar na de vorige synthese, stelt dit project het fenomeen van de potstallen centraal als voorwerp van synthese en onderzoek. De centrale doelstellingen zijn het exploreren van de dataset in functie van het beter begrijpen van de verspreiding en het functioneren van het fenomeen, evenals om handvaten uit te werken die toelaten om het wetenschappelijk potentieel van deze essentiële onderdelen van Midden‐Romeinse boerderijen in toekomstig onderzoek ten volle te gebruiken.

    Erfpunt, cel onderzoek: Het geschrankt vierbeukig gebouwtype: een studie naar bewoning in de late ijzertijd en vroeg-Romeinse periode in Vlaanderen. (141.000 EUR)

    Het project van Erfpunt heeft als doel een grondige synthese te maken van het ‘geschrankt vierbeukig gebouwtype’. Ondanks dat er al heel wat exemplaren van dit gebouwtype bekend zijn; blijft de datering ervan eerder vaag. Dit projectvoorstel wil de dateringsproblematiek oplossen, gebaseerd op een groot aantal nieuwe koolstofdateringen. Dit onderzoeksproject levert een bijdrage aan het onderzoek van een cruciale periode in onze voorgeschiedenis, met name de laatste fasen van de ijzertijd en overgang naar de vroeg-Romeinse periode.

    The Archaeology News Network

    An exceptional Gravettian 'Venus' discovered in Amiens

    The prehistoric site of Renancourt, in Amiens, has been known for many years and long remained one of the few sites providing evidence for human presence in northern France during the Early Upper Palaeolithic (35,000 – 15,000). The 'Venus of Renancourt' seen from different angles [Credit: INRAP]Discovered in 2011, during an Inrap diagnostic operation, the site of Amiens-Renancourt 1 has been under full excavation since 2014. During...

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