Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

This feed aggregator is part of the Planet Atlantides constellation. Its current content is available in multiple webfeed formats, including Atom, RSS/RDF and RSS 1.0. The subscription list is also available in OPML and as a FOAF Roll. All content is assumed to be the intellectual property of the originators unless they indicate otherwise.

May 22, 2018

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Budiao Church ruins excavated after more than 200 years

via Rappler, 06 May 2018: (UPDATED) The site of the Budiao Ruins is eyed as a new tourist destination in the province of Albay, alongside the Cagsawa Ruins Source: Budiao Church ruins excavated after more than 200 years

Discovering historic Thon Buri

via Bangkok Post, 17 May 2018: Don’t forget! If you want to find out more about the archaeology of old Bangkok, Dr Kannika Sutheeratanaphirom (mentioned in the article) is giving a talk at the Siam Society tomorrow. To celebrate the 250th anniversary of the establishment of Thon Buri as the former Thai capital last year, … Continue reading "Discovering historic Thon Buri"

Apsara Authority launches heritage education

via Khmer Times, 15 May 2018: Apsara Authority starts a heritage education program at the Sras Srong Primary School. Source: Apsara Authority launches heritage education – Khmer Times

CFP: Archaeology, Heritage, and Nationalism in Southeast Asia

Rising Voices in Southeast Asian Studies – A SEAC / AAS Initiative with Support from the journal, TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia Submission Deadline: June 15, 2018 The Southeast Asia Council (SEAC) of the Association for Asian Studies (AAS) is seeking paper proposals from up-and-coming scholars to join a “Rising Voices” panel on … Continue reading "CFP: Archaeology, Heritage, and Nationalism in Southeast Asia"

Evacuation in Hong Kong after WWII bomb found

via AFP/Bangkok Post, 11 May 2018: HONG KONG: Hundreds of people were evacuated Friday after a World War II bomb was found at a Hong Kong construction site, police said, the third such discovery in the territory this year. Source: Evacuation in Hong Kong after WWII bomb found

May 21, 2018

Archaeology Magazine

Scientists Name Hitler’s Suspected Cause of Death

MEAUX, FRANCE—Philippe Charlier of Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines and his colleagues examined teeth and skull fragments held in Moscow and identified as Adolf Hitler’s for evidence of the manner of his death in Berlin in 1945, according to an AFP report. Analysis of the tartar deposits on the teeth found no evidence of meat consumption. Charlier said this agreed with Hitler’s known vegetarianism. The researchers also said the skull fragments were consistent with radiographies taken of Hitler’s skull a year before his death. A hole thought to have been made by a bullet was found in one of the skull fragments. The teeth showed no evidence of powder from a gunshot, so the bullet is thought to have entered through the neck or the forehead. Charlier added that bluish deposits on the false teeth may have been caused by a chemical reaction between cyanide and metal. “We didn’t know if he had used an ampule of cyanide to kill himself or whether it was a bullet in the head,” Charlier said. “It’s in all probability both.” For more, go to “The Third Reich’s Arctic Outpost.”

Computer Model Suggests First Australians Planned Migration

Australia first voyagersQUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA—A computer simulation suggests that Australia was settled by purposeful migrants between 50,000 and 65,000 years ago, and not accidental travelers, The Sydney Morning Herald reports. Sean Ulm of James Cook University and his colleagues simulated likely routes from the islands of Timor and Roti to islands off Australia’s northwest coast that are now submerged, in a computer model that included information from deep-sea mapping and wind and ocean currents, and accounted for paddling. The modelling suggests that accidental drifting would not have led to landings on Australia’s northwestern islands. Ulm estimates it would have taken well-prepared voyagers between four and seven days to complete the 90-mile trip. “It has to be purposeful, it has to be coordinated and it has to be fairy large-scale to explain the patterns we see,” Ulm said. Genetic studies have suggested the population that made the original voyage numbered between 100 and 200 individuals. For more on early settlement of the region, go to “Settling Southeast Asia.”

AIA Fieldnotes

Diversity of Writing Systems: Embracing Multiple Perspectives

Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Tuesday, March 26, 2019 to Thursday, March 28, 2019

"12th International Workshop of the Association for Written Language and Literacy

Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge

Tuesday, March 26 – Thursday, March 28, 2019

First call for papers

Anna and Robert
Call for Papers: 
Right Header: 
Right Content: 
CFP Deadline: 
September 30, 2018

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Thousands of Human Bones Reveal 'Barbarian' Battle Rituals

Archaeologists working in a sprawling wetland in Denmark have uncovered 2,000-year-old human remains...

Research suggests sweet potatoes didn't originate in the Americas as previously thought

Sweet potatoes may seem as American as Thanksgiving, but scientists have long debated whether their...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: IpoTESI di Preistoria

 [First posted in AWOL 4 November 2010. Updated 21 May 2018]

IpoTESI di Preistoria
ISSN 1974-7985
The main objective of the journal is to spread to the scientific world the results of recent researches and studies concerning Italian prehistory and protohistory, in order to bring out knowledge and information on issues and contexts of the most remote ages of history. The digital format publication allows to draw attention to those contributions which are often waiting for suitable editorial spaces, due to their peculiar wealth of data and documentation. The journal aims to become an a platform for data-sharing and discussions on the analysis and interpretations of prehistoric contexts, research methods, and economic and social transformations of prehistory.

La rivista intende divulgare al mondo scientifico i risultati di recenti ricerche e studi di preistoria e protostoria italiana, in modo da far emergere il patrimonio di conoscenze sui contesti e sulle problematiche delle fasi più remote della storia. La pubblicazione in formato digitale permette di rendere noti quei contributi che rimangono spesso in attesa di trovare adeguati spazi editoriali, proprio per le caratteristiche di ricchezza e abbondanza di dati e di documentazione. La rivista punta inoltre a diventare uno spazio di confronto e di dibattito sulle analisi e interpretazioni dei contesti preistorici, sui metodi di ricerca e sulle trasformazioni economiche e sociali della preistoria.


ArcheoNet BE

1ste Archeologiedagen komen eraan: heb je je programma al samengesteld?

Op vrijdag 1 juni en zaterdag 2 juni worden de allereerste Archeologiedagen in Vlaanderen georganiseerd. Archeologen, musea en liefhebbers organiseren meer dan 50 spannende en educatieve activiteiten. Kook met een echte foodarcheoloog, strijd mee in de prehistolympics of maak je handen vuil. Kijk eens binnen in een archeologisch depot, dompel je voor een dag onder in de archeologie van WO I of ga op wandel met een ervaren gids. In elke provincie valt er wel iets te beleven. Bekijk dus snel het programma op en maak je keuze uit het aanbod. De volgende dagen geeft onze redactie je ook nog enkele tips!

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Housing and the 1958 Williston Report

Yesterday was may day off from my work at Polis on Cyprus and while I spent a little time just relaxing, I spent most of the day writing up an overdue submission to a forthcoming reprint to the Robert B. Campbell, Samuel C. Kelley, Ross B. Talbot, and Bernt L. Wills’s Williston Report: The Impact of Oil on the Williston Area of North Dakota (Grand Forks, UND Press 1958). Kyle Conway will edit the volume and it will appear from The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota and as part of the larger Bakken Bookshelf project.

Campbell et al 1958  dragged

Our essay will focus on housing in the 1958 report and in the 21st-century boom. I’ll emphasize that what I’ve written below was very much composed on the fly. This isn’t my usual method of writing. 

The Williston Report provided an invaluable snapshot of the 1950s oil boom. The statistics presented offers a window into the scale of the boom, as well as the challenge of counting and documenting a mobile and temporary workforce and measuring the impact of social change. In the absence of consistent and high-resolution data, the authors of the Williston Report supplemented their study with interviews and more impressionistic readings of the situation.

The Williston Report is very much a report, in that it approached various different aspects of the 1950s oil boom largely on their own terms. There is little effort to locate the 1950s Bakken boom within the history of the state, the region, or larger conversations on extractive industries or changes in the mobility of the American workforce in the post war era. As the author notes, this report is a case study rather than a policy brief or an argument for understanding the broader causes and patterns of social change.

That being said, Campbell and his colleagues’ observations are not without judgment or coherence. In terms of housing, they assert that some of the housing in the Bakken, particularly around Tioga was, indeed, “substandard,” including tarpaper shacks moved from farms, structures rough enough to be thought of as “grain bins” by some observers, and closely-placed trailers. In fact, the photos in the volume showed light-weight, closely-spaced buildings that the owner could move two at a time with a farm truck (pp. 33-34). Interviews with a resident of these buildings, who had come to the region from the south, confirmed their unsuitability. At the same time, they observe that communities like Ray and Tioga also subdivided more substantial, existing structures to accommodate workers. Some oil companies also provided mobile housing units to accommodate their employees in the oil patch.

Second, they noted the tight housing market caused by the boom had motivated communities and developers to invest in high quality housing. This housing tended to attract individuals who already enjoyed stable housing in the region and enjoyed higher incomes. As a result, the construction of this housing did little to alleviate the challenges facing new and temporary residents of the region. Pressures to limit the extent and impact of temporary housing, however, accompanied the new construction and communities and developers reduced the options available to the temporary residents.

Finally, there were clear similarities in the settlement structure of the 1950s oil boom and that of the 21st century. The cluster of camps between US Route 2 and Tioga and on Route 85 on the northern side of Williston neatly parallel the clusters of camps in the recent boom. Campbell also noted, however, that the divide between housing for new arrivals and housing for pre-boom residents is more varied than the stark social divide between the groups would suggest. Ray, Tioga, and Williston demonstrate both new neighborhoods occupied largely by new arrivals in the Bakken and infilling of older neighborhoods with new residences.

Campbell remained reluctant to argue that housing represented a genuine “social problem” in the Bakken. Some of this might be a semantic issue as he distinguished between issues that he regarded as “personal problems,” which implied a greater significance of a particular problem for a single individual than the community at large, and larger social problems, which had an impact across the entire community and region. In this regard, the 1958 Williston report echoed many of the sentiments found in our own research in the Bakken. Housing, while “disturbing to the researcher” (p. 131) was only rarely articulated clearly as problem by the residents. At the same time, Campbell’s report and our own work, has demonstrated that housing in the Bakken remained a general concern for existing communities in the region. The tensions between the scale and significance of housing as an issue represent a key element in understanding the trajectory of housing on individual and regional level in the 21st century Bakken.


Historiography of Short-Term Housing and Home

Campbell’s interest in housing in the Williston Report reflects a long-standing interest in short-term, boom-time housing and anticipates the 21st century considerations of a global housing crisis. Scholars have long had a strong interest in housing and settlement associated with extractive industries and large scale construction projects in the American West. John Bickerstaff Jackson’s 1953 study of the “westward moving house,” and his late 1950s research on housing in the Four Corners area of the Southwest recognized housing in the American West as a distinct phenomenon adapted both to the identity of the owner and to the economic needs of a region. More recent studies on temporary worker housing during World War II and in the rise of the mobile homes and RVs as expressions of the tension between mobility and stability in the American suburbs likewise saw the middle of the 20th century as a period during which housing and the concept of domesticity came to intersect with new materials, plans, and social roles. Set against this backdrop, Campbell’s ambivalent attitude toward the housing problem in the 1950s Bakken reflected the significant changes taking place within American attitudes toward the house and domesticity in the same decade (see Hayden 1984 for the classic treatment of this period).

In recent years, housing has emerged as a global concern with the expansion of ad hoc housing around urban areas in the global south, the challenges associated housing the growing number of refugees and migrants, and growing workforce of laborers engaged in precarious manufacturing jobs, construction projects, and other short-term ventures fueled by the increased mobility of global capital.  Activists and scholars alike have come to recognize that the housing needs of workers, migrants, refugees, and urban dwellers is more than simply a practical concern, but involves issues of social, economic, and environment justice. Recent critiques have made clear, for example, that Williston Report’s recognition of the tendency for developers to invest in high cost and high profit units at the expense of affordable housing has contributed to the global housing crisis (e.g. Madden and Marcuse 2016).

These trends in the historiography give the observations on housing in the 1958 Williston Report offer an almost uncanny relevance for anyone interested in the challenges facing 21st-century society. Even Campbell’s observation that housing in the 1950s Bakken representing more of a “personal problem,” than a social one, offers useful reminder that temporary housing often represents a negotiation between the denizens of these dwellings and global ideals of domesticity, material and environmental limits, and the perspective of surrounding residents who often seek to balance the pressure of global and national capital with their own access to local and regional political and social capital. In this context, the temporary housing in the Bakken and the conditions that produced its appearance emerge as less an exceptional response to an unexpected boom and more of a grim model for housing the growing class of precarious workers.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Sardis Publications from the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Project

Sardis Publications from the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Project

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

New Analysis of Hitler's Teeth Confirms Nazi Leader's Vegetarianism

A new analysis of teeth and bone fragments show Hitler was vegetarian.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament

[First posted in AWOL 5 December 2012, updated 20 May 2018]

Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament
ISSN: 2169-0685
Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament (JESOT) is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the academic and evangelical study of the Old Testament. The journal seeks to fill a need in academia by providing a venue for high-level scholarship on the Old Testament from an evangelical standpoint. The journal is not affiliated with any particular academic institution, and with an international editorial board, online format, and multi-language submissions, JESOT cultivates and promotes Old Testament scholarship in the evangelical global community. The journal differs from many evangelical journals in that it seeks to publish current academic research in the areas of ancient Near Eastern backgrounds, Dead Sea Scrolls, Rabbinics, Linguistics, Septuagint, Research Methodology, Literary Analysis, Exegesis, Text Criticism, and Theology as they pertain only to the Old Testament. The journal will be freely available to the scholarly community and will be published bi-annually online. Hard copies will be produced by request. JESOT also includes up-to-date book reviews on various academic studies of the Old Testament.

Open Access Journal: Vicino Oriente

[First posted 7/26/09,   Update 21 May 2018]

Vicino Oriente
ISSN: 0393-0300 
Vicino Oriente is the journal of the Sezione di Orientalistica (Section of Oriental Studies) of the Department of Sciences of Antiquity of Rome “La Sapienza” University. 
VO is published yearly and deals with Near and Middle Eastern Archaeology, History, Epigraphy, extending its view on the whole Mediterranean with the study of Phoenician and Punic documents. 
Purposes of the journal are: to host preliminary reports of excavations currently carried on by the Department in the Near and Middle East, Egypt and the Mediterranean; to report about and update the status of research projects in progress; to introduce PhD projects currently undergoing in the Department.
The journal publishes contributions of historical, archaeological, artistic, philological, philosophical, and religious disciplines in ancient Mediterranean, Asia, and Africa. Papers submitted to the Editorial Board are, of course, selected by the members of the Scientific Committee, all scholars of the Section of Oriental Studies of Department of Sciences of Antiquities at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”.
Current Issue


A. Catastini - Ricordo di Giovanni Garbini (1931-2017)

Nigro - D. Montanari - A. Guari - M. Tamburrini - P. Izzo - M. Ghayyada - I. Titi - J. Yasine - New archaeological features in Bethlehem (Palestine): the Italian-Palestinian rescue season of 2016

J. Bogdani - The archaeological atlas of Coptic literature. A question of method

V. Pisaniello - Hittite (ninda) kaz(za)mi(t)-

A.L. Corsi - A brief note on the Early Abbasid stucco decoration.
Madinat al-Far and the first Friday Mosque of Isfahan

F. Duva - New perspectives on the first Abbasid Masjid-i Jumʿa of Iṣfahān

V. Laviola - Three Islamic inkwells from Ghazni excavation

R. Giunta - Tombeaux et inscriptions funéraires de Ghazni (Afghanistan).
Quelques documents inédits Du XIe-XIIIe siècle

M.V. Fontana - Qalʿa-Iṣṭakhr and the Si Gunbadān

L. Colliva - G. Terribili - A forgotten Sasanian sculpture. The fifth bust of Narseh from the monument of Paikuli

M. Di Cesare - A note on an Umayyad carved ivory plaque kept at the Walters Art Gallery

A. Santi - The role of Madīna in the emergence of the Mosque-Dār al-Imāra combination: a preliminary note

L. Nigro - D. Montanari - M. Ghayyada - J. Yasine - The el-Atan Tomb: an Early Bronze IVB female burial in the heart of Palestine

V. Laviola - Unpublished Islamic bronze cauldrons from private collections: two early and one very late specimens

D. Montanari - Bollettino delle attività del Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo della Sapienza, anno 2017

A. Ten - Roma, il culto di Iside e Serapide in Campo Marzio: alcuni aggiornamenti

F. Spagnoli - Una brocchetta con protome d'ariete dall'Area Sacra del Kothon a Mozia

R. Francia - Gli avverbi di luogo ittiti in -an: forme di nominativo accusativo neutro singolare?

A. Carfì - Early Islamic models of urban and rural settlements in the South Bilād al-Shām

M.V. Fontana - A brief note on the Yemenite chahār tāq mausoleums. The case of Barāqish
Scavi e Ricerche
L. Nigro - R. Gharib - Jamaan at the pass of Bi'rein: an Iron Age IIB-C Ammonite stronghold in central Jordan

M.V. Fontana - A.A. Asadi - M. Rugiadi - A.C. Felici - A. Fusaro - Estakhr Project - third preliminary report of the joint Mission of the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, the Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation and the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo
E. Pomar - Save Palmyra. La distruzione del patrimonio archeologico nel Vicino Oriente. Perché e come ricostruire

D. Montanari - Bollettino delle attività del Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo della Sapienza, anno 2016

L. Nigro - Bethlehem in the Bronze and Iron Ages in the light of recent discoveries by the Palestinian MOTA-DACH

V. Pisaniello - Parallel passages among Hittite-Luwian rituals: for the restoration of KUB 35.146

F. Spagnoli - Una testa di sileno in bronzo da Mozia

N. Chiarenza - Una matrice per terrecotte con sileno dall'Area sacra del Kothon a Mozia

G. Labisi - al-Fudayn: an Umayyad residence in Northern Jordan

P. Buzi - Early Christianity in the Fayyūm: the new contribution of archaeology

I. Materia - Preliminary notes on the ware depicted on the ceiling of the Cappella Palatina in Palermo

S. Autiero - Indian Ocean trade: a reassessment of the pottery finds from a multidisciplinary point of view (3rd Century BC-5th century AD)

M.M. Jamhawi - N. Al-Shakarchi - I. Al-Hashimi - Assessment of tourists' satisfaction in the downtown of Amman
Scavi e Ricerche
L. Nigro - C. Fiaccavento - M. Jaradat - J. Yasine - Archaeology from A to Z: Abu Zarad, an ancient town in the heartland of Palestine

L. Nigro - D. Montanari - M. Ghayyada - J. Yasine - Khalet al-Jam'a. A Middle Bronze and Iron Age necropolis near Bethlehem (Palestine)

L. Nigro - G. Ripepi - I. Hamdan - J. Yasine - The Jericho Oasis Archaeological Park - 2015 Interim Report. Italian-Palestinian Cooperation for protection and valorization of archaeological heritage

R. Francia - L'archivio di tavolette del complesso B-C-H di Büyükkale e l'organizzazione degli archivi reali ittiti. Considerazioni preliminari

V. Pisaniello - La collezione di tavolette del complesso B-C-H di Büyükkale

T. De Vincenzi - L'archivio di tavolette del complesso B-C-H sull'acropoli di Büyükkale
Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo
L. Nigro - Il nuovo allestimento del Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo della Sapienza

D. Montanari - Bollettino delle attività del Museo del Vicino Oriente, Egitto e Mediterraneo della Sapienza, anno 2015
A. Orsingher - E. PAPPA (2013), Early Iron Age Exchange in the West: Phoenicians in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic (Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement Series 43), Leuven - Paris - Walpole 2013, MA.: Peeters

L. Nigro - Editoriale
M. Jafari-Dehaghi - Čahār zahagān in Middle Persian literature

S. Seminara - Beyond the words. Some considerations about the word "to translate" in Sumerian

R. Francia - Gli Ittiti e la loro riscoperta nella Turchia repubblicana

K. Rashid Rahim - C.G. Cereti - L. Colliva - A. Fusaro - C. Insom - G. Labisi - S. Mancini - J. Bogdani - M. Galuppi - G. Terribili - MAIKI, Missione Archeologica Italiana nel Kurdistan Iracheno: la carta archeologica dell'area di Paikuli, obiettivi e metodologie applicate

L. Nigro - The Copper Route and the Egyptian connection in 3rd millennium BC Jordan seen from the caravan city of Khirbet al-Batrawy

M. Sala - EB II-III aegyptiaca east of the Jordan: a reevaluation of trade and cultural interactions between Egypt and Transjordanian urban centres

C. Fiaccavento - Two EB III Red Polished jugs from Palace B in Khirbet al-Batrawy and jugs with Reserved Alternate-Hatching Decoration (RAHD) from Palestine and Transjordan

D. Montanari - An EB IV dagger from Tell es-Sultan/Jericho

F. Spagnoli - Una brocchetta dipinta dal Tempio di Astarte nell'Area sacra del Kothon a Mozia

B. D'Andrea - Nuove stele dal Tofet di Mozia

A. Orsingher - Listen and protect: reconsidering the grinning masks after a recent find from Motya

P. Gignoux - Souvenirs d'un grand savant: Gherardo Gnoli (1937-2012)

N.N.Z. Chegini - M.V. Fontana - A. Asadi - M. Rugiadi - A.M. Jaia - A. Blanco - L. Ebanista - V. Cipollari Estakhr Project - second preliminary report of the joint Mission of the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, the Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation and the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

A. Asadi - S.M. Mousavi Kouhpar - J. Neyestani - A. Hojabri-Nobari - Sasanian and Early Islamic settlement patterns north of the Persian Gulf

L. Nigro - Before the Greeks: the earliest Phoenician settlement in Motya - recent discoveries by Rome «La Sapienza» Expedition

C. Fiaccavento - Potters' wheels from Khirbet al-Batrawy: a reconsideration of social contexts

D. Montanari - A copper javelin head in the UCL Palestinian Collection

A. Massafra - A group of metal weapons from Tell el-'Ajjul in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow

A. Campus - Costruire memoria e tradizione: il tofet

F. Spagnoli - Demetra a Mozia: evidenze dall'area sacra del Kothon nel V secolo a.C.

R. Francia - Lo stile 'poetico' delle historiolae ittite

V. Pisaniello - Il sumerogramma IR nei testi ittiti

D. Montanari - Copper axes and double-apses buildings: investigating EB I social interrelations

P. Sferrazza - Cattivi presagi: analisi della raffigurazione della Stanza 132 del Palazzo Reale di Mari

I. Melandri - A new reconstruction of the anklets of Princess Khnumit

G. Ripepi - Gli edifici su podio in Palestina durante l'Età del Ferro II

F. Spagnoli - Un altare bruciaprofumi punico dalla "Casa del sacello domestico" a Mozia

M. Guirguis - Monte Sirai 2005-2010. Bilanci e prospettive

V. Tusa - Le armi dei corredi tombali della necropoli arcaica di Mozia

M.C. Benvenuto - F. Pompeo - Il sincretismo di genitivo e dativo in persiano antico

M.V. Fontana - S.M. Mireskandari - M. Rugiadi - A. Asadi - A.M. Jaia - A. Blanco - L. Colliva - Estakhr Project - first preliminary report of the joint Mission of the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, the Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation and the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

C.G. Cereti - L. Colliva - M.V. Fontana - G. Terribili - J. Bogdani - A. Bizzarro - A. Tilia - S.S. Tilia - From flint to silicon, modern technologies applied to the understanding of history. The Italian Archaeological Mission in Iraqi Kurdistan

M. Rugiadi - Il complesso di ricevimento del palazzo ayyubide a Shawbak

L. Nigro - An EB IIIB (2500-2300 BC) gemstones necklace from the Palace of the Copper Axes at Khirbet al-Batrawy, Jordan

A. Caltabiano - Temples et sanctuaires urbains du littoral syrien à l'âge du Fer: continuité et transformation culturelles

M. Sala - Egyptian and Egyptianizing objects from EB I-III Tell es-Sultan/ancient Jericho

F. Spagnoli - Un'anforetta dipinta dalla Tomba T.177 di Mozia

M. Sala - Sanctuaries, Temples and Cult Places in Early Bronze I Southern Levant

D. Montanari - Sei lance rituali in metallo del Bronzo Antico I (3400-3000 a.C.) dal Levante meridionale

L. Romano - La stele del simposio?

S. Lanna - Land-management and food-production in early Egypt (Dynasties 0-2)

S. Paradiso - La brocca RS 24.440 da Ugarit: rappresentazione di una scena di offerta

G. Pagliari - Ancient Egyptian Palace: The Tripartite Plan of Audience System

M.G. Amadasi Guzzo - On the Beginnings of the Punic Scripts

B. D’Andrea - S. Giardino - “Il tofet: dove e perché”: alle origini dell’identità fenicia

L. Sist - Preliminary notes on two royal buildings discovered in Napata

A. Colazilli - Il pianto nell’antico Egitto

A. D’Aleo - Il mito di Butes: un caso paradigmatico di “sincretismo”?

S. Della Ricca - I. Della Ricca - Quale sanità nel Vicino Oriente urbanizzato?

V. Messina - J. Mehr Kian - Ricognizione dei rilievi partici d’Elimaide. La piana di Izeh- Malamir

M. Rugiadi - The Emergence of Siliceous-paste in Iran in the Last Quarter of the 11th century and Related Issues. The Dated Assemblage from the Southern Domed Hall of the Great Mosque of Isfahan

I. Melandri - Nuove considerazioni su una statua da Qaw el-Kebir al Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino

D. Nadali - Eph‘al, I.,The City Besieged. Siege and Its Manifestations in the Ancient Near East, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 36, Brill Ed., Leiden - Boston 2009

D. Nadali - Curtis, J.E. - Tallis, N (eds.), The Balawat Gates of Ashurnasirpal II, The British Museum Press, London 2008

A. Vacca - Rappresentazioni di edifici sacri nella glittica dei periodi di Uruk, Jemdet Nasr e Protodinastico I

L. Romano - La corona del dio. Nota sull’iconografia divina nel Protodinastico

M. Sala - Il Temple en L a Biblo

M. D’Andrea - Trickle Painted Ware: an Early Bronze IV Specialized Pottery Production in Palestine and Transjordan

A. Iob - Forme, colori, funzione dei collari usekh: confronto tra immagine e modello reale

D. Nadali - La Stele di Daduša come documento storico dell’età paleobabilonese. Immagini e iscrizione a confronto

L. Peyronel - Guerre e alleanze in epoca paleobabilonese: il peso di Inibšina, figlia di Daduša di Ešnunna

G. Pedrucci - Kubaba: presenze anatoliche e antecedenti siriani

S. Festuccia - Le forme da fusione della Città Bassa Settentrionale di Tell Mardikh-Ebla

L. Mori - Osservazioni sulla tipologia delle strade dai testi di Emar

A. Vallorani - Bâtiment III: il palazzo neosiriano di Hama

M.G. Amadasi Guzzo - J.-Á. Zamora Lopez - Un ostracon phénicien de Tavira (Portugal)

M. L’Erario - Un Osco a Solunto. Una nota sul cosiddetto «oscillum» di Solunto

M.G. Amadasi Guzzo - Su due dediche neopuniche da Henchir Ghayadha

F. Bron - L’inscription néo-punique de Cherchell, NP 130

D. Piacentini - Una bilingue greco-palmirena dal Negev: una nuova interpretazione

L. Nigro - L’unzione del re? nota su un passabriglie protodinastico al Museo del Louvre

L. Romano - Recensione al volume: Margueron, J.-Cl., Mari. Métropole de l’Euphrate au IIIe et au debut du IIe millénaire av. J.-C., Paris 2004


L. Romano - La Stele degli Avvoltoi: una rilettura critica

L. Nigro - Alle origini della prima urbanizzazione palestinese. Il caso dell’Edificio 7102 di Tell el-‘Areini

M. Sala - Prodromi della prima urbanizzazione palestinese ai confini del deserto basaltico siro-giordano: l’insediamento fortificato del Bronzo Antico I (3400-3200 a.C.) a Jawa

G. Spreafico - La formulazione architettonica e spaziale dell’area sacra nell’edilizia templare del Ferro I in Palestina

R. Francia - Osservazioni sulle strategie linguistiche e stilistiche nelle lettere ittite

G. Capriotti Vittozzi - Rivisitando la tomba di Petosiri: note su alcuni aspetti iconografici

A. Orsingher - Bruciaprofumi lotiformi: una produzione fenicia 115

F. Susanna - Templi punici o di matrice punica con cripta o con strutture sotterranee in Nord Africa

N. Chiarenza - Una nota su un altare a tre betili da Selinunte

M.G. Amadasi Guzzo - Une lamelle magique à inscription phénicienne

C. Greco - Recensione al volume Mozia - XI


M. Liverani - La scoperta del mattone. Muri e archivi nell’archeologia mesopotamica

A. Archi - The “lords”, lugal-lugal, of Ebla: a prosopographic study

M.G. Biga - Wet-nurses at Ebla: a prosopographic study

M. Ramazzotti - Appunti sulla semiotica delle relazioni stratigrafiche di Gerico neolitica

N. Marchetti - A Middle Bronze I ritual deposit from the ‘Amuq Plain: note on the dating and the significance on the metal anthropomorphic figurines from Tell Judaidah

E. Ascalone - Interpretazione stratigrafica e proposta di periodizzazione della città di Susa. Studio comparativo degli scavi effettuati e analisi storica dell’abitato tra la fine del IV e l’inizio del III millennio a.C.

L. Peyronel - Sigilli harappani e dilmuniti dalla Mesopotamia e dalla Susiana. Note sul commercio nel golfo Arabo-Persico tra III e II millennio a.C.

L. Nigro - L’assedio di Bīt Bunakki da Ninive ai Musei Vaticani. La sua collocazione originaria nel Palazzo Nord di Assurbanipal e gli scavi di Giovanni Bennhi

R. Bertolino - I corpora delle iscrizioni semitiche di Hatra, Palmira e Dura-Europos: un bilancio

P. Grossmann - Zur Rekonstruktion der Südkirche von Antinoopolis

M. Ramazzotti - Un’ipotesi di proposta interpretativa: l’architettura domestica in Egitto come indice del cambiamento nella struttura socio-economica


A. Amenta - Aspetti culturali dal tempio di Tod

A. Bongioanni - Tradizioni sciamaniche nel manto “stellato” sacerdotale: il caso di Anen e Tutankhamon

R. Buongarzone - Una nuova versione del Libro della Terra

G. Capriotti Vittozzi - Una statua di sovrana al Museo Egizio di Torino: la tradizione del Nuovo Regno nell’iconografia della regine tolemaiche

E.M. Ciampini - I percorsi misteriosi di Rosetau

S. Demichelis - Papiri calendariali al Museo Egizio di Torino

P. Gallo - Una nuova statua del re Nekhthorheb sotto forma di falco da Pharbeithos

E. Fiore Marochetti - Un frammento di iscrizione proveniente dalla grande “Mastaba du Nord” a el-Lisht

V. Massa - I giuramenti demotici di Pathyris nel Museo Egizio di Torino

A. Piccato - Percezione della storia, narrazione degli eventi e storiografia dell’Egitto del III e del II millennio a.C. Alcune brevi osservazioni

P. Romeo - Stele di Qadesh e stele di Horus


M. Krebernik - Neue Beschwörungen aus Ebla

A. Archi - Bulle e cretule iscritte da Ebla

A. Archi - Eblaita: paš–šu “colui che è addetto all’unzione; sacerdote purificatore; cameriere al servizio di una persona”

L De Urioste Sanchez - Aspetti della circolazione di metalli preziosi ad Ebla: catene di distribuzione e restituzione parziale

M. Bonechi - ARET I 2 + ARET IV 23

A. Enea - Per una rilettura delle abitazioni palestinesi a pianta curvilinea del Bronzo Antico I

N. Marchetti - L’aquila Anzu: nota su alcuni amuleti mesopotamici

L. Nigro - Dieci asce protodinastiche dal Luristan della Collezione Lorenzo Vannini

F. Venturi - Una ‘fiasca del pellegrino’ da Tell Afis. L'evoluzione dei ‘Pilgrim Flasks’ cananaici nel passaggio tra Bronzo Tardo e Ferro I

S. Di Paolo - Gli avori di Megiddo: un esempio di arte siriana?

R. Francia - Il pronome possessivo enclitico in antico ittita: alcune riflessioni

A. Roccati - La datazione di opere letterarie egizie

E.M. Ciampini - Testi funerari del Medio Regno in contesto “anomalo”: il caso di formule su stele

E. Mitchell- Redazione preliminare della carta archeologica del Jebel Barkal

A. Ciasca, R. Di Salvo, M. Castellino, C. Di Patti - Saggio preliminare sugli incinerati del Tofet di Mozia



S. Donadoni - La situazione archeologica

L Sist - Le figurazioni della Tomba TT 27

A. Roccati - Reminiscenze delle Tombe di Asiut nel monumento di Sheshonq

F. Tiradritti - Il capitolo 146w del Libro dei Morti

G. Rosati - Il Libro dei Morti sui pilastri orientali della corte

S. Bosticco - I ritrovamenti

B. Moiso - Conservazione del monumento e ripristino architettonico



M.G. Biga - Osservazioni sui criteri di redazione dei testi di Ebla: TM. 75. G.1730 e i testi del rituale per il re e la regina

F. Pomponio - Abba-kalla di Puzriš-Dagan

G. Wilhelm - Zum eblaitischen Gott Kura

C. Zaccagnini - Ceremonial Transfers of Real Estate at Emar and Elsewhere

L. Sist - Un frammento di statua da Crocodilopoli

F. Tiradritti - Stele di Amanitore e Arikankharor dal «Palazzo di Natakamani» al Gebel Barkal

M. Salvini. - Note sulle tavolette di Bastam

G. Falsone - Nuove coppe metalliche di fattura orientale

A. Ciasca - Mozia: sguardo d'insieme sul tofet

N. Marchetti - L'iscrizione della cappella rupestre di En-Numêr a Petra e la paleografia nabatea

A. Alberti - Nihil sub sole novum. Osservazioni a margine di MEE 10

A. Archi - Integrazioni alla prosopografia dei «danzatori», ne-di, di Ebla

E. Badalì - La festa di primavera AN. TAÐ.ŠUM: contributi su alcuni aspetti del culto ittito

L. Innocente - Stato delle ricerche sul cario

F. Israel - Note di onomastica semitica 6: l’apporto della glittica all’onomastica aramaica

Addendum to: D. Schmandt-Besserat: Tokens as Funerary Offerings, VO 7, pp. 3-9



A. Archi - F. Pomponio - Tavolette economiche neo-sumeriche dell’Università Pontificia Salesiana

Martin Rundkvist (Aardvarchaeology)

May Pieces Of My Mind #2


The boats came with the summer. Goodbye, Stocksund!

  • Summer thunder woke me this morning. Deliciously unfamiliar.
  • Two herons flew past our house last night as I came home from Linköping, both headed towards the lake.
  • I love this time of year and I strongly oppose all other times!
  • The Sabbathy metal band Black Label Society have released an album named Grimmest Hits.
  • Whenever I meet Stockholm’s talkative, businessminded, frank and outgoing hijabi ladies, I think to myself that the people who read the hijab as a sign of patriarchal repression simply cannot know any of these women.
  • I think it was in 2001 that I made the acquaintance of a Swedish antiques smuggler who often travelled to China to buy looted finds. He was quite open about this and told me about his trade the first time I met him, despite knowing that I’m an archaeologist. We had a falling-out after I gave his contact info to a scholar who studies illicit trade in antiquities. The guy then broke up with his partner, with whom I’m still friendly, and I haven’t heard of him since. Until I received a link today to this blog entry from November 2016. Though he was apparently a respected expert by that time, he got convicted of fraud for faking a provenance to make a looted piece sellable. I get the impression that he may also have dealt in modern fakes.
  • Love being able to get all the old episodes of the H.P. Lovecraft Literary Podcast straight into my podcatcher now! Going to start listening back before I came on board.
  • If “Incels” think sex is a common resource that should be shared equitably, shouldn’t they all be ready to comfort lonely gay men?
  • Desirée means “the wanted one”, “the wanted child”. A loving name to give your kid.
  • Finished my high school teaching gig today, neatly tying up all loose administrative ends. It’s been fun! Next week I’m starting a new interesting job in a sector where I’ve never been paid to work before.
  • Waved at some guy from my car in the parking lot. Thought he was a neighbour. Dude walks up, opens passenger door, takes a seat. Smiles uncertainly at me. “Are you the guy?” “Nope, sorry!” We laugh, I slap his shoulder, he leaves.
  • Observant Swedish Muslims are in for a rough Ramadan. Extremely long daylight this time of year. No food from 01:30 am to 09:30 pm.
  • Things have been pretty precarious for me since my adjunct teaching gig in Umeå ended in January 2016. It’s been a time of financial shakiness and repeated kicks in the groin from academia. It would have been really bad if I hadn’t had my wife and kids to hold on to, not to mention if my health hadn’t been so strong. I still feel like a steel ball bouncing around in a pinball machine, and I don’t know where I’m going to settle, eventually. But my money situation is finally solid again, and I’ve secured jobs in three separate extramural sectors in less than seven months. So I’m optimistic.
  • Went to bed early, got up at 03:30. Watching the sunrise, enjoying the quiet.

ArcheoNet BE

Antwerpse stadsarcheologen leggen 16de-eeuwse Brouwerskelder bloot

Tijdens een onderzoek in het kader van de heraanleg van de Tunnelplaats en de Ankerrui hebben de Antwerpse stadsarcheologen de Brouwerskelder blootgelegd. De kelder maakte deel uit van de infrastructuur voor de watervoorziening van de Nieuwstad, de 16de-eeuwse stadsuitbreiding. De kelder sluit aan op de stadsmuur van de Spaanse Omwalling, net ten zuiden van het bastion Rode Poort.

De kelder bleef in gebruik tot in 1881 een openbare drinkwatervoorziening werd aangelegd op basis van Netewater. Het 16de-eeuwse bevoorradingssysteem via het Waterhuis (vandaag bekend als Brouwershuis) en de Brouwerskelder werd overbodig. In de jaren 1930 werd het systeem officieel afgeschaft.

Op de grens met de Italiëlei werd de aansluiting met de stadsmuur van de Spaanse omwalling opgezocht. Van hieruit werd de noordelijke rand van de kelder zo ver mogelijk vrij gelegd. Daarbij kwam ook de fundering van een trapeziumvormig gebouw in baksteen aan het licht, mogelijk onderdeel van het spuihuis dat zich boven de kelder bevond. Het gewelf van de Brouwerskelder werd in zeer goede staat aangetroffen. De bovenzijde lijkt hernieuwd te zijn in de 19de eeuw, mogelijk gelijktijdig met de verlenging van de kelder in 1868-69.

De archeologische resten werden opgeschoond, gefotografeerd en ingemeten. De kelder zelf ligt diep genoeg en blijft onder het nieuwe wegdek bewaard.

Bron en foto: Stad Antwerpen

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Four Chinese Nationals for Alleged ‘Drilling’ at Angkor Wat Complex

via VOA Cambodia, 09 May 2018: The body that oversees the ancient Angkor Wat Temple Complex in Cambodia has said it detained four Chinese nationals this week for alleged drilling at the site. Long Kosal, the Apsara Authority’s spokesman, said that the men were construction workers employed by a Chinese company that was contracted to … Continue reading "Four Chinese Nationals for Alleged ‘Drilling’ at Angkor Wat Complex"

Jim Davila (

The Sifting Project has found some cool coins

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James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

#CFP Regional Late Antiquity Consortium of the Southeast Meeting (ReLACS)

Call for Papers: Regional Late Antiquity Consortium of the Southeast Meeting (ReLACS) October 25-26, 2018 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, invites paper proposals from graduate students for the annual Regional Late Antiquity Consortium of the Southeast (ReLACS) meeting to take place October 25-26, 2018 in Knoxville, Tennessee. This conference will meet for the sixth year in […]

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

Important Announcement

The Gennadius Library will remain closed to the public the following days: Thursday, May 24, 2018 from 6:00 pm Monday, May 28, 2018 Saturday, June 2, 2018 Monday, June 4, 2018

Jim Davila (

Was the Priestly writer anti-Temple?

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American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

Increasing Accessibility through the Ancient Corinth: Site Guide

An interview with the authors of the first official guidebook to Corinth released by the ASCSA in over 50 years.

Jim Davila (

4 Baruch

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The royal wedding had a Coptic connection

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ArcheoNet BE

Winters in Brussel. De stadsresidentie van de familie d’Ursel (1590-1960)

In het kasteel d’Ursel in Hingene opende vorige week de expo ‘Winters in Brussel’, die het fascinerende verhaal vertelt van het hôtel d’Ursel, de schitterende stadsresidentie van de familie d’Ursel aan de Brusselse Houtmarkt. Net zoals het kasteel kende het hôtel zijn bloeiperiode in de 18de eeuw, met prachtige interieurs van Laurent-Benoît Dewez. Als gevolg van decennialange erfeniskwesties en stedenbouwkundige ontwikkelingen werd het hôtel in 1960 gesloopt.

Op de benedenverdieping maak je kennis met de familie d’Ursel en hun oudste residenties in Antwerpen en Brussel. We tonen de originele plannen en een digitale reconstructie van de residentie aan de Houtmarkt. Op de eerste verdieping van het kasteel ontdek je de prestigieuze ontvangstruimten, de slaapkamers en de dienstvertrekken van het hôtel. Met minutieuze maquettes en tekeningen analyseren masterstudenten van de Faculteit Architectuur (KU Leuven) het hôtel en onthullen ze zijn verborgen kantjes. We combineren nooit eerder getoonde foto’s, aquarellen en tekeningen met de meubels en siervoorwerpen die vroeger in de kamers stonden. Brieven en dagboeken vertellen het leven van alledag.

Op de tweede verdieping van het kasteel is de glorietijd voorbij. Je voelt hoe het hôtel wordt bedreigd door de aanleg van de Noord-Zuidverbinding voor treinen en de drastische modernisering van de oude wijk rond de residentie. De sloop is onvermijdelijk. We tonen dagboekfragmenten en foto’s van een bezorgde buurman en presenteren je de opvolgers van het hôtel: het Westbury-hotel (later omgevormd tot Lotto-toren) en het kantoorcomplex Central Plaza. In de laatste kamer zie je hoe het hôtel d’Ursel vandaag nog verder leeft in de huizen van de familie die er eeuwenlang heeft gewoond.

Samen met de tentoonstelling verschijnt er ook een rijk geïllustreerd boek (tweetalig Nederlands-Frans). Koen De Vlieger-De Wilde & Serge Migom, Hôtel d’Ursel (1590-1960). Biografie van een Brusselse stadsresidentie, CFC Éditions, 2018, 208 blz., 35 euro (verzendkosten 9 euro).

De tentoonstelling loopt nog tot 30 september. Meer info op

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Ancient DNA Study Pokes Holes in Horse Domestication Theory

via National Geographic News, 09 May 2018: Not directly related to Southeast Asia, but may have implications further down the road in relation to when horses first appear in the archaeological record. A long-held theory on how horse domestication and language spread across Asia has been disrupted by a look at our genetic past. Source: … Continue reading "Ancient DNA Study Pokes Holes in Horse Domestication Theory"

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2018.05.29: Sulpicius Severus’ 'Vita Martini'

Review of Philip Burton, Sulpicius Severus’ 'Vita Martini'. Oxford: 2017. Pp. xiv, 298. $155.00. ISBN 9780199676224.

2018.05.28: Fluvial Landscapes in the Roman World. Journal of Roman archaeology. Supplementary series, 104

Review of Tyler V. Franconi, Fluvial Landscapes in the Roman World. Journal of Roman archaeology. Supplementary series, 104. Portsmouth, RI: 2015. Pp. 164. $89.50. ISBN 9780991373086.

2018.05.27: Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity: Studies in Text Transmission

Review of Dirk Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity: Studies in Text Transmission. Waco, TX: 2017. Pp. ix, 360. $49.95 (pb). ISBN 9781481307826.

2018.05.26: The Elegies of Maximianus

Review of A. M. Juster, Michael Roberts, The Elegies of Maximianus. Philadelphia: 2018. Pp. 240. $65.00. ISBN 9780812294644.

Per Lineam Valli

The Roman Army A to Z: cornicen

cornicen (m. pl. cornicines)

A musician who played the cornu. Veg., DRM 2.22; AE 1997, 1628. [Goldsworthy 2003]

The Roman Army A to Z: cop(u)la

cop(u)la (f. pl. cop(u)lae)

A grappling hook, as used in naval warfare to hold ships together in combat. Caes., BG 3.13.8; P. Mich. 8.467.20. [Goldsworthy 2003]

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

[Lecture] Bangkok: Past and Present

If you’re in Bangkok this week, SEAMEO SPAFA and Siam Society are having the annual Capital’s Archaeology Lectures on Wednesday, 23 May 2018 at 18.30 hrs. This year, the talks focus on the archaeology and urban heritage of Bangkok. (Disclosure: I work for SEAMEO SPAFA, and this lecture series is an event I am organising). … Continue reading "[Lecture] Bangkok: Past and Present"

Per Lineam Valli

The Roman Army A to Z: conubium

conubium (n. pl. conubia)

The right to contract a legal marriage or iustum matrimonium. Soldiers were not permitted to marry whilst serving and one of the rights granted to an auxiliary soldier on a diploma was conubium. Gaius 1.57; RMD 189. [Phang 2001]

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

PhD Scholarship Opportunity – Archaeology at The Australian National University

A PhD Scholarship opportunity in archaeology at the Australian National University, under Prof. Sue O’Connor (disclosure: my former supervisor). Deadline is 1 June 2018. The candidate will have the opportunity to work on one of the key archaeological sites located within Australia, New Guinea, Timor-Leste, and Indonesia as part of a broader goal to investigate … Continue reading "PhD Scholarship Opportunity – Archaeology at The Australian National University"

James Hamrick (The Ancient Bookshelf)

Holy Helsinki Walk at International SBL/EABS

"Who is St. Urho? What is the Free Church free from? What happens at the Seventh-Day-Adventists' place on the eighth day? And what about the Finnish revivals?"

For those heading to Helsinki this year for the International Society of Biblical Literature and European Association of Biblical Studies Meeting, there's a great opportunity to participate in a guided tour (in English) led by a Finnish theologian. I've walked the streets of Munich with him, where I've lived for over two years, and he was able to show me some stuff in the city I hadn't seen before, and gave me a fascinating introduction to Laestadianism and Joseph Ratzinger's views on Purgatory -- so I'm looking forward to what he'll be able to show and tell us in Helsinki.

Information and tickets are available here.  

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Angkor’s ‘modern history’ with France reveals the politics of art

via Euronews, 07 May 2018: An interview with Dr Stephen Murphy, a personal friend and one of the curators of the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore about the ongoing Angkor exhibition. The Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore has decided to unveil this extraordinary story with its latest exhibit — and in an interview with Euronews. … Continue reading "Angkor’s ‘modern history’ with France reveals the politics of art"

Angkor residents given construction permission

via Khmer Times, 08 May 2018: This article is probably in response to the ruckus last year when some illegal construction were demolished by the authorities last year in the Angkor Archaeological Park. Apsara Authority allowed people living in the Angkor area to build 354 houses. Source: Angkor residents given construction permission – Khmer Times

Bangkok Budgets 69M to Renew Pom Mahakan

via Khaosod English, 07 May 2018: BANGKOK — The city administration is to spend at least 69 million baht to redevelop the area behind the Mahakan fort wall, the deputy governor said Sunday. Source: Bangkok Budgets 69M to Renew Pom Mahakan

Historic elephant palace in Ayutthaya to get Bt30 million makeover

via The Nation, 06 May 2018: The Fine Arts Department will spend Bt30 million on improving the Ayutthaya Elephant Palace & Royal Kraal. Sacred and rare rituals will be carried out at the facility on Monday to mark the start of conservation efforts. Source: Historic elephant palace in Ayutthaya to get Bt30 million makeover – … Continue reading "Historic elephant palace in Ayutthaya to get Bt30 million makeover"

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: May 20

I took a little time off while getting started on my summer project. It's not Latin-related... but it is folklore-related, so perhaps of interest: it's a collection of chain-tales! I'm not sure where exactly this will end up, but I have had a lot of fun getting started.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem tertium decimum Kalendas Iunias.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Birth of Apollo and Artemis, and there are more images here.


TINY PROVERBS: Today's tiny proverb is: Disce docendo (English: Learn by teaching).

PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Occasio aegre offertur, facile amittitur (English: Opportunity is hard to grab, easy to lose).

PROPER NAME PROVERBS: Today's proper name proverb from Erasmus is Magis sibi placet, quam Peleus in machaera (English: He is more pleased with himself than Peleus with his sword; from Adagia 2.8.26... The gods had bestowed on Peleus a marvelous sword forged by Vulcan himself).

ELIZABETHAN PROVERBS: Here is today's proverb commentary, this time by Conybeare: Crocodili lacrimae: Crocodiles teares. A proverbe applied unto them which hating an other man, whom they woulde destroye or have destroyed, they will seme to be sorye for hem. It ys taken of the propertie of Crocodilus the monstre, who beholding a man comming whom he would devoure weepeth, and after he hath eaten the bodye, he washeth the head with his teares and then eateth it also.

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Numina Vana. Click here for a full-sized view.

And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:

In libris libertas.
In books there is freedom.

Post tenebras spero lucem.
After the darkness, I hope for light.


PHAEDRI FABULAE: The illustrated fable from Phaedrus for today is Cervus ad boves, a story about being observant: Latin text and Smart's translation.

STEINHOWEL: The illustrated fable from Steinhowel for today is De cane antiquo et eius domino, a story about a bad boss: Latin text and English versions.

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Vietnamese, Indian experts at odds over restoration of UNESCO relic

via VN Express, 06 May 2018: A Vietnamese expert says Indian archeologists entrusted with restoring a Cham temple complex have been careless. Source: Vietnamese, Indian experts at odds over restoration of UNESCO relic – VnExpress International

May 20, 2018

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Verbum: Analecta Neolatina

[First posted on AWOL 30 March 2010, updated 20 May 2018]

Verbum: Analecta Neolatina
ISSN: (paper) 1585-079X
ISSN: (online) 1588-4309
A Verbum célja, hogy a közép- és újkori latin, valamint az újlatin irodalmak, nyelvek és kultúrák területén végzett kutatások számára fórumot biztosítson, különös tekintettel a Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetemen és a vele együttműködő intézményekben elért eredmények bemutatására.

The journal provides a forum for New Latin and Romance arts, literature and linguistics, presenting mainly the results of research carried out at Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary) and other institutions collaborating with it.

    Archaeology Briefs


    Dr. Catherine Frieman recently excavated an untouched ancient barrow near the town of Looe in South East Cornwall. Her 14 day-dig over Easter was the first time such a site in the area has been excavated to modern archaeological standards. She said when digging began, local farmers told her they'd ploughed the field in their childhood, so she didn't expect the site to be so well preserved.

    "We were so excited to find such a lot of archaeology on the site despite scores of generations of ploughing, but to find an intact clay urn buried 4,000 years ago just 25 centimetres beneath the surface is nothing short of a miracle," said Dr. Frieman. This and other evidence from the site has led her to conclude there was most likely a large mound over the burial which existed from prehistory well into the middle ages protecting the center of the barrow.

    "This is a sealed, intact cremation so it has the potential to tell us a lot about the cremation rite as it was practiced 4,000 years ago. We also appear to have some identifiable fragments of bone among the cremated remains so we'll potentially be able to tell a lot about the individual themselves," she said.
    "We'll be able to say what gender they were, possibly their age, or an age range, and depending on the bone preservation we can conduct analyses to examine where they were from, what their diet was like, where this food was coming from and what they ate and drank as a child when their teeth were forming. This is a very beautiful, very complete burial, and we're very excited," she said.

    Other items found include various examples of Cornish Bronze Age pottery, flint tools and two high-quality hammer stones, used to make flint tools. However, what has puzzled Dr. Frieman and her team was the discovery of medieval activity on the same site. "The site has thrown up a big mystery for us because we found what we believe is an entire—albeit crushed—medieval pot from the 12th or 13th century AD, carefully placed under a couple of layers of flat stones. It had some cooked food remains adhering to it and we don't know what it's doing there or why." "Hundreds of years after the barrow was built, someone from the 12th or 13th century came back to this site and dug into it to bury this pot. "At that stage there were two local monasteries in view of this site, as Looe Island was a satellite monastery of the Glastonbury Abbey, so it would be very strange to have non-Christian activity on this site. The evidence looks quite ritualistic, but what the ritual was, we don't know," she said.

    The team also excavated a round house—an ancient dwelling or land marker nearby, possibly from 500 BC and are trying to deduce possible reasons for the location of the barrow. "This was a traversed place and regularly visited over the millennia, it affords a sweeping view of the south coast of England and we know that there are a series of Bronze Age shipwrecks off this coast, so this was an important shipping highway in prehistory."

    The analysis of soil, pollen, flint and other samples is underway but it will probably be a year before a comprehensive story of the find is possible.

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    How PAS 'Partners' Perceive the PASt: A New Glossary of Metal Detector Users' Jargon (1) [UPDATED]

    'Kings and battles history' of
    the collector (Wolsey groat from eBay)
    Senior artefact hunter John Winter has created on his blog 'A Metal Detecting Glossary' but feels a little insecure about it:
    What follows are some of the terms often used by detectorists and accompanied by a brief definition. Be aware that the compilation of such a glossary is very subjective and not definitive. It may be viewed as ‘a work in progress’. There are bound to be omissions you think should be included and maybe changes to be made.  
    I think its candidly subjective nature is a very useful pointer to the way some of the people emptying the common heritage into their own private pockets sees what they are doing. One thing we learn about the author, he's not one of the technically-minded geeks who'd put in his glossary terms like 'ground balance', and 'coil-matrix interface interference' or 'elemental nanovibrations'. This glossary is not machine-focussed but unashamedly object centresd. This glossary is not about detecting (as an activity involving a machine) but about pocketing, acquisition and cseriating a collection.We have heard so manty times the PAS-promoted mantra that these fiolk are not just collectors, but they are in some way (allegedly) 'citizen archaeologists' (sic) who are 'passionately interested in the past (which is why they dig it up and hoik things out)' and are only interested in learning about the past and the way people lived. It is therefore informative to look at this glossary to see what its author considers to be 'the terms often used by detectorists' in discussing the hobby and how well that reflects the 'citizens learning about history' model that PAS and its supporters are using to justify support of this activity. Is it true, or are we all being misled by this glib use of a model?

    The first thing that strikes me is that this text consists largely of material in the 'Metal Detecting Glossary' referring to coins, In fact about eighty percent. Here this can be shown by the extent of the purple text (ignore the yellow) in the accompanying screenshot. the purple is the extent of the definitions and discussions of coin finds, the black is every other kind of artefact and everything else.


     The PAS database also reflects this bias. If you search for 'coin' you learn that in the database there are 409,702 records for coins, yet the database as a whole contains 1,344,750 objects within 859,938 records so that means that of the vast array of artefact types representing the daily activities of millions of people through the millennia, artefact hunters are selectively picking from the resource, to hoik out what interests them, the other artefct tyopes are being selectively ignored and discarded. The UKDFD also shows the same patterm. This is almost never discussed (wonder why?) by the supporters of artefact hunting partnering.

    What kind of 'learning about the past' is just picking out the coins anyway? It'll tell you nothing about the Bronze Age and much of the Iron Age. Nothing. Coins are 'easy' because they have pictures and weriting on them, any fule can read a hammie or a 'Roman grot', though UK metal detectorists - not generally belonging to the group of folk one would label literate - have problems with even that, witnessed by the number of pleas for help 'ID'ing (a term missing from the glossary which defines big-words like 'annular' and 'ferrous') a coin on the 'metal detecting' forums. Coins refer to an episodic (courte durée ) kings-and-battles histoire événementielle , rather than one of general processes and daily life. This is not the way history is generally studied by the rest of us any more, amateur or professional. The collector's is a history of Ranke and Kossinna rather than that of Braudel and Collingwood. 

    Also instead of  the airy-fairy notion of'citizen archaeology', probably what many of the metal detector users encompassed by the John Winter Model of artefact hunting might be legitimately described as 'cheapskate coin collectors' - too stingy to actually go to a reputable dealer to build a collection according to certain criteria, but relying on what random material they can find for free and persuade the landowner to relinquish ownership.  

    Also let us note this definition:
    Hedge Fodder – A slang expression referring to detecting finds that are not worth keeping
    How much of this material (discarded) will be not-coins? Cf. 'Keeper – A slang word for a good metal detecting find', obviously coins form a large proportion of what the detector users that the glossary's author mixes with would consider 'keepers'. But of course we are all losers from what these folk individually decide are not 'keepers' in the field.

    Note also how the glossary differentiates:
    Artefacts – Referring to the finds made by detectorists. We usually refer to buckles, buttons, spindle whorls, etcetera, but NOT coins as artefacts. (See Partefact)
    and  on what grounds, pray, do these folk decide that coins are not artefacts (but fell from the sky ready formed, maybe)? The reasons behind this collector-specific terminological aberration is nowhere explained. Coins  not only are artefacts in every sense of the meaning of the word, but also, like the items collectors attempt to separate them from, archaeological evidence. 

    In fact, the 'metal detectorsts' definitions' given in the glossary are easily found among others in many entry-level books on 'the joys of coin collecting' or the such-like. In passing I would note that coin collectors in general would give a broader definition of the term 'wire money', though I understand that the coinage of Muscovy is beyond the scope of the British 'dirt-fisher' (sic) if he stays where it is (still) legal and does not venture abroad with his machine.  

    What the glossary's author has 'learned' about the PASt' (and in particular about the metal items that he searches with his noisy detecting machine to represent and make tangible that PASt) can be revealed by a couple of lapses such as where he 'informs' his slackjaw readers (none of whom seems yet to have corrected him) that silver is gilt only by a 'leaf technique' (when even checking with Wikipedia would have disabused him of that notion).  . 

    I would also draw attention to a rather significant omission, there is nowhere the metal detectorists' own definition given here of 'responsible detecting'. What is it in their eyes? 

    Indeed the term 'detectorist' is taken as a given and not defined in the glossary at all… which is odd. Who or what IS a “detectorist” and who or what are not (serious question – deserves an answer from the metal detecting community - and the heritage professionals that support and partner them).What is the difference between an ‘archaeologist’ and a ‘detectorist’? Are they the same or not? Interesting, the only reply that question has had so far from Mr Winter is:
    John 18th May 2018 at 10:17 AM 
    Paul – [...] This just just a bloody list. Take it for leave it, but don’t use my blog promote your anti-detectorist views.
    I do not think anything like this is 'take it or leave it'. One of the (unofficial) Codes of Conduct tells 'metal detectorists' that the and their behaviour are all 'ambassadors for the hobby', and that is how we, the rest of us, should take it. Mr Winter surely should be 'telling it like it is'. In that case, I would like to know what it is that, in asking for closer definition of what exactly 'metal detecting' is thought to be by those who engage in it, one is expressing anti-detecting (recte, this is not an ad personal concern) views.   

    Finally, why are the majority of the illustrations the author uses taken not from the public PAS database of artefacts found by members of the public, but the privately-run UK Detector Finds Database made 'by detectorists for detectorists' as the hobby's reaction to the publication of an official Code of Practice for Responsible metal Detecting?

    UPDATE 20th May 2018
    Although the poor old thing claims he 'did not understand' my text above ('too many words'), I note he's scrabbling now to add some more artefact types to pad out the dominance of the information on coins. Perhaps he could look at the Glossary of Metal Detecting Terms ' of Metal Detecting World and 'Metal Detecting Jargon Glossary' of Metal Detecting in the USA – Kentucky Unearthedfor inspiration. Or maybe Joan Allen's Glossary of Metal Detector Terms or Kellyco's 'Metal Detecting  Terminology' World, Hobby Hour's brief text of the same name, and at last a dozen others which a simple Google search will bring up for anyone willing to look. So what is the point of Mr Winter's?

    And indeed, he really did not get the drift. I wrote about his providing a definition of so-called 'hedge fodder', and I would have thought it was clear what I thought about it. This blog is about artefact hunters and collectors and not for them, so I really am not bothered (or suprised that those who are of that ilk simply do not follow - they have the PAS to explain it to them, that's what they are paid for).  Mr Winter therefore protests that Nigel Swift also mentions it:
    Swift [sic] also objects to the phrase ‘Hedge Fodder’ and says it’s not a phase used by archaeologists and I got it wrong. What he fails to understand is that this is a list of words that may be of use to detectorists, not arkies. The phrase deserves a place in my glossary.
    The point both of us are making is precisely that, there is a huge difference between the world of the hoiker-collector and that of the discipline of archaeology. Yet the model of 'partnership' which is de rigueur in the UK is based on the facile assumption that artefact hunting and collecting are 'citizen archaeology' (sic). Mr Winter has confirmed the utter fallacy of that convenient trope, which in discussions of policy I would argue needs to be discarded and replaced by a more nuanced fact-based characterization of what artefact hunters do.

    Also, as we see with the example of Mr Winter's response, time and time again, we see collectors are unable to grasp the sense of the concerns being raised about the effects of their hobby, so it is totally naive and unrealistic to see them independently adopting any effective measures to rectify the problem or do more than pay lip service to various notions, but their facadism is not the answer. The decisions have to be taken outside their hobby.

    And John Winter, Baz Thugwit, John Howland, all the heritage hoikers and Peter Tompa will never understand that.

    Compitum - événements (tous types)

    Le consulat suffect sous Auguste

    Titre: Le consulat suffect sous Auguste
    Lieu: Maison de l'archéologie - Univ. Bordeaux Montaigne / Pessac
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 14.06.2018
    Heure: 18.00 h

    Information signalée par Guillaume Flamerie de Lachapelle

    Conférence de F. Hurlet

    Le consulat suffect sous Auguste

    Réalités institutionnelles d'une nouvelle pratique politique


    La conférence débute à 18 heures dans la Salle Pierre Paris (ACH037) de la Maison de l'archéologie.

    La généralisation du consulat suffect à partir des triumvirs est une réalité dont les implications sociales, politiques et institutionnelles ont été peu étudiées. Il s'agira de proposer à ce sujet plusieurs angles d'approche qui aborderont les points suivants : le caractère progressif de la mise en place du consulat suffect ; les modalités de l'élection des consuls suffects ; leur origine sociale ; ce que la généralisation du consulat suffect révèle de la culture politique et des relations entre le prince et l'aristocratie romaine.

    Lieu de la manifestation : Pessac - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - Maison de l'archéologie
    Organisation : UMR Ausonius 5607
    Contact : carole.baisson[at]

    Art et archéologie du Proche-Orient hellénistique et romain

    Titre: Art et archéologie du Proche-Orient hellénistique et romain
    Lieu: Institut Catholique de Paris / Paris
    Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
    Date: 29.05.2018
    Heure: 18.15 h - 19.45 h

    Information signalée par Caroline Arnould-Béhar

    Art et archéologie du Proche-Orient hellénistique et romain

    Les circulations entre Orient et Occident


    Journée d'études organisée par Caroline Arnould-Béhar et Véronique Vassal

    Institut Catholique de Paris 74, rue de Vaugirard, 75006 Paris
    Mardi 29 mai 2018
    Salle Z31

    Inscription obligatoire sur


    9h15 : Accueil des participants et Introduction
    CAROLINE ARNOULD-BÉHAR et VÉRONIQUE VASSAL, Institut Catholique de Paris

    9h45 – CHRISTIANE DELPLACE, (CNRS) : Urbanisme et architecture à Palmyre : le décor architectonique entre Occident et Extrême-Orient

    10h10 – JACQUELINE DENTZER-FEYDY (CNRS) : Orient et Occident en Nabatène : quelques remarques sur l'emploi de l'ordre dorique

    10h35 – GAËLLE COQUEUGNIOT (Université de Paris Nanterre) : Le « marché romain » d'Europos-Doura : morcellement et monumentalisation du centre de la ville à l'époque romaine

    11h00 – ANNE-MARIE GUIMIER-SORBETS (Université de Paris Nanterre) : D'Est en Ouest, aller et retour des scènes nilotiques sur la mosaïque gréco-romaine. Transmission, contexte, signification

    11h25 – GERALD FINKIELSZTEJN (Israel Antiquities Authority) : Importations de produits en amphores de Méditerranée occidentale vers les ports du Levant sud Hellénistique

    11h50 – HÉDI DRIDI (Université de Neuchâtel) : L'appel de l'Orient. Traces archéologiques et épigraphiques de la présence carthaginoise dans le bassin oriental de la Méditerranée


    13h00 - 14h30 Déjeuner

    14h30 – CHRISTIAN-GEORGES SCHWENTZEL (Université de Lorraine) : La politique iconographique des rois Agrippa Ier et Agrippa II : quelques exemples originaux de circulation des images entre Orient et Occident

    14h55 – VÉRONIQUE VASSAL : (Université de Paris Nanterre) : Les mosaïques de Magdala (Galilée)

    15h20 – CAROLINE ARNOULD-BÉHAR (Institut Catholique de Paris) : Quelques remarques sur la non-figuration dans la sculpture de la Palestine romaine


    16h15 – NICOLAS BEL (DRAC Nouvelle Aquitaine) : Le relief funéraire en Syrie du Nord à l'époque hellénistique et romaine : première approche comparative

    16h40 – JEAN-SYLVAIN CAILLOU (Ifpo) : Des tombeaux-temples en Samarie romaine

    17h10 – BILAL ANNAN (EPHE – Université Paris I) : Les élégantes aspérités de la mort : sur quelques reliefs funéraires rupestres d'époque hellénistique dans l'arrière-pays phénicien

    17h35 – ODILE WATTEL DE CROIZANT (Institut Catholique de Paris) : Europe est-elle de Sidon ?


    Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Institut Catholique de Paris
    Organisation : Caroline Arnould-Béhar , Véronique Vassal
    Contact : c.arnould-behar[at]

    Jim Davila (

    The vision of Ezekiel

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    Judges in Pseudo-Philo

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    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    #MeToo #TimesUp and Jesus

    I am delighted at the prospect that, as I teach my course on the historical figure of Jesus next semester, I will also have an opportunity to supervise a student’s work on an honors thesis asking about Jesus’ teaching in relation to current movements epitomized through well-known social media hashtags. It immediately struck me that […]

    Jim Davila (

    Why does the Torah come in five books?

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    Archaeology and Virtual Reality

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    A Distaste for Knowledge Theft by Artefact Hunters

    Nigel Swift, Chairman of Heritage Action has written a text on 'A self explanatory Detecting Glossary' (Heritage Journal 20/05/2018), referring to John Winter's efforts to compile a glossary of coin collecting and Treasure hunting terms. In it, he identifies the mistake made by the metal detector user of 'confusing agreement with sycophancy'.
     For me, metal detecting without reporting all of your recordable finds, which is demonstrably what the vast majority of detectorists do, is the action of a selfish ignoramus. If Paul shares that view and is determined not to pretend otherwise what can I do but agree with him? 

    MDWreckers rool
    There are others who share that view and are determined not to pretend otherwise, but it seems that  the majority of the so-called "heritage professionals" in the UK apparently prefer not to rock the boat with metal-detecting 'partners' because there are some who'll show them stuff and the rest will just get personal and sometimes abusive (like we see in the comments under John Winter's blog post). They prefer that over their actual professional obligations to encourage preservation of the archaeological record. But it is good that a few lone voices will put their head over the parapet and say what they think, even if the rest would not dare.

    Compitum - publications

    M. Amandry (éd.), La monnaie antique : Grèce et Rome


    Michel Amandry (dir.), La monnaie antique : Grèce et Rome, VIIe siècle av. J.-C.-Ve siècle apr. J.-C., Paris, 2017.

    Éditeur : Editions Ellipses
    312 pages
    ISBN : 9782340021600
    32 €

    Le monde : une histoire est une collection d'initiation pour tous ceux, étudiants ou non, qui veulent essayer de comprendre l'histoire du monde. Parallèlement aux ouvrages consacrés aux grands thèmes fondamentaux, la collection se penche sur une série de problèmes historiques plus spécifiques, mais tout aussi prégnants pour l'histoire de l'humanité.
    Le champ de la numismatique est foisonnant et c'est certainement une des sciences historiques qui a le plus évolué dans les années récentes. Ce livre, richement illustré, propose aux étudiants et au grand public un premier contact avec la monnaie grecque et la monnaie romaine prise dans un sens global car, pour la première fois sans doute dans un volume publié en France, il est traité d'un monnayage connu autrefois sous le vocable d' « impériales grecques », mais dont l'importance a désormais été démontrée comme appoint provincial du numéraire impérial.
    La numismatique, considérée comme un champ d'études aride, est pourtant indispensable, tant elle va de pair avec l'archéologie, l'épigraphie, la papyrologie, l'histoire et l'économie, qu'elle contribue à éclairer, au-delà de son étude propre.


    Source : Editions Ellipses

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Identifying sites at risk from Collection Driven Exploitation

    Louise Grove, Adam Daubney & Alasdair Booth (2018) Identifying sites at risk from illicit metal detecting: from CRAVED to HOPPER, International Journal of Heritage Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13527258.2018.1475408


    Archaeological sites are at risk from acquisitive crime: this paper focuses in particular on illicit metal detecting. The effects of theft in this context are not merely financial, but have devastating impact on our knowledge and understanding of the site. Even where items are later recovered, we lose the vital clues about the precise context of an object. We therefore need to reduce the risk of theft occurring in the first place. This paper draws on case studies from England and presents a new methodology to assess which archaeological sites may be at risk from illicit metal detecting: ‘HOPPER’ identifies the characteristics of sites likely to be targeted by offenders looking for antiquities. In brief:
    History (a history of finds at the site);
    Open (the site has physical public access, and/or is documented in the public domain);
    Protection (protected status can act as a beacon for offenders);
    Publicity (site is known about or receiving new attention);
    Evasion (there are known ways to escape apprehension); and
    Repeat victimisation (The site has been a target before).
    The impact of HOPPER will be its use in the field to develop a pragmatic risk assessment applicable both in a local and international context.
    Since the prior existence of 'protection' is one of the factors that increases the probability that a site will be exploited as a source of collectables by metal detector users acting illegally, I am not clear what the practical benefit is of this formula in protecting th threatened sites. Is this another call to put 24/7 guards or electronic surveillance on vulnerable sites? In fact what the authors in fact present is a checklist of sites which are vulnerable to damage and destruction due to  Collection Driven Exploitation in general (what they coyly call 'metal detecting' - which of course is only a fragment of the wider phenomenon).

    Scott Moore (Ancient History Ramblings)

    Catching Up

    The last few days have been fairly busy and so I haven’t had a chance to post. On Friday, I went back to Kourion and looked at some more pottery there. It didn’t go as well as planned. I had some trouble locating what I needed to be looking at, and after a few phone calls to people in other countries, I gave up for the day. Since Bill had come with me to help, and I felt bad for wasting his time in a way, he suggested we stop at Agios Georgios and have lunch at this nice seafood restaurant overlooking Coral Bay – a relaxing view, and great grilled octopus. The problem with the suggestion is that for some reason I have the hardest time driving through Polis from Lemesos and heading to Pegeia where the restaurant is located – I can get there with no problem starting from Polis, and I can get there if I start at the mosaics in Paphos. So, as you can expect, I got lost in Paphos. We saw one sign for Pegeia which we followed, and then no further directions. I wound up going down to the water, and then managed to work my way back to basically where we had started. Then Bill suggested we follow the white car in front of us when they turned to the left, which is the general direction we needed to head. After 10 minutes of driving, I noticed that had we wound up right where we had started, we had driven in a complete circle. After a good half hour of driving through various neighborhoods, we actually found the correct road and were soon at Agios Georgios – and the view and meal was worth it.


    We took the back route from Pegeia to Polis and spent the afternoon taking care of odds and ends. For dinner we went to Fly Again, an Irish pub and grill located one village over in Argaka– a place we go to get pizza and watch the sunset. It was pretty crowded, but it was Friday night. The pizza was good and the sunset was very picturesque.


    img_2570-e1526796188871.jpgOn Saturday we went back to the apotheke in Polis and I worked on cataloging and illustrating a collection of artifacts for our work on EF1 – a small site that has turned out to be pretty interesting to analyze. For dinner, we went to what is my favorite restaurant on the island – The Old Time Restaurant. We always mean to get a reservation, but then forget and when we show up and they ask us if we have a reservation and we have to say no, I fell bad. I always feelimg_2572.jpg like they are disappointed in us for not securing a reservation. Even though the restaurant was packed, they were able to work us in after about a twenty minute wait. I was able to convince Bill to order the Old Town Gourmet Meze – which came with dips, bread, salad, halloumi with fig sauce, duck spring rolls, partridge ravioli, crispy potatoes, lamb, and duck. Everyone of the dishes was done just right – it was fabulous. A very good meal to end the day on…even though I stopped for ice cream on the way back to the hotel.



    David Stuart (Maya Decipherment)

    Mosquitoes and Maddening Noise

    by Stephen Houston (Brown University)

    The sound comes before the sighting: that high-pitched, oscillating whine mosquitoes make as they hover nearby. The naturalist E. O. Wilson (1984) claims that humans are predisposed to  “biophilia,” a pleasing sense of affiliation with the lush, evolutionary miracle that surrounds us. With  these creatures, biophilia surely gives way to different reactions—rage, a desire to destroy, yes, E. O. Wilson, even “bioanimus”: “where is that !@#$% pest, when will it bite, can I kill it before it does?”

    Few would dispute that the mosquito makes a most maddening noise, foretelling pain, itching, vexation, disease. Captain Haddock, beloved curmudgeon of the Tintin books, could not agree more—note the artist, Hergé (Georges Remi), and his idea of what these critters sound like, later proved to be the clamor of a descending helicopter (Fig. 1).


    Screen Shot 2018-05-19 at 6.54.25 PM.png

    Figure 1. What mosquitoes sound like (Hergé 1960:29).


    Sounds of animals are, in most languages, understood in terms of echoic mimicry, a perception, influenced by varying motivations, of what noise is seemingly heard from this or that animal: bow-wow for speakers of English, vov-vov in Swedish, the language of my youth. Perhaps, according to some researchers, the size of an animal makes a difference too, high tones associating with smaller creatures, such as birds (tweet-tweet), low tones and back vowels with bigger, lumbering beasts like cows (moo; Bredin 1996:567; see also an early formulation by Jespersen 1922:402).

    The Maya region is not exactly lacking in mosquitoes. Some are small, others equipped with white-tipped legs or they shimmer with blue iridescence—their bites can be dainty, often unnoticed pricks, or, in larger ones, they can feel like painful drillings. Long ago, Karl Taube pointed out to me how striking mosquitoes were when depicted in Maya vase painting (Fig. 2; see also K1223, K2759). Rich in plumage, with dark wings (that marking was first studied in other creatures by Marc Zender), they excreted blood, and, in a curious feature, their long proboscides tended to perforate a single flower.

    This last doubtless accorded with close observation in nature, but not too close, for it is based on gender confusion. The males nourish themselves with juices or nectars, while the females require blood to sustain their eggs. These respective attributes were not, it seems, minutely understood by the Maya. An overriding feature is the emphasis on the skeletal, even exo-skeletal, nature of such insects, along with an extra eye on the forehead, and, at times, leaking or smoking protuberances at their bottoms. But, for the mosquitoes, the key component is a set of two volutes, identified some time ago by David Stuart as blood scrolls. Evidently, the mosquitoes were sloppy eaters, and the excess spilled messily from their jaws.


    figure 2.png

    Figure 2. Dazzling mosquito feeding repeatedly on a cormorant(?)—an image of pure, sustained pain (K2668, photograph by Justin Kerr, used with permission).


    Such noxious creatures are not unique in Maya imagery. There may also be depictions of ticks or lice with hook-like talons and bloody mouths (Fig. 3). In Maya imagery, these afflict a bloated rodent, an association pointed out to me some years ago by Karl Taube, but comparison with another vase demonstrates a seemingly free alternation with mosquitoes, K1223). In both cases Chahk, the Storm God, poises to strike these bloodsuckers. With axe in hand, he takes aim at them.


    Untitled 2.png

    Figure 3. Possible ticks or lice (K555, photograph by Justin Kerr, used with permission).

    This essay began with a reference to sound. Echoic mimicry—that deeply annoying sound of mosquitoes—may explain a variant form of the ya syllable in Maya writing (Fig. 4). It is clearly skeletal, has a long beak, and disgorges bloody volutes. What is different in this example is that the creature is supplied with wings (one thrusts horizontally to viewer’s right) and, on its proboscis, is  a probable flower or gout of blood. The ya variant is likely a mosquito.


    Screen Shot 2018-05-19 at 8.06.02 PM.png

    Figure 4. A mosquito in place of the syllable ya (Yaxchilan Throne 2, photograph provided by Ian Graham), compared with blood-drooling, blood dripping mosquito (K9225).


    Captain Haddock may have heard BZZRRBZR, but it takes little imagination to see yayayaya (and so forth) as the perceived sound of Maya mosquitoes, segmented into a front vowel, i, gliding into a low front a and back again, along a long stream of torment foretold.


    Acknowledgements   Thanks go to Karl Taube for discussing many nasty creatures over the course of our long friendship.



    Bredin, Hugh. 1996. Onomatopoeia as a Figure and a Linguistic Principle. New Literary History 27(3):559–569.

    Hergé [Georges Remi]. 1960. The Adventures of Tintin: The Calculus Affair. London: Methuen.

    Jespersen, Otto. Language: Its Nature, Development, and Origin. London: George Allen and Unwin.

    Wilson, Edward O. 1984. Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    May 19, 2018

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    From the Archivist's Notebook: Essays Inspired by Archival Research in Athens Greece

    From the Archivist's Notebook: Essays Inspired by Archival Research in Athens Greece
    “Writing is the only thing that when I do it, I don’t feel I should be doing something else.”‬ –Gloria Steinem 

    My name is Natalia Vogeikoff-Brogan – archivist, archaeologist, historian, wife and mother. These are pages from my notebook.

    I studied Classical Archaeology in Greece (University of Thessaloniki) and the United States (Bryn Mawr College), and have conducted field work in East Crete for many years. Since 1994, I have served the American School of Classical Studies at Athens as head of its archives, from which I draw inspiration for most of my writings in this blog. Together with Jack L. Davis, I recently co-edited a volume titled Philhellenism, Philanthropy, or Political Convenience? American Archaeology in Greece, Hesperia 82:1, Princeton 2013. Jack, Vivian Florou, and I have just published another edited volume, titled Carl W. Blegen: Personal and Archaeological Narratives (Atlanta: Lockwood Press 2015). The book is  available at:
    “From the Archivist’s Notebook” will appear once a month (on the 1st), occasionally twice (then also on the 15th) if there is a guest contribution.

    Here you will also will find essays contributed by guest authors who are involved in similar kinds of archival research: viz., the history of institutions and the role of individual agency in them. These essays will include their musings on books, articles, and exhibition catalogs relevant to their research interests. Until now, guest bloggers Jack Davis, Jacquelyn Clements, Liz Ward Papageorgiou, Vivian Florou, and Curtis Runnels have written on a variety of themes (see Authors).

    Finally, opinions in From the Archivist’s Notebook are those of the authors. Comments are moderated, but publication of a comment does not indicate an endorsement of the opinions expressed.

    ASOR Annual Meeting Programs

    ASOR Annual Meeting Programs

      Future Annual Meetings

      2018: Denver, CO
      2019: San Diego, CA
      2020: Boston, MA

      Past Annual Meetings

      2017: Boston, MA
      Program Book in PDF.
      2016: San Antonio, TX
      Program Book in PDF.
      2015: Atlanta, GA
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in PDF.

      2014: San Diego, CA
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in PDF.

      2013: Baltimore, MD
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in HTML.
      Schedule At-A-Glance in PDF.

      2012: Chicago, IL
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in PDF.

      2011: San Francisco, CA
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in PDF.

      2010: Atlanta, GA
      Academic Program Schedule in PDF.
      Business Meetings Schedule in PDF.

      2009: New Orleans, LA
      2008: Boston, MA
      2007: San Diego, CA
      2006: Washington, DC
      2005: Philadelphia, PA
      2004: San Antonio, TX
      2003: Atlanta, GA
      2002: Toronto, ON
      2001: Boulder, CO
      2000: Washington, DC (centennial celebration)
      2000: Nashville, TN
      1999: Cambridge, MA
      1998: Orlando, FL
      1997: Napa, CA

        Open Access Journal: Spicae: Cahiers de l'Atelier Vincent de Beauvais

        [First posted in AWOL 19 January 2012, updated 19 May 2018]

        Spicae: Cahiers de l'Atelier Vincent de Beauvais
        ISSN: 2257-6819
        Spicae, Cahiers de l'Atelier Vincent de Beauvais est une revue en ligne destinée à la publication de travaux érudits concernant l’encyclopédisme médiéval et la transmission des connaissances de l’Antiquité vers le Moyen Âge occidental, que ce soit sous forme d'articles de recherche, d'éditions critiques, de dossiers de travail, de listes de manuscrits et de notes spécialisées. La transmission des textes grecs, syriaques et arabes qui ont nourri l'encyclopédisme médiéval via des traductions est bien entendu inclue dans ce champ de recherche ouvert sur l'encyclopédisme latin et vernaculaire sur toute la période médiévale.

        Spicae est ouverte à toute proposition de contribution dans ces domaines et publie notamment les résultats des travaux de l’Atelier Vincent de Beauvais et de ses partenaires ou collaborateurs. Elle est aussi un complément scientifique au projet SOURCENCYME (‘Sources des encyclopédies diévales’) de corpus annoté des encyclopédies médiévales latines.

        De 1979 à 1986, la revue Spicae. Cahiers de l'Atelier Vincent de Beauvais a été publiée sous forme papier. Ces anciens numéros sont maintenant disponibles en versions téléchargeables sur le site web de l'équipe.

        Date de création du site de Spicae en ligne : décembre 2011.

        Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

        How PAS 'Partners' Perceive the PASt: A New Glossary (4): Detectorist 'Seagoon' Suggests a Definition for 'Lead Artefact'

        As an amendment to the 'Metal Detecting Glossary', Seagoon (18th May 2018 at 2:32 PM) tells us what happens to the metal after it has had the misfortune of being 'detected' by these folk, and then dug up:
        [...] If only you’d listed, in its own right, Lead (Pb) and all the wonderful manifestations in which it awaits the enthusiastic coil, and its subsequent transmogrification into sea-fishing weights! Such joy! [...]
        The lead of course that is found on ancient sites just fell from the sky, it's not in any way 'archaeological evidence' (as would be accepted by detectorist authorities such as Megan Fox) or even artefacts/partefacts, is it? I mean it's not 'important' to an artefact collector.

        Yep, they throw stuff in hedges, theymelt other artefacts down and some numpties in Bloomsbury, ignoring what these folk actually do, try to kid us that this is 'citizen archaeology'.

        Vignette: some destroy stone artefacts (evidence of the past) others lead ones, but it's the same.

        How PAS 'Partners' Perceive the PASt: A New Glossary of Metal Detector Users' Jargon (2)

        Megan Fox has old-timer
         detectorist enthralled
        In the post above I analyse how some PAS artefact hunting 'partners' perceive the past based on a new glossary of metal detector users' jargon (Winter 2018). I think this document reveals a lot about the mentalities of some of the people that go 'metal detecting' to pocket bits of the archaeological heritage and add it to their personal collections. Through the Portable Antiquities Scheme these people are considered in some way 'partners' in the 'creation of knowledge', though this model lacks the subtlety of admitting that far more knowledge is stolen from us by the lack of proper records of what is taken from where and from what associations (context of deposition and context of discovery are both generally lost through the activity of collectors).  This glossary is also highhly revealing of mentalities and attitudes of these people towards the archaeology that extends them the hand of partnership, in return for them doing what they do according to 'best practice' and those who question examples of bad practice. The glossary contains headings for both 'archaeology' and, rather surprisingly, 'Barford', just below a picture of 'Rob's (sic) Annular Brooch':

        First of all, how interesting it is to see just one name of an archaeologist who writes about 'metal detecting', is this 'Barford' a lone voice in the field? If so, why? I leave that up to the reader to judge how many British archaeologists are speaking their mind about artefact hunting in the UK, the way it is actually being done (as opposed to merely being presented), as well as the effects it is having on the archaeological resource and public perceptions of the discipline. How many are saying what needs to be said, and if they are, why are they not singled out in this glossary too?

        It is disappointing to see Mr Winter going in the same direction as the likes of the two disgruntled detectorist has-beens that generally have little to say other than bashing fictional characters 'Warsaw wally' and 'Heritage Harry' to make their frustrations go away.

        If there are faults in my arguments, or mitigating circumstances to concerns raised here in the broader context of collection-driven exploitation of the archaeological resource, then let those who see them argue them out [with supporting evidence and case studies that prove to be more than the exception] in the public forum of the social media (that's collectors and archaeologists/heritage professionals too) instead of then name calling and distortions which help nobody's cause. In fact, is it not the case that the absence of such reasoned argument suggests that there are indeed serious questions that the supporters of collecting (that's collectors and archaeologists/heritage professionals too) really should be addressing? And if that is the case, it is worth considering why they are not, merely dodging the question, ignoring them, failing to focus their though, or trying to deflect discussion onto other topics?

        I do not know what leads the artefact hunter to consider Megan Fox as an authority on archaeology. Let us see what she actually has to say on the matter when (if) her proposed (see here (John Winter's citation),  here and here for example) TV miniseries trashing archaeological interpretations of the past comes out. I expect a full and detailed review of the Fox-Travel Channel-mega-anti-archaeological-extravaganza from Mr Winter, a peer review of one 'citizen archaeologist'  (sic) of the efforts of another. 

        How PAS 'Partners' Perceive the PASt: A New Glossary (3): Oregon Detectorist Claims He's making a Difference

        'Joseph from Oregon' (18th May 2018 at 1:41 AM) wrote that he expected that John Winter would have written
        A glossary with a Barford twist. Words like ”detectorist” or what we might see as it’s [sic] true definition[,] or ”archaeologist”[,[?]] to raise the hackles of ones that are ignorant of our contribution to history. I can see the glossary is much more serious than a few puns [sic] at Paul.
         This was followed not so much by puns, but the usual low-brow and as personam baiting one sees in 'metal detecting' circles, referring to my recent operation.

        Oregon, a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the west coast of the US, only saw desultory European settlement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and the establishment of Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River in 1811. The establishment of the Oregon Trail in 1842–43 brought more settlers and the creation of a state in the 1840s. It should be pretty clear that this is not the byegones-archaeology that this blog is primarily concerned with. In that case, I really do not know why any metal detectorist from Oregon (unless he's also digging up Native american burial sites or something) would have interest, let alone quarrel, with what I write about Collection-Drtiven Exploitation of the (mostly pre-Victorian) archaeological record.

        While one is to some extent thwarted in understanding what 'Joseph from Oregon' actually means by his somewhat inarticulate expression, I think we can assume that in some way it is connected with a belief among detector using artefact hunters that the true definition of  'detectorist' would (be intended for some reason to) 'raise the hackles of ones that are ignorant of our contribution to history' (sic, he probably means historiography).  It is less clear whether he was trying also, in his Oregonian backwoods way, to express the idea that the true definition of  'archaeologist' would also (be intended for some reason to) 'raise the hackles of ones that are ignorant of our contribution to history', or perhaps he meant that he feels that archaeologists do not, in fact, contribute to history. Who knows? 

         'Joseph from Oregon' seems to regard it as a criticism that some 'are ignorant of our contribution to history'. And what might that be? I have discussed here a couple of times the looting of the Oregon trail by metal detectorists.* What 'contribution to history' does targeting these sites actually make? Metal detector-made finds without a context may be used to 'rewrite' history, but whether or not that is in any way justified is another matter (see here for just one case). I do not see what 'contribution;' one can make by selectively removing material from archaeological (or historical assemblages) and pocketing it, or even under-reporting it. That is simply grabbing and not contributing.

        Then we have the reaction to  an attempt to make sure that artefact hunters actually contribute by introducing a permit system ('Petition on State Of Oregon Senate Bill 64', PACHI Wednesday, 6 May 2009): 

        "Say "NO" to State Of Oregon - Senate Bill 64" urge the petition organizers. Certainly one for the ACCG to get involved in, surely it will not stand idly by while moves are underfoot to compel US finders by retentionist and "nationalist" laws to hand over relics to the state to be made available for study and archiving in public collections so everybody can enjoy them? [...] So basically what these people are all saying is that they do not want anything like the UK's treasure act or portable antiquities scheme, they just want the ability to claim the right to pick up, or dig up and carry away whatever they want without sharing it with anyone else.
        And what became of this initiative? In what manner do collectors and artefact hunters and collectors want to 'contribute to Oregon's history' now? 

        Vignette: Coin commemorating the Oregon Trail
        *  ('Treasure hunters with metal detectors damage Oregon Trail', PACHI Thursday, 29 August 2013; 'More Metal Detecting Along the Oregon Trail', PACHI Saturday, 31 August 2013; 'Focus on Metal Detecting: Metal Detecting Oregon - Barlow Trail Explorations',  PACHI Saturday, 31 August 2013; more insulting comment from the tekkies - 'Oregon Trail Wreckers Find This Blog: "Archie crap gone awry... with a little logic and perspective, they fall apart"...', PACHI Saturday, 28 October 2017).

        Jim Davila (

        Shavuot 2018

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        Patriarchy, Modesty, and Rape Culture

        When You’re Too Fatigued to Feel Violated In the blog post above, a colleague of mine (who is also a fellow Patheos blogger) shares her distressing account of a recent experience. I recently visited with an immigrant community in the United States that perpetuates the notion that women need to conform to some notion of […]

        Jim Davila (

        Mobile sifting update

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Philo at Oxyrhynchus

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Krul, The Revival of the Anu Cult ...

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Bryn Mawr Classical Review

        2018.05.25: Fliaci testimonianze e frammenti. Studia comica, 7

        Review of Federico Favi, Fliaci testimonianze e frammenti. Studia comica, 7. Heidelberg: 2017. Pp. 532. €89,00. ISBN 9783946317043.

        2018.05.24: Themes in Greek Society and Culture: An Introduction to Ancient Greece

        Review of Allison Glazebrook, Christina Vester, Themes in Greek Society and Culture: An Introduction to Ancient Greece. New York: 2017. Pp. xxii, 481. $80.00 (pb). ISBN 9780199020652.

        2018.05.23: Testo e forme del testo: ricerche di filologia filosofica. Ricerche di filologia classica, VII; Biblioteca di studi antichi, 97

        Review of Mauro Tulli, Testo e forme del testo: ricerche di filologia filosofica. Ricerche di filologia classica, VII; Biblioteca di studi antichi, 97. Pisa; Roma: 2016. Pp. xii, 408. €125.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862277884.

        Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

        Let us Tell it Like it Is

        Watcha don't know
        It can't hurt you
        Endless wonders

        Won't defend you

        Belinda Carlisle

        I hear that at a UK heritage conference a few days ago it was said that we shouldn’t criticize Collection-Driven Exploitation of the Archaeological Record by artefact-hunting metal detector users 'as it provides data for PhDs'. Strewth.

        Why are not more PhDs written investigating whether the claims made about PAS are actually based in reality? After all if you are going to use random objects selected by a collector engaged in a specific activity and for a totally different reason as 'evidence' in an archaeological enquiry, surely the first step is to ascertain the actual usability of this group of objects as such. A bit of solid source criticism is sorely lacking among 'discovery'-orientated UK archaeologists. I'm going to guess that few PhDs are written subjecting the claims of the pro-collecting lobby to a solid analysis and checking them against the reality is most probably for exactly the same reason as there are few (no?) PhDs written in British universities on whether the claims made by the likes of Erich von Daniken have any basis in reality.

        It seems to me that the uncritical academic support of PAS in Britain is simply intellectual dishonesty. Who wants to contest that with me?

        Vignette: Costume doll collecting is not 'citizen ethnology'.

        FLO Dodges issue, quelle surprise

        It is everyone's history, not
        for private pocketing

        A PAS FLO attempted on Facebook to criticise a post by Heritage Action but seems not to have really read it, or at least understood what it was saying.. He's the same one who had a go at them earlier, calling raising heritage concerns "bullying" and did not really seem to get it when an attempt was made to explain it to him. This time is no exception, he gets totally lost trying to deflect the argument onto a tangent. The bottom line is that the PAS does not say to landowners that to allow artefact hunting of sites on their land while forbidding the recording of the finds made is allowing the clandestine destruction of the record by collecting. I do not know if Mr Westwood will get what is being said - which is sad, because he's the one being paid (unlike Heritage Action) to do this outreach, which should - bloody well should, Mr W. - involve saying just such things, loudly, clearly and repetitively.  Who is standing up for the archaeological evidence embodied in so-called 'portable antiquities'? FLOs who pat tekkies on the back as they bring in more and more decontextualised stuff? 


        Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

        Old and New Perspectives on Church Building in Cyprus

        I was pretty excited to read  Marietta Horster, Doria Nicolaou, Sabine Rogge’s edited volume, Church Building in Cyprus (4th – 7th century): A Mirror of Intercultural Contacts in the Eastern Mediterranean (Waxmann 2018). I’ve been working on Early Christian Cyprus for about 10 years now and have been struck by the lack of book-length “standard work” on the topic despite the massive number of Early Christian monuments on the island. This book does not really fill that gap entirely — it is an edited volume rather than a monograph or survey — but it goes a long way to present the dynamic range of recent research on churches and church building on Cyprus.

        I won’t go into a detailed review, in part because I’m still digesting the book, and in part because it’s hard enough to review a monograph much less a series of articles, but the book deserves a spot on the bookshelf of any serious scholar of Cyprus or Eastern Mediterranean. 

        Here are my observations:

        1. Remember Liturgy! Years ago, when I was toiling away on my dissertation, I became fascinated by the complex interplay of architecture and liturgy in Greece. It was never easy or tidy to map liturgy onto architecture owing as much to the vagaries of regional liturgical practice over time as the persistence of certain architectural forms outside of the context of ritual. In other words, architecture and liturgy were deeply intertwined, but it was always very messy, as a result, there has been a bit of ambivalence toward the place of liturgy in understanding Early Christian architecture. Several of the articles in this book return to those problems which are made all the more complicated by the place of Cyprus between major liturgical traditions in Cilicia, Syria, and the Aegean basin and makes an effort to wring meaning from how traditions of architecture and liturgy intersect.

        2. Churches, Saints, and Contexts. One of the biggest disappointments in my own work over the last 20 years is that I’ve never managed to do a very good job locating churches in their landscapes. In other words, my churches – whether in the Corinthia or on Cyprus – tend to float a bit in their urban or rural landscapes. As someone who has spent most of his career wandering around the countryside and thinking about how the wider geographical context works, this is hardly excusable.

        Several articles in this book locate churches within the sacred and secular landscapes of Cyprus. They reflect on change in the Cypriot countryside, church politics, the role of saints in the religious life of the island, and the location of churches to create a richer ecclesiastical and social landscape. This is challenging, fraught, and important work. The last three decades of archaeological work on Cyprus has illuminated the Late Roman, Early Byzantine, and Early Christian period in significant ways. We know more about village life, the countryside, and the transformations of Late Roman urbanism at the end of antiquity than ever before. Mapping churches onto this dynamic landscape makes how we understand architecture and the Late Antiquity richer.

        The folding in of landscapes shaped by saints lives and other texts goes even further in presenting Cyprus as a relatively distinct Christian landscape in the 4th to 7th centuries in which ecclesiastical authorities (through their surrogates the Bishop Saint) south to project a particular kind of power over the island. 

        4. Arches, Vaults, and Domes. One of the most interesting aspects of Cypriot churches in the range of masses, forms, and techniques used to create the spaces of within and around churches. At the south basilica, our building both used a series of arches running along the south and west side of the building that parallels a courtyard to the south and a road to the west. These arches were built at the same time as the transformation of the church from being wood roofed to vaulted and practically announce the newly vaulted interior.

        The evidence for such interior vaults, domes, half-domes, wooden roofs, and various arches are difficult to discern especially for buildings that preserve so little of their walls and roofs and that underwent so many transformations. The contributors generally assessed these architectural developments in a technical way or in the context of Cypriot architecture rather than as evidence for the influence of one or another neighboring region or imperial center. It was refreshing to see the traditional preoccupation with a linear progression of Early Christian architecture give way. The myriad of influences and styles present on Cyprus makes the island an ideal place for this kind of critique. 

        5. Stratigraphy and Dates. If there was an area that I’d love to understand better, it is how changes in ceramic chronologies, the introduction of more rigorous stratigraphic practices, and the architecture is slowly transforming how we understand the history of Early Christian building on the island. This book is long on architectural detail, which is welcome, but at times a bit short on the nitty-gritty of how archaeologists establish the dates for buildings, how they work out architectural sequences, and how the buildings relate architecturally to their built environments.

        If you’re into the archaeology of churches in the Eastern Mediterranean, this book is definitely worth a read. The contributors mark a pretty clear trajectory for the field which embraces both the traditions of Early Christian architectural history and moves tentatively forward toward incorporating new perspectives while discarded more tired and unproductive approaches. 

        Archaeology Magazine

        Archaeologists Search for Scotland’s Royal Dockyards

        Scotland royal dockyardsAIRTH, SCOTLAND—The Falkirk Herald reports that archaeologists led by historian John Reid are investigating a possible site for the sixteenth-century royal dockyards near Clackmannanshire Bridge, which spans the Firth of Forth. So far the team of researchers has found the foundations of mill buildings next to the channel, a millstone that had been reused as a paver, a corn-drying kiln, a well-built stone sea wall, and posts from a wooden pier. Ships known to have been serviced at the royal dockyards include the Great Michael, flagship of King James IV, and the Margaret, the second ship of the Navy, which was named for the queen, Margaret Tudor. Both ships are thought to have been at the docks in 1513 before sailing to the Battle of Flodden, where James IV was killed. “Although it’s impossible to say for now whether this dates to the right period for James’ docks, we’ve submitted samples of the wood for radiocarbon dating,” said archaeologist Elinor Graham of the University of St. Andrew’s. “We also had a coin from the stone pier, which will need to be looked at by experts, but which might give us a date for its construction, too.” For more on archaeology in Scotland, go to “Fit for a Saint.”

        DNA Reflects History of Migrations in Southeast Asia

        Genome Southeast AsiaCAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS—Science News reports that a new genetic study supports archaeological and linguistic evidence for at least three major waves of migration into Southeast Asia over a period of 50,000 years. A team of researchers led by Mark Lipson of Harvard Medical School analyzed DNA from 18 individuals whose remains were unearthed at five different archaeological sites in Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, and Cambodia. The bones ranged from 4,100 to 1,700 years old. The first wave of migration brought hunter-gatherers to Southeast Asia some 45,000 years ago. Then rice and millet farming spread into the region with migrants from southern China who mixed with the local hunter-gatherers some 4,500 years ago. The 4,000-year-old samples taken from the farmers who lived at Vietnam’s Man Bac site suggest their ancestors were hunter-gatherers and rice farmers from southern China. A third wave of migration arrived in Myanmar some 3,000 years ago, in Vietnam about 2,000 years ago, and in Thailand within the last 1,000 years. Each of these movements are believed to be associated with different languages spoken today. For more, go to “Settling Southeast Asia.”

        Bronze Age Burial Excavated in England

        Cornwall barrow burialCORNWALL, ENGLAND—A Bronze Age burial mound in southwest England has yielded pottery, flint tools, two hammer stones, and a 4,000-year-old intact urn containing cremains, according to a Cornwall Live report. Catherine Frieman of Australian National University said analysis of pieces of bone in the urn could reveal the person’s gender, age, diet, and origins. A twelfth- or thirteenth-century pot containing traces of cooked food was also discovered in the mound. It had been buried under several layers of flat stones. Frieman explained that, by the Middle Ages, two monasteries had been built within view of the barrow, so she was surprised to find what appears to be evidence of non-Christian ritual activity. The nature of the ritual, however, is unknown. Traces of a round house dating to around 500 B.C. were also found near the barrow. For more, go to “Bronze Age Ireland’s Taste in Gold.”

        May 18, 2018

        Archaeology Magazine

        Ancient Communities May Have Planted Evergreens

        Monkey puzzle treesEXETER, ENGLAND—The Independent reports that South America’s forests of Araucaria, or monkey puzzle trees, naturally grow on south-facing slopes, but are found everywhere in areas where archaeological sites are found. Mark Robinson of the University of Exeter and his colleagues measured levels of different forms of carbon in soil samples, concluding that many of today’s forests could have been planted by Southern Jê communities for their timber, fuel, food, and resin. The study indicates that the number of trees expanded between 4,480 and 3,200 years ago, when the region covered by Chile, Brazil, and Argentina experienced an increase in moisture, and again some 800 years ago, when conditions were drier, but when the population of the Southern Jê grew as well. Robinson thinks the communities may have modified the soil of the grasslands where they lived, protected seedlings, or even planted trees to establish the forests in places where they otherwise would not have flourished. He added that five of the 19 species of monkey puzzle trees are currently endangered by the practice of logging and encroaching farmland. For more on the relationship between people and the landscape, go to “Letter From California: The Ancient Ecology of Fire.”

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Special Issue on Digital Heritage Technologies: Applications and Impacts

        Special Issue on Digital Heritage Technologies: Applications and Impacts  
        Posted on 2018-05-18
        The recent "digital turn" in archaeology has spurred methodological advances and new research directions, with wide-ranging impacts at multiple scales. The proliferation of imaging, remote sensing, laser scanning and photogrammetry applications has, at times, outpaced considerations about data archiving, digital epistemologies, and accessibility. This can lead to circumstances in which the creation of digital datasets is privileged over public dissemination or scholarly output – a situation that ultimately undermines the democratization of science. The future of digital heritage in archaeology thus lies in the integration of methodological approaches to digitization with explicit project outcomes targeted at various communities and stakeholders – an approach that might be thought of as “applied digital heritage.” This special issue will publish papers that highlight recent work in the field of digital archaeological heritage, with a focus on documentation, analysis, and dissemination. It is not constrained by geographical setting or time period.  Authors are encouraged to consider topics that include, but are not limited to, the following: Digital techniques in archaeological field and lab research Digital epistemologies and the interpretation of archaeological material Dissemination and public engagement; and The ethics and politics of digital archaeological heritage

        Open Access Journal: The Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies

        [First posted in AWOL 22 February 2011. Updated 18 May 2018]

        The Denver Journal: An Online Review of Current Biblical and Theological Studies

        Welcome to Denver Journal. The purpose of the Denver Journal is to establish an online Evangelical review journal of biblical and theological studies edited and produced by the faculty of Denver Seminary for use by alumni and all who are interested in biblical and theological ministry and research.
        Denver Journal is a review journal. It aims to include reviews of all recent and significant books and published media relating to the major fields of biblical and theological studies: Old Testament, New Testament, Church History, Systematic Theology, World Christianity, Pastoral Ministry and Evangelism, Counseling, Philosophy of Religion, Education Ministries and Administration, Homiletics and Speech, and Youth and Family Ministries.
        Denver Journal will include reviews as well as review articles that might include essays on the present state of studies in a field or specific area of that field, annotated bibliographies, extensive reviews of a work of particular significance, and other longer items. The reviews themselves, divided according to the major fields of biblical and theological studies, will normally be 500-800 words in length. An additional section of book notes will include 100-200 word summaries and evaluations of books that are worthy of note but not necessarily deserving a full review in the journal.
        Denver Journal is an Evangelical journal. Its choice of books and reviewers reflects the Evangelical commitment and interests of the seminary.
        The journal is online. All contributions are written and edited electronically.
        You can view past Denver Journals here.

        Current Volume

        Volume 21 - 2018
        Title & Author Article Author(s)
        Old Testament

        Ryan P. O’Dowd. ProverbsCraig L. Blomberg

        New Testament

        Apologetics and Ethics


        Historical Theology



        Open Access Journal: eisodos: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur und Theorie

        [Firsts posted in AWOL 2 June 2014, updated 18 May 2018]

        eisodos: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur und Theorie
        ISSN: 2364-4397
        eisodos – Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur und Theorie ist eine peer-reviewed, open-access, online-Zeitschrift für B.A.- und M.A.-Studierende sowie Doktoranden zu Beginn ihrer Promotion. Es werden sowohl Studierende der Klassischen Philologie als auch Studierende der Byzantinistik, des Mittel- und Neulatein, der Allgemeinen & Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft oder einer modernen Literaturwissenschaft eingeladen, Beiträge in deutscher oder englischer Sprache einzusenden.

        Thematischer Schwerpunkt von eisodos sind Fragen der Interpretation von antiker Literatur und des Theorievergleichs. Interpretation von Literatur meint hier gleichberechtigt Studien zu Einzelwerken von Literatur, zu Einzelaspekten in diesen Werken sowie zu Literatur allgemein. Die theoretische Basis für verschiedene Herangehensweisen an Literatur sollen dabei stets auch thematisiert werden.
        eisodos – Journal for Ancient Literature and Theory is a peer-reviewed, online-journal for B.A.- and M.A.-students as well as Ph.D.-Students in the early stages of their Ph.D. Classisicsts, students of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, as well as students of Middle and New Latin, Comparative Literature or any other Literary Studies are invited to submit contributions.

        eisodos has as its focus questions on the interpretation of Ancient literature. The comparison of different literary theories is a further key aspect on which eisodos will welcome submissions. Interpretation here is intended to include both studies on individual works of literature or specific aspects in individual works of literature as well as studies on literature in general. The theoretical framework and approach that forms the basis of any of these interpretations should always be articulated.

        Archaeological Institute of America blogs

        AIA Tours: Letter from Iran

        The Dolat Abad Garden, Yazd. © Andrew Moore

        A few weeks ago my wife Barbara and I led an AIA tour of Iran. Our itinerary took us across a large sweep of this fascinating land from the mountains in the northwest to the deserts of the southeast. The tour was carefully designed to include major archaeological sites and glorious examples of Islamic architecture. In Tehran we visited archaeological museums and palaces. At Bisotun in the Zagros Mountains on the Royal Road from Hamadan to Babylon we marveled at the rock reliefs and multilingual inscriptions created by Darius I and his successors.

        ArcheoNet BE

        Tutankhamun: één toont dramareeks over zoektocht naar vergeten farao

        Op één kan je vanavond om 22u kijken naar de eerste aflevering van ‘Tutankhamun’, een vierdelige dramareeks uit 2016 over de zoektocht van de Britse egyptoloog Howard Carter. Meer dan honderd jaar geleden trok Carter op vraag van Lord Carnarvon naar Egypte. Hij vond er nieuwe bewijzen voor de locatie van het tot dan onontdekte graf van Toetanchamon, de vergeten farao… Pas op: The Guardian vond de reeks “not 100% historically accurate … It’s just a bit of fun”

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journal: Circe de Clásicos y Modernos

         [First posted in AWOL 11 November 2009. Updated 18 May 2018]

        Circe de Clásicos y Modernos
        On-line ISSN 1851-1724 
        ISSN-e: 1514-3333
        Circe de Clásicos y Modernos is an annual publication by the Instituto de Estudios Clásicos of the Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, director Marta Alesso. The journal aims to publish original works on Philology, Philosophy, History, Literature and Classic Tradition, and for these to be accepted by members of the International Review Committee, who referee blind the works sent by the Editorial Committee. The journal’s geographical reach is international. It also publishes reviews of books by Argentinian and foreign authors and news on scientific events in the journal’s specialization.

        Vol.    Number

        Open Access Archaeology Books from Cairn

        Open Access Archaeology Books from Cairn

        L'avenir du passé

        Modernité de l'archéologie
        Jean-Paul Demoule, Bernard Stiegler


        Villes et campagnes
        Michel Kaplan

        Lions, héros, masques

        Les représentations de l'animal chez Homère
        Annie Schnapp-Gourbeillon

        Manuel d'archéologie médiévale et moderne

        Joëlle Burnouf, Danielle Arribet-Deroin, Bruno Desachy, Florence Journot, Anne Nissen-Jaubert

        Manuel d'archéologie

        Méthodes, objets et concepts
        François Djindjian

        Le monde byzantin I

        L'Empire romain d'Orient (330-641)
        Cécile Morrisson

        La mort du souverain

        entre Antiquité et haut Moyen Age
        Brigitte Boissavit-Camus, François Chausson, Hervé Inglebert

        Le Palais sans rival

        Le récit de construction en Assyrie
        Sylvie Lackenbacher

        Les potiers d’Étrurie et leur monde

        Contacts, échanges, transferts
        Laura Ambrosini, Vincent Jolivet

        Le problème de la christianisation du monde antique

        Hervé Inglebert, Sylvain Destephen, Bruno Dumézil

        Le Proche-Orient Asiatique. Tome 1

        Des origines aux invasions des peuples de la mer
        Paul Garelli, Jean-Marie Durand, Hatice Gonnet, Catherine Breniquet

        Pythéas le Grec découvre l’Europe du Nord

        IVe siècle av. J.-C
        Barry Cunliffe

        Rome et l'intégration de l'Empire (44 av. J.-C.-260 ap. J.-C.). Tome 1

        Les structures de l’Empire romain
        François Jacques, John Scheid

        Rome, le prince et la Cité

        Pouvoir impérial et cérémonies publiques (Ier siècle av. - début du IVe siècle apr. J.-C.)
        Stéphane Benoist

        Théorie et pratique de la fiction à l’époque impériale

        Christophe Bréchet, Anne Videau, Ruth Webb

        Traduire, transposer, transmettre dans l’Antiquité gréco-romaine

        Bernard Bortolussi, Madeleine Keller, Sophie Minon, Lyliane Sznajder

        Violences de guerre, violences de masse

        Une approche archéologique
        Jean Guilaine,  Jacques Sémelin

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        'Alley of balconies' uncovered at Pompeii in rare find

        A team of archaeologists at Pompeii has uncovered an alleyway of grand houses, with balconies left...

        ArcheoNet BE

        Consulent stadsarcheologie gezocht in Gent

        De Stad Gent zoekt momenteel een consulent stadsarcheologie (m/v/x). Het gaat om een voltijds vervangingscontract, vermoedelijk tot en met februari 2019. Kandidaten beschikken over een bachelordiploma archeologie (of gelijkwaardig) en hebben ervaring in het opmaken van archeologienota’s en het werken met digitale meetsystemen en de verwerking van de gegevens. Solliciteren voor deze functie kan nog tot en met 22 mei. Je vindt de volledige vacature op

        Jim Davila (

        Archaeology, Jerusalem, and the Jewish people

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Hygoye 21.1 (2018)

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        The Canaanite alphabet in Egyptian?

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        When the Word Became Flesh

        I was very interested to learn that John and Philosophy: A New Reading of the Fourth Gospel by Troels Engberg-Pedersen (p.69) advocates for identifying two key moments in the Gospel of John as one and the same, or two sides of the same coin. When the Gospel of John says that the Spirit descended upon Jesus and remained […]

        Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

        La collection lapidaire de Kertch

        Kucherevskaja, N. L. (2016) : Каменная летопись Боспора: лапидарная коллекция :Каталог / Kamennaja letopis’ Bospora: lapidarnaja kollekcija : Katalog, Kertch [Chronique de la pierre du Bosphore: la collection lapidaire :  Catalogue]. L’ouvrage en russe constitue le catalogue du lapidarium du … Lire la suite

        Jim Davila (

        Mobile sifting

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Compitum - publications

        Leon Battista Alberti, Propos de table


        Leon Battista Alberti, Propos de table. Texte établi par Roberto Cardini, traduit par Claude Laurens et Frank La Brasca, Paris, 2018.

        Éditeur : Les Belles Lettres
        Collection : Classiques de l'humanisme, 46
        CXXII + 1060 pages
        ISBN : 978-2-251-80133-9
        75 €

        Ces Propos de table illustrent, au sein de l'œuvre latine si diverse d'Alberti (1404-1472) – d'abord plus connue pour ses dialogues de morale et ses traités techniques et théoriques –, la veine du serio ludere, cet art d'inspiration lucianesque qui a été si bien défini par Roberto Cardini dans Alberti o della nascita dell'umorismo moderno (1993). Ce dernier recueil ne fut jamais totalement achevé. Il resta, jusqu'à la mort de son auteur, in fieri, tel une sorte de laboratoire de l'invention, voire de l'expérimentation poétique, et par suite connut une fortune éditoriale des plus mouvementées.
        Éparpillées en divers manuscrits, les pièces qui le composent ne figureront pas dans la première édition des petites œuvres latines publiées par Massimi autour de 1500 : il faudra attendre la fin du XIXe siècle pour que Girolamo Mancini publie en 1890 les deux premiers livres et le quatrième (le Defunctus et l'Anuli) et le XXe siècle pour que Cecil Grayson publie Uxoria. C'est seulement un hasard providentiel du dernier après-guerre (la découverte, dans les combles du couvent des dominicains de Pistoia, d'un manuscrit contenant les livres IV à X), qui permettra de se former pour la première fois une idée approchante de l'œuvre intégrale. L'édition partielle des Intercenali inedite par Eugenio Garin (1964 et 1965) sera suivie à brève distance de l'édition des dix livres avec traduction anglaise de David Marsh (1987) et de deux éditions italiennes, de I. Gaghella (1998) et de F. Bacchelli-L. D'ascia (2003).

        Lire la suite...

        Per Lineam Valli

        The Roman Army A to Z: contus

        contus (m. pl. conti)

        A two-handed, long cavalry spear or lance. Tac., Ann. 6.35; Hist. 1.44. Carried by a contarius. [Bishop and Coulston 2006]

        The Roman Army A to Z: conturmalis

        conturmalis (m. pl. conturmales)

        Messmate or fellow cavalryman. Amm. 16.12.45; Tab. Vind. 329.3. See also turma and contubernalis [Goldsworthy 2003]

        The Roman Army A to Z: contubernium

        contubernium (n. pl. contubernia)

        1. A sub-unit of eight men, ten of them making up a centuria. (Veg., DRM 2.8; 2.13; RIB 2496.3); 2. used figuratively to refer to the accommodation itself (Tac. Ann. 1.41). [Goldsworthy 2003]

        May 17, 2018

        Archaeology Magazine

        Evidence of Iron-Age Farming Found in England

        NIDDERDALE, ENGLAND—The Yorkshire Post reports that evidence of farming before the arrival of the Romans has been found at three sites in North Yorkshire. Wheat and barley were found at the oldest of the sites, which is about 2,000 years old. This site also had hearths, storage pits, hazelnuts, and remains of trees that had been cut back to ground level to stimulate growth. Traces of houses at the sites include paved floors and walls, and two pieces of Romano-British pottery. For more on Iron-Age settlements in England, go to “A Night Out in Leicestershire.”

        Two-Story Homes With Balconies Unearthed in Pompeii

        Italy Pompeii balconiesPOMPEII, ITALY—The Local reports that a row of two-story houses with balconies has been discovered in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii. Pots of wine, found lying on their sides, were found on one of the balconies. Archaeologists think they may have been set out to dry in the sun. Unlike the nearby city of Herculaneum, which lies closer to Mt. Vesuvius and was buried under more than 65 feet of ash from the ground up, Pompeii was covered in about 13 feet of falling ash, which preserved fewer of the city’s second stories. The area where the building-lined street was found is being excavated in order to stabilize walls at risk of collapse. The houses will be restored and eventually opened to the public. To read more about Pompeii, go to “Family History.”

        Early “ABCs” Identified on Artifact From an Egyptian Tomb

        Egypt ABC sequenceVANCOUVER, CANADA—An inscribed piece of limestone is thought to be the earliest example of our alphabet sequence, according to a Live Science report. Thomas Schneider of the University of British Columbia said three of the words in the 3,400-year-old inscription start with the equivalents of the letters B, C, and D. At the time, he noted, the letter “g” was used to produce the sound we now represent with the letter “c.” So in this case, “B” is for “bibiya-ta,” or “earth snail;” “C” is for “garu,” or “dove;” and “D” is for “da’at,” or kite. Symbols in front of the letters may mean “gecko,” or “lizard,” suggesting the whole phrase read, “and the lizard and the snail, and the dove and the kite.” The stone was discovered in the tomb of an Egyptian foreign affairs official named Sennefer, and although the text was written in hieratic, a form of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, Schneider said the words themselves were Semitic in origin. He thinks the artifact may have been used as a mnemonic device to help Sennefer remember the order of the letters in Eastern Mediterranean languages. Another alphabetic sequence that has since fallen out of use was found on the opposite side of the piece of limestone. For more, go to “Dawn of Egyptian Writing.”

        Evidence of Donkey Riding Found in Central Israel

        donkey metal bitWINNIPEG, CANADA—Microscopic indentations in a 4,700-year-old donkey’s lower premolars are thought to have been made by a metal bit, offering the oldest-known evidence of donkey riding using such equipment in the Near East, according to a report in Science Magazine. Haskel Greenfield of the University of Manitoba, Aren Maeir of Bar-Ilan University, and their colleagues say the animal had been slaughtered and buried as an offering before the construction of a mudbrick house at the site, in the foothills of central Israel. Horses are thought to have arrived in the region about 1,000 years later, relegating donkeys to beasts of burden led from a tether or a nose ring. To read about another recent discovery in Israel, go to “Gods of the Galilee.”

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        How rice farming may have spread across the ancient world

        Rice farming spread far and wide in ancient Southeast Asia, but how it got there has been a mystery....

        Calixtlahuaca Archaeological Project

        Obsidian Sourcing

        by Angela Huster

        While we have posted here about exporting obsidian samples for chemical sourcing – in order to determine which volcano the obsidian came from – I realized that we never posted anything about the results.

        Chemical sourcing techniques measure the amount of different elements in a sample. Since different volcanoes (or even different eruptions from the same volcano) have difference “fingerprints” of rarer elements, archaeological samples can then be matched to their source area this way. We used two different techniques, XRF (by Adrian Burke) and INAA (by the MURR lab), which agreed pretty well for the subset of samples which were analyzed both ways.

        Getting from the results of the sourcing analyses to the actual frequencies of obsidian from different sources at the Calixtlahuaca ended up being a multi-step process due to how we selected samples. First, the obsidian that we found included both grey and green pieces. Since green obsidian in Central Mexico is almost always from the Pachuca source in Hidalgo and is easy to visually identify, we only selected a few pieces from each household for analysis, just to confirm that that it came from Pachuca – and it did! This means that the actual percentage of Pachuca obsidian at the site is what we identified visually, not the much lower number in the sourcing results. Second, when we picked the grey obsidian samples, we tried to get pieces representing different production techniques and artifact types for each household, but the resulting samples weren’t necessarily representative of the different artifact types in the parent assemblage. When we got out results back, we realized that most of our grey obsidian blades were from Ucareo in Michoacan, while most our grey obsidian bifaces and flakes were from Otumba, in the Basin of Mexico. As a result, we also had to correct our frequencies to account for the types of lithic technologies in our sourcing samples (using Brad Andrew’s typological lithic analysis data). This is why you should think very carefully about your sampling strategy before you select artifacts; your results are only as representative as your samples were!

        Once we did all that, our results showed that most of the obsidian at Calixtlahuaca came from three sources; Ucareo in the Tarascan Empire, and Otumba and Pachuca in the Aztec Empire.  We also had occasional pieces from seven other sources, including four pieces from minor Toluca Valley sources. The proportions of the three major sources change over time, with increasing percentages of material from the Aztec Pachuca and Otumba sources over time (Figure 1). However, for all phases, the percentages of Ucareo obsidian at Calixtlahuaca are much higher than at other sites in Central Mexico (Golitko and Feinman 2015). This might be related to the presence of intrusive sites with Matlatzinca style ceramics near the Ucareo source (Hernandez and Healan 2008).

        Figure 1. The percentages of obsidian from difference sources at Calixtlahuaca over time, after various correction factors were applied.

        Another way to think about obsidian source frequencies is whether the volume of obsidian at a site is changing over time. One way to do this is to calculate the ratio of obsidian artifacts to ceramic sherds. At Calixtlahuaca, the volume of obsidian reaching the site during the Yata (LPC-B) phase drops, meaning that even though there is a higher percentage of obsidian from Aztec sources, this is because there is less Ucareo obsidian reaching the site, not because there is actually more Aztec obsidian (Figure 2). This is interesting because it suggests that the near-total Aztec monopoly on obsidian at other sites might have been due to cutting off access to other sources, rather than flooding the market with increased supply.

        Figure 2. The frequencies of obsidian from difference sources per 1000 sherds over time at Calixtlahuaca

        Works Cited:

        Golitko, Mark and Gary M. Feinman
                        2015       Procurement and Distribution of Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican Obsidian 900 BC-AD 1520: a Social Network Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2015(22):206-247.

        Hernández, Christine L. and Dan M. Healan
                        2008       The Role of Late Pre-Contact Colonial Enclaves in the Development of the Postclassic Ucareo Valley, Michoacan, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 19(2):265-282.

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Scientists analyze first ancient human DNA from Southeast Asia

        The first whole-genome analyses of ancient human DNA from Southeast Asia reveal that there were at...

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journal: Dacia: Revue d'archéologie et d'histoire ancienne

        Dacia: Revue d'archéologie et d'histoire ancienne
        ISSN: 0070-251X
        Revista Dacia a fost fondată în 1924 de către arheologul Vasile Pârvan, unul din întemeietorii şcolii arheologice româneşti. Prima serie a apărut în perioada 1924-1947 (Dacia. Recherches et découvertes archéologiques en Roumanie), ca revistă a Muzeului Naţional de Antichităţi, fiind apoi interzisă de autorităţile comuniste. 

        Seria nouă începe în 1957 (Dacia. Revue d’archéologie et d’histoire ancienne), ca revistă a noului Institut de Arheologie al Academiei Române. Revista noastră publică, în engleză, franceză, germană şi italiană, în urma unui proces de peer-review, articole, note şi recenzii de arheologie şi istorie referitoare la un spectru cronologic larg, din paleolitic pînă în evul mediu, incluzând perspective din alte discipline (istoria artei, ştiinţe sociale etc.), cu o atenţie specială pentru contribuţiile dedicate Europei de sud-est şi ariilor învecinate.

        Recunoaşterea internaţională a calităţilor revistei Dacia ne permite să o distribuim prin schimb la un număr de 350 parteneri din toată lumea.
        Sumar nr. I (1957)
        Sumar nr. II (1958)
        Sumar nr. III (1959)
        Sumar nr. IV (1960)
        Sumar nr. V (1961)
        Sumar nr. VI (1962)
        Sumar nr. VII (1963)
        Sumar nr. VIII (1964)
        Sumar nr. IX (1965)
        Sumar nr. X (1966)
        Sumar nr. XI (1967)
        Sumar nr. XII (1968)
        Sumar nr. XIII (1969)
        Sumar nr. XIV (1970)
        Sumar nr. XV (1971)
        Sumar nr. XVI (1972)
        Sumar nr. XVII (1973)
        Sumar nr. XVIII (1974)
        Sumar nr. XIX (1975)
        Sumar nr. XX (1976)
        Sumar nr. XXI (1977)
        Sumar nr. XXII (1978)
        Sumar nr. XXIII (1979)
        Sumar nr. XXIV (1980)
        Sumar nr. XXV (1981)
        Sumar nr. XXVI (1982)
        Sumar nr. XXVII (1983)
        Sumar nr. XXVIII (1984)
        Sumar nr. XXIX (1985)
        Sumar nr. XXX (1986)
        Sumar nr. XXXI (1987)
        Sumar nr. XXXII (1988)
        Sumar nr. XXXIII (1989)
        Sumar nr. XXXIV (1990)
        Sumar nr. XXXV (1991)
        Sumar nr. XXXVI (1992)
        Sumar nr. XXXVII (1993)
        Sumar nr. XXXVIII-XXXIX (1994-1995)
        Sumar nr. XL-XLII (1996-1998)
        Sumar nr. XLIII-XLV (1999-2001)
        Sumar nr. XLVI-XLVII (2002-2003)
        Sumar nr. XLVIII-XLIX (2004-2005)
        Sumar nr. L (2006)
        Sumar nr. LI (2007)
        Sumar nr. LII (2008)
        Sumar nr. LIII (2009)
        Sumar nr. LIV (2010)
        Sumar nr. LV (2011)
        Sumar nr. LVI (2012)
        Sumar nr. LVII (2013)
        Sumar nr. LVIII (2014)
        Sumar nr. LIX (2015)
        Sumar nr. LX (2016)

        The Archaeology News Network

        Corinthian helmet found at excavations on the Taman Peninsula

        A Corinthian helmet was found in a grave from the 5th century BC in the Taman Peninsula, south-west of Russia, reported the agency RIA Novosti. It is the only such helmet discovered north of the Black Sea. Helmet of Corinthian type, found in the necropolis [Credit: Institute of archaeology of Russian Academy of Sciences]Corroded after being buried for 2500 years, and thus highly fragmented, its discovery nevertheless remains...

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        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journal: Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies

        [First posted in AWOL 23 October 2009. Updated 17 May  2018]

        Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies
        ISSN: 1097-3702
        Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies is an electronic journal dedicated to the study of the Syriac tradition, published semi-annually (in January and July) by Beth Mardutho. Published since 1998, Hugoye seeks to offer the best scholarship available in the field of Syriac studies.

        The word Hugoye, the plural form of Hugoyo, derives from the root hg' meaning 'to think, meditate, study'. Hugoyo itself means 'study, meditation'. In modern times, the term has been applied for academic studies; hence, Hugoye Suryoye translates as 'Syriac Studies'.
        Searching for a particular article, but not sure which volume it's in? Try searching our Author Index Page.

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Le più recenti tecnologie per le Scienze della Terra, del Mare: workshop con presentazioni e dimostrazioni


        Da qualche anno Codevintec presenta le nuove tecnologie per le Scienze della Terra (e del Mare) ai pubblici più attenti: studiosi, professionisti, operatori, pubbliche amministrazioni.

        The Archaeology News Network

        Drought ended Mycenaean era, research shows

        An extended drought after the destruction of Nestor’s Palace in Pylos is likely to have brought an end to the Mycenaean civilization in the western Peloponnese. That conclusion was reached following analysis of a stalactite from a cave in the area that provided a clear picture about the climatic conditions in the eastern Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age. The researchers reached their conclusions from the analysis of a stalactite...

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        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Researchers Discover Earliest Evidence of Blood Vengeance

        The earliest evidence of a blood feud in ancient times has been discovered in a cave in the...

        Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

        Isidore of Seville and Vegetius

        No trees yet. I think a post on trees is coming - it'll mostly be pictures - but not yet.  I want to see out this thread, in part because I had more to say after completing the last post.

        In the last post I noted the discrepancy between Isidore's figures for the subdivisions of the legion and Aulus Gellius', my possible/probable source.  The number of centuries and maniples seemed fine, but the number of cohorts was off, turmae were added, and Isidore gave a troop total, namely 6000.  Where did the extra material come from?

        One reasonable possibility is Vegetius, the famed and popular (in the medieval era) writer of the Epitoma Rei Militaris.  Vegetius, as I'm sure I've mentioned before (and as you may already know), spends a good deal of time in his work discussing the ancient legion, which Sylvain Janniard has identified with the legion of the Severan dynasty.  While Janniard doesn't argue that Vegetius' legion is a bang-on copy of that earlier one, he makes a good case.  At the same time, there's still scope for other legionary components to find themselves in Vegetius' corpus. 

        First, Vegetius isn't the source, it seems, of Isidore's definition of a maniple, which runs (9.3.50, trans. Bentley et al.):  "A maniple consists of two hundred soldiers soldiers. These troops are called maniples either because they would begin a battle in the first combat, or because, before battle-standards existed, they would make 'handfuls' for themselves as standards, that is, bundles of straw or of some plant, and from this standard the soldiers were nicknamed 'manipulars'."  Isidore then gives a quotation from Lucan (1.296), which mentions maniples rallied around standards, and which seems only vaguely related.  That said, one of the definitions for manipulus in the Lewis and Short reads as follows:  "B. Because the ancient Romans adopted a pole, with a handful of hay or straw twisted about it, as the standard of a company of soldiers; in milit. lang., a certain number of soldiers belonging to the same standard, a company, maniple; generally applied to infantry, and only by way of exception to cavalry".  So Isidore and Lewis and Short seem to agree, at least in part, on the origin of the term maniple.  For Vegetius, however, a maniple could be a couple of things:  first (2.13), it could be another word for contubernium, or at least an earlier form of that term.  Secondly, he conflates century and maniple (2.14).  Why the discrepancy?  I think it's due to the same reason that Isidore explains maniple (manipulus) in terms of first combat (manus), as the translators have it.  He says the contubernium used to be called a maniple because they found in groups (manus) joined together.  What we seem to have is some disagreement between Vegetius and Isidore over what manus means in this military context, or at least this organizational one (both are right).

        Just because they disagree over maniples and manus, that doesn't exclude Vegetius as a potential source for Isidore's much larger legion (in Isidore's 6000 range) and its attendant turmae.  Vegetius (2.2) gives the size for a legion as 6000 (2.2 - sena milia), and the passage in which we find this is not unlike Isidore's (9.3.46), a point not lost on Milner (p. 31, n. 7):  both refer to the regiments of Macedonians and Gauls, though Vegetius includes many more.  Vegetius' (2.6) legion only contains ten cohorts, however, not Isidore's twelve, and it could have as many as 6100 men and 726 cavalry.  Seems reasonable (though nothing like conclusive) to suppose that this is the source of Isidore's 6000 soldiers.  And, as noted in the previous post or two (can't remember), Isidore would seem to be modifying his source material as he sees fit.

        But Vegetius doesn't append turmae to his legion, and speaks of legionary cavalry solely in terms of numbers of soldiers, at least when he first brings them up at 2.2.  That doesn't mean he leaves out turmae; rather, that he saves them for a different discussion.  At 2.14, he has a section entitled "On the Turmae of Legionary Cavalry" (XIIII. De turmis equitum legionariorum).  Therein he says that one turma contained thirty-two men, just two off Isidore's thirty (9.3.51).  The rest of the discussion concerns the duties of decurions and ideal types - it reminds me of Procopius' horse-archers.  Anyway, it's easy to imagine Isidore taking the number and rounding it out to better fit the other figures he gave for the legionary divisions, though it doesn't quite explain how he got to 200 turmae.  When he discusses their 30-man size, he's reasonably accurate, and his vague connection (in my mind) of turmae with republican politics isn't far off the mark.  What he might have done, then, is simply conflated the 200 cavalry usually associated with a legion and forgotten that a turma isn't applied to individual soldiers.

        So there we go:  the first half (or its original incarnation) of that little phrase in Isidore possibly/probably from Cincius via Aulus Gellius (not listed as a citation in the translation I'm using), and the modifications from Vegetius.  Of course, there could even have been an intermediary, like Cato, who's work on military matters is lost.  For the moment, I'll stick with what I've got.  Ultimately, too, this should help me to understand how Ammianus uses forms of manipulus and legio, believe it or not.  To close:  I enjoy looking into Roman military divisions and subdivisions more than most things.  Next...maybe tonight...trees?

        The Archaeology News Network

        'Alley of balconies' uncovered at Pompeii

        Archaeologists have uncovered a 'street of balconies' during excavations at a previously unexplored area of Pompeii. Excavation of homes with balconies [Credit: Ciro Fusco]Here parapets and floor tiles bear witness to four projecting balconies that withstood the devastating eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, which buried the ancient Roman city in a thick layer of volcanic rock and ash. Archaeologists have also found clay amphorae for wine...

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        Scott Moore (Ancient History Ramblings)

        Trip to See Pottery at Kourion


        So Bill and I got up early this morning and drove down to Kourion. I had been asked to take a look at some Roman pottery that had been excavated a while back and is now moving into publication stage. It was actually a fairly quick and pleasant trip down, and just like the Larnaka and Polis Museums, the staff there was super helpful and super nice. The view of Akrotiri from the museum was fantastic. IMG_2558_thumb.jpgUnfortunately, there was more material and we had a couple start and stop moments as we began, so we got about halfway through the material we had hoped to process today. We will be going back tomorrow to finish it up, and then I will go back in early June to do some cataloging of the more interesting pieces. Since we felt like we were a bit behind, we worked through lunch and didn’t eat until the museum closed at 3:30. We did stop at a nice cafe underneath the site of Kourion right at the water’s edge and had some Calamari and fries. The trip back to Polis was not as fast or relaxing as the trip down this morning since there was a lot of traffic, and it was very slow on the hilly stretches between Paphos and Polis. But, it is what it is.

        For today’s potato chip review, I chose Replay’sIMG_2552 Ketchup Flavored Potato Chips and after the pleasant experience of their Cheese Flavored Potato Chips, I was hoping for a repeat experience, despite never really trying a ketchup flavor chip that I really liked. As expected, I did not like them, and after tricking Bill and Amy into trying them, they agreed that they did not like them either. Just as their Cheese Flavored Chips were very strong, the ketchup flavor was also very strong, and unfortunately was all I could taste when eating a chip. It really was a bit overwhelming. So, I give them a – *(1).


        The Archaeology News Network

        Earliest evidence of blood vengeance found in Jerusalem's hills

        History's earliest evidence of blood vengeance in ancient times has been discovered in a cave in the Jerusalem hills. The cracks in the skull [Credit: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority]In an archaeological survey conducted in the cave, Prof. Boaz Zissu, of the Martin (Szusz) Department of Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology at Bar-Ilan University, discovered a human skull and palm bones that have been dated to the 10th-11th...

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        ArcheoNet BE

        Bezoek de opgravingen op de site ‘RUTE’ in Gentbrugge op 24 mei

        Vorige week zijn archeologen van BAAC Vlaanderen gestart met een onderzoek langs de Schelde in Gentbrugge, op een plaats waar de nieuwe wijk ‘RUTE’ zal ontwikkeld worden. Er kwamen al sporen aan het licht van ambachtelijke activiteiten uit de middeleeuwen, en aardewerk dat zou aantonen dat de locatie al veel langer werd bewoond. Wil je graag meer te weten komen over dit project? Op donderdag 24 mei kan je de archeologische opgraving bezoeken. De archeologen voorzien rondleidingen die starten om 17u00, 17u15, 17u30 en 17u45. Inschrijven is niet nodig. Afspraak aan de ingang van de werk (Kerkstraat 24, Gentbrugge).

        Turkish Archaeological News

        Çarpıran Bridges

        Çarpıran Bridges

        Sometimes, during a journey that was supposed to be rather uneventful, you can come across an unexpected historical monument. It is especially true in Turkey, where many monuments of the eastern region's rich past are still poorly documented and described. One of such monuments is the double Çarpıran Bridge that stands next to the important E99 route, connecting Diyarbakır and Van.

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)


        Academics today occupy a precarious position. The voices that glorify the profession are often drowned out by those that denigratingly claim its redundancy. However, what is most worrying, is that the larger part of the population is indifferent to the matter. And who can blame them? Knowledge for knowledge’s sake does not concern the man in the street. We, academicians, must plead guilty; all too often do we retreat to our ivory tower, speaking a language that only our peers can understand. We may frown upon the laymen with their outdated and false information about our fields of study, but isn’t it our own fault?
        Luckily, the academic world is in a process of rethinking its position in society. Little by little, we are opening up to the broader public – if merely for the sake of our own survival. With this blog I hope to contribute to that development, and I wish to do it in such a manner that everyone with interest can understand what I am writing.
        As Assyriologist I study languages and history of more than 5000 years ago, and even though a lot has changed since then, sometimes I am struck by the familiarity of things. This blog is about those familiarities – it is about humanness. Because even though the ancient Mesopotamians lived in different times and places from ours, they were people just like us.

        The Archaeology News Network

        First evidence of fruit tree cultivation by the Phoenicians discovered in Sardinia

        New archaeological discoveries in the lagoon of Santa Giusta (Oristano) offer new information on nutrition and the first evidence of cultivation of fruit trees by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians on the island. Recovery of the finds in the Santa Giusta lagoon [Credit: University of Cagliari]The material, all in excellent condition, have been recovered by archaeologists on the seabed of the Lagoon of Santa Giusta. The findings have...

        [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

        Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

        Isidore, Aulus Gellius, and Cincius Alimentus

        My perusing of parts of Isidore's Etymologies has led me to some more uncharted waters, namely those of Aulus Gellius and Cincius (?).  I'd been "aware" of Aulus Gellius before, but I've never given it much thought.  I think too - and I'm certain I've done this a few times - I'd thought it was some sort of novel until I checked and discovered it was an, well, encyclopaedia of sorts:  I'm sure my thinking had been, why is X in a work like Y?  Then I'd check and discover:  oh, that's not what I thought this was.  That being said, the name makes some sense.  Anyway, enough of my convoluted thinking.

        While thinking more about Isidore's division of the 6000-man legion into cohorts, maniples, centuries, and turmae, I stumbled across a comparable quotation from Aulus Gellius.  It comes at the end of a long series of quotations of a work called, On Military Science (De Re Militari), by a Cincius (possibly Lucius Cincius Alimentus), and includes snippets of a few sections of that earlier work.  You can find more of the text at Perseus.  As for the parts I'm interested in (translated) here they are, in segments.

        "CINCIUS writes in his third book On Military Sciencethat the war-herald of the Roman people, when he declared war on the enemy and hurled a spear into their territory..."  The tossing of a spear as a declaration of war in the republican era was an established practice we know well about, and as far as I know Aulus-cum-Cincius' words on what was said might be true enough. 

        Cincius also discusses the levy, the oath a soldier would declare in book four, which also stressed the importance of appearing before the consul once they had been enrolled.  There are also several excuses for missing the day in question that could be acceptable.  This too, so far as I can tell, is fair enough, even if some of the details turn out to be misleading.  I should say too that it'd be interesting if any of this material served as the foundation for later Roman military law, but that's another issue (it discusses desertion and branding, for instance).

        Next we come to the possible source of the Isidore passage, and I quote:  "Also in the sixth book we find this: “The columns of cavalry were called the wings of the army, because they were placed around the legions on the right and on the left, as wings are on tile bodies of birds. In a legion there are sixty centuries, thirty maniples, and ten cohorts.”"  In the end, then, we get a pretty close approximation of Isidore's "A legion has sixty centuries, thirty maniples, twelve cohorts, and two hundred squadrons" (9.3.46).  In case there's any doubt, here are the two passages, side by side, in Latin (look, I'm experimenting with links!). 

        First Aulus Gellius:
        In legione sunt centuriae sexaginta, manipuli triginta, cohortes decem. 

        Now Isidore:
        Legio habet sexaginta centurias, manipulos triginta, cohortes duodecim, turmas ducentas.

        So, pretty similar.  The numbers, however, are off, and both have still put centuries and maniples in the same legion, though in differing quantities.  Isidore's phrasing is slightly different, he's tweaked the numbers, and added an element.  If he was a student, I'd given him credit for not providing a direct quotation, though at the moment I'm tempted to say that this was probably the source of Isidore's information.  As it happens, not only have I discovered, recently, that Lucan was popular in late antiquity, but so too was Aulus Gellius.  Given the two works are not dissimilar, I can understand Isidore's decision. 

        All this being said, the passage from Aulus Gellius creates problems of its own.  First, like Isidore, is the information it provides.  The grouping of a century, maniple, and cohort into a legion seems spurious, and at least on the surface seems the questionable part of this series of passages that he's included from Cincius.  But even his alleged source opens up an interesting problem.  A quick google search and an inevitable stop at wikipedia "revealed" that the Cincius in question was a Lucius Cincius Alimentus, a mid-republican individual who had military experience in the Second Punic War.  This man was evidently wrote a great deal, only a portion of which have survived, including many (?! - I'm sceptical) works on military science.  His context, the Second Punic War, makes sense of the content from Gellius' quotations:  the tossing of the spear, the appearance before a consul on a given day, and the appearance of a maniple all make sense in the context of the mid-republic.  This makes the identification of this Gellius Cincius with that republican Cincius believable.  That said, the cohort-maniple situation still creates problems.  How can there be these two subdivisions in one legion, even if the timing is right (generally speaking - it's murky) for the replacing of the latter with the former?

        On the one hand, this could be a case of faulty transcription.  Gellius might have had access to the original text (some 300 or so years old) when he composed his work, and a later copyist might have erred in some way or other.  After all, the maniple might have been familiar as a republican thing, and in a gap in the text the copyist might have inserted maniple. 

        On the other hand, there are other issues with the quotation.  For instance, how many men did the Cincius think were in a legion?  Polybius (1.16.1ff) says that a mid-republican legion numbered about 4300, 5000 in times of turbulence (6.20.1ff), while Livy (22.36.2-3) says it was 5300 late in the Second Punic War, with an additional 300 cavalry.  When 4300 or 5300, is divided by 60, 30, and 10 we get some odd numbers indeed. 

        So if there is a mistake, where is it?  A mid-republican Cincius with real practical military experience seems unlikely to have made this kind of mistake.  It could then be that Gellius' Cincius is not the earlier one.  That said, if it is accurate (or matches Cincius exactly, and Cincius was mid-republican and knew what he was talking about), it could be things were never as fixed as we sometimes think they are.  Those 4000-5000-strong legions were only ever approximations, and the arrival of the cohort might have come about in a random sort of way alongside the maniple. 

        There's also a way to make sense of the three divisions, 60 centuries, 30 maniples, and 10 cohorts in a legion:  make it 6000-strong.  In that case, we get centuries of 100 men, maniples of 200 men, and cohorts of 600 men.  These figures are much more in line with what we know about these sizes of these divisions.  Centuries are usually in the 100 range (80-100), maniples in the double century range (160-200), and cohorts in the 500 range (600 for double-cohorts - I know the number is off).  This solution, the 6000-man legion, would make sense of Cincius' numbers.  We could also do it the other way, however, and work backwards:  if the centuries contained 80 men, that would give us about 4800-strong legions.  The 160-man maniple and the 480-strong cohort make sense too - and the chronology works well, as noted earlier, for all these items being together (see Sekunda p 356 in this, admittedly not in the preview).

        This brings us back round to Cincius:  even this, on the surface, odd bit in book seven would seem to be pretty accurate.  The association of Cincius the military writer with Cincius the mid-republican praetor works, at least on the basis of the accuracy of what he says and his subject matter, assuming Aulus Gellius has quoted him accurately.  What it doesn't do is help us to understand how Isidore got from Cincius-via-Gellius' figures to his own.  The 6000-legion is still too big.  A 4800-legion would also be big too for the seventh century (the 4th-6th century ones were 1000-1500).  Even if the maniple continued to be used into the imperial era in some capacity or other, other numbers are off. 

        What might have happened is that Isidore took this nugget from Cincius-Gellius (he might have got it direct from Cincius, a possibility I have not yet entertained, in part because of the popularity of Gellius in late antiquity), and then attempted to update it with more recent material.  Speidel, for instance, has argued that the paper strength of a legion was closer to 6000, which would make Isidore's total much closer to reality, though it wouldn't explain how he arrived at that total.  It could be the figure is hiding somewhere, and I'll just have to keep digging. 

        Suffice to say, interesting stuff (to me) - and quite a roundabout route it always is, with the focus ultimately still me trying to come to grips with Ammianus' use of "legions" and indirectly "maniples" in his Res Gestae.  Next time, perhaps, trees!

        Corinthian Matters

        Mapping the Isthmus of Corinth: A Story Map

        Last May I had the privilege of working with Albert Sarvis, Professor of Geospatial Technology at Harrisburg University (and a licensed drone pilot), in capturing low-altitude aerial photographs of the Isthmus of Corinth. Albert and I had collaborated for several years previous on the Digital Harrisburg project, an ambitious project that seeks to link all the individuals living in Pennsylvania’s state capital in the years 1880-1940 with encoded historical maps of the city. Our work together in the Corinthia was a new endeavor, designed to both support long-term research related to the Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey and learn about the complicated history of the human uses of the Isthmus from antiquity to the present. Although it rained steadily in the region last May, it was still as successful venture in capturing new perspectives on an historical landscape: look at the final image below to compare the ESRI default aerial imagery with the higher resolution drone survey.

        It was also a successful collaboration of students and faculty of the humanities and digital technologies. I brought along 9 Messiah College students (mostly History majors and minors), and Albert brought one senior student in Geospatial Technologies, John Nieves-Jennings. My students had the rewarding experience of learning how drone survey works (and some exposure to the software Pix4D) while Albert’s student was able to connect digital applications to historical questions. John Nieves-Jenning not only ran many of the drone flights but captured the process of work through still images, textual description, and videos. For a senior project, John put together this interactive ESRI Story Map with videos and images of the Corinthia and the drone survey. If you turn on the volume, you can hear the whirring buzz of the drone as it hovers up and above the fields and quarries of the Isthmus. You can also see some live footage of our work and me trying to remember what I could about the history of Corinthian quarries.

        We have received a permit from the aviation authority to undertake a second season of drone photography the week after next. Albert and I will be returning with one of his colleagues and students for additional fieldwork. Stay tuned for some updates from the field.

        Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

        Isidore of Seville on War Part 1

        Lately, Ammianus Marcellinus has been on my mind for a number of things.  I'm working on a paper on Ammianus for a conference in July that focuses on his discussion of legions.  To that end, I found myself looking through the admittedly much later Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, composed, it seems, in the first quarter of the seventh century.  Isidore has a section on military terms, and another on war. Isidore's discussions are interesting for a number of reasons, and I want to highlight a few features.  One of the interesting questions is where he gets his material, and as the examples I highlight will show, it's an eclectic army that he describes.

        As I said, my interest was in his use of legion.  Not surprisingly in a work on Latin terms, Isidore defines quite a few divisions in the Roman army.  Surprises include the size of the legion he gives (6000), and its Romanity (Isidore lived in post-Roman Spain - all 9.46).  What's more, he says the legion is comprised of 60 centuries, 30 maniples, 12 cohorts, and 200 turmae.  A legion was comprised of centuries and cohorts, and at one stage maniples.  But turmae?  And were maniples and cohorts ever part of one legion, and one that numbered 6000?  Turmae were usually cavalry squadrons - he says so as much a short while later (9.51).  Could it be he's referring to the cavalry attached to the legion?  That would make sense, though 200 turmae, which says comprised 30 horsemen, would seem high (that makes for 6000 soldiers).  There's also no 30-man unit within the legion:  there's the 80-100 man century, and the 8-10 man contubernium.  So the 200 30-man turmae (10 is better) is a mystery.

        The size of the cohort (500-men) and the century (100-men) are fine, at least at a basic level.  The 6000-men legion and the 200-man maniples are harder to understand.  The imperial-era (Lucan and Tacitus) legion was about 5000 or so (closer to 5200) strong.  The mid-republican was usually about 4200 ordinarily, or 5000 in emergencies in the mid-republic, the era of the maniple.  By the second Punic war the cohort had been introduced, and some speculate that by its conclusion it was already used widely.  The maniple as a word gets used much later than the maniple as pre-cohort division survives.  It's hard to say (and I haven't really checked), but it might well continue to be a division in the Roman navy well into the imperial era (a few inscriptions imply as much).  That doesn't explain its association here, however.  It's used by Ammianus occasionally, sometimes just for a generic unit, though also in a phrase he repeats a few times before speeches ("centuries, cohorts, and maniples").  Did it continue to be used long after its death, only it effectively disappeared from contemporary records?  Is that how we should understand the discussion of maniple here, and how we should understand the regular usage of commanipularis in imperial-era inscriptions?  I suspect, however, that the latter's appearance was more a matter of tradition than its continued usage.  

        For Isidore, a camp, the place a soldier was stationed, was given that name (castra) because it was as if they were chaste (castus) or they might be castrated (castrare).  That, in turn, was due to women never entering a camp (9.45).  Now there's been a lot of debate on the presence of women in Roman military bases, and it now seems pretty clear that they were there.  So on this matter he's wrong, but was he basing his estimation strictly on what he knows about those other words?  Or was he using one of the many earlier Latin texts he refers to, like the works of Lucan, Sallust, or Vergil?

        Anyway, just a sample.  There's much more interesting nuggets in the Etymologies, and I've only been focusing on military things.  More work to do!

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Papyrus Stories: Ancient Lives from the Ancient Past

        Papyrus Stories: Ancient Lives from the Ancient Past
        From the ancient Mediterranean world survive thousands upon thousands of ancient texts, and Papyrus Stories aims to relive tales of daily life preserved for us today. While papyrus is perhaps the best-known of the mediums upon which texts were written, people also wrote on sherds of pottery and stone, on wood, on leather, on parchment, on paper. They incised and painted their writing on walls and on stelae, and left their marks as graffiti. Each Papyrus Stories post will focus on an individual document from Egypt and the Near East, from the age of the pyramids to the emergence of Islam.

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Archaeologists uncover earliest evidence for equid bit wear in the ancient Near East

        An international team of archaeologists has uncovered the earliest example of the use of a bridle...

        Joint Library of the Hellenic & Roman Societies / Institute of Classical Studies Library

        Library Survey - last few days - ends midnight 21st May

        We look forward to receiving your responses to our annual survey.
        This helps with future planning for the library.
        We welcome your comments / suggestions.
        Please take part! The link is available here

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Drilling boom threatens web of ancient roads in Southwest

        About 1000 years ago, indigenous people built an elaborate network of great houses, kivas, and grand...

        Jim Davila (

        Geniza Fragments 75

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        Correction! Shavuot starts on Saturday evening.

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        ArcheoNet BE

        Agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed zoekt erfgoedconsulent archeologie

        OElogo16Het agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed is op zoek naar een erfgoedconsulent archeologie (m/v) voor de afdeling Beheer in Leuven. Hij/zij beoordeelt onder meer archeologienota’s, bewaakt de kwaliteit van het archeologisch onderzoek en geeft adviezen rond het beheer van archeologisch erfgoed. Solliciteren voor deze functie kan tot en met 9 juni. Meer details over de vacature vind je op

        Jim Davila (

        A horse-racing curse in an Aramaic amulet

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Pseudo-Philo's LAB

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Festscrift for Leonard Greenspoon

        <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        The Lord’s Work

        I’ve been meaning to share the cartoon below since Gretchen Koch shared it almost two years ago: The cartoon relates to quite a number of theological, political, social, and moral matters. I suspect that the only reason that the Emperor Nero, back in the first century, was able to blame Christians for the fire in […]

        Bryn Mawr Classical Review

        2018.05.22: Public and Performance in the Greek Theatre

        Review of Peter D. Arnott, Public and Performance in the Greek Theatre. London; New York: 2017. Pp. viii, 203. $195.00. ISBN 9781138430785.

        Per Lineam Valli

        The Roman Army A to Z: contubernalis

        contubernalis (f. pl. contubernales)

        Messmate. A fellow (infantry) soldier. Tac., Hist. 1.23; Veg., DRM 2.8; AE 1987, 944; Tab. Vind. 181. See also contubernium and conturmalis [Goldsworthy 2003]

        The Roman Army A to Z: contarius

        contarius (m. pl. contarii)

        A soldier equipped with the contus. CIL VIII, 9291. [Goldsworthy 2003]

        The Roman Army A to Z: constitutio Antoniniana

        constitutio Antoniniana (no pl.)

        Universal grant of citizenship to free-born non-citizens in AD 212. Cass. Dio 78.9; FIRA 88. See also civium Romanorum and peregrinus [Goldsworthy 2003]

        Archaeology Magazine

        Pottery Inscription Provides New Dates for Java Sea Shipwreck

        China trade ceramicCHICAGO, ILLINOIS—CNN reports that a team of researchers from the Field Museum of Natural History has analyzed the cargo of a shipwreck discovered in the Java Sea off the coast of Indonesia in the 1980s. The ship is now estimated to have sunk in the late twelfth century, while carrying ceramics, cast iron, and luxury trade goods such as elephant tusks and resins used for incense. The wreckage had initially been dated to the late thirteenth century, based upon radiocarbon testing of a single resin sample. But the ocean water is now thought to have affected those test results. The new, more precise, dating of the cargo is significant, according to archaeologist Lisa Niziolek, because it reflects the increase in maritime trade in the twelfth century after the fall of the empire of Srivijaya, which controlled much of the trade in the region, and China’s change in trade policy. “Consequently, the Southern Song dynasty (A.D. 1127–1279) court encouraged Chinese traders to go abroad instead of relying on foreign missions traveling to China,” Niziolek said. New radiocarbon dates and inscriptions on two ceramic box bases helped the team to date the wreck. “This inscription provides a place name, Jianning Fu, which was only assigned that name by the Song government from 1162 until 1278, when it was changed to Jianning Lu by the Yuan dynasty,” Niziolek explained. To read about another Chinese shipwreck, go to “Pirates of the Marine Silk Road.

        May 16, 2018

        Archaeology Magazine

        Ice Core Study Tracks Roman Lead Levels

        Roman lead pollutionRENO, NEVADA—According to a Science Magazine report, evidence of Roman-era air pollution trapped in Greenland’s ice cap has been analyzed in detail by an international team of researchers led by Andrew Wilson of the University of Oxford and Joe McConnell of the Desert Research Institute. The experts examined layers of ice measuring some 1,300 feet deep, and obtained about 12 measurements of lead levels trapped in the ice for each year from 1100 B.C. to A.D. 800. The resulting 1,900-year timeline offers a detailed picture of pollution related to smelting silver, dust, and volcanic emissions. The study suggests that Roman lead pollution peaked in the first century A.D., during the height of the Empire when many silver coins were minted, and dropped dramatically around the year 165, likely due to the devastation brought by the Antonine Plague. A third-century drop has been attributed to the political instability brought on by the so-called Plague of Cyprian. The scientists also recorded dips in the level of lead pollution during times of war in Spain, where a lot of lead-silver smelting took place. For more on Roman use of silver, go to “Spain’s Silver Boom.”

        Roman Villa Unearthed in Eastern Bulgaria

        GURKOVO, BULGARIA—Archaeology in Bulgaria reports that a Roman mansion dated to the third or fourth century A.D. has been found in eastern Bulgaria, about 18 miles from the ancient Roman city of Ulpia Augusta Traiana. Archaeologists led by Mariya Kamisheva of the Stara Zagora Regional Museum of History unearthed a bath with a well-preserved pool, and three of the house’s rooms, which covered more than 1,000 square feet, during rescue excavations after a looter’s tunnel was found at the site. The villa also had underfloor heating, and murals on its walls. Two Roman coins from the site date to the beginning of the fourth century A.D. The team also recovered a Turkish coin from the Ottoman period. Kamisheva thinks the house may have been partly destroyed at that time. The excavations will continue this year. To read more about archaeology in Bulgaria, go to “Iconic Discovery.”

        Hill Fort Spotted Under Poland’s “Arian Tower”

        Poland Arian TowerKRYNICA, POLAND—According to a Science in Poland report, the tomb of an early seventeenth-century nobleman may have been built on top of an early medieval hill fort. Anna Kubicka of Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, and Konrad Grochecki of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, collected data and created a map of the site using measurements made with airborne laser scanning equipment. The map revealed outlines of two lines of ramparts, one on the lower part of the hill, and one on the surface of the steeper, higher part, where the pyramid-shaped mausoleum had been built for Pawel Orzechowski, chamberlain of Chelm. At that time, the hill was referred to as a “horodysko,” or a place where a fort once stood. Other documents state that Orzechowski wanted to be buried in the mausoleum “together with his ancestors.” As an Arian, who rejected Christian Trinitarian doctrine, Orzechowski would not have been eligible for burial in a Catholic cemetery. Renovation of the mausoleum, which was damaged during World War II, and archaeological investigations of the possible fort are being planned. For more, go to “Off The Grid: Krakow, Poland.”

        Mary Harrsch (Roman Times)

        Alexa ventures to the ancient world

        As many of you know, I am not only passionately interested in ancient history but, as an education technologist, I continue to explore new technologies and how they can be used to promote the study of the ancient world.

        Alexa is a virtual assistant developed by Amazon that uses artificial intelligence to perform numerous tasks like music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, playing games, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, serving as an intercom, and providing weather, traffic, sports, and other real-time information, such as news, all using voice commands to an Alexa-enabled device such as a wifi-enabled Echo or Echo Dot speaker.  Alexa can also control light switches, door locks, Tvs, appliances, and other smart devices in a home automation system. What is particularly exciting for educators, though, is the ability to extend Alexa's  intelligence by installing "skills."

        These skills can range from playing a wide range of ambient sounds for rest and meditation to quotes from ancient sources, one of the "skills" I developed.  You can also venture on imaginary quests to exotic places complete with sound effects, or hear memories you have stored. You can even learn to use cognitive techniques like constructing a "memory palace" to help you improve your recall. The vast majority of these "skills" are free and can be enabled on your device by simply saying "Alexa, enable (skill name) or going to the link below, searching for the skill and clicking the enable button.

        An Alexa-powered Amazon Echo Dot
        Naturally, I wanted to try to create an Alexa skill myself that would be ancient history related.  Alexa has a feature called a "Flash Briefing" that plays short broadcasts of information that you choose to add to your Flash Briefing queue. Typically, these broadcasts are updated daily so you are kept up to date with developments in your chosen subject matter. Alexa starts you off with a default broadcast from NPR (National Public Radio) and your local weather.

        An update I have always wanted was information about upcoming exhibits of artifacts from the ancient world. Too many times I have found out about fascinating exhibits after its too late to attend. So, I searched all through the catalog of Alexa skills to see if someone offered something like that and was disappointed to discover there were none. So, I decided to build one myself for other history enthusiasts.

        Storyline makes the development of an Alexa Flash Briefing skill a breeze once you set up a free basic account. One of the founders, Vasili Shynkarenka, clearly explains the short process in this video:

        First, though, you need to choose the information you wish to provide on a daily basis. In my case that was a list of exhibits opening soon or in progress or information about an existing collection of artifacts in a museum's permanent collection. Fortunately, for me, I have photographed many museum collections so I already knew many museums that host ancient artifact exhibitions and collections.

        I created a Google spreadsheet to record all of the exhibits I could find along with their title, description, dates of presentation, the institution where the exhibit is taking place, the location and a URL where listeners can find out more about it. I decided to enter only one post each day, though, prioritizing the posts by opening and closing dates, to ensure I would have enough content for a daily update for quite some time. Each day when I post an exhibit, I change my font color in my spreadsheet from black to red to flag the entry as posted. Then, each morning I search the internet for more exhibits to add to my list.

        Using the Storyline tool, I uploaded my exhibit skill to my own Alexa network. But, I wanted to
        share my skill with other English-speaking history enthusiasts so decided to publish it to the the Alexa skill catalog.  I did so by using Storyline's "Publish" feature. It presents you with a form to fill out to provide Amazon with enough information for the Alexa skill catalog. First, I needed to choose a name for my new skill. Amazon recommends choosing a name that reflects what your skill is about in two or three words. I chose the skill name "Antiquities Alive".

        Then I needed to create an icon for my skill that would be displayed in the Alexa skill catalog. I used a picture I had of an elegant Greek table support of griffins attacking a doe that I photographed years ago at the Getty Villa to create my skill icons - one 108X108 pixels and the other 512X512 pixels.

        Then I wrote a short description of the skill (a couple of sentences) and a more in depth description of the skill (a paragraph) to describe the contents of the Flash Briefing. This will also appear in the Alexa skill catalog.

        Then I was asked if I planned to update the information daily or weekly. I chose to update the skill daily because people using the Flash Briefing function of Alexa expect the information to change from day to day. However, this means I was committed to searching for new exhibits to list every day.

        With the form complete, I clicked "Submit". It only took a few hours to get my "Antiquities Alive" Flash Briefing skill approved by Amazon.

        Now, I go into Storyline each morning, click on my "Live" skill and enter a post for that  day.

        After I had my first Flash Briefing skill, "Antiquities Alive," certified. I then began to think about other information I would like to get in my Flash Briefing. Many of us who study the ancient world like to hear quotes from ancient sources. So, I decided to create a new Flash Briefing skill that would enable Alexa to read an ancient quote to me each day - sort of like a classicist's daily vitamin pill. I knew that I could find quotes easily between the Internet Classics Archive, the Perseus Project, and the Guttenberg Project.

        So, I created a new Flash Briefing skill I called "Classic Moments Daily." Again I used a Google sheet to record the quotes I had selected along with the author, the work, and a link to the original source. This skill was also approved within a few hours.

        If you use Alexa's Flash Briefing feature, though, it can become overwhelming if you have too many broadcasts in your queue. I prefer to listen to my Flash Briefing while I'm doing my morning housekeeping chores like making the bed, folding clothes, etc. Although I started out with only a few broadcasts like NPR, the BBC, the weather and an "Alexa things to try" tip, my queue grew to the point where it is now twenty minutes long and I'm having to wait for it to finish before I move on to my next task. I now listen to my own skills, "Antiquities Alive" and "Classic Moments Daily" (to make sure they are functioning correctly) then I listen to a friend's skill "Today in America" which provides information about important people and events that occurred on the current day, then the "Archaeology Eureka Alert" which gives me news about new archaeological discoveries, "Daily Tech Headlines" and CNet Tech for tech news updates, Jimmy Fallon's Tonight Show monologue from the night before (for stress relief!), science and entertainment news updates, an AARP news update, the weather, and an "Alexa Things to Try" tip of the day.

        Someone in the Storyline discussion forum mentioned having the same problem and asked if developers would provide the same information in a regular skill that could be called separately so they didn't have to listen to their entire Flash Briefing over and over if you wanted to learn more about a particular topic.

        With this in mind, I decided to create a "sister" application to "Classic Moments Daily" and this month got approval for my new regular skill called "Classic Moments Rome" that can be called by itself if you want to listen to quotes from ancient Roman sources (a Greek sources version will be finished in a few more days).  When you ask Alexa to open "Classic Moments Rome" you will be able to hear an ancient quote along with the author's name and work quoted.  Then you will have the choice to say "Next" to listen to another quote, "Repeat" to hear the last quote again, or "Stop" if you've heard enough for the day. The quotes are stored in the same Google spreadsheet I created for Classic Moments Daily and pulled randomly by a program script so, usually, you won't hear the same quote twice in a row - especially since the database now includes almost 100 quotes. I also add new quotes daily if the new post to my Flash Briefing skill Classic Moments Daily is from a Roman source.

        I am pulling the quotes from original translations. However, since short passages are easier to listen to than long, rambling paragraphs, I sometimes include a name or context to make the quote understandable. For example, in a quote about Gaius Marius' dealings with the kings of Numidia and Mauretania, I provide additional information about each person mentioned in the quote besides just their name. Also, in a regular skill, I can include some sound effects and I have done that in some cases.

        I am also working on recreating virtual personalities from the ancient world that you will be able to converse with about their lives and respective cultures. The first will be published in June.

        If you don't have an Amazon Echo speaker, either a full sized one or a little Dot, don't despair! You can now talk to Alexa on your phone with the free Alexa app!

        The Archaeology News Network

        12 Zeugma mosaics to be returned to Turkey by USA

        The Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry signed an agreement on May 14 with Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio in the United States for the return of 12 ancient Zeugma mosaic pieces looted during illegal excavations in Turkey’s southeastern province of Gaziantep nearly 50 years ago. Credit: BGSU“We are very happy that the Zeugma pieces are being returned to Turkey. The importance of carrying on cultural relations in the...

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        The Archaeology News Network

        Earliest version of our alphabet possibly discovered

        The earliest example of our alphabet — a possible mnemonic phrase that helped someone remember "ABCD" — has been discovered on a 3,400-year-old inscribed piece of pottery from ancient Egypt, a scholar believes. One side of the inscribed 3,400-year-old piece of pottery may show an ancient forerunner to our alphabet sequence [Credit: copyright Nigel Strudwick. No reproduction without permission]Three of the words start with the ancient...

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