Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

http://planet.atlantides.org/maia

Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

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June 26, 2017

Archaeology Magazine

Colonial-Era Brass Lock Unearthed in Michigan

Michigan colonial lockMACKINAW CITY, MICHIGAN—According to a report in Michigan Live, a brass lock measuring nearly three inches long was discovered at the site of a fur trader’s home at Fort Michilimackinac, located on Mackinac Island in the Straits of Mackinac, which connect Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. The intact lock is estimated to be about 250 years old, and is thought to have been used to secure a small trunk or chest. The house where it was found was built around 1730 and was demolished in 1781. The lock was unearthed in the building’s root cellar. To read about another discovery in Michigan, go to “Leftover Mammoth.”

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Bulletin

Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Bulletin
ISSN: 2410-0951
http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/COMST/comstlogo.png
The Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Bulletin (ISSN 2410-0951, since 2015) has succeeded the Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies Newsletter as the main organ of the European network in Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies. 

It is a biannual peer-reviewed international journal, published on-line (under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license) and on paper as print-on-demand.

It is dedicated to the vast variety of issues concerned with the research into the oriental manuscript traditions, from instrumental analysis, to codicology and palaeography, to critical text editing, to manuscript preservation, to the application of digital tools to manuscript research. The geographical focus is the Mediterranean Near East, with its wide array of language traditions including, though not limiting to, Arabic, Armenian, Avestan, Caucasian Albanian, Christian Palestinian Aramaic, Coptic, Ethiopic, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Persian, Slavonic, Syriac, and Turkish.

The Heroic Age

21ST BIENNIAL SYMPOSIUM OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIEVAL SERMON STUDIES SOCIETY

BRISTOL, UNITED KINGDOM / SUNDAY 15 JULY – FRIDAY 20 JULY 2018
MEDIEVAL MONKS, NUNS & MONASTIC LIFE
Organizer: Professor Carolyn Muessig
Head of the University of Bristol's Department of Religion and Theology and Co-Director, Centre for Medieval Studies

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS INCLUDE CLAUDIA RAPP (AUSTRIA) AND BRIAN PATRICK McGUIRE (DENMARK)

The 2018 IMSSS symposium will explore the breadth and depth of sermon literature and preaching activity relating to monks, nuns, and monastic life, and serve as a microcosm of the religious and cultural landscape of the Middle Ages.

The symposium will be based in the beautiful grounds of the University of Bristol's Wills Hall, and will include a workshop at historic Downside Abbey, with its medieval manuscripts, incunables, and Centre for Monastic Heritage. We will also visit Wells Cathedral, as well as the medieval sites of Bristol.

Celebrate 2018 — the first-ever European Year of Cultural Heritage —by delivering a paper or presenting a poster dealing with an aspect of one of the bedrocks of European culture: monasticism.

Topics for posters and papers may include:

• the form or content that could distinguish a monastic sermon from others

• monks, nuns, and monasticism in Byzantine or other forms of medieval Eastern and African Christianity

• the Rule of Benedict and preaching

• preaching in monastic churches and chapter houses

• monastic figures preaching in public forums (churches, crusades)

• monastic preaching in or regarding schools and universities

• preaching by and about nuns

• de sanctis sermons on holy monks and nuns

• monasticism as treated in sermons

• sermons and the reformed monastic life (e.g., Camaldolese, Carthusian, Celestinian, Cistercian, Cluniac, et alii)

• preaching by and about hermits

• monastic rules in and about preaching

• monastic communities in conflict or in harmony

• monastic rejection/appropriation of mendicant sermons/preaching/identity

• monks as characters in sermons, exempla and religious literature

• gender in monastic preaching

• monks/nuns in ad status sermon literature

• monastic preaching in art

• monks, nuns, and monasticism in pre-modern sermons of religious traditions other than Christianity (e.g. , Islam, Buddhism, Taoism)

• the influence of Christian monks, nuns, & monastic sermons on preaching in other religions

• and more!

Registration will commence in September 2017, but we are accepting abstracts for papers and posters (150 words) now.

Please send your abstracts before 30 September 2017 (and any queries) to: imsss-2018@bristol.ac.uk

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Introducing Micah Bloom’s Codex

Traditionally, academic publishers fulfill several key steps in moving a manuscript to publication. Once they receive the manuscript, they coordinate peer review, offer editorial and even content suggestions, and perform copy edits, layout pages, and, most importantly, produce the final publication (before distributing and marketing this product from which they take a cut).

In other words, the publication process is creative, generative, and adds value, but also tends to be distinct from the process that generated the manuscript. There is traditionally a wall, established through various practices separate the author and the publisher. 

Codex final large book 3

In some cases, this wall is good, like when an author relies on a publisher to manage peer review or copy editing. In other cases, the wall is awkward like when the book is not just the result of the project or the vessel in which the hard work of the manuscript has become manifest, but the object itself. In some ways, this evokes earlier traditions of publishing where authors and publishers were often interchangeable.

Codex final large book

This past year, The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota has been working with Micah Bloom to bring his remarkable book Codex to a wider audience. The original version of the book was designed to complement his installation that focused on the destruction of books by the Minot flood of 2011. It featured a series of remarkable photographs of the aftermath of the flood that critically engaged how we consider the destruction of books as both intimate objects and disposable commodities. We worked with Micah to add nine critical essays that engage the books and his art in new ways. Micah then produced a book about books that integrated the new essays with his photographs in a unified design.

Codex final large book 4

We prepared 20, numbered, signed print versions that we will circulate to local institutions through the generous support of the North Dakota Humanities Council. We’re also going to release the book digitally under a CC-BY-ND license this fall. And because you can never have enough books in enough ways, we’re also going to produce a trade paperback for folks who want the experience of the paper book at a low price.

Codex final large book 6

It was thrilling to receive photographs of the book this week!

Codex final large book 9

Codex final large book 7

Codex final large book 10

Codex Final REAL COVER


ArcheoNet BE

Sint-Arnolduspark in Tiegem voorlopig beschermd

Vandaag ondertekende Vlaams minister Geert Bourgeois het voorlopig beschermingsbesluit voor het domein Sint-Arnoldus in Tiegem (Anzegem), een historisch devotiepark, dat werd uitgebouwd tussen 1865 en 1895 door lokaal ondernemer en politicus Vital Moreels. Het besluit omvat een voorlopige bescherming van het Sint-Arnolduspark en Tiegemberg als cultuurhistorisch landschap en de Sint-Arnolduskapel, Villa Albert en de Belvédère als monument.

Bourgeois: “Het prachtige devotiepark werd ontworpen door landschapsarchitect Hubert Van Hulle. In Vlaanderen zijn dergelijke parken met cementrustieke constructies eerder zeldzaam. De combinatie van de religieus en wereldlijk geïnspireerde elementen, zoals bijvoorbeeld het kunstmatig aangelegde grottenlandschap en de openluchtpreekstoel in de holle boomstam, zorgen voor een bijzondere erfgoedwaarde die een bescherming rechtvaardigen.”

Ook de gemeente Anzegem is blij met de bescherming. Schepen Rik Colman: “Dit besluit zorgt ervoor dat een uniek patrimonium voor de toekomst bewaard blijft en in stand wordt gehouden: de groene long Sint-Arnolduspark, de neogotische achthoekige Sint-Arnoldus bedevaartkapel, de pittoreske historische villa Albert, de uitkijktoren Belvédère met tickethuisje in cementrustiek en de grotimitaties. Want ons prachtig domein is niet alleen waardevol erfgoed, het is bovendien een aantrekkingspool voor jonge gezinnen, wandelaars en natuurliefhebbers.”

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Orientalia: Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan

 [First posted in AWOL 14 August 2011. Updated 26 June 2017]

Orientalia: Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan
Il y a soixante ans, Jean Leclant donnait la première livraison de sa chronique archéologique dans la rubrique Nuntii personarum et rerum des Orientalia, sous le titre « Compte rendu des fouilles et travaux menés en Égypte ». La coupure de la seconde guerre mondiale se refermait et l’activité archéologique connaissait un renouveau que les premiers temps du nassérisme n’allaient, hélas ! pas tarder à mettre à nouveau en sommeil, jusqu’à ce que le sauvetage des monuments de Nubie relance la coopération internationale sur les rives du Nil. La chronique, elle, n’a pas failli à rendre compte, année après année, de la recherche archéologique, figeant son titre, après quelques brèves hésitations, en «Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan».

En 1985, Gisèle Clerc s’associa à Jean Leclant, puis, de 1998 à 2001, Anne Minault-Gout. En 2003, j’ai pris la suite, avec l’aide d’Emad Adly ; Alain Arnaudiès nous a rejoints en 2006. Parallèlement à la préparation du rapport annuel des Orientalia, nous poursuivons, Emad Adly et moi-même, la publication du Bulletin d’Information archéologique, que nous avons créé, il y a maintenant plus de vingt ans, reprenant le flambeau que m’avait alors transmis la regrettée Carla Burri, qui avait rédigé pendant 17 ans son précieux Bollettino di informazione, dont le BIA a repris le nom, en témoignage de gratitude. 

Le propos des deux entreprises est, au moins à l’origine, très proche. Le Bolletino visait à faire circuler l’information dans la communauté des archéologues et chercheurs travaillant en Égypte ; la chronique des Orientalia donne, elle, une information plus technique, fondée sur les rapports transmis par les acteurs de la recherche, augmentés d’une collecte bibliographique. Le BIA a élargi la revue de presse, la classant par thèmes et l’indexant, reposant ainsi sur un travail éditorial plus soutenu. 

Entre ces deux niveaux se situent les rapports fournis par les institutions travaillant, dans le domaine de l’archéologie essentiellement, mais pas seulement, en Égypte et au Soudan. Ce niveau intermédiaire est celui qui a le plus bénéficié ces dernières années des possibilités accrues de communication et de diffusion qu’offre la toile : aujourd’hui, non seulement les grands instituts, mais, pratiquement, chaque mission « poste » en ligne un rapport, le plus souvent sur le site de l’institution dont elle relève, mais aussi sur des sites dédiés, voire des forums de discussion. 

Tout un chacun est à même de comprendre et d’apprécier la large diffusion de l’information ainsi assurée, mais le prix à payer est une fragmentation et une dispersion, que vient encore compliquer la volatilité des liens, susceptibles de disparaître tout aussi rapidement qu’ils sont apparus. De grandes institutions, comme l’Oriental Institute de Chicago ou l’Université de Cambridge, rejoints depuis peu par le forum de Charles Elwood Jones, ont entrepris de fédérer, essentiellement par une veille constante, les données qui ne cessent d’affluer...
Cette première version du projet Orientalia propose une indexation géographique de l’ensemble de la collection. Il s’agit d’un projet évolutif qui sera amendé et augmenté au cours des prochaines années.

1. La transcription des sites égyptiens
2. La transcription des sites soudanais
3. La toponymie
4. La géolocalisation
annéetitre
191950 Compte rendu des fouilles et travaux menés en Égypte durant les campagnes 1948-1950. I
191950 Compte rendu des fouilles et travaux menés en Égypte durant les campagnes 1948-1950. II
201951 Compte rendu des fouilles et travaux menés en Égypte durant les campagnes 1948-1950. III
201951 Fouilles et travaux au Soudan (1948-1951)
201951 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1950-1951. 1
211952 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1950-1951. 2
221953 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1951-1952
231954 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1952-1953
241955 Fouilles et travaux au Soudan, 1951-1954
241955 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1953-1954
251956 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1954-1955
271958 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1955-1957
301961 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1957-1960 (Première partie)
301961 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte, 1957-1960 (Deuxième partie)
301961 Découvertes de monuments égyptiens ou égyptisants hors de la vallée du Nil, 1955-1960
311962 Fouilles et travaux au Soudan, 1955-1960
311962 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1960-1961. I. Fouilles en Égypte
311962 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1960-1961. II. Fouilles au Soudan et découvertes hors d'Égypte
321963 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1961-1962. I. Fouilles en Égypte
321963 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1961-1962. II. Fouilles au Soudan et découvertes hors d'Égypte
331964 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1962-1963
341965 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1963-1964
351966 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1964-1965
361967 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1965-1966
371968 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1966-1967
381969 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1967-1968
391970 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1968-1969
401971 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1969-1970
411972 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1970-1971
421973 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1971-1972
431974 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1972-1973
441975 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1973-1974
451976 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1974-1975
461977 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1975-1976
471978 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1976-1977
481979 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1977-1978
491980 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1978-1979
511982 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1979-1980
511982 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1980-1981
521983 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1981-1982
531984 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1982-1983
541985 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1983-1984
551986 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1984-1985
561987 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1985-1986
571988 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1986-1987
581989 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1987-1988
591990 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1988-1989
601991 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1989-1990
611992 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1990-1991
621993 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1991-1992
631994 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1992-1993
641995 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1993-1994
651996 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1994-1995
661997 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1995-1996
671998 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1996-1997
681999 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1997-1998. Première partie
692000 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1997-1998. Seconde partie
692000 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1998-1999
702001 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 1999-2000
722003 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2000-2002
732004 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2002-2003
742005 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2003-2004
752006 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2004-2005
762007 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2005-2007
772008 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2006-2008
782009 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2008-2009
802011 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2009-2010
822013 Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, 2010-2011

ASOR Blog (American Schools of Oriental Research)

The VALUE project: Videogames and Archaeology at Leiden University

Doom? Downfall? Super Mario Bros? Sure, they’re fun, but now video games contribute to public outreach, heritage preservation, education, and archaeological research. [...]

The post The VALUE project: Videogames and Archaeology at Leiden University appeared first on The ASOR Blog.

AMIR: Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources

Open Access Books from Brill Publishers


http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004310483


Tense and Text in Classical Arabic : A Discourse-oriented Study of the Classical Arabic Tense System
Author: Michal Marmorstein

Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2017.
Series: Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics , vol. 85
eISBN:     9789004310483 



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789047441465



Islamic Reformism and Christianity : A Critical Reading of the Works of Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā and His Associates (1898-1935)
Author: U. Ryad
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2009.
Series:  The History of Christian-Muslim Relations , vol. 12
E - ISBN : 9789047441465




http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004192119



The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335)
Author: Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series:  Brill's Inner Asian Library, vol. 24
E-ISBN : 9789004192119



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004190962



The Ottoman Crimean War (1853-1856)
Author: C. Badem
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2010.
Series:  The Ottoman Empire and its Heritage, v. 44
E - ISBN : 9789004190962



http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004203976


Principles of Islamic International Criminal Law : A Comparative Search
Author: F. Malekian
Publisher:     Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2011
Series:  Brill's Arab and Islamic Laws Series, vol. 5
E - ISBN : 9789004203976


Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Seller Sayles Demands 1417 Methods of Dealing with Art Traffickers


This is how they dealt with things in 1417
Dealer Wayne Sales has a go at the participants of the hearing on The Exploitation of Cultural Property: Examining Illicit Activity in the Antiquities and Art Trade" in the US House of Representatives. He calls it 'A Sad Day for America' (Ancient Coin Collecting, Friday June 23, 2017) and takes a tub-thumping populist stance:
it may say something about the very nature of representative government and who is actually represented versus who the electorate is. The three bureaucrats testifiying before Congress in this hearing presented one point of view. They [...] essentially blamed that loss on private ownership [of artefacts].
Well, no they do not. They place the blame on the business methods of the antiquities trade, the trade which Sayles is part of and party to. The blame is on the dealers who fail to take adequate steps to avoid trade with illicit sources - "traffickers". It may be argued that if all dealers and collectors took these steps, there could be a substantial reduction in trafficking. Sayles wants to see the blame placed on those no-good foreigners:
Nobody in the room talked about the failure of law enforcement worldwide to stop "trafficking". [...] Academia and Bureaucracy have no actual control over foreign governments, so they turn their attack instead toward the innocent who are blameless. [...] The failure of governments and law enforcement in foreign lands to eliminate looting and wanton destruction has become a harpoon in the side of law abiding Americans who love the past.
I really do not see any dealer or collector who buys portable antiquities on today's contaminated market without ensuring that the items they handle have documentation of licit origins as in any way 'blameless'. On the contrary, it is precisely this no-questions-asked approach which is responsible for the ease with which freshly surfaced objects of illicit origin (stolen, looted, faked or smuggled) can be monetised by being clandestinely slipped onto the undiscriminating market. The no-questions-asked approach is to be directly lamed for the existence of a market for illicit antiquities. That is a fact that must be obvious to all (it seems) except excessively unreflexive people like Mr Sayles. He whinges on:
How is any buyer in an international market able to distinguish between an object recirculating in a vibrant and venerable trade from one stolen yesterday? That is not the "buyer's" job, it is the role of law enforcement [...]

No, it is a function of the market's functioning based on verifiable evidence of the legitimacy of each object surfacing on it. If no verifiable evidence is available that an object is of licit origins (even in the 'absence of direct information that it is not'), that object cannot be acquired - because due diligence cannot be applied. This means producing a proper and verifiable collecting history on any object offered for sale by a reputable (repute-worthy) dealer, even in the case of so-called minor antiquities. This is the only reasonable response to the recent flooding of the international market by the products of cultural crimes such as theft, looting, falsification and smuggling.   Relying on a 'gut-feeling' that an object 'does not look like a freshly dug antiquity' is quite obviously not enough. In such a situation as the contaminated market of the 21st century, the burden of proof that something is licit quite clearly remains with the seller.

Henry V - king of England 1414-1422,
not known to have collected coins
Who gives a tinkers how long people have been collecting antiquities in the same way as '600 years ago'? This is the pathetically weak justification of the dealers today - they want to carry on doing things like it was still 1417. I doubt there are many other professions (apart from thatchers, fletchers and coracle builders) who'll use the same kind of argument. Yet the whinging goes on:
What those few elected representatives in Congress present did not hear [...] was the six-hundred-year-old story of how private collectors of antiquities have saved countless objects from loss through physical destruction for intrinsic metal value (for example, melting down silver and gold coins) or the countless museums worldwide that are populated with cultural property donated by private collectors. Why was that perspective not made clear? [...] The actual truth is that private collectors do far more to save the past than the loose-lipped academics ever dreamed of doing.
Mr Sayles needs to take a deep breath and a step back to reflect that the topic of the meeting was not 'antiques and antiquities in culture today', but specifically Collection-driven Exploitation of cultural property, and specifically, 'Examining Illicit Activity in the Antiquities and Art Trade'. Collection-driven exploitation of historical sites destroys culture. Rows of headless buddhas, the sources of the loose heads in many a western 'art' gallery, are just one expression of this. Dug-over sites which produce the type of metal artefacts Mr Sayles sells are another.


Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 7 – part 4

We continue with the story of Alexander.  The Abbasid caliphs, for whom Eutychius wrote, were basically Persians, and so the destruction of the Achaemenids by Alexander – who is treated as the king of the “Rum”! – was obviously sensitive territory.  Eutychius copes with this inconvenience by denying Alexander his military victory, and instead attributing the defeat of Darius to treachery.  One doubts that anyone was fooled, but the flattery doubtless benefited the author.

I notice that Google Translate continues to mistranslate the numerals.  I must recheck all the numbers of years from A to B.

14 And when he came to the king, the messenger told him what Alexander had done.  Then Alexander gathered together his compatriots and his men, and said to them, “There are three ways to accomplish things:  with great forethought, with the ability to realize them, and with the implementation of both with a firm intention. Whoever of you is of this opinion will get what he wants and, whoever shares this will join with me, but whoever is not of the same opinion should stay away from me.” They replied, “God has united these three things in our king, while we have some who own one and some who own another, but no one is able to effectively implement what he has.”  Alexander was fully satisfied with their words.  Then he made all the arrangements and went out against Dāriyūs.  They met at al-Gazirah[1] and the war was protracted on both sides for forty days.  Dāriyūs had five trenches dug, and he placed in each of them a general (“isbahid”) at the head of twelve thousand men and every man went out to fight every five days.  Dāriyūs then ordered his men to bring him two heads of Rūm every day.  And in fact, two heads of the Rūm or one only were delivered to him daily.  Alexander was saddened at that in his heart and his rage reached its peak. He then sent to Dāriyūs: “We are almost annihilating each other. I therefore propose a way that allows us and you to come out of this; that is, that you deploy your men with a gap, so that I can take the way through your troops on the side where you are, and so can go back to my country.  We, indeed, have no intention of fleeing in the face of deployed troops, because such a thing would be a dishonour that could never be washed away, a spot that could never be purified and an unforgivable ignominy.”  Dāriyūs replied, “We do not think it appropriate to give you what you ask for, or see the reason for it.”  When he saw this, Alexander was thoughtful, with his head in his hands, looking for a way out.  Then he said to his men: “O Rūm, this means we are feeble and with little strength to win.  If there is any one among you, or among the Persians, who can suggest some stratagem in this matter in order to get us out of such anguish, he will have half the realm of the Persians and the Rūm and half of what is at the junction [of the whole territory]”.  The words of Alexander were heard by Khisnisf and Adarshīst[2], the sons of Adarbakht, the captains of the guard of Dāriyūs.  In another text it is said “of the armies”.  When it came to arms, they fell on Dāriyūs with their swords and struck him to the ground. The Persians were put to flight, and many were killed on the field.  It happened then that Alexander came to Dāriyūs, and saw him in that state, and he dismounted from his horse, rested his head on his chest, washed his face, bended his wounds, kissed him and wept, said, “Praise God who has not given it to any of my men to kill you. What we now see was already written in the foreknowledge of God.  Ask whatever you want.  For my part I grant you the right to ask three things, but you will also allow me to ask for one.”  Dāriyūs said to him: “I want you not to overthrow the nobles and dignitaries of Fāris, and to guarantee their safety.  I want you to not destroy the temples of fire, and to care for their security.  I want you to do justice on those who killed me, and return him the same, because he will certainly betray your favour if he is released as he has already betrayed mine.”  Alexander assured him that he would do what he had asked, and said, “What I want from you is that you give me your daughter Rūshtaq, and that this is done through you and with your blessing.” Dāriyūs replied, “I grant her to you in marriage, provided that you entrust the kingdom, after you, to a son that you have from her.”  Alexander consented and Dāriyūs gave his daughter to him in marriage.  Then he died.  Alexander then ordered him to be buried, wrapping him in the most precious linen that the king possessed and commanded the soldiers, Greeks and Persians, to march with the weapons [in salute] before his coffin.  Alexander and his most prominent men followed the parade to the place of the burial.  Then Alexander said, “If it had been my task to reduce Dāriyūs to the state in which you saw him, I would have done it because he was in any case my enemy.  Great is therefore the service of he who has spared me such an action and I feel I must reward him.  Come before me, and I swear solemnly in the name of God, that I will exalt him and raise him up above all my men.”  Then Khisnisf and Adarshīst, sons of Adarbakht, went on to him, and said to him, “We are the leaders of the guard of Dāriyūs, who have spared you such an action.  Therefore, give us what you promised us.”  [Alexander] ordered them to be crucified on two great crosses, saying: “These two men deserved to get what I ordered for them, because of their broken promise and for having betrayed their king. If they have not been loyal to their king, they will not be to anyone else.  I gave them what I had promised them and raised them above all my men.”  He then ordered gifts to be made to the mother, wife and daughter of Dāriyūsh, to give them the appropriate clothes to their rank and surround them with all honour.  He then ordered that gifts and clothing should be given to the Persian generals and notables as appropriate to their rank, benefits and expectations and confirmed them in their offices.  For these things they loved him, and held him dear to them.  Then Alexander invited those who wished to follow him in the invasion of India.  They went with him, glad and ready to fight.

15. Alexander thus reigned over seven provinces. From the captivity of Babil to the reign of Alexander 263 years had passed; from the reign of David to that of Alexander, 740; from the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt to the reign of Alexander, 1,346; from Abraham to the reign of Alexander, 1,853; from Fāliq to the reign of Alexander, 2,394; from the flood to the reign of Alexander, 2,925; from Adam to the reign of Alexander, 5,181.  The teacher of Alexander was Aristātālis, the philosopher.  Also in the city of Athinah was a wise man named Diyūğānūs [3].

 

 

 

  1. [1]I.e. in Mesopotamia.
  2. [2]Arrian in the Anabasis III, 21, calls them “Satibarzan and Barsaente.”
  3. [3]Aristotle and Diogenes.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 7 – part 3

Let us carry on with Eutychius.  We reach the times of Alexander.

10. After him reigned his son Qamīsūs for nine years.[1]  After him, Smardhiyūs the Magian reigned for a single year.  He was called the Magian because a Persian named Zarādast appeared in his days, under whose influence the religion of the Magi became official, and he instituted the worship at the temples of fire.  After him, Dārā I reigned for twenty years.[2]  After him reigned Artahshāst, nicknamed “Longimanus” for twenty-four years.

In his time there lived in Greece in the city of Quwā[3], the physician Buqrāt, master of medical art.[4]  Sa`īd ibn Batrīq the physician says: “It is true what Ğālinūs says in his commentary to “Kitāb Iman Buqrāt wa ‘ahdihī” [5] where he asserts: ‘The king of Persia sent messengers to Hippocrates with a lot of money, asking him to go to him.  But Hippocrates did not consent to his request and did not go to him because he did not consider it right to care for the Persian enemies of the Greeks.’ Hunayn ibn Ishāq reports, in his translation of this book from Greek into Arabic, that Galen has conveyed that Hippocrates did not go to Artakhshāsht nicknamed “Longimanus” because it was said that at the time of this king the Persians had been affected by the disease called ” Al-Mawāriq”.[6]  In another text it is said that it was an epizootic disease.[7] [The king] then sent the satrap of the city of Quwāsalah to give Hippocrates a hundred “qintār” of gold, and sent it to him with honors and signs of esteem, to heal the Persians from the illness that had struck them.  But Hippocrates refused because he did not feel right to help and care for the enemies of the Greeks.”

11. Artakhshāsht Longimanus died and after him Artakhshāsht the Great reigned for thirty years.  After him reigned Makidūniyūs for three years.  After him reigned Sa‘adaniyūs for three years.[8] After him, Dārā II, nicknamed an-Nākit[9], reigned for seventeen years.  After him, Artakhshāsht, one of the sons of his brother Kūrish II, reigned for twenty-two years.  The wise men and philosophers of his time living in Greece were Hiraqlus, Mālūs, Fīthāghūras, Suqrātis, Sīlūn the legislator, Zīnūn, Abindaflis.[10] After him reigned his son Artakhshāsht known as Akhūs[11] for twenty years. Akhus, king of the Persians, gathered the army and marched on Egypt. The king of Egypt went out, and occupied the land. The king of Egypt, who was then the Pharaoh Shānāq[12], fearing to fall into the hands of Akhūs, King of the Persians, and be tortured, cut off his hair, shaved his beard and fled in disguise to the town of Maqidūniyah.[13] Akhūsh, king of the Persians, built the citadel known as Qasr ash-Shama in Fustāt, Egypt. He also built an imposing temple for the house of fire known today under the name of the church of Mār Tādurus.”  The king of the town of Maqidūniyah was Philip, father of Alexander. Akhus, King of the Persians, died.  After him reigned his son Arsīs, nicknamed “an-Nākit” for eleven years.  The philosophers and wise men of his time living in the city of Athīnā and in Greece were Aflātūn, Kinsālūn, Dīmūkrātis, Abullūniyūs and Suqrāt.[14]

12. Arsīs, king of the Persians, died.  After him, his son Dāriyūs reigned for seven years until he was killed by Alexander, who had become king of the kings who were in Mossul, Bābil, Fāris and  Āmid.  The cause for which Alexander killed Dāriyūs, king of the Persians, was this.  When his father Philip died, Alexander succeeded him on the throne of Makidūniyah at the age of sixteen.  Dāriyūsh, king of Fāris, knowing that Alexander was reigning over the Rūm after his father, tried to subdue him and wrote a letter to him as follows: “It has come to my notice that you have taken to reign over the Rūm without my permission.  If you had followed your father’s judicious conduct and acted according to our agreements, it would have been better for you and your prosperity would be long.  But the inexperience of your youth has induced you to behave with foolishness, and fools also are those who are with you.  Desist from the state in which you are, and send the tribute for yourself and your country, acknowledge your mistake and do it soon, without delay, otherwise I will move against you with the men of Fāris, and with them I will trample your country, I will kill your men, and I will deprive you of your prosperity.  I send you something that, if you can count it, you will know how many are my men and my friends.  Peace [to you]”. And he sent to him by a messenger, a qafīr of sesame seeds.

13. The messenger of Dāriyūs presented himself to Alexander and handed him the letter and the sesame seeds.  Alexander summoned his generals and read them the letter of Dāriyūs.  Then he said to them, “If you are gathered together, and you unite, you will beat him, but if you are divided he will get the better of you.” One by one they expressed their opinion and Alexander answered them, saying, “I feel that we will conquer Dāriyūs. It is proof of this, that he compared his men to sesame, which is a insubstantial food, and one that is eaten without effort. I feel that his kingdom will be ours.”  His men said to him, “This is the will of God.” Then Alexander wrote a letter to Dāriyūs in these terms: “From him who has become king by the will of God, from Alexander, the servant of God and King of the Greeks, to the excellent Dāriyūs.  I understand the content of your letter, what you describe as a transgression to your order, and what you are threatening me, that if I do not abandon the state in which I am and delay to send what you order me to send you, you will move against me with your men of Fars.  But your heart has spoken what your hand can not take, nor your thinking reach, because, in truth, I will come out against you with the lions of the Greeks, and then I will let you know how matters stand at our meeting. I send you something to be able to anticipate the strong flavour of my men. Peace [to you]”. And he sent him a small bag of mustard.

  1. [1]Cambyses II, son of Cyrus.
  2. [2]Darius I.
  3. [3]Cos?
  4. [4]I.e. Hippocrates.
  5. [5]I.e. the Book of the Oath and Testament of Hippocrates.”  Cf. Strohmaier, G., “Hunayn ibn Ishāq et le Serment Hippocratique”, in: Arabica 21 (1974), pp. 318-323.
  6. [6]More commonly “mayrùq”, i.e. fungus or jaundice.
  7. [7]I.e. an epidemic among animals, often communicable to men.
  8. [8]Sogdianus.
  9. [9]Darius II Notus.
  10. [10]Heraclitus, Malus (?), Pythagoras, Socrates, Solon, Zeno, Empedocles.
  11. [11]Artaxerxes III Ochus.
  12. [12]This must be Nectanebo II.
  13. [13]I.e. to Macedonia.
  14. [14]Plato, Xenophon, Democrates, Apollonius, and Socrates.

Joint Library of the Hellenic & Roman Societies / Institute of Classical Studies Library

New Vending Machine!

Just in case you haven't seen it, we wanted to make you all aware that there is now a vending machine in the cafe area on the Ground Floor. It is called 'Lisa', and stocks a variety of healthy crisps/snacks and soft drinks.

We thought this might be particularly useful for readers using the libraries on evenings and Saturdays, as they'll be able to get something to eat/drink even when the cafe is closed.

It (she?) takes coins, or debit/credit cards. However, be aware that if you use a card to purchase anything from the machine it costs 6% more than the hard currency price.

Happy munching (though, of course, not in the library!)


Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

The SBL Handbook of Style on MOTP

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/cDpDu4dwiIQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Trolls threaten a Classics professor

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/2CF1L5OamXc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Five usage-types for ἐκ and ἀπό

The following is an essay encompassing the analysis and data that we will be presenting in our paper on ἐκ and ἀπό at the Greek Prepositions Workshop at Tyndale house in Cambridge this coming Friday, June 30th. It is a compilation of the short pieces that we have posted over the past week.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Seidman on Cynthia Baker’s "Jew"

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/153QCtK_FdI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Creta Antica

Creta Antica
Logo per l'intestazione della pagina
Creta Antica è una Rivista fondata nel 2000 per iniziativa dell’editore Ausilio, prontamente accettata dal Centro di Archeologia Cretese dell’Università di Catania, nell’alveo della tradizione iniziata da Federico Halbherr nel 1884. Dal 2004 si è proposta come luogo di confronto su temi legati alla Creta di età antica e medievale in tutti i suoi aspetti (archeologia, storia e filologia). Essa accetta pertanto contributi relativi all’edizione di dati e materiali, all’analisi metodologica di nuove prospettive di ricerca, alla riflessione storiografica. Coerentemente con tali premesse, Creta Antica favorisce la collaborazione internazionale. Lingue d’uso per i contributi sono quelle correnti nella bibliografia di ambito egeo.
 Creta Antica è un peer reviewed journal.
 Direttore scientifico della rivista è stato dal 2000 al 2014 Vincenzo La Rosa. Dal numero 16, 2015 il direttore è il prof. Pietro Militello.
 Per sottoporre i propri articoli, seguire le istruzioni cliccando qui (http://www.cretaantica.unict.it/index.php/CA/about/submissions#authorGuidelines).

The idea of creating the Journal Creta Antica was proposed in 2000 by the publisher Ausilio and was promptly accepted by the Centro di Archeologia Cretese of Catania University, following the research tradition established by Federico Halbherr in 1884. From 2004 onwards Creta Antica has established itself as an international forum for the discussion of topics related to the archeology, history and philology of ancient and medieval Crete. Creta Antica accepts contributions that deal with the publication of new data and materials, with the analysis of new research methods and perspectives, and with the history of the discipline. Creta Antica therefore warmly welcomes contributions from colleagues around the world, which can be written in any of the languages currently used in Aegean studies.
 Creta Antica is a peer-reviewed journal.
 The scientific director of the journal was from 2000 to 2014 the late Vincenzo La Rosa. Current director is Pietro Militello.
To submit an article, follow the instructions given in the following link: click here (http://www.cretaantica.unict.it/index.php/CA/about/submissions#authorGuidelines).
Πήλινα ειδώλια
Nuove prospettive nello studio della coroplastica cretese (XIII-VII sec. a.C.). Atti del Seminario bilaterale Italia-Germania
New Perspectives in Cretan Coroplastic Studies (13th - 7th Cent. B.C.). Bilateral Workshop Italy-Germany
Catania, 19-21 Settembre 2013
A cura di Antonella Pautasso e Oliver Pilz

Sommario

Aldo Ausilio
PDF
1-12
Antonella Pautasso, Oliver Pilz
PDF
13-15
Dario Palermo
PDF
17-27
Katia Perna
PDF
29-44
Nicola Cucuzza
PDF
45-57
Antonella Pautasso
PDF
59-83
Andrea Babbi
PDF
85-115
Laura Concetta Rizzotto
PDF
117-138
Oliver Pilz
PDF
139-153
Marina Albertocchi, Silvia Martina Bertesago
PDF
155-173
Rossella Gigli Patané
PDF
175-197
Katja Sporn
PDF
199-201
Giovanni Rizza
PDF
203-237


















2000

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

T. Benjamin: Being good.

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/7qfj54ayEjs" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

William Blezard, The River

There is no other reason I am sharing this other than that I think it is a wonderful piece of music. Please do let me know whether you enjoy it too!

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2017.06.40: Logique et dialectique dans l'Antiquité. Bibliothèque d'Histoire de la Philosophie

Review of Jean-Baptiste Gourinat, Juliette Lemaire, Logique et dialectique dans l'Antiquité. Bibliothèque d'Histoire de la Philosophie. Paris: 2016. Pp. 480. €40.00 (pb). ISBN 9782711626588.

2017.06.39: The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Volume LXXXII [Nos. 5290 - 5319]. Edited with Translations and Notes. Graeco-Roman memoirs, 103

Review of N. Gonis, F. Maltomini, W. B. Henry, S. Slattery, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Volume LXXXII [Nos. 5290 - 5319]. Edited with Translations and Notes. Graeco-Roman memoirs, 103. London: 2016. Pp. xii, 176; 12 p. of plates. £85.00. ISBN 9780856982309.

June 25, 2017

ArcheoNet BE

Eeuwenoude houten bal gevonden in Vlimmeren

Bij opgravingen in het kader van een nieuwe verkaveling in Vlimmeren (Beerse) hebben archeologen van het Vlaams Erfgoed Centrum (VEC) een merkwaardige houten bal gevonden. De bal werd gevonden in een waterput, samen met aardewerk uit de periode 1450-1525. Ze heeft een diameter van 11 centimeter en draagt verschillende merktekens. Vermoedelijk werd de bal gebruikt bij het beugelspel: een oude volkssport waarbij je ballen door een beugel moet slaan.

Lees meer op www.erfgoednoorderkempen.be.

Erfgoedcel Waasland zoekt erfgoedconsulent

De Erfgoedcel Waasland is momenteel op zoek naar een erfgoedconsulent (m/v). Hij/zij zal ondermeer instaan voor het opzetten, opvolgen en uitvoeren van projecten, het opbouwen en uitwisselen van expertise rond diverse thema’s, en het ondersteunen van de algemene werking van de erfgoedcel. Solliciteren voor deze functie (voltijds of 4/5de – niveau B) kan tot 3 september. Je vindt de volledige vacature op erfgoedcelwaasland.be.

Archaeology Briefs

SANTA ROSA ISLAND OFF CALIFORNIA COAST IS TREASURE TROVE OF INFORMATION AS EARLY AS 13,000 YEARS AGO


Human remains more than 13,000 years old in the earliest middens and fishhooks in North America, the Channel Islands National Park off the California coast, are a treasure trove of information about early North American people. Recently, when national park workers began to restore a more recent piece of history on one of the islands, they uncovered a taste of something ancient: a prehistoric Native American site buried underneath the site of a ranch.

National Parks Traveler reports the unexpected trove was discovered on Santa Rosa Island. Workers found the site when they began rehabilitating a 19th-century house on what used to be a cattle ranch on the island. When they lifted it up to build a new foundation, they found stone tools that would have been used by Native Americans to hunt and fish on the island thousands of years ago. According to the Ventura County Star’s Cheri Carlson, the site's tools are representative of those made 8,000 to 13,000 years ago.

The Chumash, whose ancestors lived all over California’s coast and who relied on hunting, gathering and fishing for food, were the island’s original inhabitants.

When Spanish settlers reached the Channel Islands, disease wiped out many native inhabitants. Those who survived were forced to move to the mainland, where they lived in missions and were “loaned out to soldiers and settlers, any return for their labor going to the mission,” writes Campbell Grant in his book, Rock Paintings of the Chumash.

Carlson reports that Chumash representatives will rebury most of the artifacts, but will allow some pieces to be studied.

Will the newfound site disrupt the cultural preservation that was originally scheduled to take place on top of it? Not according to the National Park Service. “Our goal is to preserve both of these important and irreplaceable cultural

AVEBURY, ENGLAND MAY BE 800 YEARS OLDER THAN THUOUGHT

Live Science reports that a monument in Avebury, England, located about 23 miles away from Stonehenge, may be 800 years older than had been previously thought. The monument, which resembled a pair of eyeglasses outlined with tall, wooden posts, was first dated to 2500 B.C., or about the time that Stonehenge was built.

Researchers recently employed new radiocarbon-dating techniques on pottery, animal bones, and charred remains of posts found in the monument’s post holes to arrive at the new, older date.

“It’s much too large to be a stock enclosure; it’s got to be a ceremonial enclosure,” explained statistical archaeologist Alex Bayliss of Historic England. He thinks one enclosure may have been for men, and the other for women. Both were burned to the ground in what Bayliss called an “amazing spectacle.”

Few remains of human occupation from the time have been found in the area, but later, Neolithic housing has been uncovered, suggesting that people returned to the site after the fire. They may even have been involved with the construction of the nearby chalk mound known as Silbury Hill. For more, go to “Quarrying Stonehenge.”

WHY ISLAMIC STATE (IS) IS BLOWING UP ANCIENT ARTIFACTS

One of the many tragedies that have unfolded in the wake of the Islamic State (IS) is their smashing of statues and the destruction of ancient archaeological sites. Indeed, the rapid and terrifying advance of the IS has proved fatal for much invaluable heritage.

They toppled priceless statues at the Mosul Museum in northern Iraq. They used sledgehammers and power tools to deface giant winged-bull statues at Nineveh on the outskirts of Mosul. At Nimrud, IS detonated explosives, turning the site into a giant, brown, mushroom cloud. They used assault rifles and pickaxes to destroy invaluable carvings at Hatra; and at Palmyra in Syria they blew up the 2,000-year-old temples dedicated to the pagan gods Baal Shamin and Bel.

It’s difficult to interpret the unprecedented scale of this heritage destruction. The global media and politicians have tended to frame these events as random casualties of wanton terror or as moments of unrestrained barbarism.

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Director General Irina Bokova, for instance, reacted to the destruction of Nimrud by arguing that such attacks were underpinned by “propaganda and hatred”. There is, she said, “absolutely no political or religious justification for the destruction of humanity’s cultural heritage”.

However, in an article published recently in the International Journal of Heritage Studies, we argue that the acts of heritage destruction undertaken by IS are much more than mere moments of propaganda devoid of political or religious justification.We found that the heritage destruction wrought by IS was not only very deliberate and carefully staged, but underpinned by three specific and clearly articulated frameworks.

Theological

Firstly, the IS have gone to great theological (if selective) lengths to justify their iconoclasm. For example, an Al-Hayat film documenting the destruction at the Mosul Museum and Nineveh.

Historical

Secondly, the IS make frequent reference to key historical figures to justify their iconoclasm. These include the Prophet Abraham’s destruction of idols and the Prophet Muhammad’s iconoclasm at the Ka’ba, the centerpiece of Mecca’s mosque.

Political

Finally, and often overlooked, the IS have used political reasoning to justify the destruction. Such brash assertions made by IS clearly demonstrate that their heritage destruction cannot be dismissed as being simple propaganda. Instead, as we have shown, the heritage destruction undertaken by the IS are not only very carefully planned and executed, but also couched within a broader religious, historical and political framework that seeks to justify their violent iconoclasm.

Understanding the complex layers that drive such iconoclasm are a step towards developing better responses to the destruction of our shared cultural heritage.

OPEN AIR NEANDERTHAL SITE DISCOVERED IN ISRAEL

According to a report in The Times of Israel, a Neanderthal upper molar and Neanderthal lower limb bones have been found at a 60,000-year-old open-air site in northern Israel by an international team of scientists led by Ella Been of Ono Academic College and Erella Hovers of Hebrew University.

The lower limb bones were found in a layer that also contained flint tools, animal bones, marine shells, pigments, and deer antlers. It had been previously thought that Neanderthals lived primarily in caves, since that is where their remains are usually recovered. But the study suggests that Neanderthals repeatedly visited the open-air site, known as Ein Qashish, and thus had adapted to living in diverse environments by the time Homo sapiens arrived in the Near East.

DIGGING UP EVIDENCE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE'S EARLIEST INHABITANTS

This summer, the State Conservation and Rescue Archaeology Program—or SCRAP—will host a field school, in which volunteers can take up shovels and brushes to help uncover artifacts at two different dig sites. New Hampshire State Archaeologist Richard Boisvert will be directing field work this summer, and he spoke with NHPR's Peter Biello about SCRAP.

Describe for us these two archaeological sites that you’ll be digging into.

They’re quite different. The one in Jefferson, in the North Country, is a 12,000-year-old campsite that was used by people hunting caribou. What they left behind was small bits of stone, some arrangements of rocks for a fireplace or something like that, and it’s a rather subtle presence. It’s in the backyard of a bed and breakfast, and if you didn’t know the site was there, you wouldn’t have a clue.

The other project is in Livermore Falls, a state-owned forest. It’s located in the towns of Plymouth, Holderness, and Campton. This was an active place for industrial purposes for almost two hundred years. Because of the waterfalls there, it was used as a source of energy. One after another, mills would come in, they would thrive, they would go out of business in one way or another—some of them burned, some of the mills failed because of the economy and so forth—and eventually it went back to a near-natural state.

You can still see foundations of the mills and houses out there. It’s a history that we know in part, but there’s a lot that we don’t know.

In that first site, what kinds of things might you expect to find there?

We always hope to find the tools, particularly the spear points and the scrapers and so forth. We do routinely find them, but not in huge numbers.

This would be 12,000 years ago. They were ancestral to the Native Americans of the Northeast, including the Abenaki and all the other tribes. Because of the passage of time and groups moving in and out, they weren’t the sole ancestors of the Abenaki, but they were the first people to live on the landscape after the glacier left.
Archaeologists have uncovered rare 5,000-year old tools in Moscow during the city’s ongoing construction project to renovate pedestrian zones, the mayor’s office said recently.

The scientists discovered a silicic cutter from the Neolithic era or New Stone Age (5,000-3,000 BC) on Sretenka Street and a fragment of a scraper of the Mesolithic era or Middle Stone Age (7,000 BC) on Pokrovsky Boulevard.

"This ancient finding is very important for archaeologists. It confirms our theory that these territories had been developed as far back as pre-historic times. We understand that this area was inhabited by ancient peoples long before any streets and houses were built here," Head of Moscow’s Cultural Heritage Department Alexei Yemelyanov said.

The scientists believe the artifacts could have penetrated the much older cultural layers 400 or 500 years ago during digging efforts. Now specialists are studying the finding, which may be later handed over to a museum to be featured in exhibitions devoted to Moscow’s archaeology.

GETTY MUSEUM WILL RETURN MARBLE STATUETTE OF 1ST CENTURY BCTO ITALY HAS TO TO DO WITH MARION TRUE PROBLEMS

he J. Paul Getty Museum announced its intention to voluntarily return to Italy a marble statuette dating to the 1st century BC.The “Statue of Zeus Enthroned” is a 29-inch-high piece thought to have been Greek in origin. Getty Museum Director Timothy Potts said the Italian government came into possession of a fragment that it believed joined the sculpture at the Getty. Italian officials tested their theory on a visit to the museum in 2014.

“The fragment gave every indication that it was a part of the sculpture we had,” Potts said in an interview. “It came from the general region of Naples, so it meant this object had come from there.” This, coupled with the fact that there was no documentation of export, led to the decision to repatriate the statuette.

The sculpture is thought to have originally been housed in the private shrine of a rich Greek or Roman home. It appears to have spent a good deal of time in the ocean, as it is partially covered with marine incrustations.

The Getty purchased “Zeus Enthroned” from Americans Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman in 1992. The Times’ 1997 obituary for Lawrence Fleischman noted that the couple agreed to donate the bulk of their collection, valued at $60 million, to the Getty in 1996. The museum agreed to purchase another portion of the collection.

At that time “Zeus Enthroned” was acquired, the museum’s senior antiquities curator was Marion True, who was later indicted by the Italian government for conspiracy to traffic in illegal antiquities. True resigned from the museum in 2005, and in 2007 then-director Michael Brand announced the museum would return a number of disputed objects to Italy. Dozens have been repatriated to Italy and Greece, while prosecutors did not pursue the case against True.

The Getty’s policy is that when a foreign government submits compelling evidence that an object in its collection was put on the antiquities market illegally, the museum will seek to return the object.


SAUDI ARABIA PLANNING AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL FORUM


The SCTH will organize the three-day event in cooperation with the King Abdul Aziz Research Center (Darah), the ministries of municipal and rural affairs, culture and information, and education, and other government agencies. The forum will be under the umbrella of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Program for Care of Cultural Heritage.SCTH President Prince Sultan bin Salman said the event comes in the framework of care given by the king to all efforts related to national heritage.

It will involve local and foreign archeologists, workshops, initiatives and projects related to antiquities, Prince Sultan added.
The forum aims to raise public awareness of the importance of antiquities, to familiarize attendees with Saudi history, civilization and documentation of archeological work, and to make antiquities a community responsibility.

Papers will be presented spanning the pre-historic era up to the end of the 20th century. Workshops will address topics such as modern technologies in dealing with antiquities, the role of the media in awareness campaigns, antiquity protection and counterfeiting. There will also be specialized books and documentaries on antiquities

NEANDERTHALS AND HOMO SAPIENS CROSSED PATHS 40,000 YEARS AGO IN THE MORAVIA REGION OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

The International Business Times reports that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens may have crossed paths some 40,000 years ago in the Moravia region of the Czech Republic.

Duncan Wright of Australian National University said that he and his team recovered more than 20,000 artifacts from Pod Hradem Cave. The oldest layers of the cave, dating back to 50,000 years ago, contained artifacts made from local stone, but in the layer dating to about 40,000 years ago, they found a bead made from a mammal bone. Wright said the bead could signal the arrival of modern humans, who are thought to have entered Europe about 45,000 years ago.

Some of the artifacts in the cave dated to between 40,000 and 48,000 years ago were made of materials obtained more than 50 miles away. Could they have been crafted by Homo sapiens who had been exploring a new environment? Sediments from the cave will be tested for information about how the climate changed over time and for traces of Neanderthal and modern human DNA.

ArcheoNet BE

Oude liefde. Zorgen voor erfgoed

Deze week opende in het Provinciaal Erfgoedcentrum in Ename de nieuwe expo ‘Oude liefde. Zorgen voor erfgoed’. Deze tentoonstelling inspireert de bezoeker met allerlei initiatieven van particulieren, verenigingen en overheden om onroerend, varend en archeologisch erfgoed in Oost-Vlaanderen in stand te houden, en nodigt uit om de handen uit de mouwen te steken. Aan dit project werkten de verschillende erfgoeddiensten van de Provincie Oost-Vlaanderen. Het is een spiegel van de werking die zij de voorbije jaren hebben uitgebouwd en waar ze in de toekomst verder op inzetten. Meer info op www.oost-vlaanderen.be.

Compitum - publications

L. Borgies, Le conflit propagandiste entre Octavien et Marc Antoine

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Loïc Borgies, Le conflit propagandiste entre Octavien et Marc Antoine. De l'usage politique de la uituperatio entre 44 et 30 a. C. n., Bruxelles, 2016.

Éditeur : Latomus, 357
518 pages
ISBN : 978-90-429-3459-7
74 euros

En se criblant mutuellement d'origines obscures et dégradantes, de cruauté, de lâcheté, d'incompétence oratoire et littéraire, de débauches, de luxure, d'ivrognerie et autres traits infamants, Octavien et Marc Antoine, entre 44 et 30 a. C. n., tentèrent de démolir systématiquement l'image de leur adversaire politique respectif auprès de divers publics. Or, le rôle joué par ces invectives n'a pas encore suffisamment retenu l'attention de la recherche, ce qui est d'autant plus regrettable que le genre rhétorique de la uituperatio se prête à merveille à une utilisation critique du concept de propagande et remet en question la primauté généralement accordée aux émissions monétaires et à la poésie. Par sa structure tripartite, ce livre offre, pour la première fois, une vue globale de la uituperatio de cette période, analysée tour à tour selon les thèmes rhétoriques des invectives, les publics auxquels elle s'adresse, et les formes et les supports par lesquels elle est véhiculée. Il démontre que, par sa virulence et la vigueur de son expression, la uituperatio ne devient pas seulement une arme de guerre, mais préfigure aussi les fondements idéologiques du Principat augustéen.

Source : Peeters.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Dealer held "98% of objects without supporting documents": Sentenced in France


A 49-year old French collector-turned dealer sold 'archaeological objects of doubtful provenance' and remains of protected animal species on the Internet  between February 2013 and January 2017 in  Tanneron, near Draguignan in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, in southeastern France (G. D. , 'Il vendait des objets d'archéologie de provenance douteuse et des restes d'espèces animales protégées sur Internet' Varmatin 23/06/2017). Since he was unable to produce documentation of licit origins of the objects he stocked and sold, he got an eight months suspended sentence and fined 30,000 € for the possession, importation and sale on Internet of objects of archaeological interest and protected animal species. The authorities seized from his home a group of twelve thousand objects.
L'affaire est partie d'une plainte de la Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles (DRAC), qui a constaté sur son site la mise en vente de diverses pièces, principalement des lampes à huile, provenant d'un site de fouilles archéologiques, dans un centre antique des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, propriété de l'État, classée au titre des monuments historiques.
The dealer, M. Laurent sold a large quantity of archaeological objects (such as Gallic coins) that could have come from unauthorized excavations. There were also gold rings and other metal objects. His house had been searched in February 2016 and all suspect objects were seized then, but a second search last January showed that Laurent, despite being under investigation, had continued his activity. New seizures were made, bringing the number of objects seized to twelve thousand. The dealer was unable to produce evidence that the objects he had were legally obtained.

Pour justifier le fait qu'il n'avait pas été en mesure de produire les attestations de légalité, qu'il aurait dû exiger de la part des personnes auxquelles il avait acheté ces pièces, Laurent a expliqué qu'il se les était procurées auprès de professionnels reconnus, en toute confiance.
Yep, we know this one, in order to justify the fact that he had not been able to produce the certificates of legality which he should have required from the persons from whom he had bought these documents, Laurent explained that he had procured them from recognized professionals, in whom he had full confidence. But of course the court saw this matter differently and declared it unprofessional:
Insuffisant de la part d'un vendeur professionnel, a estimé le tribunal. Tout comme l'absence d'un livre de police, d'un livre d'achats et de recettes, d'un registre de vente d'or et d'autorisations douanières pour des objets du néolithique et du précolombien qu'il importait des États-Unis. Laurent n'a pas non plus pu présenter au tribunal les factures de ses acquisitions, ce qui a conduit le procureur Michael Darras à remarquer : "En fait vous détenez 98 % d'objets sans justificatifs." Impossible dès lors de prouver que les objets qu'il vendait n'étaient pas d'origine frauduleuse.
His defence lawyer, Mr. Ludovic Serée de Roch, used the tired old argument that while Monsieur Laurent had lacked rigour, especially from an accounting point of view, 'que des milliers d'objets circulaient en France depuis des siècles, dont on était incapable de justifier la provenance'. For him, his client was an accidental victim of a "complaint on principle" filed by the Drac, to counter international trafficking. According to him, the case is flawed because the authorities had not been able to give a precise place of origin for the objects in dispute, and the investigation had therefore been insufficient. He is planning to appeal this judgment.

In addition to objects of doubtful origin, this same dealer also handled trophies of animal species (such as a monkey skull and  jaws of the Nile crocodile) protected by the Washington Convention.

Hat tip, David Knell

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Regenerating Doctor Who Times Two

I just had a wild thought about the final part of the season finale of Doctor Who. Some have speculated that the Doctor is dying, given that he couldn’t use regeneration energy to cure his own blindness. Perhaps he used his own regeneration energy to save Missy from the execution machine. And so he may believe [Read More...]

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Tecnologie aerofotogrammetriche portano alla scoperta di una sconosciuta area archeologica nell’impero preincaico di Tiwanaku

Sensazionali scoperte sono state realizzate attraverso il volo di un drone operato dall’ufficio Unesco di Quito in Ecuador, in una area archeologica in corso di protezione. Tiwanaku, in Bolivia, uno dei punti nevralgici delle rotte degli Inca e ancora oggi sito spirituale per la cultura Aymara, ove si festeggia il capodanno aymara (nel 2017 = 5525) facendosi lambire dai raggi del Sole che all’alba del 21 giugno attraversano la famosa Puerta del Sol, trasportando una mitica energia.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

The Dealer and the Heritage Debate


Hans Memling, a man
with an earnest expression
 and silly hat holds an
archaeological artefact
'What happened to the Debate?' asks a US dealer and activist for the no-quewstions-asked antiquities trade. He thinks that the reason for there being a lack of debate is the fault of cultural property professionals:
After founding the Ancient Coin Collectors Guild in 2004, I started attending U.S. State Department hearings of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee (CPAC) in Washington DC.  My intention was to establish a dialogue with Archaeologists who opposed the 600-year tradition of private ownership of ancient coins and members of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs that was then becoming proactive in adding ancient coins to designated lists of material restricted from importation into the United States. 
Really? What kind of a 'dialogue' would that be, and about what? I would say that by authoring and publishing an article called 'Archaeology, a wolf in sheep\'s clothing' Sayles hardly made a start in establishing his credentials as somebody members of the discipline would want to talk with, and does nothing to show that he actually understands the point archaeologists are making - and without that understanding there is no debate.

The problem is that the CPAC is not in any way engaged in debating (still less opposed to)  'the 600-year tradition of private ownership of ancient coins'  (since 1404). That statement shows a clear misunderstanding about the role of the CPAC and the CCPIA.

As for the adding of ancient coins 'to designated lists of material restricted from importation into the United States', again the narrow focus of the dealer distorts his view of what the CCPIA does. Ancient coins are just as much archaeological artefacts as glass beads, bronze fibulae and all the rest when it comes to the pillaging of the cultural heritage of the country concerned. No manner of weak self-serving arguments conjured up by the coineys to suggest they and the things they collect are in any way 'exceptional;' will hold water.  Burt the very fact that they expect them to immediately makes them a tiresome partner in any form of debate ("yes, everybody else should follow the rules, of course, but not us"). They then go from that to calling into question what exactly US lawmakers really deep down in the back of their consciences had in mind when they wrote the CCPIA.

In fact, the CCPIA is only about undocumented artefacts/cultural property. It establishes the need to have documentation of the licit origins of items a dealer wants to import into the US. In true Disney-bred fashion, the requirements are not in fact onerous. But even for the no-questions-asked dealers Sayles represents, this is too much bother.

But then where is the debate? The CCPIA sets out a procedure for importing certain items into teh US, ACCG challenge this. Tha arguments are rather like the Russian delegation to a meeting to discuss the principles of exploiting mining minerals from the Moon demanding recognition of their claim to be exempt from the treaty because "Russian astronmers discovered the Moon in 1404".

Sayles quotes an anecdote which to his mind epitomises the arrogance of the professionals:

I had in fact sent a formal letter to Prof. Jane Waldbaum, then president of the Archaeological Institute of America, suggesting that our respective organizations had common interests and might explore areas of potential cooperation.  [...]  I never did receive a reply (in retrospect, no great surprise).  At one of the CPAC meetings about six months later, while waiting in the lobby for clearance to enter, I happened to recognize Professor Waldbaum standing alone in the room.  I walked over and introduced myself.  I mentioned that I had recently sent her a letter and wondered if she had received it.  She looked me straight in the eye and said "yes", then without another word, turned and walked away.  At that point, I had a pretty clear indication where we were headed. [...] I had by that time become fairly well recognized in the field of Numismatics as an author, publisher and collector advocate.  She knew very well who I was and who I represented. 

Indeed, and probably recognized that there was nothing she wanted to say to this impudent little man. We do not know which areas Sayles had presented the idea that his dealers' lobbying group shared any 'interests' with the AIA. Obviously it was not all that convincing - my guess is that it contained a reference to a 600-year tradition of doing it like in the fifteenth century, and this is in some way supposed to convince an upstart discipline like archaeology (though they are all wolves in sheep's clothing) that it is worth discussing things with the loony fringe of coin fondling.

I would say that what the story indicates is the arrogance of the dealers and their lobby, demanding exemption from measures to clean up the antiquities trade because they are in some undefinably unique way special, and also 'interested in the past (like archaeologists)'. that's a pretty pathetic arguing point - especially when it is intended to cut across and trump all other arguments about why we should clean up the antiquities market.

There is one area of potential co-operation from coin dealers and coin collectors which would interest us, and that involves only handling items with the documentation required to show individual items are of licit origins. No other offers of help or 'friendly advice;' from these clowns is needed. Ithink we all need to turn our backs on their whingeing until they actually get round to getting their house in order and cleaned up their corner of the market. When they've shown they can do it, we can co-operate. But co-operation will not be built on us saying: "all right, you lot carry on as if it was still the fifteenth century".

The coin dealers have worked hard to alienate themselves from any discussions of how to bring coin collecting kicking and screaming into the 21st century. Take for example the disgusting way they (Sayles and Tompa included) treated any suggestions by one of their own number, Nathan Elkins. I do not think we have to look very far from an answer to the question posed disingenuously by the ACCG, 'What happened to the debate?'. The ACCG happened to the debate.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Menorah engravings at Hierapolis

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/OifgT_FBEAk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Holtz, Die Nichtigkeit des Menschen und die Übermacht Gottes

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/hiEJvZhdOTw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Is Science Fiction Prophecy? Is Prophecy Science Fiction?

One of the questions I posed in my class on religion and science fiction last fall was about the relationship between prophecy and sci-fi. The key question is whether predicting the future and getting it right is the point of these two genres. On the one hand, if Jesus predicted the end of history and [Read More...]

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Tolan et al. (eds.), Religious Minorities in Christian, Jewish and Muslim Law

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/kiaZGS_K_yQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Questions for a US Dealer


A US dealer disapprovingly writes of the foreigners:
"The failure of governments and law enforcement in foreign lands to eliminate looting and wanton destruction ..."
Tell us, has your OWN government and law enforcement eliminated it in the US and territories under their control (eg Iraq in 2003)? Is there no wanton destruction of petroglyphs, ancient burial sites and sites producing collectable pots and lithic items in the US? To what do you attribute looting and destruction back at home, and is it in any way different to what happens in other lands driven by the same mechanisms? So how would you deal with it in the US?

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

A fourth review of Glinert, The Story of Hebrew

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/k4oqS7N-cEI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Compitum - publications

A. Alvar Nuño, Los usos de la magia entre los esclavos en el Imperio romano

ista_alvar_cadenas_invisibles_cover.jpg

Antón Alvar Nuño, Los usos de la magia entre los esclavos en el Imperio romano, Besançon, 2017.

Éditeur : Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté
Collection : Institut des sciences et techniques de l'Antiquité
224 pages
ISBN : 978-2-84867-585-5
20 €

 

Cet ouvrage s'attache à comprendre le rôle et les usages de la magie au quotidien par les esclaves dans le monde romain antique. Le livre porte une attention particulière à l'usage, positif et/ou négatif, de la magie dans les relations interpersonnelles. L'ouvrage s'appuie sur une lecture méthodologique des textes magiques qui tient compte des apports de diverses disciplines des sciences humaines dont la sociologie, l'anthropologie, les sciences des religions. Cette lecture permet de déconstruire les usages de la magie et montrer que les utilisateurs ne pensaient pas être dans une pratique hétérodoxe mais respecter leur foi religieuse par d'autres moyens. Pour les esclaves, c'étaient aussi le moyen d'intégrer le monde du religieux des maîtres dont ils étaient exclus.

Lire la suite...

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

International Art Market Helps Finance Terrorism, Experts Tell Congress



In the US, Officials from the State Department, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Smithsonian testified before the House Financial Services’s Terrorism and Illicit Finance Sub-Committee on Friday morning at a hearing dedicated to  'The Exploitation of Cultural Property: Examining Illicit Activity in the Antiquities and Art Trade' (Leo Doran, 'International Art Market Helps Finance Terrorism, Experts Tell Congress' Inside sources, June 24, 2017.
Knowingly or unknowingly, super-wealthy art collectors in the United States and Western Europe are propping up terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS through the purchase of looted cultural artifacts from war zones. The challenge for law-enforcement, customs officials, and art dealers is the opaque nature of the international art market. The longstanding problem of black and grey-market transactions among dealers and collectors famously led one critic, Robert Hughes, to declare “apart from drugs, art is the biggest unregulated market in the world.”
Brian Daniels, of the Smithsonian Institution and one of the expert witnesses invited to testify, added more details of hos the trade operates, including adding:
Indonesia, Thailand Singapore
experts have a rough sense of the path the stolen goods take before eventually ending up in private and public collections. Daniels testified that to his knowledge, most stolen art goods make their way to Southeast Asia, in countries like Indonesia, Thailand, or Singapore, before being distributed back to major art-trading centers like the U.S., Europe, China, and the Gulf States. Of particular concern to experts like Daniels is increasing cooperation between organized crime in Western countries and terrorist-linked smugglers. He noted an uptick in looting of archeological sites in Libya, which are then transferred to Europe through powerful organized crime syndicates like the ‘Ndrangheta in Southern Italy. The ‘Ndrangheta, or the Calabrian cousin of the Sicilian mafia, is the primary supplier of hard drugs like cocaine and heroin to most of continental Europe. The difficulty for art dealers is that without proper documentation explaining an object’s provenance, it is often extremely difficult to tell whether an object is being sold legally or illegally. 
So they handle it anyway. It seems that here is the crux of the matter. Dealers habitually ignore the risk (with no threat to their 'reputation'), instead of being sensitive to it. They cannot be bothered to obtain documentation of licit origins, as it is irrelevant to their purpose.
Further complicating the situation is a culture of secrecy that pervades the art world, which has, by tradition, awarded extraordinary privacy to buyers and sellers trading artworks at auction. Top auction houses, like Sotheby’s in the 1990’s have been accused of turning a blind eye to illegally stolen artworks and artifacts in order to pocket healthy commission fees
Law enforcement official Raymond Villanueva of the Homeland Security Department was another witness on the panel and 'highlighted a joint operation, Hidden Idols, which recently took down an art-crime ring in New York that was attempting to sell artifacts at Christie’s. Hmm, that's not the entire truth. The US only started an investigation into the gallery involved, operating openly under their noses for two decades, when the US dealer was arrested in Germany (reportedly after a tip-off by a jilted ex-girlfriend) and extradited to India, forcing the hand of the US authorities.
The panel also touched at times on instances of domestic art smuggling—in particular from traditional Native American burial grounds. Like the international crime rings, the experts indicated that they believe that the domestic illegal art trade is also often linked to organized drug trafficking, particularly in methamphetamine. 
The key point:
Unless they receive far more serious cooperation from the art community, the experts did not seem particularly optimistic that the illegal trade will be significantly curtailed in the near future.
And there would be no incentive for that collaboration if dealers and collectors had good grounds for a fear that is illicit sources were excluded, the market would cease to expand and dry up. Do they? 

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Cause

We find a strong “experiential correlation” (Tyler and Evans 2003, 32) between actions and the consequences that result from those actions (i.e. cause and effect): Causes are understood to precede their consequences. If one event immediately precedes another, it is only natural to conceive of the former as the cause and the latter as the effect.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Doctor Who: World Enough and Time

SPOILERS AHEAD! The episode begins with the Doctor exiting the TARDIS on a frozen landscape and beginning to regenerate, and shouting “No!” That’s certainly a dramatic way to lead into the first part of a season finale! After the credits, we see a 400-mile space ship trying to reverse away from a black hole. The [Read More...]

June 24, 2017

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

1170 volumes: High-quality OCR of polytonic, or 'ancient', Greek

 [First posted in AWOL 13 December 2013, updated 24 June 2017]


Lace: Greek OCR 

Overview

This site catalogues the results of our 2012/13 campaign to produce high-quality OCR of polytonic, or 'ancient', Greek texts in a HPC environment. It comprises over 600 volumes from archive.org and from original scans. There are over 6 million pages of OCR output in total, including experimental and rejected results.
Results are presented in a hierarchical organization, beginning with the archive.org volume identifier. Each of these are associated with one or more 'runs', or attempts at OCRing this volume. A run has a date stamp and is associated with a classifier and an aggregate best b-score (roughly indicating quality of Greek output.) Each run produces various kinds of output:
  1. raw hocr output: the data generated by our OCR process, usually with multiple copies for each page, rendered at a range of binarization thresholds
  2. selected hocr output: a filtered version of the data in (1), with each page image represented by a single, best, output page
  3. blended hocr output: the data in (2), but replaced with the corresponding words from the raw output in (1), should the selected page not comprise a dictionary word and one of the raw pages comprises one.
  4. selected hocr output spellchecked: the data in (3) processed through a weighted levenshtein distance spellchecking algorithm that is meant to correct simple OCR errors
  5. combined hocr output: where archive.org provides OCR output for Latin script (not Greek), this final step pieces together the data in (4) with archive's output, preferring archive's output where our output suggests that the data is Latin. If archive.org provides Greek output, this step is no different from (4)

Code

All code and classifiers for Rigaudon are posted in a github repository. This holds the modified Gamera source code, ancillary python scripts such as the spellcheck engine, and the bash scripts that coordinate the process in a HPC environment through Sun Grid Engine.
Details of its operation are outlined in a white paper.
Our July 2013 presentation at the London Digital Classicist seminar series is available online from the Institue of Classical Studies.

Context

This is a continuation of efforts begun through the Digging Into Data Round I project Toward Dynamic Variorum Editions, in which -- as the project white paper notes -- we discovered both the tantalizing potential of Greek OCR and the poor results that OCR engines at that time produced when operating at scale.
In order to bootstrap that process, we adapted the most extensible and successful of the frameworks to that date, the Gamera Greek OCR engine by Dalitz and Brandt. Using the AceNET HPC environment we analyzed a sample of the Google Greek and Latin corpus with twenty classifiers composed by Canadian undergraduate students. From this, we produced a quantitative report on the efficacy of our modified OCR code.
On the basis of this work, we received a 2012/2013 Humanities Computing Grant from Compute Canada, making this large-scale processing possible.

Support

This work has benefited from the support of:
  • NEH, JISC, SSHRC, though Digging into Data I
  • Compute Canada, which provided the use of a dedicated machine
  • ILC-CNR, Pisa, which facilitated meetings
  • Greg Crane, whose supportiveness is as unbounded as his enthusiasm
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1170 Texts

(1916-18). The Greek anthology 3

(1916). The Greek anthology 4

(1916-18). The Greek anthology 2

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 2, pt.1

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 2, pt.2

(1916). The Greek anthology 1

(1888). Corpusculum poesis epicae graecae ludibundae 1

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 1, pt.1

(1916-18). The Greek anthology 5

(1863). Patrum apostolicorum quae supersunt ... 1

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 3, pt.1

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 2, pt.3

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 20

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 1, pt.2

(1882). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae .. 3, pt.2

(1863). Patrum apostolicorum quae supersunt ... 2

(). Genesis graece: E fide editionis sixtinae addita scripturae discrepantia e ...

(). Scholia in Sophoclis tragoedias vetera

(1867). Grammatici graeci recogniti et apparatv critico instrveti..

(1867). Grammatici graeci recogniti et apparatv critico instrveti..

Abbott, Edwin Abbott, 1838-1926 (1906). Johannine grammar

Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill, 1829-1913 (1909). A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and to the Colossians

Abbott-Smith, George (1922). A manual Greek lexicon of the New Testament

Achilles Tatius et al. (1917). Achilles Tatius, with an English translation by S. Gaselee

Adami, Fridericus (1900). De poetis scaenicis graecis hymnorum sacrorum imitatoribus

Aelian, Demetrius Pepagomenus, Pisida Georgius, Rudolf Hercher (1864). Claudii Aeliani De natura animalium libri XVII: Varia historia, Epistolae ...

Aelian, 3rd cent et al. (1864-66). De animalium antura libri 17, Varia historia, Epistolae fragmenta, ex recognitione Rudolphi Hercheri. Accedunt rei accip 2

Aelius Herodianus (). Rhetores Graeci (Herodian) 3

Aeschylus (1914). Aeschyli tragoediae edidit Udalricus de Wilamowitz-Moellenderff

Aeschylus et al. (1930). Aeschylus, with an English translation by Herbert Weir Smyth 2

Aeschylus et al. (1922). Septem ad Thebas. Edidit Henricus Weil

Aeschylus et al. (1920). Eschyle, texte établi par Paul Mazon 1

Aeschylus et al. (1908). Hepta epi Thebas. The seven against Thebes. With introd., critical notes, commentary, translation and a recension of the

Aeschylus et al. (1852). Tragoediae. Recensuit Godofredus Hermannus 01

Aeschylus et al. (1908). Eumenides. Eumenides, with an introd. commentary and translation

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Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (1882-1909). Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca. Edita consilio et auctoritate Academiae litterarum regiae borussicae 07

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Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (1885). Supplementum Aristotelicum. Editum consilio et auctoritate Academiae Litterarum Regiae Borussicae 1

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Johan Ludvig Heiberg , Ptolemy, Franz Boll , Ae. Boer, Friedrich Lammert, Claudius Ptolemaeus (1903). Claudii Ptolemaei Opera quae exstant omnia ...

Johan Ludvig Heiberg , Ptolemy, Franz Boll , Friedrich Lammert , Ae. Boer, Claudius Ptolemaeus (1903). Claudii Ptolemaei Opera quae exstant omnia ...

Johan Ludvig Heiberg , Ptolemy, Franz Boll , Friedrich Lammert , Ae. Boer, Claudius Ptolemaeus (1898). Claudii Ptolemaei Opera quae exstant omnia ...

Johann Ludwig Heiberg , Pappus, Eutocius , Apollonius (1891). Apollonii Pergaei quae graece exstant cum commentariis antiquis

Johannes Ilberg (1888). De Galeni vocum Hippocraticarum glossario

Johannes Marinus Simon Baljon (1884). De tekst der brieven van Paulus ann de Romeinen, de Corinthiërs en de ...

Johannes Marinus Simon Baljon (1898). Novum Testamentum graice 1

Johannes Rumpel (1883). Lexicon Pindaricum

John Chrysostom, Saint, d. 407 (1845). Sancti Patris Nostri Joannis Chrysostomi ... Interpretatio omnium epistolarum Paulinarum per homilias facta 1

John Chrysostom, Saint, d. 407 et al. (1906). De sacerdotio of St. John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom, Saint, d. 407 et al. (1835). Opera omnia quae exstant, vel quae ejus nomine circumferuntur : ad MSS. codices gallicanos, vaticanos, anglicanos, germa 1

John Chrysostom, Saint, d. 407 et al. (1835-1839). Opera omnia quae exstant, vel quae ejus nomine circumferuntur : ad MSS. codices gallicanos, vaticanos, anglicanos, germa 6

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1887). Opera 6

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1887). Opera 4

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1888). Flavii Iosephi Opera omnia. Post Immanuelem Bekkerum recognovit Samuel Adrianus Naber 2

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1888). Flavii Iosephi Opera omnia. Post Immanuelem Bekkerum recognovit Samuel Adrianus Naber 1

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1888). Flavii Iosephi Opera omnia. Post Immanuelem Bekkerum recognovit Samuel Adrianus Naber 4

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1888). Flavii Iosephi opera omnia 3

Josephus, Flavius et al. (1888-96). Flavii Iosephi Opera omnia. Post Immanuelem Bekkerum recognovit Samuel Adrianus Naber 6

Julian, Karl Johannes Neumann (1880). Iuliani imperatoris librorum contra Christianos quae supersunt

Julian, Emperor of Rome, 331-363 et al. (1913-23). Works. With an English translation by Wilmer Cave Wright 2

Julian, Emperor of Rome, 331-363 et al. (1913-23). Works. With an English translation by Wilmer Cave Wright 1

Julian, Emperor of Rome, 331-363 et al. (1913-23). Works. With an English translation by Wilmer Cave Wright 3

Julian, Emperor of Rome, 331-363 et al. (1922). Epistulae, leges, poematia, fragmenta varia. Collegerunt recensverunt I. Bidez et F. Cumont

Julius Sommerbrodt (1861). Luciani codicum Marcianorum lectiones

Justin, Martyr, Saint et al. (1911). The Apologies of Justin Martyr

Justinianus I, Flavius Anicius, the Great, emperor of Constantinople and Rome, 483-565 (1881). Imp. Justiniani Pp. A. novellae quae vocantur, sive, Constitutiones quae extra codicem supersunt ordine chronologico dig 3

K. L. Struve , Carolus Ludovicus Struve, Jacob Theodor Struve (1854). Caroli Ludovici Struve ... Opuscula selecta 1

Karl Ludwig (1888). Pluti Aristophaneae utram recensionem veteres grammatici dixerint priorem ...

Karl Müller , Philologue (1855). Geographi graeci minores

Karl Otfried Müller (1861). Geographi graeci minores.E codicibus recognovit prolegomenis annotatione ... 2

Karl Schenkl (1877). A First Greek Course: Containing Delectus, Exercise-book and Vocabularies Adapted to the Greek ...

Kebes (1871). Cebetis Tabula

Kendrick, A. C. (Asahel Clark), 1809-1895 (1851). Greek Ollendorff; being a progressive exhibition of the principles of the Greek grammar: designed for beginners in Greek

Kinkel, Gottfried, 1844-1891 (1877). Epicorum graecorum fragmenta : vol. 1

Kinkel, Gottfried, 1844-1891 (1877). Epicorum graecorum fragmenta 1

Kock, Theodor, 1820-1901 (1880-88). Comicorum atticorum fragmenta 2

Kock, Theodor, 1820-1901 (1880-88). Comicorum atticorum fragmenta 3

Kock, Theodor, 1820-1901 (1880-88). Comicorum atticorum fragmenta 1

Koster, Willem John Wolff, 1896- (1922). Tractatus graeci de re metrica inediti;

Lagarde, Paul de, 1827-1891 (1868). Genesis Graece. E fide ed. sixtinae addita scripturae discrepantia a libris manu scriptis a se ipso conlatis et editonib

Lake, Kirsopp (1913). Apostolic Fathers 2

Lake, Kirsopp, 1872-1946 (1919). The Apostolic fathers : with an English translation 1

Lake, Kirsopp, 1872-1946 (1912). The Apostolic fathers 2

Lake, Kirsopp, 1872-1946 (1912-1913). The Apostolic fathers

Lake, Kirsopp, 1872-1946 (1919). The Apostolic fathers : with an English translation 1

Leonhard von Spengel , Adolph Roemer (1885). Rhetores graeci 1

Lesbonax (Rhetorician) et al. (1906). Lesbonactis sophistae quae supersunt ad fidem librorum manuscriptorum

Libanios, Eberhard Richtsteig, Richardus Foerster (1906). Libanii Opera;

Libanios, Eberhard Richtsteig, Richardus Foerster (1903). Libanii Opera;

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 7

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 9

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 3

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 2

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 10

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 1, pt. 2

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 5

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 6

Libanius (1903-63). Opera. Recensuit Richardus Foerster 1, pt.1

Libanius (). Libanii opera Vol. 11

Libanius et al. (1903). Libanii Opera; 4

Libanius et al. (1903). Opera 11

Libanius et al. (1903). Opera 11

Lightfoot, Joseph Barber, 1828-1889 (1914). Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians

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Lindsay, W. M. (Wallace Martin), 1858-1937 et al. (1888). Corpus glossariorum latinorum 07

Lindsay, W. M. (Wallace Martin), 1858-1937 et al. (1888). Corpus glossariorum latinorum 04

Lipsius (). Acta apostolorum apocrypha

Lobeck, Christian August, 1781-1860. [from old catalog] (1846). Rhe?matikon; sive, Verborum graecorum et nominum verbalium technologia;

Lobeck, Christian August, 1781-1860. [from old catalog] (1846). Rhematikon; sive, Verborum graecorum et nominum verbalium technologia;

Lobeck, Christian August, 1781-1860. [from old catalog] (1837). Paralipomena grammaticae graecae scripsit Chr. Augustus Lobeck ..

Lock, Walter, 1846-1933 (1924). A critical and exegetical commentary on the Pastoral epistles (I & II Timothy and Titus)

Longinus, 1st cent et al. (1907). Longinus on the sublime : the Greek text

Longus et al. (1916). Daphnis & Chloe. With the English translation of George Thornley, rev. and augm. by J.M. Edmonds. The love romances of P

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1913-1967). Lucian 3

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1852). Opera. Ex recognitione Caroli Iacobitz. [Text in Greek.] 3

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1913-1967). Lucian 2

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1913-1967). Lucian 1

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1913). Lucian 4

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1852). Opera. Ex recognitione Caroli Iacobitz. [Text in Greek.] 1

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1852). Opera. Ex recognitione Caroli Iacobitz. [Text in Greek.] 2

Lucian, of Samosata et al. (1913). Lucian 5

Lucianus (1886). Lucianus 1

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Lycophron et al. (1880). Lycophronis Alexandra

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Lykurgos, Carolus Scheibe (1902). Oratio in Leocratem

Lysias et al. (1901). Lysiae Orationes recensuit Theodorus Thalheim. Editio maior

Lysias, Martin Erdmann (1881). Pseudolysiae Oratio funebris

Lünemann, Gotlieb, 1819-1894 (1880). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistles to the Thessalonians

Manetho, Dorotheus (1858). Manethonis Apotelesmaticorum qui feruntur libri vi, relegit A. Koechly ...

Manetho, the astrologer et al. (1858). Apotelesmaticorum qui feruntur libri VI;

Manetho. Spurious and doubtful works. [from old catalog] et al. (1858). Apotelesmaticorum qui feruntur libri VI. Relegit Arminius Koechly 10; v. 14; v. 17

Manethon, Annubio (1858). Manethonis Apotelesmaticorum qui feruntur libri VI. 10; v. 14; v. 17

Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome, 121-180 et al. (1908). M. Antoninus imperator ad se ipsum; recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit I.H. Leopold

Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome, 121-180 et al. (1882). Commentariorum quos sibi ipsi scripsit libri XII

Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome, 121-180 et al. (1913). Markou Antninou autokratoros Tn eis heauton biblia 12. Marci Antonini imperatoris in semet ipsum libri 12. Recognovit He

Marcus Diaconus et al. (1895). Marci Diaconi Vita Porphyrii, episcopi gazensis

Matthiae, August, 1769-1835 et al. (1832). A copious Greek grammar 2

Max Wundt (1903). De Herodoti elocutione com sophistarum comparata ...

Maximus of Tyre (). Maximi Tyrii Philosophumena

Mayser, Edwin, 1859-1937 (1923-). Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemäerzeit; mit Einschluss der gleichzeitigen Ostraka und der in Ägypten ve 1

Mayser, Edwin, 1859-1937 (1923-). Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemäerzeit; mit Einschluss der gleichzeitigen Ostraka und der in Ägypten ve 2, pt.1

McCown, Chester Charlton, b. 1877. Testament of Solomon. 1922 (1922). The Testament of Solomon, edited from manuscripts at Mount Athos, Bologna, Holkham Hall, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Paris

Meineke, August, 1790-1870 (1839). Fragmenta comicorum graecorum 3

Mekler, Siegfried, 1852-1912 (1902). Academicorum philosophorum index herculanensis. Edidit Segofredus Mekler

Menander (1972). Menandri Reliquiae Selectae

Menander (1972). Menandri Reliquiae Selectae

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Metrodorus, of Lampsacus, d. 277 B.C et al. (1890). Metrodori Epicurei Fragmenta collegit scriptoris incerti Epicurei Commentarium moralem, subiecit Alfredus Koerte

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1880). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Epistle to Philemon

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1877). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistles to the Corinthians. Translated from the 5th ed. of the German ... the t 7:2

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1877). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistles to the Corinthians. Translated from the 5th ed. of the German ... the t 7:1

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1877). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Acts of the Apostles 2

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1877). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Acts of the Apostles 1

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1874). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Gospel of John 2

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 (1881). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Gospel of John 1

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1873). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistle to the Galatians ... 9

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1875). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistles to the Philippians and Colossians 11

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1874). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistle to the Romans 6:2

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1881). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Epistle to the Romans 1

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1880). Critical and exegetical hand-book to the Gospel of Matthew 1

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1800-1873 et al. (1884). Critical and exegetical hand-book to the Gospels of Mark and Luke

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1860-1873 (1877). Critical and exegetical handbook to the Gospel of Matthew ... tr. from the 6th ed. of the German by ... Peter Christie ; 2

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm, 1880-1873 (1893). Critical and exegetical hand-book to the Gospels of Mark and Luke ... 2

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Nicoll, W. Robertson (William Robertson), Sir, 1851-1923 ([1897?-1910?]). The expositor's Greek Testament 4

Nicoll, W. Robertson (William Robertson), Sir, 1851-1923 ([1897?-1910?]). The expositor's Greek Testament

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Swete, Henry Barclay, 1835-1917. ed (1893). The Akhmîm fragment of the Apocryphal Gospel of St. Peter

Syme?n S?th, Simeon Sethus (1868). Simeonis Sethi Syntagma de alimentorum facultatibus

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Thackeray, H. St. J. (Henry St. John), 1869?-1930 (1909-). A grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint 1

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Theophrastus; Augustus Mayer (). Theophrasti Peri Lexeos libri fragmenta 1

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Zahn, Theodor, 1838-1933 et al. (1909). Introduction to the New Testament 1

Zahn, Theodor, 1838-1933 et al. (1909). Introduction to the New Testament 2

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[Abraham] (1892). Testament of Abraham

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

Learning to be a librarian

This is not just a first world problem. It’s a first world ACADEMIC  problem. So please take it in the sense it is meant.

We have just built a new bit of book-shelf extension onto the house (thanks to the excellent Henry Freeland, Andrew Turner and Bob Button — all of whom, if you want to know, are highly recommended). The fact is that I have two shared offices half full of books, and every floor in the house is piled high. So now is the moment to take action (I am thinking about retirement when those two half-offices no longer exist) and to put the old books on the new shelves. The fact is that we are now coming to see what librarians have been working on, and trying to sort out, for centuries.

First of all, how do we manage between us (husband and me) to have so many duplicates or triplicates. When I bought (cheaply) a second-hand of the 2003 National Gallery Titian Exhibition a few weeks ago, did I not realise that we had two already (no, because they were in those unsorted piles on the floor)?

But just as pressing is the size and shape of the books. We are well used to the Cambridge University Library system of classification by size (from ‘a’ big, to ‘d’ small), but it does seem a bit self-aggrandizing to do that at home. All the same, even when you try to do it in a small way, you get clobbered.

I can’t tell you how many series of books have changed their size (that must really irritate the UL. So you start putting Penguin Classics (or Cambridge ‘Green and Yellows’) onto their own perfectly appropriately sized shelf….then ffs you discover that a few years ago they get bigger and don’t fit. Meanwhile, the Journal of Roman Archaeology and the Journal of Roman Studies have downsized, and didn’t actually need those supersized shelves allocated.

And that is before you get to all those knotty questions of classification. Does a book about the nineteenth-century history of Pompeii go with archaeology or classical reception? Blow me if I know…

… but I do know that I cant retire till I get these books sorted (I have 5 years to go, and on this rate of progress it will take me that long to have a decent few shelves).

If I have ever poured scorn on the librarian’s skill, this is the time for me to eat humble pie.

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 7 – part 2

Let’s carry on with Old Testament narratives from the time of Daniel.  It would interesting to know if any Persian sources were used for any of this.

5. After him, his son Awīl Marūdakh[1] reigned for twenty-three years.  He released Yahūnākhīm, king of the Israelites, from prison, and put on him the garments of honour, and treated him with every respect, and set free all the prisoners of Israel.  In Egypt the prophet Irimiyah[2] was stoned to death and was buried.  It is said that when Alexander entered Egypt, he brought the body of the prophet Irimiya to Alexandria and buried it there.  Awīl Marūdakh died.

6.  After him, his son Baltāssar reigned for three years and was killed. After he had eaten and drunk with his companions, and having become drunk, he had brought in the gold and silver vessels of the temple that his grandfather Bakhtanassar had taken away from Ūrashalīm[3] and drank from them, ordering his companions to do likewise.  But while he slept in the room, behold he saw the fist of a hand move on the wall, and the fingers of the hand write.  He was greatly frightened, and gathered together the wise men of Bābil, to read the writing and explain it.  But they did not succeed.  They said to the king, “There is here an Israelite named Dāniyāl whom your grandfather Bakhtanassar highly honoured and held in great consideration.  He will read it to you, and explain this to you”.  The king then summoned Dāniyāl.  Dāniyāl read the writing and recited the writing as follows: “Mānī. Thākāl. Fārās”. Then he said: “Mānī means ‘God has made your kingdom perfect and great.’ Thākāl means ‘The kingdom, already perfect, is destined to end’ and Fārās means ‘Your kingdom will be divided between the Medes and the Persians'”.  The king gave a mantle of honour to Dāniyāl and put a gold collar on his neck.  That same night, King Baltāssar was killed.

7. Then Dāriyūsh, son of Asrīr, the Mede, that is, of the house of Mādānī, reigned after him for a single year.  He took Dāniyāl and appointed him chief of his soldiers.  But his generals were jealous, and sought to discredit him in the eyes of the king, saying, “Dāniyāl is marching against the king with the intent of killing him”.  The king then cast Dāniyāl into a pit full of hungry lions.  Then, on his own, the next day he removed Dāniyāl from the pit.  The lions had not touched him.  The king felt very afraid, and threw in the pit the generals who had slandered him, and they were all devoured by the lions.  The king reconfirmed Dāniyāl as chief of his soldiers, and supreme organizer of his army.

8.  On the death of Dāriyūsh, the kingdom passed into the hands of the Persians.  The first Persian to reign was Kūrish the Persian.[4]  He also appointed Dāniyāl as chief of the army.  There was in Bābil a huge bronze idol called Bīl.[5]  To this idol there was offered daily twelve “makkūk” [6] of flour, forty rams and six divine measures.  Every day the king prostrated himself and worshipped the idol.[7]  But Dāniyāl responded, saying, “The servants of the idol are those who eat what is given to them as a daily ration”.  The king then called the servants, threatened them and confirmed [what Dāniyāl had said to him].  The king then ordered the demolition of the idol and that the servants should be put to death.

There was also, in Bābil, a great snake that the people of the city worshiped.  Dāniyāl said to the king: “Give me permission, and I will kill it.”  Dāniyāl then took some sausage, some pitch, and some hair, kneaded them together and fed them to the serpent.  As soon as the snake ate this, it died. When the inhabitants of Bābil saw what Dāniyāl had done, they were angry and sought to discredit him in the king’s eyes, saying: “Dāniyāl wants to kill you”.  The king was irritated with him, and threw him into a pit full of hungry lions, where he remained for six days.  The lions were given food, daily, of two bulls, and two rams. But during those six days, no meat was given to the lions.  In the land of Judah, in a place called Tiqwa‘, there was the prophet Habaqūq.[8]  He was cooking lentils and prepared a soup in a bowl to feed the harvesters.  But an angel from heaven called to him and said to him, “Habaqūq, bring the food you have with you to Dāniyāl in Bāhil.  He has been in the pit of the lions for six days and has not eaten any food”.  Then the angel of God grabbed the prophet Habaqūq by his hair and brought him to Bābil with the food that he had.  [Habaqūq] appeared at the pit where Dāniyāl was, called to him, and said to him: “Dāniyāl, I am Habaqūq.  God has sent me to you with food for you to eat”.  Dāniyāl came out of the pit, ate and praised God, then went back down into the pit.  The angel then took Habaqūq and brought him back to the land of Judah.  Then the king repented of what he had done to Dāniyāl and ordered them to pull him out of the pit.  The lions had not touched him.  The king was surprised, and restored to Dāniyāl the post of chief of the army.  The reign of Kūrish the Persian lasted for three years.[9]  Then he died.

9. After him reigned Akhshūwīrus for twelve years.  After him reigned his son Kūrish, known as Dāriyūs, for thirty years.  In the first year of his reign, Dāniyāl the prophet died.  In the second year of his reign he ordered the Israelites to return to Ūrashalīm and to [re]build the city and the temple.  This was because Kūrish the Persian had married an Israelite named Malihāt, sister of Zurūbābil, and made her queen according to the Persian custom.  Kūrish loved her very much and when she asked him to return the Israelites to Ūrashalīm with her brother Zurūbābil, the king agreed.  So Kūrish ordered Zurūbābil to reign at Ūrashalīm.  In his days prophesied Anagua[10] and Zakariya, son of Hağliyah.  He was the Ra’s al-Ğālūth[11] and he was entrusted with the task of [re]building the temple.  There was with him Izra, son of Sirāyā, the priest, and a multitude of the Israelites.  From the captivity of Bābil to the [re]building of the Temple seventy years had passed.  The construction lasted four years.  Zurūbābil, son of Salātiyil, son of Akhiyah, known as Yahūnākhīm, king of Judah, whom Bakhtanassar had deported and put into prison, waited for the construction.  Zurūbābil reigned over the Israelites at Ūrashalīm.  One year after the temple was rebuilt, the priest, `Izrā, died.  He had been a priest before the arrival of Yūsha, son of the priest Yahūsādūq,[12] and seeing the Jews commit many errors against the Torah, he wrote for them the Torah that they currently have.  He reformed the dictates of their law and taught them their religion.  Kūrish-Dāriyūsh, king of Bābil, died.

  1. [1]Or Evil-Merodach, as our bibles memorably label him.
  2. [2]Jeremiah.
  3. [3]Jerusalem
  4. [4]Cyrus.
  5. [5]Baal.
  6. [6]A makkuk is about 55 litres of dry material.
  7. [7]I wonder if something is missing from the text after this sentence – it reads as if someone accused Daniel, who then replies.
  8. [8]The biblical account does not mention that Habakuk lived at Tecoa, modern Khirbet Tiqwa‘.
  9. [9]Much longer in reality; from 559-530 BC.
  10. [10]Haggai.
  11. [11]“27. The wording is obscure and very difficult to interpret.” – Pirone.  It looks like a title, like “Reis” i.e. “overseer”, to me.
  12. [12]The actions of Joshua son of Yozadak are referred to in the books of Esdras and Haggai.

José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

Resolviendo una metáfora

Me he enganchado a una versión de Fly me to the Moon. Rock Hale y Breea Guttery la mezclan con la canción Lucky de Jason Mraz. Y filólogo redomado, he caído en la cuenta de que la primera estrofa de este clásico del jazz contiene una hermosa metáfora…

Shawn Graham (Electric Archaeology)

Epoiesen: Call for Respondents

I’m hoping to get Epoiesen unveiled in time for the autumn. You remember Epoiesen . Part of the idea is that we don’t do traditional peer review, but rather ask reviewers to be ‘Respondents’, who react to the piece in a short creative work on their own. We seek out at least two ‘Respondents’ (ideally) for every submission. The ‘Responding to…’ will itself be published with its own citation, DOI, etc. A response explores how the piece moves the responder, or puzzles her, or sparks new thoughts – a ‘Response’ is meant to become the starting point for a larger discussion that would take place via the site’s annotation framework (readers can annotate any piece of text on the site using Hypothes.is), across the blogosphere, and beyond.

I am currently looking for ‘Respodents’ for a photo essay that explores maps and place; an interactive fiction exploring academic publishing; and a twitter essay on creativity. If you are interested, please email me at shawn dot graham at carleton dot ca or send me a DM on twitter (@electricarchaeo).

There will be more pieces coming in over the summer; if you are interested in being in the pool of Respondents, please email me with an indication of the areas you think you might like to explore with us.

Cheers!


Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: The Evangelical Quarterly

The Evangelical Quarterly
ISSN: 0014-3367
Table of Contents produced in co-operation with Paternoster Publishing. The Evangelical Quarterly was first published in 1929 and continues to the present day. To subscribe: click here if you live in the USA or Canada and here if you live in the UK or anywhere else.
 
Back-issues are available from 2009 onwards from the Publisher [periodicals(at)alphagraphics.co.uk]. On-line articles appear by permission of the copyright holder. From Volume 81 onwards there will be a 5 year delay before articles appear on-line.
Vols. 1 - 9 (1929-1937)
Vols. 10 - 19 (1938-1947)
Vols. 20 - 29 (1948-1957)
Vols. 30 - 39 (1958-1967)
Vols. 40 - 49 (1968-1977)
Vols. 50 - 59 (1978-1987)
Vols. 60 - 69 (1988-1997)
Vols. 70 - 79 (1998-2007)
Vols. 80 - (2008 - 2017)

Coming Soon: The Library of Digital Latin Texts (LDLT)

The Library of Digital Latin Texts (LDLT)
Submitted by sjhuskey on June 22, 2017.
Within the next year, the Digital Latin Library, in partnership with the Society for Classical Studies, the Medieval Academy of America, and the Renaissance Society of America, will launch The Library of Digital Latin Texts (LDLT), a series of digital critical editions of Latin texts from all eras. The DLL will provide the encoding guidelines, infrastructure, and platform for publishing these texts, and the learned societies will be responsible for receiving submissions, reviewing them, and deciding whether or not to publish them. Policies and procedures for this endeavor are still in development, but it seems worthwhile in the meantime to explain what we mean by “digital edition” so that prospective editors can begin preparing submissions.

The term “digital edition” has been applied to a wide variety of projects, from simple web pages with just a text and some notes to multimedia projects that include transcriptions of multiple manuscripts, digital images of manuscripts and editions, visual representations of textual data, links to other resources (e.g., maps, encyclopedias, etc.), special tools for reading and analysis, and other features. For examples, browse Greta Franzini’s Catalogue of Digital Editions. This capacious meaning of “digital edition” allows scholars to design, build, and publish resources that highlight the special characteristics of certain texts, but it also complicates the implementation of uniform criteria for the evaluating projects and the development of reliable, stable outlets for their publication. It also frustrates efforts to query, compare, and reuse information from multiple projects, since the data is stored in any number of formats.

Trying to accommodate every vision for a multimedia edition would rapidly exhaust the DLL’s resources and practically guarantee that the LDLT would be a repository of unique, isolated projects. Instead, we aim to publish a uniform collection of texts that can be stored, retrieved, viewed, queried, and analyzed with reliable, predictable results. Since the LDLT will provide a platform for publishing many texts of many different kinds (e.g., prose, poetry, fragments, etc.), we have opted to focus on providing high quality texts and the features commonly found in traditional critical editions, i.e., a preface, an apparatus criticus, an apparatus fontium et testium, and indices. In addition, we have made provisions for including the sort of material traditionally published separately as critical notes or extended textual commentary. Anything beyond this set is considered outside of the scope of the LDLT itself, but—and this is important—that does not preclude the use of LDLT data for more specialized projects.

Although we are sacrificing some features of digital editions for the sake of standardization and uniformity, LDLT editions nevertheless provide a host of useful features within the DLL environment, and their open availability encourages the development of still more. The DLL’s web-based “reading room” is one example of a feature-rich environment. For example, users can view the text with an inline, interactive critical apparatus that allows them to swap variant readings in and out of the text to evaluate them in situ. Filters allow users to decide for themselves what kind of information is displayed in the apparatus. If orthographical variants are not of interest, they can be removed from the display. The same goes for morphological and lexical variants. Sigla for manuscripts are linked to manuscript descriptions in the preface so that readers always have ready access to that information. Names of scholars cited in the apparatus are linked to items in the bibliography so that there will not be any confusion about the citation. In some cases, the bibliography will link to a digital version. Thanks to our collaboration with the Open Philology Project, the Alpheios reading aids have been updated and implemented so that definitions and morphological analysis are available by clicking on a word in the text. The DLL also has a downloadable application for working with sophisticated visualizations of the information in LDLT editions.

All of this is possible because LDLT editions are not just text files. They are, in fact, databases. Specifically, they are XML files encoded according to guidelines that we have developed specifically for critical editions. For the sake of reliability and stability, the guidelines are based on the standard established by the Text Encoding Initiative. A pre-release version of the encoding guidelines is available at  https://digitallatin.github.io/guidelines/LDLT-Guidelines.html. We understand that working with XML may be intimidating or daunting for some. That is why we are developing some tools for converting text files to XML with minimal need for working directly with the raw code.

Since LDLT editions are databases, their information can be used and reused in a variety of ways. The reading room described above is an example. Since it allows readers to manipulate the edition’s data, it cannot be said to be the edition. Rather, it is only a presentation of the edition’s data. Similarly, users may analyze an edition’s data with our data visualization application, but the visualizations themselves are not part of the edition unless an editor has incorporated a specific one into the edition for illustrative purposes. As editions are added to the LDLT, the LDLT itself will become a database that users can query not just for philological analysis, but also for information about people and places mentioned in the texts.

But those are just examples of how the DLL uses the data from LDLT editions. Our definition of a digital edition does not preclude the use of LDLT edition data as the basis for more elaborate multimedia projects that are beyond the scope of the LDLT. Indeed, since LDLT data will be openly available, anyone may reuse it as the basis for other projects, provided that the source is acknowledged in accordance with the open license under which the data has been published. In this way, LDLT data can serve multiple purposes.

The guidelines for submissions to the LDLT should be available soon. In the meantime, if you wish to know more about the project, send your questions to info@digitallatin.org.

InscriptiFact Update

Dear InscriptiFact User,

We have a new version of InscriptiFact (Version 10.0, Build 286) that testing indicates may correct the problems with Windows and especially Windows 10. Mac users may find the new version useful as well.

Windows Users will need to:
* Click the Uninstall InscriptiFactDigitalLibrary desktop icon to uninstall your current version of InscriptiFact.
* Click the Uninstall ISFStandaloneViewer desktop icon to uninstall your current version of the ISF Standalone Viewer.
* Once the uninstall operations are complete, reboot your machine.

To install the new version of InscriptiFact, go to:
http://ruth.usc.edu/Inscriptifact/
Download the "Recommended installer for your platform..."
Install the application using the "Easy" installation.

To install the new version of the InscriptiFact Standalone Viewer, go to:
http://ruth.usc.edu/ISFStandaloneViewer/
Download the "Recommended installer for your platform..."
Install the application using the "Easy" installation.

Mac Users will need to:
* Go to your main Applications folder
* Drag the folder, InscriptiFactDigitalLibrary, to the trash
* Drag the folder, ISFStandaloneViewer, to the trash
* Empty your trash
* Reboot your machine.

To install the new version of InscriptiFact, go to:
http://ruth.usc.edu/Inscriptifact/
Download the "Recommended installer for your platform..."
Install the application using the "Easy" installation.

To install the new version of the InscriptiFact Standalone Viewer, go to:
http://ruth.usc.edu/ISFStandaloneViewer/
Download the "Recommended installer for your platform..."
Install the application using the "Easy" installation.

Please update us if you have any difficulties.

Thank you.

The InscriptiFact Team

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

The Handmaid’s Tale

I watched the first couple of episodes of The Handmaid’s Tale miniseries. It does a good job of moving Margaret Atwood’s story into the present day, and of exploring the inner life of Offred’s thinking. The story explores a world in which biblical fundamentalism is used to justify coping with rampant infertility by turning fertile women [Read More...]

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Hurtado on Keck on the NT as a "field of study"

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/qKryhlVxvQo" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Stacey on Qumran

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/utkbQB9x7Us" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Biblical Sidon

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/iatMv3ifHVw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

The Nash Papyrus in the news

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/sDA_tP92R4w" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2017.06.38: Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, Method, Scope and Organization. Philosophia antiqua, 142

Review of Frederik A. Bakker, Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, Method, Scope and Organization. Philosophia antiqua, 142. Leiden; Boston: 2016. Pp. xii, 301. €125.00. ISBN 9789004321564.

2017.06.37: Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire 3: Inscriptions d’Albanie (en dehors des sites d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion, Apollonia et Bouthrôtos). Études Épigraphiques, 2.3

Review of Pierre Cabanes, Faïk Drini, Corpus des inscriptions grecques d’Illyrie méridionale et d’Épire 3: Inscriptions d’Albanie (en dehors des sites d’Épidamne-Dyrrhachion, Apollonia et Bouthrôtos). Études Épigraphiques, 2.3. Athènes: 2016. Pp. 336. €85.00. ISBN 9782869582620.

2017.06.36: The Hellenistic Age

Review of Peter Thonemann, The Hellenistic Age. Oxford; New York: 2016. Pp. xi, 152. $17.95. ISBN 9780198759010.

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Foto Friday

Some more photos from the Western Argolid Regional Project.

IMG 0933

Our fearless leader in slight sepia tone:

P1000381

A wall:

P1000339

Landscape with archaeologist (or archaeologist included for scale):

P1000296

P1000283

True north:

P1000259

Orienting:

P1000315

For the road:

IMG 0936


The Seventh Century

Just a short post for today. Over the last few weeks here in the Western Argolid, Scott Gallimore, Guy Sanders, and I have talked a good bit about the seventh century A.D. The three of us are working with Sarah James to publish an assemblage of seventh century material from the Helleniko pyramid near Myloi in the Western Argolid (initially published by Louis Lord in 1938) as well as a growing body of seventh century material from the Western Argolid Regional Project (WARP).

When I was working on my dissertation in the late-1990s and early 21st century, the number of seventh century monuments in Greece was tiny, and they were mostly ignored or considered with skepticism. 

Over the past decade, the number of 7th century sites has slowly increased. Some of these sites appear to be associated with political, military, or economic disruptions (like the Andritsa Cave and the Tunnel at Nemea), but sites like the island the island of Dokos and the the tower at Helleniko suggest that the seventh century assemblages represented more than just cowering communities in a time of disruption. There seems to be an emerging 7th century landscape that show some signs of continuity with the previous two centuries in contact between regions, persistent prosperity, and the beginnings of change in both material culture and settlement structure. There are hints at ethnic change as well. On WARP, our ceramicist, Scott Gallimore, are piecing together a dynamic and diverse 7th century landscape that defies simple categorization as refuges or farmsteads or even settlements.  

So over the next few years, I’m going to spend some time working through the evidence for 7th century change in Greece with my colleagues on WARP.  


ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Time

Temporal constructions shift the landmark and the trajector source expressions out of the physical plane and reconceptualize them as events. The trajector is an event conceived as moving away from the landmark viewed as a temporal reference point. Fundamental to temporal expressions with ἐκ and ἀπό are distance and separation, which are then applied to the temporal plane.

Archaeology Magazine

Scientists Recreate Ancient Bitumen-Lined Water Bottles

California bitumen bottlesDAVIS, CALIFORNIA—Gizmodo reports that as early as 5,000 years ago, people living in California’s Channel Islands waterproofed baskets with bitumen to create water bottles. An international team of scientists followed oral tradition to replicate the processes to make two such vessels. One bottle basket was lined with soft bitumen, known as “malak,” which seeps up from the ocean floor and washes ashore. A second was lined with hard bitumen, known as “woqo,” which is found on land. While they worked, the scientists sampled the air using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. They also measured the level of chemicals in the water stored in the bottles. “Bitumen is composed of chemicals that have been linked to a variety of adverse human health effects, such as cancer, reproductive and developmental impairments, and decreased fetal length and head size,” explained team leader Sabrina Sholts of the Smithsonian Institution. The researchers found that the fumes produced by the melted bitumen were toxic, but the water stored in the bottles would probably not have caused health problems. However, bitumen was also used to waterproof boats, tools, and other food-storage items, which would have increased exposure and may have contributed to illness. For more on bitumen in the archaeological record, go to “Something New for Sutton Hoo.”

Viking Age Pit May Have Been Rural Privy

VORDINGBORG, DENMARK—Science Nordic reports that archaeologists looking for pit houses on the southeast coast of the island of Zealand discovered what may be a Viking Age privy. The pit contained a layer of sediment containing a high concentration of fly pupae and pollen typically found in honey or mead. A lack of airborne pollen indicates that the hole had been covered. “We know about privy buildings inside cities in the latter part of the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages, but not from agrarian settlements and farms,” said Anna Beck of the Museum of Southeast Denmark. Researchers had assumed that people used their waste, along with that of their animals, to fertilize their fields. Beck suggests that many pits found in excavations at rural Viking sites may actually be privies that were overlooked because the human waste had decomposed, which is not always the case in urban privies. Beck also found two postholes on either side of the pit that may have been part of a small building. Critics of the idea think the waste could have landed in the hole through other means. For more, go to “Hoards of the Vikings.”

Ancient Graffiti on Egyptian Tomb Walls Studied

Egyptian ancient graffitiWARSAW, POLAND—Adam Łukaszewicz of the University of Warsaw and his team have completed a 3-D record of the walls of the tomb of Ramesses VI, in order to study the graffiti left by tourists some 2,000 years ago, according to a report in Science & Scholarship in Poland. The researchers found more than 1,000 inscriptions in the tomb, which is just one of at least ten of the 60 tombs in the Valley of the Kings marked with ancient travelers’ names and comments. Most of the inscriptions were carved into the rock or made with red paint. “The greatest number of inscriptions come from the Greek-Roman period, that is, from the time of the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great to the division of the Roman Empire in the fourth century,” Łukaszewicz said. Łukaszewicz  notes that most of the visitors, some of whom were high-ranking officials, tried to avoid writing on the Egyptian decorations on the walls. The scientists will use their digital records to continue to study the inscriptions. For more, go to “Egypt’s Final Redoubt in Canaan.”

June 23, 2017

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Archéopages

Archéopages
ISSN: 1622-8545
ISSN électronique ​​2269-9872
Archéopages 40 | Villages
Dans le panorama actuel des revues archéologiques dédiées à des périodes, à des régions ou à des disciplines, Archéopages propose une nouvelle approche éditoriale.
Ouverte à toute la communauté archéologique, la revue met en avant la place de l’archéologie dans l’accroissement des connaissances en sciences humaines et le bénéfice de la complémentarité des approches. Chaque numéro comprend un dossier thématique regroupant des articles d’analyse, clos par un débat entre un archéologue et un chercheur d’une autre discipline ; des articles méthodologiques ; des notices de site.

        Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

        Forced marriage in saints’ lives – by Anthony Alcock

        Anthony Alcock has written a short note on a hagiographical theme; where monks are kidnapped, and forced into marriage.  This appears in St. Jerome’s Life of Malchus in the 4th century, and also in the 9th century Life of Samuel of Kalamoun.

        It’s here:

        Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

        Investigating Metal Detecting: Big Funding, No Results Again?


        Remember this (PACHI Thursday, 23 June 2016)?
        Investigating Metal Detecting: Big Funding, No Results Again?Where is the final document of the Leverhulme Trust funded project 'ThePortable Antiquities Scheme Database as a tool for archaeological research' in which Roger Bland was principal investigator? It was due to finish last year and all we have from it so far is a rather slim and tentative "Guide to Researchers' which says mainly what we already knew.
        Still no results published, still no answer to the question. Surely that slim booklet is not the product of a project funded on the scale this one was? Is it?

        Ancient Peoples

        Wooden dagger handle, smaller 2.5 in longEgypt, Dynasty...





        Wooden dagger handle, smaller 2.5 in long

        Egypt, Dynasty 17–18, Second Intermediate Period–Early New Kingdom, ca. 1580–1479 B.C.

        Source: Met Museum

        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        Digital Humanist Wanted

        This job announcement came to my attention via the NASCAS e-mail list, and I thought it worth sharing here. The Institute for Medieval Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, is seeking a Digital Humanist (f/m; 50%) with experience in XML-technologies and the development of language corpora. You will join an internationally networked team, pursuing [Read More...]

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Gestione, conservazione e valorizzazione di un parco archeologico sommerso, un workshop

        L'Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro (ISCR), in collaborazione con i partner del progetto europeo BLUEMED, organizza un workshop dedicato alla conservazione e valorizzazione dei parchi archeologici sommersi, che si svolgerà nella splendida cornice della Scuola Archeologica di Atene e la villa romana sommersa di Epidauro.

        Master in Tecnologie Integrate per i Beni Culturali

        La VII edizione del Master in "Tecnologie Integrate per i Beni Culturali", organizzato dall'associazione Palazzo Spinelli a Firenze a partire dal 9 settembre 2017, affronta la formazione di professionisti capaci di approcciarsi alla promozione sostenibile dei Beni Culturali e all'impiego appropriato di tecnologie digitali avanzate per la gestione, comunicazione e valorizzazione dei sistemi museali. 

        ArcheoNet BE

        Skeletten Sint-Romboutskerkhof Mechelen geven geheimen prijs

        Aan de KU Leuven verdedigde Katrien Van de Vijver vandaag haar doctoraat over de skeletten die werden opgegraven op het Sint-Romboutskerkhof in Mechelen. De opgraving, tussen 2009 en 2011, leverde meer dan 4000 skeletten op, uit de 10de tot de 18de eeuw. 400 individuen werden door Van de Vijver in detail bestudeerd.

        De graven toonden variatie in het gebruik van kisten, in de positie en oriëntatie van het lichaam, de aanwezigheid van kalk, as of leem, en in het aantal individuen in hetzelfde graf. Deze variatie werd door Van de Vijver gecombineerd met leeftijd en geslacht van de individuen en aanwijzingen voor groeistoornissen, letsels en ziekte. Dit liet haar toe om de socio-economische achtergrond, gezondheid en levensstijl van individuen te interpreteren, en hoe leeftijd en geslacht de maatschappelijke rol van individuen bepaalde.

        Er werden veranderingen waargenomen bij de overgang van de laat- naar de post-middeleeuwse periode. De opvallendste ontwikkeling was de verschijning van een grote groep adolescenten (12-17 jaar) en jongvolwassenen (18-25 jaar), voornamelijk mannen, vanaf de 15e–16e-eeuwse laag. Hun graven waren eenvoudiger en vaker afwijkend en zij hadden vermoedelijk een armere en meer afhankelijke sociale positie. De individuen vertoonden meer groeistoornissen, aanwijzingen voor fysieke stress en ziekten. Mogelijk gaat het om bedienden, leerjongens en immigranten. Het wijst er ook op dat volwassenheid op een latere leeftijd werd bereikt. Een Spaans militair hospitaal (1585-1715 n. Chr.) nabij het kerkhof kan eveneens de samenstelling van leeftijd en geslacht hebben beïnvloed, door de begraving van patiënten op het kerkhof. Individuen ouder dan 25 jaar werden vaker begraven in enkelvoudige en kistgraven. Zij vertoonden ook minder sporen van groeistoornissen en ziekten, wat wijst op sterkere individuen die overleefden en mogelijk op een hogere sociale positie.

        Alhoewel vrouwen over het algemeen vaker werden begraven in kisten, waren bij individuen ouder dan 50 jaar mannen vaker geassocieerd met kistgraven. Mannen waren veel sterker vertegenwoordigd in de leeftijdscategorie van jongvolwassenen, terwijl vrouwen een sterkere aanwezigheid toonden in de categorie ouder dan 50 jaar. Jongvolwassen mannen vertoonden ook vaker groeistoornissen, fysieke stress en ziekten. Jongvolwassen vrouwen daarentegen toonden enkel een hoger aantal letsels. De mate van en patronen in fysieke stress varieerden tussen mannen en vrouwen en leeftijdscategorieën. Over het algemeen vertoonden mannen meer verschillen naargelang ze ouder werden. Vrouwen vertoonden minder uitgesproken verschillen, en hun levensstijl had ogenschijnlijk een lagere impact op gezondheid.

        Er werden ook verschillende meervoudige graven gevonden, waarbij verschillende individuen op hetzelfde moment in hetzelfde graf werden begraven, die wijzen op tijdelijke verhoogde sterfte. De meeste individuen in deze graven waren adolescenten en jongvolwassenen, die bijna allen mannelijk waren. Dit week af van de enkelvoudige graven en van een natuurlijk patroon. De samenstelling van leeftijd en geslacht wijst erop dat individuen werden begraven in meervoudige graven niet enkel omwille van de manier waarop ze stierven, maar ook hun socio-economische achtergrond met meer arme en afhankelijke personen. Ze vertoonden ook meer uitgesproken aanwijzingen voor groeistoornissen, fysieke stress en ziekten. Een zwakker gestel kan ertoe geleid hebben dat deze groep kwetsbaarder was voor epidemies en hongersnoden. Het was niet mogelijk om de doodsoorzaak te bepalen, maar omdat er geen aanwijzingen waren voor letsels rond het moment van de dood, ging het vermoedelijk niet om geweld. Verschillen tussen twee bestudeerde groepen van meervoudige graven, die uit verschillende perioden dateren en een onderscheid vertonen in de samenstelling van leeftijd en geslacht, wijzen op verschillende doodsomstandigheden. Eén groep, met één fase van begraving (tweede helft 15e eeuw–vroege 17e eeuw), weerspiegelt mogelijk epidemies of hongersnoden in de parochie. De andere groep, waar individuen in meerdere fasen werden begraven (na 1640), was mogelijk geassocieerd met het Spaans militair hospitaal.

        Andere afwijkende begravingen waren de kalkgraven. De analyses wijzen erop dat er mogelijk verschillende beweegredenen waren. Ziekte kon niettemin worden vooropgesteld voor verschillende graven, waarbij kalk mogelijk als ontsmettingsmiddel diende. De studie van een massagraf met de resten van 41 geëxecuteerde briganten (1798 n. Chr.) liet de reconstructie toe van de executie en een vergelijking met beschrijvingen uit historische bronnen, waarvan er enkelen konden worden weerlegd.

        Het gebruik van verschillen in de graven om patronen in skeletdata te bestuderen resulteerde in een gedetailleerde, genuanceerde interpretatie. De collectie biedt geen direct beeld van de oorspronkelijke bevolking van de parochie en bestaat uit verschillende sociale groepen van de lagere en middenklassen. De vergelijking met sites in Noordwestelijk Europa toonden overeenkomsten, maar ook regionale variatie. Bovendien benadrukken de vergelijkingen dat de achtergrond van de bevolking patronen in skeletdata kan beïnvloeden.

        De studie toont het belang van de archeologische en historische context voor de interpretatie van archeologische skeletcollecties. Hopelijk wordt deze benadering steeds belangrijker, met een intensievere samenwerking tussen archeologen en archeo-antropologen, besluit Van de Vijver.

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        APProdare a Vada: una applicazione di realtà aumentata per scoprire l'antica area archeologica di San Gaetano

        L'antico quartiere di Vada (San Gaetano) rivive in realtà aumentata con l'applicazione APProdare a Vada.

        Scopri il corso di formazione "GIS Open Source Base (QGIS)" a Venezia

        Il corso di formazione introduce gli utenti ai Sistemi Informativi Geografici (GIS) e, in particolare, all'impiego di QGIS. Le attività formative si svolgeranno a Venezia dal 28 al 30 giugno.


        Il modulo formativo affronta i principali aspetti concettuali e procedurali della gestione geografica e fornisce le conoscenze operative necessarie per l'utilizzo di QGIS, uno dei migliori software nel segmento Open Source in termini di funzionalità, flessibilità e facilità d'uso. 

        L’approccio metodologico del corso e l’organizzazione dei contenuti sono basati su un flusso di lavoro ben collaudato con la possibilità, per i partecipanti, di ripetere in ogni momento le operazioni eseguite dal docente.
        Durante il corso saranno affrontati argomenti basilari come la gestione dei layer vettoriali e raster, i sistemi di riferimento cartografici, la georeferenziazione, il disegno vettoriale, il database e la stampa.
        Particolare importanza sarà attribuita alla descrizione dei dati cartografici reperibili sul territorio nazionale, ai formati disponibili in ambiente GIS e allo scambio dei dati con altri software GIS e CAD.
        Nonostante la sessione formativa sia orientata ad uno specifico software (QGIS), le conoscenze acquisite saranno comunque spendibili nell’utilizzo di molti altri applicativi (ad esempio ESRI ArcGIS, gvSIG ecc.). L’obiettivo principale è infatti quello di apprendere la necessaria visione d’insieme nella gestione e nell’analisi dei geodati.

        Cos'è QGIS 
        Negli ultimi anni, i GIS Open Source hanno raggiunto un pubblico molto vasto garantendo elevata usabilità, un'efficiente gestione dei dati e notevoli potenzialità di analisi geografica. In particolare, il modello di sviluppo Open ha influenzato fortemente il settore GIS con indubbi benefici che vanno ben oltre la gratuità dei prodotti.
        QGIS (ex Quantum GIS), rilasciato con licenza GNU General Public License, è un software GIS Open Source completamente gratuito e disponibile anche in lingua italiana.
        E' ampiamente utilizzato in ambito professionale e nella ricerca scientifica e può essere installato su qualsiasi computer dell'ufficio su piattaforme Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS senza limitazioni di licenza.
        Gli utenti possono usufruire gratuitamente e per sempre degli aggiornamenti del software senza oneri ulteriori derivanti da contratti di assistenza o canoni annui. 
        QGIS ha un'interfaccia utente intuitiva e gestisce numerosi formati di dati sia raster che vettoriali tra i quali il formato Shapefile (piena compatibilità con ESRI ArcGIS/ArcView). E' dotato di numerose funzionalità e rappresenta in ambito lavorativo una valida alternativa ai prodotti GIS commerciali.
        Il progetto QGIS ha registrato negli ultimi anni una forte evoluzione raggiungendo una notevole maturità informatica grazie all’impegno di una vasta ed attiva comunità di utenti che ha permesso la diffusione di versioni sempre più stabili e con maggiori funzionalità. Sono inoltre disponibili numerosi plugin, realizzati dalla comunità di sviluppatori, che permettono di ampliare le funzionalità standard del software.

        Per chi è questo corso
        Il corso è rivolto a professionisti, tecnici di Pubbliche Amministrazioni, studenti universitari, ricercatori, insegnanti e in generale a tutti coloro che hanno intenzione di ampliare le proprie conoscenze in fatto di gestione ed analisi di dati geografici.

        Agevolazioni fiscali
        L'attività di formazione rientra tra i costi deducibili nella misura del 50% per i redditi dei liberi professionisti (IRPEF) ed è IVA 100% detraibile. Inoltre, le Pubbliche Amministrazioni hanno diritto all'esenzione IVA riferita ad attività formative.

        Crediti Formativi
        Il corso di formazione prevede il rilascio di 15 CFP ad architetti e geologi e 18 CFP ai geometri.

        Dettagli del Corso
        Durata: 3 giorni consecutivi (18 ore).
        Orario: 9-13, 14-17 (giorno 1 e 2), 9-13 (giorno 3).
        Luogo: INIAPA VENETO s. cons. a r.l. - Via delle Industrie 19/C/11, Venezia.
        Data: 28-29-30 Giugno.
        Costo: 380 euro + IVA. Sono previste riduzioni del 15% per gli iscritti a ordini, associazioni professionali, categorie educational.

        Scopri di più

        Fonte: TerreLogiche

        ArcheoNet BE

        Graven onder de Waaslandhaven: prehistorische site open voor publiek

        Tijdens de zomermaanden kan het publiek kennismaken het grootschalige steentijdonderzoek op het toekomstige Logistiek Park Waasland in Verrebroek (Beveren). Geïnteresseerden kunnen zich inschrijven voor een begeleid bezoek aan de archeologische site. Je maakt er niet alleen kennis met echte archeologen en hun onderzoek, je kunt er in de tijdscapsule ook ontdekken hoe het er 10.000 jaar geleden uitzag, en je leert van een re-enactor hoe de prehistorische mens vuur, juwelen en werktuigen maakte. Meer info: gravenonderdewaaslandhaven.com.

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Woven basket finding unravels ancient wooden box mystery

        KASHIHARA, Nara Prefecture– A mystery that long puzzled archaeologists may have been solved...

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Ancient road found in Termessos ancient city

        A 2,300-year-old ancient road has been unearthed in the ancient city of Termessos in the southern...

        ArcheoNet BE

        UA zoekt historicus voor doctoraat over Doel

        Gefascineerd door het spraakmakende polderdorp Doel en de geschiedenis van het landelijk wonen in Vlaanderen? Dan is dit doctoraatsproject misschien iets voor jou. Het Centrum voor Stadsgeschiedenis van de Universiteit Antwerpen is op zoek naar een historicus voor een voltijdse doctoraatsbeurs in het kader van het onderzoeksproject ‘Doel –  Dorp in de Polder. Vijf eeuwen Bewoning en Bebouwing.’ Solliciteren kan nog tot en met 30 juni!

        Raadpleeg hier de volledige vacature.

        Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

        Interview with Robert Kraft

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/5tVBrztqv4M" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Ancient "industrial zone" in the Galilee

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/r0O5F05LVIw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        The God Who Cannot Be Defined In Words

        Richard Beck shared this quote from St. Columban, and it immediately struck me as memeworthy. Since Columban was using words to instruct in the very act of writing this, we are protected from going to an extreme to which the one who wrote these words would not have wished. In their broader context, the emphasis is [Read More...]

        Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

        T. Joseph: So ethical.

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/wC3IpZO6_sA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

        How to assess the 'education' in higher education

        In all the things we have read about giving Gold, Silver and Bronze ‘badges’ this week to universities for their teaching ‘excellence’ or not, there has been hardly a mention that this is not the first exercise there has been in assessing university teaching. Almost 20 years ago there was the ‘TQA’ (the Teaching Quality Assessment: about which there is rather little on the web but here is a glowing announcement of full marks in the thing from a Cambridge department). It was a huge business: you had to submit boxes and boxes of stuff documenting student feedback, progression, quality assurance etc etc in everything from exams to first year induction programmes, disability provision to staff training. Then there was ‘the visit’, where colleagues from other universities came and observed teaching at all levels and talked to students and staff. It will give you an idea of the paperwork that was required when I say that I am still using the pocket folders and box files that once held the thousands upon thousands of words, graphs and statistics that we had to submit.

        My Faculty scored the top mark of 24 out of 24. Whether that meant we were excellent at teaching or excellent at preparing submissions of this kind, I really don’t know. Nor do I know whether the enormous number of person hours devoted to the preparation for all this might have been better spent in actually teaching. But whatever, it is quite wrong to imagine that teaching quality at universities has never been examined before the recent ‘TEF’.

        There are difference between the two. TQA was compulsory; TEF is technically voluntary (but as you can’t increase fees if you don’t enter and get a good score, then in practice it isn’t). And TEF evaluates teaching without actually seeing any teaching at all, but entirely on the basis of ‘data’ such as  the National Student Survey, employment statistics, and a written submission by the university concerned. This must be a hell of a lot cheaper than the TQA; it is certainly  far less disruptive; but one does wonder how far it gives a reliable guide to the quality of the teaching.

        I am particularly worried about the Student Survey. This is of course not to say that I am not interested in what students think of the education they are receiving. I cannot imagine any university not wanting to know how their lectures, classes are going down, how students think they might be improved etc. For that matter, I have hardly ever met any university teacher in my whole career who was not interested in the teaching function of a university. They might not all have been equally good at it, but they have never been sniffy about it . . .  whatever stories some students of all generations love to tell (there is a big difference between not caring and not seeming to care).

        The problem is that this vast tick box questionnaire has been elevated to a dominating role in the whole evaluation, when it should rightly be only one element. And its immediacy is both its virtue and its disadvantage. One way of thinking about the success of teaching is to find a way of judging its instant effects. But I am more interested in thinking about how effective teaching is in the long term, when students reflect 10 or 20 years later on where, how and from whom they best learnt. It is a cliche, but true nonetheless, to say that often you find students, when you meet them a few years on, saying that they really got most out of those teachers who pushed them most, made their heads hurt with new ideas, stretched them beyond the ‘comfort zone’ — even though they didn’t ‘like’ it much at the time.

        And feedback is a problem too. These questionnaires assume very standardised view of what ‘feedback’ on a piece of written work — and it’s rather like the A level version (what assessment objectives have I met? how might I improve this work in order to achieve a higher mark? etc). Of course there is a place for that. But appropriate feedback comes in many forms. I can guarantee that tearing up an inadequate essay in front of the student would get a very bad mark in these survey. And, sure, there would be some occasions when that would be a cruel derogation of duty. But there might be times when it was exactly what’s required. Imagine the very smart student, who is generally winging it (partly because she is putting all her quality time into rowing/acting/you name it). She submits a scrappy couple of pages, with no evidence of any reading at all, that looks as if it has been dashed out in an hour or so. The appropriate feedback there is to get it across that she is wasting both your and her time. And the tear up might be the most effective way of making her see.

        Anyway, in reading the Cambridge University submission (brilliantly written with all its frightful jargon), I did discover something I didn’t know already: that over the course of a year 69% of Cambridge students have borrowed a book from a library. Now I know that some subjects aren’t book oriented, and I realise that most of us are reading most journal articles online, and we may well be reading for pleasure electronically too. But are there really 30% of Cambridge students who over a whole year have not borrowed a single book from a library. Heaven help us.

        Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

        Theosophy and ancient apocryphal scriptures

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/uwk-yvw0QII" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Compitum - publications

        J. France, Finances publiques, intérêts privés dans le monde romain

        9782356131812.jpg

        Jérôme France, Finances publiques, intérêts privés dans le monde romain, Bordeaux, 2017.

        Éditeur : Ausonius Éditions
        Collection : Scripta antiqua
        648 pages
        ISBN : 9782356131812
        30 €

        Cet ouvrage rassemble plus de vingt articles écrits par un spécialiste de la fiscalité romaine, auxquels s'ajoute le texte inédit de son mémoire d'habilitation consacré aux personnels de l'administration financière de l'empire romain. S'adressant à tous ceux qu'intéresse l'histoire de cette construction hégémonique qu'on a souvent présentée comme un modèle de rapacité, ce recueil n'offre pas seulement une immersion dans le monde peu populaire des publicains et des percepteurs d'impôt. En s'efforçant de dépasser les clichés hérités des Anciens eux-mêmes, il propose un regard approfondi et nuancé sur des domaines variés où se croisaient à la fois la sphère des prélèvements d'État et la structure ramifiée de leur appareil de gestion, les partenaires privés, qui profitaient des opportunités offertes par l'affermage des revenus publics, et l'ensemble des populations provinciales, enfin, que le pouvoir romain soumettait à sa demande fiscale tout en présentant le paiement régulier de l'impôt comme la condition de la sécurité qu'il leur garantissait en retour – et qui n'était autre que la fameuse “paix romaine”. Au fond, une question traverse ces pages : l'administration romaine n'était-elle qu'une entreprise sophistiquée de racket impérial ou bien concourait-elle à une forme originale d'association du centre et des périphéries ?

        Lire la suite...

        Bryn Mawr Classical Review

        2017.06.35: Antike Sklaverei zwischen Verdammung und Beschönigung: Kolloquium zur Rezeption antiker Sklaverei vom 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert. Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei, 40

        Review of Winfried Schmitz, Antike Sklaverei zwischen Verdammung und Beschönigung: Kolloquium zur Rezeption antiker Sklaverei vom 17. bis 20. Jahrhundert. Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei, 40​. Stuttgart: 2016. Pp. xii, 259; 7 p. of plates. €46.00 (pb). ISBN 9783515110891.

        2017.06.34: Sancti Aurelii Augustini Sermones in epistolas apostolicas II, id est Sermones CLVII – CLXXXIII secundum ordinem vulgatum insertis etiam aliquot sermonibus post Maurinos repertis. Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, XLI Bb; Aurelii Augustini opera, Pars 11.8

        Review of Shari Boodts, Sancti Aurelii Augustini Sermones in epistolas apostolicas II, id est Sermones CLVII – CLXXXIII secundum ordinem vulgatum insertis etiam aliquot sermonibus post Maurinos repertis. Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, XLI Bb; Aurelii Augustini opera, Pars 11.8. Turnhout: 2016. Pp. lxxx, 784. €460.00. ISBN 9782503568119.

        2017.06.33: Classics, the Culture Wars, and Beyond

        Review of Eric Adler, Classics, the Culture Wars, and Beyond. Ann Arbor: 2016. Pp. xi, 292. $75.00. ISBN 9780472130153.

        American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

        Ο ουρανός των αρχαίων

        June 26, 2017 - 8:58 AM - Διάλεξη στα πλαίσια της περιοδικής επετειακής έκθεσης «Οδύσσειες» Μάνος Κιτσώνας (Διευθυντής του Ευγενιδείου Πλανηταρίου)

        Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

        Caring for the Archaeological Record?


        "Provenance Creations" https://www.etsy.com/shop/ProvenanceStore
        Metal Detecting Finds...Transformed! My husband "Chicago Ron" Guinazzo leads metal detecting tours twice a year to England. We met in 2012, and I joined him on these trips. We dig all types of items; coins, tokens, buttons, watch winders, buckles, bells, clothing fasteners, etc. All of the artifacts we find are reported to the British Museum, and exported with proper documentation. I personally research, sort, clean, and polish the artifacts. In designing the jewelry piece, I try to maintain the integrity of the artifact. You are receiving [buying] a real piece of wearable history!
        Yes, by stripping, drilling, mounting them on thongs, a tidy profit can be made in Chicago of bits ripped out of the archaeological record of another country. Please, give a link to the records of all of these items 'reported to the British Museum' - do the buyers of Ms Guinazzo's twee jewellery get a certificate giving the PAS numbers and link to that description of what it is in the PAS record? And a copy of the export licence?

        So here we have it, detectorists claim indignantly "we ain't in it fer the munny", except when they are. Chicago Ron makes money from Britain's heritage by organizing metal detecting holidays for his paying American pals to go over to England to fill their pockets with artefacts ripped out of sites known-to-be-productive and take them out of the country, his wife takes the things these collectors reject and makes more cash by turning the 'non-collectable' artefacts into tacky trophy jewellery. It's a win-win situation for the artefact coveters, but what loses out is archaeological preservation and the British heritage.

        When are these metal detecting holidays organized for legal-innit-looting parties from abroad going to be banned?

        Great Mosque of al-Nuri in western Mosul Destroyed


        This aerial view taken on June 21, 2017 and
        provided by Iraq's Joint Operation Command

         shows destruction inside Mosul's Nuri mosque
         compound CREDIT: AFP
        The same area in August 2008 (Google  Earth)

        The Islamic State has blown up The Great Mosque of al-Nuri with its distinctive leaning minaret in western Mosul, according to U.S. and Iraqi forces (Alex Lubben, 'ISIS blows up 845-year-old mosque, tries to blame U.S.' vice.com,  Jun 21, 2017). The twelfth-century mosque, along with its minaret, was one of Iraq's most famous buildings. Haider al-Abadi, Iraq's prime minister, said the destruction of the sites was "an official declaration of defeat" by Isil in the eight-month-old battle for Mosul. Probably the aim was to deny the government the possibility of declaring victory there. The destruction of the mosque (apparently by explosives previously placed inside it) has also beebn taken by some as a form of confirmation that the Russian claim to have killed Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi may have basis in fact.
        The leaning minaret  AFP
        The mosque [...] carries symbolic weight in Iraq and the greater Middle East. The Great Mosque of al-Nuri also carries symbolic weight for the terror group: It’s where ISIS founder Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi gave his first speech as caliph in 2014, days after the terror group declared its caliphate in Iraq and Syria. ISIS has held the city as its de-facto capital in Iraq since then, using it as a central hub for commerce and illegal oil sales, and stealing stores of weapons and cash from the Iraqi forces who had abandoned the city. [...] But ISIS, over their newswire Amaq, contradicted reports from Iraqi forces, claiming instead that the U.S. was behind the mosque’s destruction. The U.S.-led coalition forcefully contested that claim, saying in a statement that the “responsibility for this devastation is laid firmly at the doorstep of ISIS.” The coalition added that it had confirmed through drone surveillance that the mosque was destroyed. An investigation is underway. Taking the mosque back from ISIS militants, who have waged a long and bloody campaign to hold the city since Iraqi forces began their offensive eight months ago, would have been a symbolic victory for U.S. and Iraqi coalition forces.
        It is believed that ISIL is still holding up to 100,000 civilians in Mosul, using them as human shields during combat. The taking of the western part of Mosul, with its winding roads and small buildings, has proved more difficult than the eastern part which fell five months ago.
        The Old City in West Mosul has been the site of the deadliest fighting in the course of the 8-month-long offensive. The Iraqi army believes there to be only 300 Iraqi fighters left in Mosul; there were 6,000 at the start of the offensive, according to Reuters.
        BBC News Battle for Mosul: IS 'blows up' al-Nuri mosque 22nd June 2017. 

        UPDATE
        I am not fully convinced that the much-published footage of the controlled explosions that reportedly depict this tower being felled are authentic, at least one version in the web seems to have been manipulated. This film (disseminated by 'Palmyra Pioneer) shows the damage on the ground and you can see the building was blown flat by explosions from inside and there are no traces whatsoever of craters.  An air-conditioning fan is represented as a bomb fragment.


        Archaeology Magazine

        Stone Floor and Ritual Vessel Uncovered at Machu Picchu

        CUSCO, PERU—Living in Peru reports that a stone floor and a fragmented vessel that may have been used to make offerings were discovered at Machu Picchu Archaeological Park by archaeologist José Bastante and researchers from Peru’s Ministry of Culture. They found the floor and the vessel in a passage behind the room where the so-called “water mirrors” are located. The water mirrors, circular basins on the floor of the main area, are thought to have been used to observe the reflected night sky. Likewise, light from solstices and equinoxes is thought to have shone through a central window in the passage to the water mirrors next door. Bastante said the vessel probably had a pointed base, may have been burned after the offering was made. The vessel is thought to date to the fifteenth century and will be tested for any residues of its contents. For more, go to “Letter From Peru: Connecting Two Realms.”

        Woven Basket and Wooden Stand Unearthed in Japan

        Japan basket standNARA PREFECTURE, JAPAN—According to a report in The Asahi Shimbun, scientists have discovered a possible use for small wooden frames, shaped like truncated square pyramids, which have been unearthed at archaeological sites around Japan. It had been suggested that the wooden frames could have been used for catching fish or even as funnels. Archaeologists working at a circular tomb site in the city of Kashihara, however, found one of the wooden frames supporting a finely woven, square-bottomed basket. “I imagine it was used to transport or store something precious,” said Yuka Sasaki, a visiting researcher of archaeobotany at the Center for Obsidian and Lithic Studies at Meiji University. Made from four pieces of wood from a chinquapin tree, the stand was held together with plant material. The basket, woven from a kind of bamboo grass, was attached to the stand with strings made from plants. This particular basket and stand are thought to have been made by the Yayoi Pottery Culture sometime in the late second century A.D. For more, go to “Japan’s Early Anglers.”

        Ancient Dugout Canoe Found in Louisiana

        Louisiana dugout canoeBELCHER, LOUISIANA—KTBS News reports that a woman looking for artifacts along the Red River in northwestern Louisiana spotted a dugout canoe in the mud of the riverbank. Jeffrey Girard of the Louisiana Archaeological Society and Robert Chip of the State Archaeological Division excavated the cypress-wood canoe, which is missing one side. What remains measures about 34 feet long and three feet wide, and is thought to have been constructed by the Caddo people between 800 and 1,000 years ago. The vessel will be studied and conserved at Texas A&M University. A sample has been taken for radiocarbon dating. For more on archaeology in Louisiana, go to “Archaic Engineers Worked on a Deadline.”

        Predynastic Inscriptions Discovered in Egypt

        Egypt rock artLUXOR, EGYPT—Inscriptions estimated to be up to 6,000 years old have been found spread over several rock panels located near the village of El-Khawy by a team of researchers from Yale University and Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities, according to a report in Ahram Online. The team members had been mapping road networks because Egyptian rock art is usually found at major crossroads. The images are said to represent formative stages of hieroglyphic script, which appeared in Upper Egypt around 3250 B.C. For example, John Coleman Darnell of Yale University said that one panel is engraved with a bull’s head on a short pole, and two saddle bill storks standing back to back with a bald ibis above them. The images were placed from right to left, in a similar fashion as later Egyptian texts. “These symbols are not phonetic writing, but appear to provide the intellectual background for moving from depictions of the natural world to hieroglyphs that wrote the sounds of the ancient Egyptian language,” Darnell said. For more, go to “Egypt’s Final Redoubt in Canaan.”

        June 22, 2017

        ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

        Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Partitive

        Partitive constructions with ἐκ and ἀπό fall into two general types: entity partitives and set partitives.

        Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

        English translation in progress of Cyril of Alexandria’s “Contra Julianum”

        A correspondent has advised me that Matthew Crawford is engaged in making the first ever English translation of Cyril of Alexandria’s Contra Julianum, the 10-book work refuting Julian the Apostate’s attack on the Christians.  And it is true!  Dr C. has uploaded the preface and opening sections of book1 to his Academia.edu account here.

        This is excellent news.  Making an English translation is going to be very hard work; some “900 pages of difficult Greek”.  But it is great to learn that someone is going to attempt it.

        More power to his elbow!

        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        Prehistoric Indian canoe unearthed along Red River

        BELCHER, LA – Excavation efforts have unearthed a large, prehistoric Indian canoe along the...

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        New Open Access Journal: The Red Sea Journal

        The Red Sea Journal
         
        The institute is pleased to announce the creation of its journal for the study of the Red Sea and surrounding regions. The journal will be peer reviewed and published online beginning in 2017. We welcome submissions on the anthropological fields--anthropology, archaeology, and ethnography, as well as history when pertinent to the aforementioned disciplines.
        Articles 
        Between Castrum and Medina: A Preliminary Note on Spatial Organisation and Urban Development in Medieval Aqaba.
        By Kristoffer Damgaard

        The results of archaeological field work conducted between the 23rd of January and the 6th of March 2008 at the Early Islamic site of Aylah, located in Aqaba in southern Jordan. The excavations were part of a larger international scientific venture known as the Islamic Aqaba Project (henceforth IAP), which was directed by Prof. Dr. Johnny De Meulemeester (University of Gent), and included an international staff from Belgium, France, Spain, Canada, Jordan and Denmark. The project grew out of the Belgian-British and later Belgian-French Aqaba Castle Project (ACP), whose groundbreaking work revealed that the castle site, and indeed Aqaba in general, had far more complex patterns of occupation than hitherto imagined, and that a reevaluation of the area’s settlement history was crucial. In order to establish a more comprehensive occupational framework, steps were taken to expand the scope of archaeological investigation to include the Early Islamic site of Aylah as well. These are the results of the first season of field work conducted here.
        between_castrum_and_medina.pdf
        Download File



        A Preliminary Report on a Coastal and Underwater Survey in the Area of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
        By Ralph K. Pedersen

        In March 2012, Philipps-Universität Marburg conducted a 12-day survey along a section of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia reaching from Rabigh in the north to al-Shoaiba in the south. As the beginning of a five-year archaeological project, with the author as principal investigator, this preliminary venture sought to define the logistical situation and to discover any sites of archaeological importance that may exist within the zone. The survey included the search for and the examination of harbor sites, as well as shipwrecks. Sites of antiquity and the Early Islamic period were of particular interest. The results of the survey included the discovery of a harbor and a shipwreck of the late third or the fourth century that contained Roman amphoras, among other objects. This project was created by institute vice president Dr. Rupert Brandmeier.
        pedersen_a_preliminary_report_on_a__coastal_and_underwater_survey_in_the_area_of_jeddah,_saudi_arabia.pdf
        Download File



        The Byzantine-Aksumite Period Shipwreck at Black Assarca Island, Eritrea.
        By Ralph K. Pedersen

        In 1997, the author conducted an excavation of a shipwreck of late antiquity off a desert island in the southern Red Sea. The wreck carried a cargo of amphoras of three types, all of the kind now called "Aqaba ware". The wreck is the oldest yet excavated in the Red Sea and has yielded new insights into seafaring and trade of the period.
        pedersen_the_byzantine-aksumite_period_shipwreck_at_black_assarca_island,_eritrea.pdf
        Download File



        Under the Erythraean Sea: An Ancient Shipwreck in Eritrea.
        By Ralph K. Pedersen

        An article from the INA Quarterly about the shipwreck at Black Assarca Island.
        pedersen_under_the_erythraean_sea_an_ancient_shipwreck_in_eritrea_inaq.pdf
        Download File



        A Palestinian Red Sea Port on the Egyptian Road to Arabia: Early Islamic Aqaba and its Many Hinterlands. 
        By Kristoffer Damgaard

        This article argues that many forms of hinterland exist, and that it is possible to formulate an analytical methodology based on tiered levels. Examples could be 'political', in the sense of adminstrative affiliation and/or subordinance to centres of political power, economic, in regard to a site's position within relevant economic networks; or ethnoconceptual, that is pertaining to the perceived identities of a locality's occupants.
        a_palestinian_red_sea_port_on_the_egyptian_road_to_arabia.pdf
        Download File



        Finding Fatimid Jordan: A Reinterpretation of Aylah's 'Fatimid Residence'.
        By Kristoffer Damgaard

        Fatimid rule in Bilad al-Sham is relatively well understood in regard to major events at important socio-political centres, however, ordinary life in its more peripheral parts remains poorly documented and only superficially examined. Southern Jordan, here defined as the area between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, is one such region. In the 10th century CE this area was known as al-Sharat. While military control over this area often depended on political circumstances elsewhere, it remained important as both a transit corridor between the Fatimid heartland in Egypt and the major urban centres of Syria-Palestine (e.g. Damascus, Ramlah or Jerusalem), but also as a productive agricultural region.3 Understanding the history of this region is thus highly desirable, as it on one hand will help illuminate the impact of Fatimid hegemony on local communities and, on the other, may assist in explaining the dynamics between Fatimid, Saljuq, Frankish and local political elites. Regrettably, relevant historical sources for Fatimid South Jordan prior to the first Crusader incursions around 1100 CE are scant, and this has led scholarship to perceive the region as culturally and economically secondary to Egypt and Palestine.
        finding_fatimid_jordan_a_reinterpretation_of_aylahs_fatimid_residence.pdf
        Download File


         

        Álbum de copistas de manuscritos griegos en España

        Álbum de copistas de manuscritos griegos en España
        http://pendientedemigracion.ucm.es/info/copistas/dib/copista.png
        Desde hace algunos años, en el Departamento de Filología Griega y Lingüística Indoeuropea de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid existe un Seminario para el estudio de los manuscritos griegos en España (S.E.M.G.E.), promovido por el prof. Felipe G. Hernández Muñoz. Su objetivo prioritario es el estudio integral de los manuscritos griegos conservados en nuestro país, especialmente en el aspecto paleográfico y textual, con la constitución de un fondo bibliográfico propio, a disposición de todos los interesados en estas materias. En el marco del S.E.M.G.E. se han concluido ya varias Tesis Doctorales y se han realizado -o están en curso de realización- varios proyectos oficiales de investigación. El último, financiado por el Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, se titula "El texto de los oradores griegos en los manuscritos españoles (ref. BFF 2002-03250)".

        Desde el principio, el S.E.M.G.E. contempló como tarea prioritaria la elaboración de un Álbum de copistas de manuscritos griegos en España que sirviera como material de consulta para los estudiosos de paleografía, codicología y crítica textual griegas, así como un auxiliar para los investigadores en la siempre difícil tarea de la identificación de copistas que no han firmado sus manuscritos. Seguíamos en ello las sugerencias de diferentes colegas, como A. Bravo García¹ y J.M. Fernández Pomar², que han señalado la carencia de colecciones de láminas específicas como uno de los principales obstáculos a la hora de identificar a los copistas de los manuscritos griegos de nuestras bibliotecas.

        Hasta ahora este Álbum, nacido con esa vocación de utilidad, ha sido consultado en papel y, al parecer, con buenos resultados, pues ya ha servido para identificar a algunos copistas mediante el cotejo con las láminas aquí presentadas. Desde ahora su consulta será mucho más fácil y asequible.

        Aunque no se trata de un Álbum completo, hemos procurado que en él esté representada la mayoría de los copistas de manuscritos griegos que se conservan en nuestro país, por lo que existe una alta probabilidad de que la mano desconocida para el estudioso que esté trabajando con uno de dichos manuscritos se encuentre representada en una de las láminas del Álbum, facilitándose así su cotejo. Su estructura es simple: una lista ordenada alfabéticamente de los copistas y, a continuación, las respectivas láminas seleccionadas (varias en caso de disponer de subscripción). El primer volumen se dedica a los copistas de la Biblioteca de El Escorial; el segundo, a los de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid (sólo de los no repetidos en el volumen de El Escorial): casi ciento ochenta copistas diferentes, con posibilidad de incrementar su número. Está previsto un tercer volumen con el reducido número de copistas del resto de bibliotecas españolas que no se encuentren ya en los dos volúmenes anteriores, así como un apéndice con la respectiva información biográfica y bibliográfica. La digitalización del Álbum en la red permitirá incluir con mayor agilidad los addenda et corrigenda necesarios, pues su actualización es un proyecto abierto a la colaboración de todos los interesados.

        Este Álbum quiere ser también nuestro particular homenaje al Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten (RGK) de los prof. E. Gamillscheg y D. Harlfinger, en curso de elaboración, de tanto provecho para el progreso de los estudios sobre paleografía griega. Agradecemos particularmente las muestras de ánimo y apoyo que el prof. Harlfinger nos ha ido transmitiendo.

        Quede también constancia de nuestro agradecimiento a las bibliotecas que nos han suministrado las copias solicitadas de los manuscritos (especialmente al Sr. Mediavilla, de la Biblioteca de El Escorial, y a Dª Pilar Mezquita, de la Biblioteca Nacional) y han autorizado su reproducción en este Álbum; a la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y al Departamento de Filología Griega y Lingüística Indoeuropea (representado en su anterior Director, el prof. Rodríguez Alfageme, y el actual, el prof. Bernabé Pajares), que han amparado el proyecto (UCM-PR78/02-10986), y a los distintos colegas que nos han animado en la laboriosa tarea de localizar, seleccionar y encargar la reproducción de las láminas aquí presentadas, un esfuerzo que tal vez sobrepasaba nuestras limitadas fuerzas. Esperamos que todo este trabajo redunde en un mejor conocimiento del riquísimo patrimonio bibliográfico español.

        Un agradecimiento especial merece el prof. García Romero, quien desde el primer momento se sumó con entusiasmo a la tarea de poner en marcha el S.E.M.G.E., colaborando estrechamente en la realización del Álbum; también los prof. Caerols y Castro, de la Facultad de Filología de la Universidad Complutense, que desde el inicio contemplaron la necesidad de difundir, en acceso abierto, el Álbum por medio de las nuevas tecnologías, así como Dª Sandra Romano, quien ha sido finalmente la encargada de concretar esta iniciativa de difusión que permitirá visualizar con rapidez cada lámina e incluso ampliar sobre la pantalla -si así se desea- detalles concretos de la escritura.

        También quisiéramos tener un recuerdo para el prof. J. Lasso de la Vega, quien, junto al ya mencionado prof. Bravo García, nos inculcó, a nosotros y a tantos otros, el amor por los manuscritos griegos.

        Open Access Book: Epigrafia e politica

        Epigrafia e politica

        Authors: Simonetta Segenni --- Michele Bellomo
        Book Series: Consonanze ISBN: 9788867055845 Year: 2017 Pages: 272 Language: Italian
        Publisher: Ledizioni - LediPublishing
        Subject: Languages and Literatures
        License:

        Abstract Le iscrizioni hanno da sempre offerto un contributo di grande valore alle nostre conoscenze relative alla vita pubblica, sociale, economica e culturale di Roma antica. Sottolineare l’importanza della documentazione epigrafica, valorizzando in modo specifico l’apporto che essa offre alla conoscenza delle dinamiche politiche del mondo romano è lo scopo dei saggi raccolti in questo volume. I contributi tocccano temi che spaziano dallo studio dei Fasti e delle iscrizioni trionfali alla politica imperiale, dal ruolo delle élites municipali alla politica di integrazione e concessione della cittadinanza, fino al significato che gli stessi autori antichi attribuivano al documento epigrafico.

        ASOR Syrian Heritage Initiative

        Satellite Imagery Confirms the Destruction of al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque and al-Hadba Minaret by ISIL

        DigitalGlobe satellite imagery shows the mosque and minaret prior to destruction on June 19, 2017

        DigitalGlobe satellite imagery shows the mosque and minaret on June 22, 2017

         By Michael Danti, Marina Gabriel, Susan Penacho, Kyra Kaercher, and Allison Cuneo

         

        On June 21, 2017 ISIL militants exploded al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque and the iconic al-Hadba Minaret in Mosul’s Old City. Iraqi forces were nearing the mosque, a highly symbolic objective, reportedly advancing to within 50 meters before the detonation. The Iraqi Military released a statement blaming ISIL for the destruction of the mosque, while ISIL propaganda attempted to blame the US-led Coalition. The US-led Coalition released a statement confirming that no aircraft were in the area at the time of the explosion. Video footage released several hours after the first reports of the destruction shows a simultaneous, mass detonation taking place from inside the mosque and minaret, mirroring similar videos of ISIL demolition using fixed charges.

        Al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque and al-Hadba Minaret were constructed between 1170 and 1172 CE under the patronage of Nur al-Din, the second ruler of the Zengid Dynasty. Nur al-Din ordered the foundation of the mosque to be constructed in the Old City neighborhood of Mosul, and appointed a local overseer. For centuries it ranked as the largest Sunni mosque in Mosul. Ernst Herzfeld visited the mosque in 1910 and described its plan as a conglomeration of various episodes of building. After its original construction, the mosque was renovated in 1511 by the Safavids. The mosque was again dismantled and reconstructed in 1864. The 1864 reconstruction included some original material, as well as material from other mosques and churches in Mosul. In 1942, al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque was once again dismantled and reassembled by a restoration program undertaken by the Iraqi government and using a different plan from the previous mosque.

        At the time of its completion in 1172 CE, the al-Hadba minaret was 45 meters (150 feet) high, with seven ornamental bands of brickwork at different levels around its cylindrical shaft. The tower was supported by a cubical base and ended with a cupola over a bracketed balcony. Ibn Battuta visited Mosul in the14th century CE and recorded that the minaret had already begun to lean and was affectionately known by its nickname, "the Hunchback" (al-Hadba). The cause of al-Hadba’s iconic lean is disputed, although local officials attribute it either to the effects of thermal expansion of the brick on the sun-facing side, north-westerly winds, or the weak gypsum used in holding the bricks together. Unlike al-Nuri al-Kabir Mosque, the al-Hadba Minaret was never renovated or reconstructed, and had remained in its original form since 1172.

        (Library of Congress; Accessed June 23, 2017)

        The famous leaning al-Hadba Minaret (Panoramio)

        During the Iran-Iraq War shelling struck an area near the minaret, damaging underground pipes. This disruption in the ground resulted in the minaret leaning an additional 40 cm. In 2010 the minaret was included on the World Monuments Watch list. Prior to ISIL’s takeover of Mosul, the World Monuments Fund was working in cooperation with the Iraqi Institute of Antiquities and Heritage, preparing Iraqi and Kurdish students for future restoration work. This work came to a halt in June 2014.

        Following ISIL’s takeover of the city in June 2014, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi conducted a 21-minute sermon inside al-Nur al-Kabir Mosque where he asserted himself to be the group’s caliph. In July 2014, Mosul residents defied ISIL, protecting the site from imminent destruction. According to local residents present at the time, ISIL militants carrying heavy explosives converged on the site prompting those living nearby to rush “to the courtyard below the minaret, [sat] on the ground, and arms to form a human chain,” threatening the militants that they would have to kill them too if they intended to blow up the minaret. The mosque and minaret remained largely undamaged during three years of ISIL’s brutal rule over the cityalthough the dome of the mosque was damaged during ongoing military operations in the Old Cityuntil June 21, 2017 in what may prove to be the final days of ISIL in Mosul.

        ASOR CHI will continue to monitor the site as more details of its destruction emerge. Such appalling acts of retributory violence typify ISIL as the organization loses territory on multiple fronts and conducts a scorched earth policy. ASOR CHI strongly condemns this criminal act.

        Click on the line below and scroll right and left to view Digital Globe satellite imagery of the site before and after destruction

        Smoke from nearby explosion surrounds the mosque and minaret (Times of Oman)

        The black flag of ISIL seen atop the minaret during operations to recapture the city (Reuters)

        Additional Sources

        Tabbaa, Yasser. 2002. “The Mosque of Nur al-Din in Mosul 1170.” Annales Islamologiques. 36:339–360.

        al-Daywaji, S. 1949. "Al-Jami' al-Nuri fi al'Mawsil" Sumer 5:276-96.
         
        Herzfeld, E. and F. Sarre. 1911. Archaeologische Reise im Euphrat-un Tigris-Gebiet. Berlin: D. Reimer. 

        The Heroic Age

        The president and members of the Royal Historical Commission of Belgium are happy to announce the updated version of the online charter database Diplomata Belgica, now available at http://www.diplomata-belgica.be​ 

        Diplomata Belgica offers a critical survey of all the diplomatic sources, edited or still unpublished, and issued by both natural persons and legal bodies from the medieval Southern Low Countries. Diplomata Belgica covers present day Belgium as well as those areas which belonged historically to the Southern Low Countries but are part now of France (French Flanders, French Hainault), the Netherlands (parts of the provinces of Zeeland, Noord-Brabant, Limburg), the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, or Germany (parts of the Rhineland). At this stage, Diplomata Belgica contains metadata of about 35,000 charters and deeds in Latin, Old-French, Middle Dutch and Middle High German, almost 19,000 full text transcriptions and 5,000 photographs of original charters. As for the seals, the database also provides links to the online corpus of seal moulds developed by the National Archives of Belgium. Diplomata Belgica aims at exhaustivity for the period before 1250 and will, in the future, also include late medieval diplomatic material, without striving after completeness.

        Diplomata Belgica. The Diplomatic Sources from the Medieval Southern Low Countries, ed. by Thérèse de Hemptinne, Jeroen Deploige, Jean-Louis Kupper and Walter Prevenier (Brussels: Royal Historical Commission, since 2015). URL: http://www.diplomata-belgica.be 

        Attached you find the user guide (in French).

        Please feel free and welcome to address any comments or feedback to diplomata-belgica@ugent.be​ or Jeroen.Deploige@UGent.be.

        Sincerely,

        Els De Paermentier 

        ----
        Prof. dr. Els De Paermentier
        Ghent University
        Dept. of History (Middle Ages)
        St-Pietersnieuwstraat 35 (lok. 120.18)
        B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
        +32.9.331.02.20

        Digital Editing and Medieval Manuscripts


        We are delighted to invite you to attend our workshop: "Digital Editing and Medieval Manuscripts" . It will take place on the 3rd July 2017 at Ca' Foscari, University of Venice.

        Details and contact information are provided here: http://biflow.hypotheses.org/

        Apologies for cross-posting 

        Kind regards,

        Tiziana Mancinelli
        On behalf of the organising committee

        Ancient Peoples

        Bronze Short Sword and Sheath with Crouching Feline Northeast...





        Bronze Short Sword and Sheath with Crouching Feline

        Northeast China, 10th–8th century BC   

        Sword: L. 9 in. (3 cm) Scabbard: L. 5 ¾ in. (14 cm); W. 2 ½ in. (6 cm)

        Source: Met Museum

        The Heroic Age

        The Pontifical Institute Orientale is pleased to announce the International Conference to Mark the 700th Anniversary of ʿAbdīšōʿ bar Brīkhā of Nisibis (1318-2018). The Conference will take place at the same Institute, in November 8 – 9, 2018.

        The conference topics will cover study on ʿAbdīšō’s works, his time and contribution to the Syriac renaissance. Topics discussed will include:
        • Historical Setting,
        • Philosophy, Theology, Exegesis, Sacraments, Canon Law
        • Poetry, Philology
        • Esotery, Alchemy
        • Manuscripts, Editions, Translations, etc.

        First Day Keynote: Sebastian Brock (Oxford University)
        Second Day Keynote: Herman G. B. Teule (University of Leuven)

        Venue: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore 7, 00185 Roma, Italy



        More detailed information will be provided later during the preparation. In addition, updates will be regularly posted on the conference web site (see here).
        The 2017 Deerhurst Lecture will take place on Saturday 16th September 
        2017 at 7.30 pm at St Mary’s Church, Deerhurst, Gloucestershire. The
        lecture will be given by Dr Graham Jones of the University of Oxford
        under the title 'The Deer of Deerhurst: Landscape, Lordship, Custom and
        Ritual'. Tickets will be available at the door or visit http://deerhurstfriends.co.uk.


        Michael Hare

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Forging Antiquity: The website for the Australian Research Council Discovery Project: Forging Antiquity: Authenticity, forgery and fake papyri

        Forging Antiquity: The website for the Australian Research Council Discovery Project: Forging Antiquity: Authenticity, forgery and fake papyri
        The project aims to produce a full typology of forged papyri of all types, from the early modern period to the present day, by a close examination of fake papyri of every type. Alongside this, we investigate how papyrus forgers work, both in terms of the methods they use, and the assumptions about the past which they exploit when producing fakes. In doing so, we will locate and contextualise debates over forged papyri within contemporary discussions, in particular debates over the ethics and practice of the antiquities trade and the related problem of the illegal trafficking of artefacts; and public perceptions of the relative value of scientific and humanities expertise in the detection of forged artefacts.
        • Journal articles and book chapters relating to the theme. Those forthcoming and in progress are listed on our Research page.
        • A volume, co-edited by the project team along with collaborators, on forged papyri from (or allegedly from) Egypt, with editions and commentary.
        • A monograph, co-authored by Choat and Yuen-Collingridge, on the mid-nineteenth century master forger and self-taught manuscript expert Constantine Simonides. This will focus primarily on the collection of forged papyri in the World Museum at Liverpool and on Simonides’ time in England in 1859–1863, telling the story of someone forging Greek history, and selling it (literally and metaphorically) to the English.
        • An online database of forged papyri from (or allegedly from) Egypt. We invite people to report fake papyri they are aware of to us at info@forgingantiquity.com .
        • A study by Dundler of the internet trade in papyrus.

        The Archaeology News Network

        Revealing the face of Tudor Dublin

        In July 2014 archaeologists from Rubicon Heritage, monitoring Luas Cross City Utilities Works for GMC Ltd. on behalf of Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) uncovered a series of burials during works at College Green. Digital facial reconstruction of Tudor Dubliner with intermediate modelling stages shown on left  [Credit: Liverpool John Moore’s University for Rubicon Heritage Services Ltd.]A total of five burials were...

        [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

        BiblePlaces Blog

        Bypass the Learning Curve for Bible Mapper

        (Post by A.D. Riddle)

        A few years ago, we wrote a recommendation when Bible Mapper version 5 was first released. At the time Mark Hoffman, a Bible Mapper user, recorded seven tutorial videos to help out new users. Mark just moved the tutorials over to YouTube two weeks ago. The videos are a fantastic introduction to some of Bible Mapper's customization options, and they will give the jump start you need to start creating custom maps right away.

        BibleMapper can be downloaded here. Many features can be used with the free version, but a one-time license key ($37) is required to save your work and to access advanced features.

        Be sure to watch Mark Hoffman's tutorial videos on YouTube to help you quickly get started making maps.

        You can read our original review here.

        To review, the strengths of Bible Mapper are:

        • Accuracy of the data.
        • Ability to customize the look of the terrain, to select features and cities to be displayed, to modify the look and position of labels, and even to import your own sites directly using a kmz/kml file.
        • Permission to use the maps you create copyright-free in papers, lectures, websites, and publications.

        The Archaeology News Network

        Woven basket finding in Japan unravels ancient wooden box mystery

        A mystery that long puzzled archaeologists may have been solved with the first discovery of a finely woven basket complete with a square wooden footed stand, believed to be from the late second century. Next to an excavated woven basket found in Kashihara, Nara Prefecture, a researcher holds  a model of the stand attached to the base of the basket [Credit: Ryo Kato]The find at the Seta archeological site here, announced by the...

        [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

        AIA Fieldnotes

        Archaeology and the Total Eclipse

        Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
        Sponsored by Missouri State parks - a division of Missouri Department of Natural Resources
        Event Type (you may select more than one): 
        other
        Start Date: 
        Monday, August 21, 2017 - 9:30am

        Michael Fuller and Neathery Fuller (St. Louis Society of AIA) will be at the Washington State Park site to document how the rock art images change (or not) during the eclipse. 9:30 am is a guided interpretive discussion (by a Missouri DNR ranger) of the ancient Native American rock carvings. The eclipse will start at 11:49 a.m. and the total eclipse will occur at approximately 1:16 p.m. The total eclipse will last about three minutes. The address for this event is 13041 State Hwy. 104, De Soto, MO.

        AIA Society: 

        Location

        Name: 
        Michael Fuller
        Telephone: 
        (314) 504-7808
        Call for Papers: 
        no

        American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

        Gennadius Library closed August 5 - October 31, 2017

        Due to the transfer of books to the new mobile shelving in the refurbished West Wing of the Gennadeion, the Library will remain closed to the public from August 5 to October 31, 2017. We apologize for the inconvenience. In the case of a change in the dates a new notice will be issued.

        Ben Blackwell (Dunelm Road)

        Jesus, the Sadducees and the Resurrection

        In Mark 11.27-12.34 Jesus engages with other Jewish groups as they pepper him with various questions. In one of the rare engagements between Jesus and the Sadducees, they present him with a problem regarding marriage and resurrection (12:18-27). They tell a story about a woman who marries, but the husband dies. Of course, in Jewish law the solution is simple: the woman marries the man’s brother. Yet, in this story, the next brother dies, as does the next and the next and so on. Their question then is whose wife will she be at the resurrection. (The account is probably based on the story of Tobit.)

        The story told by the Sadducees is tragic, but their real concern is with the legal code of the levirate marriage law (Deut 25.5-10). According to the logic of the Sadducees, one cannot maintain a belief in resurrection and uphold the authority of the Torah. They make two assumptions here: 1) marital practices of the “supposed” resurrection age will mirror those of the present age; and 2) the ultimate authority of the Mosaic Torah in both the present age and the next. If the Torah commandment of levirate marriage remains applicable in the resurrection age, which it must, then this creates a bizarre situation that violates other laws about adultery. Their question to Jesus is fundamentally about the Torah.

        In his response Jesus challenges the Sadducees understanding of Scripture. He claims that if the Sadducees were reading Scripture properly they would realize that God is the God of the living. This is the point of his quotation of Exod 3.6, whatever exactly is the best interpretation of Jesus’ quotation.

        But stopping here is to grasp only the surface meaning of Jesus’ response. Underneath the surface Jesus is leveling a more marked charge: the issue as Jesus frames it is not merely whether there will be a resurrection nor even how best to interpret Moses, but rather the very nature of God. Is Israel’s God one who gives life only in the present or also in the future? The conjunction of the double declarations of God’s identity is crucial: Scripture reveals that God is “the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” and it is accepted truth that he is “the God of the living,” therefore, Jesus infers, the patriarchs must live again.[1] Jesus cuts through the legal questions to the core issue: what is the nature Israel’s God?

        By turning to Exod 3:6, Jesus’ tactic is not only cleaver, but it thoroughly undercuts the Sadducees’ rejection of the resurrection. Jesus exposes them as hermeneutically deficient, for they had failed to grasp the full import of this text as it relates to one of their core beliefs. But, even more sharply, Jesus charges that their denial of resurrection is actually a denial of Israel’s God.

        [1] Craig A. Evans, Mark 8:27-16:20, WBC (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2015), 256–57.


        Archaeological News on Tumblr

        In a pharaoh tomb, archaeologist examines the inscriptions ... of ancient tourists

        The tomb of Ramesses VI in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings already in ancient times was visited by...

        Machu Picchu: New Archaeological Finds from Inca Citadel Released

        A group of archaeologists working in Machu Picchu, located in Cusco, today showed one of their most...

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Oracc Open Data: A brief introduction for programmers

        Oracc Open Data: A brief introduction for programmers

        JSON

        Oracc makes its public data available in JSON format under the CC0 or public domain licence. We recommend obtaining the JSON data from our GitHub repo http://github.com/oracc/json. It is also possible to retrieve individual files from the Oracc server as described below.
        Bug reports, comments and suggestions are welcomed at stinney at upenn dot edu. If you use the Oracc data in a project please let us know!

        Top-level Oracc Data

        Two files are provided at Oracc's top level: a simple list of public projects (projects.json) and a complex list of public projects analogous to the one-page listing of projects with blurbs (projectlist.json). In each case, these can be retrieved by prefixing them with an Oracc server name, e.g., http://oracc.org/projects.json or http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/projects.json.
        projects.json: type "projects"
        Provides a simple list of project names which can be concatenated to an Oracc server name to provide the base URL for retrieving additional JSON objects:
        {
        "type": "projects",
        "public": [
        "aemw/alalakh/idrimi",
        "amgg",
        "armep",
        "arrim",
        The public array gives the project names in a form suitable for concatenating to the http:// URL for an Oracc server. You can find the names of JSON files available for a project in the manifest, for which see below.
        projectlist.json: type "projectlist"
        Provides a version of the data used in the project list at http://oracc.org/projectlist.html:
        {
        "type": "projectlist",
        "projects": [{
        "pathname": "rimanum",
        "name": "The House of Prisoners",
        "abbrev": "Rīm-Anum",
        "blurb": "Rīm-Anum, king of Uruk (ca. 1741-1739 BC) revolted against Samsuiluna of Babylon, son of Hammurapi, and enjoyed a short-lived independence. The archive edited in this project derives from the house of prisoners (bīt asiri) that kept the prisoners of war. The editions and translations were prepared by Andrea Seri and accompanies her book \"The House of Prisoners\" (2013). Buy the book from Harrassowitz. "
        } , {
        The projects gives a list of objects, one per project. Each object contains a subset of the material in the project's configuration object (or config.xml within the Oracc installation. This information is also available from each project's metadata.json, so the project list is primarily a convenience for anyone wanting to provide a summary of the projects available.

        Project-level Data

        Oracc compiles project content into a collection of XML data structures which have additional annotation and linkage. The goal is to expose all of this data in JSON format.
        manifest.json: type "manifest"
        For any given project name in /projects.json the file /[PROJECT]/manifest.json provides a list of JSON files avaialable for the project. For the project rimanum, the URL http://oracc.org/rimanum/manifest.json, yields the following:
        {
        "type": "manifest",
        "project": "rimanum",
        "files": [
        "corpus.json",
        "index-akk-x-oldbab.json",
        "index-cat.json",
        "index-lem.json",
        ...
        ],
        "everything": "json.zip"
        }
        For each entry in the array files you can access the file rimanum/corpus.json or you can retrieve, e.g., http://oracc.org/rimanum/corpus.json.
        metadata.json: type "metadata"
        This provides several objects: "config"--the configuration info for the project; "witnesses"--only present if projects use composite texts, this provides information on which manuscripts are witnesses of the composites in the project; and "formats", a collection of lists indicating the presence of transliterations, transliterations and lemmatized data in the project.
        {
        "type": "metadata",
        "config": {
        "pathname": "rimanum",
        "name": "The House of Prisoners",
        "abbrev": "RÄ«m-Anum",
        ...
        },
        "formats": {
        "atf": [ "P295625","P296047","P296277","P296278", ... ],
        "lem": [ "P295625","P296047","P296277","P296278","P296414", ... ],
        "tr-en": [ "P295625","P296047","P296277","P296278", ... ],
        "xtf": [ "P295625","P296047","P296277", ... ]
        }
        }
        catalogue.json: type "catalogue"
        Provides the project's catalogue:
        {
        "type": "catalogue",
        "project": "rimanum",
        "members": {
        "P295625": {
        "author": "Simmons, Stephen D.",
        "collection": "J. Pierpont Morgan Library Collection, Yale Babylonian Collection, New Haven, Connecticut, USA",
        "date_of_origin": "Rim-Anum.01.10.01",
        "dates_referenced": "Rim-Anum.01.10.01",
        "designation": "YOS 14, 341",
        "genre": "Administrative",
        "height": "40",
        "language": "Sumerian",
        ...
        Although projects may have their own catalogue fields, all projects provide at least one of id_text or id_composite (some use a mix); designation; period; and provenience.
        corpus.json: type "corpus"
        The JSON file corpus.json is another manifest file: it lists the individual text editions that are located in the folder corpusjson/:
        {
        "type": "corpus",
        "project": "rimanum",
        "members": {
        "P295625": "corpusjson/P295625.json",
        "P296047": "corpusjson/P296047.json",
        "P296277": "corpusjson/P296277.json",
        "P296278": "corpusjson/P296278.json",
        "P296414": "corpusjson/P296414.json",
        "P297038": "corpusjson/P297038.json",
        "P311964": "corpusjson/P311964.json",
        "P368396": "corpusjson/P368396.json",
        "P368398": "corpusjson/P368398.json",
        "P372766": "corpusjson/P372766.json",
        ...
        JSON for individual text editions: type "cdl"
        Oracc text editions consist of two structures: one is the XML version of the user's transliteration. The other is entirely generated by Oracc and provides access to the divisions, content, and lemmatization of the text in a relatively simple nested tree format. In the Oracc world this format is called "XCL", or XML Chunks and Lemmas: the XCL tree has only three primary node types: c, a chunk of text which may be the whole text, a sentence or unit, a clause, a phrase or possibly others; d, a discontinuity, e.g., a line-break, a surface transition, damage to the content of the text; l, a lemma, the lemmatization of the text. The name of the array of children of any chunk node is called "cdl" based on these three members.
        Discontinuities and lemmata have a "text" property which can be concatenated to create text fragments.
        {
        {
        "type": "cdl",
        "project": "rimanum",
        "source": "http://oracc.org/rimanum",
        "license": "This data is released under the CC0 license",
        "license-url": "https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/",
        "more-info": "http://oracc.org/doc/opendata/",
        "UTC-timestamp": "2017-06-21T22:02:40",
        "textid": "P295625",
        "cdl": [
        {
        "node": "c",
        "type": "text",
        "id": "P295625.U0",
        "cdl": [
        {
        "node": "d",
        "subtype": "tablet",
        "type": "tablet",
        "ref": "P295625.x374.1",
        "label": "x374"
        },
        {
        "node": "d",
        "subtype": "obverse",
        "type": "obverse",
        "ref": "P295625.o.2",
        "label": "o"
        },
        {
        "node": "c",
        "type": "discourse",
        "subtype": "body",
        "id": "P295625.U1",
        "cdl": [
        {
        "node": "c",
        "type": "sentence",
        "id": "P295625.U2",
        "label": "o 1 - r 2",
        "cdl": [
        {
        "node": "d",
        "type": "line-start",
        "ref": "P295625.3",
        "n": "1",
        "label": "o 1"
        },
        {
        "node": "l",
        "frag": "5(BAN₂)",
        "id": "P295625.l02b23",
        "ref": "P295625.3.1",
        "inst": "n",
        "f": {
        "lang": "akk-x-oldbab",
        "form": "5(BAN₂)",
        "delim": " ",
        "gdl": [
        {
        "n": "n",
        "form": "5(BAN₂)",
        "id": "P295625.3.1.0",
        "seq": [
        {
        "r": "5"
        },
        {
        "s": "BAN₂"
        }
        ]
        }
        ],
        "pos": "n"
        }
        },
        ...
        {
        "node": "l",
        "frag": "ZI₃.DA",
        "id": "P295625.l02b25",
        "ref": "P295625.3.3",
        "inst": "qēmu[flour]N",
        "sig": "@rimanum%akk-x-oldbab:ZI₃.DA=qēmu[flour//flour]N'N$qēmu",
        "f": {
        "lang": "akk-x-oldbab",
        "form": "ZI₃.DA",
        "gdl": [
        {
        "gg": "logo",
        "gdl_type": "logo",
        "group": [
        {
        "s": "ZI₃",
        "id": "P295625.3.3.0",
        "role": "logo",
        "logolang": "sux",
        "delim": "."
        },
        {
        "s": "DA",
        "id": "P295625.3.3.1",
        "role": "logo",
        "logolang": "sux"
        }
        ]
        }
        ],
        "cf": "qēmu",
        "gw": "flour",
        "sense": "flour",
        "norm": "qēmu",
        "pos": "N",
        "epos": "N"
        }
        },
        ...
        In the l nodes of the example above, the "sig" property is the string version of the lemmatization associated with a word. To reduce the size of the JSON files, the parsed versions of the sig properties are collected together in a separate object in the corpus, called "sigs":
        "sigs": {
        "@rimanum%akk-x-oldbab:30-be-el-i₃-li₂=Sîn-bēl-ilī[00//00]PN'PN$Sîn-bēl-ilī": {
        "form": "30-be-el-i₃-li₂",
        "cf": "Sîn-bēl-ilī",
        "gw": "00",
        "sense": "00",
        "pos": "PN",
        "epos": "PN",
        "norm": "Sîn-bēl-ilī"

        } ,
        You can use the string "sig" as a key to look up the parsed form.
        Each form is also presented in its parsed form in the gdl object making it easy to work with the text as a series of graphemes as well as a series of lemmata. GDL is described in the GDL schema documentation.
        glossary-XXX.json: type "glossary"
        The glossary files are named on a template which puts the language code in the place-holder XXX in the heading to the section. For language akk there is a glossary file glossary-XXX.json and so on; you can see which ones are provided by checking the project's manifest.
        Glossaries are a list of entries which give the distributional data on all of the facets of Oracc lemmatization, gathered under a series of headings for spellings (forms); normalizations (norms) and meanings (senses. The same data is also given for the full signatures which reference the entry (sigs).
        Several instance-related properties are common to many of these data:
        icount
        The instance count for the datum.
        ipct
        The percentage of instances of the datum that this count represents.
        xis
        A reference to the compilation of instances that make up the count for the datum.
        The second element of a glossary object is the set of xis data for the glossary: you can use the reference given in the xis property to access the list of word IDs which makes up the instance set to access the lemmatizations given in the corpus and traverse the context of any instance.
        {
        "type": "glossary",
        "project": "rimanum",
        ...
        "lang": "akk-x-oldbab",
        "entries": [
        {
        "headword": "DUMU.EDUBA[(military) scribe]N",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000021",
        "icount": "7",
        "ipct": "100",
        "xis": "akk.r00000",
        "cf": "DUMU.EDUBA",
        "gw": "(military) scribe",
        "pos": "N",
        "forms": [
        {
        "type": "form",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000229",
        "n": "DUMU.E₂.DUB.BA",
        "icount": "4",
        "ipct": "57",
        "xis": "akk.r00001"
        },
        ...
        ],
        "norms": [
        {
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000231",
        "icount": "7",
        "ipct": "100",
        "xis": "akk.r00000",
        "n": "DUMU.EDUBA",
        "forms": [
        {
        "type": "normform",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000232",
        "ref": "akk-x-oldbab.x000229",
        "icount": "4",
        "ipct": "57",
        "xis": "akk.r00001"
        },
        ...
        ]
        }
        ],
        "senses": [
        {
        "type": "sense",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000234",
        "n": "DUMU.EDUBA[(military) scribe//(military) scribe]N'N",
        "icount": "7",
        "ipct": "100",
        "xis": "akk.r00000",
        "pos": "N",
        "mng": "(military) scribe",
        "forms": [
        {
        "type": "form",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000235",
        "n": "%akk-x-oldbab:DUMU.E₂.DUB.BA",
        "icount": "4",
        "ipct": "57",
        "xis": "akk.r00001"
        },
        ...
        ],
        "norms": [
        {
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000237",
        "n": "DUMU.EDUBA",
        "icount": "7",
        "ipct": "100",
        "xis": "akk.r00000"
        }
        ],
        "sigs": [
        {
        "type": "sig",
        "id": "akk-x-oldbab.x000238",
        "sig": "@rimanum%akk-x-oldbab:DUMU.E₂.DUB.BA.A=DUMU.EDUBA[(military) scribe//(military) scribe]N'N$DUMU.EDUBA",
        "icount": "3",
        "ipct": "43",
        "xis": "akk.r00002"
        },
        ...
        ]
        }
        ]
        },
        ...
        },
        "instances": {
        "akk.r0019f": [
        "rimanum:P405412.8.4"
        ],
        "akk.r0019b": [
        "rimanum:P405162.3.2",
        "rimanum:P405163.3.2",
        "rimanum:P405164.3.3",
        "rimanum:P405165.4.3",
        "rimanum:P405166.3.2",
        "rimanum:P405167.3.3"
        ],
        "akk.r001a1": [
        "rimanum:P372792.5.4",
        "rimanum:P405339.4.3",
        "rimanum:P405373.4.6",
        "rimanum:P405379.5.3"
        ],
        ...


        index-xxx.json: type "index"
        The index-xxx.json files are exports of a subset of the index data created and used by the Oracc search engine, giving the keys the indexer has generated from the input words and the locations in which they occur in the corpus. These keys may have been normalized using a variety of processes: accents are rendered as numeric indices; case may be foled; for English translation indexes a stemmer is used so that, e.g., "received" and "receives" will be gathered together under "receive" in the index.
          {
        "type": "index",
        "project":"rimanum",
        "name": "cat",
        "keys": [{
        "key": "1",
        "count": "16",
        "instances": [
        "rimanum:P405220","rimanum:P405220","rimanum:P405246","rimanum:P405246","rimanum:P405313","rimanum:P405313","
        ]},{
        "key": "3",
        "count": "16",
        "instances": [
        "rimanum:P405225","rimanum:P405225","rimanum:P405229","rimanum:P405229","rimanum:P405248","rimanum:P405248","
        ]},{
        "key": "5",
        "count": "11",
        "instances": [
        "rimanum:P405212","rimanum:P405212","rimanum:P405250","rimanum:P405250","rimanum:P405317","rimanum:P405317","
        ]},{
        "key": "6",
        "count": "11",
        "instances": [
        "rimanum:P405219","rimanum:P405219","rimanum:P405251","rimanum:P405251","rimanum:P405284","rimanum:P405318","
        ]},{
        The text IDs are always qualified with a project name because any project can use texts from other projects. For "txt", "lem" and "tra" index types, the instances are given as word IDs, so they can be used to locate the instance in the text edition. A simple way of displaying instances is to use the URL http://oracc.org/PROJECT/INSTANCE_ID/html, e.g., http://oracc.org/rimanum/P405219.4.1/html. If you omit the "/html" the text is loaded into the Oracc pager instead of retrieving the simple HTML version.
        21 Jun 2017 osc at oracc dot org 
        Steve Tinney & Eleanor Robson
        Steve Tinney & Eleanor Robson, 'Oracc Open Data: A brief introduction for programmers', Oracc: The Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus, Oracc, 2017 [http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/doc/opendata/]

        ArcheoNet BE

        Historia Mundi dit weekend te gast in Glabbeek

        Historia Mundi, het jaarlijkse evenement rond reenactment en living history, is dit weekend te gast in Glabbeek. Op 24 en 25 juni slaan de deelnemende groepen hun kampen op en delen ze hun hobby met het grote publiek. Van de prehistorie over de kolonisatie van Amerika tot tanks uit Wereldoorlog II… op Historia Mundi maak je een ware tijdreis, langsheen een duizendtal personages in gepaste klederdracht.

        Meer info op historia-mundi.be.

        Liz Gloyn (Classically Inclined)

        Is the academic research seminar series still fit for purpose?

        When I joined Royal Holloway four years ago, I was asked to take over the job of coordinating the academic research seminar and reviving it after it had fallen into abeyance (mainly as the department had had its mind on other things). I was delighted to take it on – it would mean I could write to all sorts of interesting people, I would be sending regular e-mails to the Liverpool Classicists e-mail list so my name became familiar,  and it was a research-related sort of admin task. Great. I made a point of putting the seminar in a lunchtime slot, because while I wasn’t pregnant at the time, I was very aware of the issues of family-friendly working and several colleagues had (and still have!) young children. And I got on with it.

        By the time I was made permanent, and so could start thinking about what I might want to do differently, I was already feeling that the research seminar wasn’t doing what it was supposed to do. Yes, I invited some great speakers and got to hear some really interesting papers, but the pressures of term (teaching, meetings with other staff and students, preparation, admin that had to be completed right this minute and so on) meant that my colleagues often couldn’t make it. Our graduate students are a geographically diverse bunch, sometimes living quite a distance from campus, and found it disruptive to come in for a single hour if there wasn’t something else happening on the same day. Despite plenty of publicity, we rarely got people from other departments in the college coming along, and in three years we never had a visitor from further afield. So I started wondering what the seminar was actually trying to do.

        Now, in principle, a research seminar works as an opportunity for a department’s research community to get together, hear a speaker talk about their work, and socialise afterwards. A seminar series is meant to be part of a department’s research culture, to get colleagues in the same place and to help foster relationships based around research. However, this model is based firmly in what we might think of the 1950s academic vision, where the academic in question is able to leave the running of his household (yes, it’s definitely a he-academic) and wrangling of any children to either a wife or a housekeeper, and immerse himself in the pure streams of academia, unencumbered by domestic responsibilities, any requirements to do admin, and with the freedom to slope off to the pub afterwards in the knowledge that someone else will make sure his dinner is on the table when he wants it. Obviously not all 1950s academics were in this position, but let us see this chap, or Peregrine as I often think of him, as the ur-academic for whom modern academic systems were constructed. For Peregrine, the weekly seminar as an opportunity to leisurely dissect a paper with his colleagues and to then engage in the homosocial bonding ritual of a pint or two before home fits into his schedule nicely, and works just as it should.

        Not so the modern academic, for whom the seminar has often become either a burdensome three-line whip that eats time needed for other things during term, or the subject of an ‘I wish I could but…’ e-mail to the staff member organising it. As far as I can see, the current purpose of the research seminar series is to be able to send out a ‘here is what we are doing, we still exist!’ e-mail to the Liverpool Classicists list, and include it in the REF research environment statement as evidence of a thriving research culture. But just having one doesn’t mean that it’s actually doing its job.

        This year, when I came back from leave, I decided to do something different. I have just held the second of two research symposium days – the first was in April, between the spring and summer term, and this one comes just after our summer term has ended. They’ve each had a theme (political speech and encounters, both broadly defined) and have had the same sort of structure: two guest speakers giving a paper of the usual seminar sort of length; short presentations from PhD students and staff members on how their work intersects with the theme; plenty of time for conversation, shared discussion and general chatter; and coffee. Lots of coffee.

        So far, this seems to have worked as an alternative model. It’s much easier for staff to block out a day for research-based activity, and for our graduate students to spend a day in each other’s company. We still get the benefit of meeting academics not based in our department, but we get to engage them over the whole day and hear their input into our conversations. We learn more about other people’s work formally and informally, and catch up generally. After this week’s symposium day, our graduates headed off to the pub to continue chatting; some staff went with them, some went off to other responsibilities (including childcare) as we would at the end of a usual working day.

        Next academic year, I’m planning to have a research coffee and cake session for staff at the start of the autumn term, so we can all talk about what we’ve been up to over the summer, and then to repeat this pattern of two seminar days outside teaching term but close to it. There’s no point in doing anything over the Christmas break, as staff have marking and those with families have to factor in school holidays, so we might as well admit it and schedule these days to share research when we can enjoy them.

        Now, my thoughts here have been driven very much by the circumstances of our department and trying to find a form for a regular research event that works for our staff and PhD students. It may well be that the traditional research seminar format works very well for other departments (although I will forever be a bit sceptical about the practicality of the 5pm seminar for family-friendly working). That said, I’ve just agreed to do a seminar in a traditional series in spring next year, and being invited to do this sort of thing is often seen as a key sign of professional recognition in promotion processes, so we’ve a long way to go before a full revolution across the academy. But I do wonder whether, if we sat down and thought about this, we’d conclude that the seminar series is still fit for purpose.


        James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

        The Cave

        The above piece by Steve Reich takes its inspiration from the shared sacred site marking the burial place of Abraham. It is one of the sites in the Holy Land that made the biggest impression on me. On the one hand, Hebron today is a place of serious tensions. Visiting, one sees Palestinian homes from which [Read More...]

        Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

        Exhibition of Roman emperor's coins at Israel Museum

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/Ze6o0lK1QYU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        T. Asher: Don't be evil.

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/qe6dfvDaB1I" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

        Burrus on Jewish sarcophagi

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/9glfCc2hOnA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Looking at potsherds in archaeological digs

        <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/fNTx737pw_s" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

        Archaeology Magazine

        Early Twentieth-Century Church Found in Louisiana

        Louisiana church excavationSHREVEPORT, LOUISIANA—The Shreveport Times reports that the cornerstone, a pillar, and the central aisle of the original St. John’s Church have been uncovered by a team of researchers from the Cathedral of St. John Berchmans and Louisiana State University, Shreveport. Historian Cheryl White compared current and historic city maps and examined old photographs to pinpoint the site of the original church, which was built by the Jesuits in 1902, on what is now private land. “We came within inches of the front door on the first day,” White said. The team also recovered ceramics dating to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, iron hardware, religious items, coins, bottles, and pieces of glass. For more on archaeology in Louisiana, go to “Archaic Engineers Worked on a Deadline.”

        Possible Ritual Landscape Detected at Passage Tomb in Wales

        Bryn Celli DduANGLESEY, WALES—Rock art, pottery deposits, flint tools, and a burial cairn were discovered during recent excavations in the area surrounding Bryn Celli Ddu, a 5,000-year-old mound-covered passage tomb in North Wales. According to a report in The Guardian, a ground-penetrating radar survey suggests that the cairn could be part of a larger cemetery located behind the mound. “We know that Bryn Celli Ddu sits in a much more complicated landscape than previously thought,” said archaeologist Seren Griffiths of the University of Central Lancashire. For more, go to “Letter From Wales: Hillforts of the Iron Age.”

        Staircase Uncovered at Peru’s El Volcán

        Peru El VolcánCOLUMBIA, MISSOURI—A team led by Robert Benfer, a professor emeritus at the University of Missouri, examined a volcano-shaped earthwork in the Nepeña Valley of coastal Peru thought to have been constructed by the Yungas people. Live Science reports that when the researchers dug into the “crater” at the top of the 50-foot mound, known as El Volcán, they found a collapsed stairwell that descended past a layer of adobe bricks to a mud-plaster floor and a fireplace. Charcoal and pieces of shell in the fireplace were radiocarbon dated to between A.D. 1492 and 1602. Benfer thinks the Yungas may have used the earthwork and the fireplace in ceremonies to celebrate four eclipses that occurred in the sixteenth century. The structure itself may have been built much earlier. For more, go to “Letter from Peru: Connecting Two Realms.”

        New Dates Obtained for Jerusalem Stone Tower

        Jerusalem stone towerJERUSALEM, ISRAEL—According to a report in Live Science, new dates for a stone tower at Gihon Spring indicate that it was built 1,000 years later than had been previously thought. The tower, situated downhill from Jerusalem, guarded the city’s water supply. The original estimated date for the tower’s construction was based upon the Middle Bronze Age style of pottery and other artifacts at the site. Elisabetta Boaretto of the Weizmann Institute of Science and her colleagues examined the base of the tower, and found archaeological layers in the soil beneath its large boulders. Charcoal, seeds, and bones from the middle and lower layers of sediment were radiocarbon dated to about 1700 B.C. But samples in sediments near a large cornerstone yielded dates between 900 and 800 B.C. Boaretto said the new Iron Age date for the massive tower will have repercussions for other attempts to date construction and occupation in ancient Jerusalem. For more on archaeology in Israel, go to “Autumn of the Master Builder.”

        June 21, 2017

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Update on Perseus 5.0/Open Greek and Latin

        Update on Perseus 5.0/Open Greek and Latin
        Late in 2016, we published plans for Leipzig to publish a request for proposals to begin work on what could be viewed as a new version of Perseus — something we have been calling Perseus 5.0 — but that we view as a general framework for browsing, searching, and reading historical texts in a range of languages. In the end, we decided upon two smaller preliminary tasks. The Perseus Project at Tufts signed a contract with the development company Eldarion to assess implementations of the CTS Protocol and particularly on the emerging microservices associated with that. Our initial focus was upon https://github.com/Capitains but a new implementation, optimized to run easily on local servers, has also emerged: https://github.com/ThomasK81/LightWeightCTSServer. Our goal has been to assess the degree to which these solutions could scale up to large volumes of traffic and to which they can be sustained. This assessment will conclude in June 2017.

        After an RFP of its own, Harvard University’s Center for Hellenic Studies also signed a contract with the development company Intrepid.io to conduct a two-week design sprint that will run from Tuesday, July 5 through Tuesday, July 18. The primary goal of the sprint will be to support searching of the texts in Open Greek and Latin as well as other openly licensed corpora, but searching implies reading, and we will looking for ways to leverage digital reading support methods. We focus especially on what I refer to as the Nagy method, a method that I learned from Greg Nagy when I was in my first year of college in 1975: at the time, Nagy had students compare the print concordance of Homer with a translation and in so doing to build up their own understanding of what the Greek words meant. The students needed to learn the Greek alphabet and to figure out which word in the English probably corresponded to the Greek term in the concordance, but they could do both and were able to engage directly with the Greek. This bilingual search can be generalized in a digital environment and we will build on efforts such as http://nlp.perseus.tufts.edu/lexicon/, http://ugarit.ialigner.com/, and http://divan-hafez.com/ in the new search environment.

        More generally the goal here will be to help think through both tactical opportunities that are feasible in the short term and more strategic developments that will unfold over a longer period of time. One result of this will be (finally) the RFP from Leipzig, which we hope to release in the week of July 24. Proposals will be due within two weeks. A second result will be a longer term plan, with suggestions, if not a blueprint, for distributed community-based development. This longer term plan will focus broadly upon the themes of the Global Philology planning project that the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (https://www.bmbf.de) has funded.

        by GREGORY CRANE posted on JUNE 21, 2017

        ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

        Types of ἐκ and ἀπό constructions: Origin

        Yesterday, we examined SOURCE expressions with ἐκ and ἀπό . Today, we are examining ORIGINS. The Greek Prepositions Workshop is next week. Following Luraghi (2003), we take origins as being an abstraction of the source. Prototypically, origins still involve a physical landmark and a physical trajector. There is no motion, however, only an “abstract notion of providence”... Continue Reading →

        José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

        Representación y hermenéutica de las emociones

        Hoy y mañana se desarrollan en la Universidad de Zaragoza las Jornadas de investigación hermenéutica «Representación y hermenéutica de las emociones», a las que he contribuido como casual graphic designer:

        Han quedado monos los carteles y el folleto, encuentro. Me recuerdan al otro cartel y folleto que diseñé en ocasión semejante para el XIV Susanne Hübner International Seminar «Linguistics and persuasive communication» (2007), con una enredadera de color rojo pasión de fondo. Hace muchos años, en una charla, el diseñador argentino América Sánchez explicó que él, cuando no sabía qué imagen usar para un cartel, folleto o portada, ponía nubes. Está visto que yo, en las mismas, recurro a las flores. Mucho más sugerentes, ¡va usted a comparar! Sin ir más lejos, el centro de esta rosa…

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Lezioni non apprese

        Nel giorno in cui il recente sisma in Italia Centrale ha fatto crollare ancora monumenti e edifici comuni, ci siamo resi conto, ancora una volta, della fragilità e della vulnerabilità del costruito. Solo in momenti simili constatiamo che quanto si è fatto in precedenza per la prevenzione non basta ancora.

        Archaeology Briefs

        NEW FOSSILS DISCOVERED IN MOROCCO ARE OLDEST REMAINS OF HOMO SAPIENS



        Fossils discovered in Morocco are the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens, scientists reported in early June, 2017, a finding that rewrites the story of mankind’s origins and suggests that our species evolved in multiple locations across the African continent.

        “We did not evolve from a single ‘cradle of mankind’ somewhere in East Africa,” said Philipp Gunz, a paleoanthropologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and a co-author of two new studies on the fossils, published in the journal Nature. “We evolved on the African continent.” See the full story in Nature.

        Until now, the oldest known fossils of our species dated back just 195,000 years. The Moroccan fossils, by contrast, are roughly 300,000 years old. Remarkably, they indicate that early Homo sapiens had faces much like our own, although their brains differed in fundamental ways.

        Today, the closest living relatives to Homo sapiens are chimpanzees and bonobos, with whom we share a common ancestor that lived over six million years ago. After the split from this ancestor, our ancient forebears evolved into many different species, known as hominins.

        In 1961, miners in Morocco dug up a few pieces of a skull at a site called Jebel Irhoud. Later digs revealed a few more bones, along with flint blades. Using crude techniques, researchers estimated the remains to be 40,000 years old. In the 1980s, however, a paleoanthropologist named Jean-Jacques Hublin took a closer look at one jawbone.

        The teeth bore some resemblance to those of living humans, but the shape seemed strangely primitive. “It did not make sense,” Dr. Hublin, now at the Max Planck Institute, recalled in an interview.

        Since 2004, Dr. Hublin and his colleagues have been working through layers of rocks on a desert hillside at Jebel Irhoud. They have found a wealth of fossils, including skull bones from five individuals who all died around the same time. Just as important, the scientists discovered flint blades in the same sedimentary layer as the skulls. The people of Jebel Irhoud most likely made them for many purposes, putting some on wooden handles to fashion spears. Many of the flint blades showed signs of having been burned. The people at Jebel Irhoud probably lit fires to cook food, heating discarded blades buried in the ground below. This accident of history made it possible to use the flints as historical clocks.

        Dr. Hublin and his colleagues used a method called thermoluminescence to calculate how much time had passed since the blades were burned. They estimated that the blades were roughly 300,000 years old. The skulls, discovered in the same rock layer, must have been the same age.

        Ancient Peoples

        Knife Scabbard with Row of Birds Northeast China, 7th–5th...



        Knife Scabbard with Row of Birds

        Northeast China, 7th–5th century B.C. (bronze, 24 cm/ 9.5 in long)  

        Source: Met Museum

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Support the independence of NINO Petition and Open Access Publications of the Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten - Netherlands Institute for the Near East

         [In March 2015, NINO redesigned its website, and as a consequence all URL's have changed. I think what's below is now corrected, updated 21 June 2017]

        Online Petition: Support the independence of NINO and the future of Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in the Netherlands
        21.06.2017

        NINO (Netherlands Institute for the Near East - www.nino-leiden.nl -, based in Leiden, has since 1939 provided a (semi-)independent and vital support for Egyptology, Assyriology, and Ancient Near Eastern Studies at large in both a national and international context. NINO maintains a scientific library which counts among the best in Europe, holds the Böhl Collection (ca. 3,000 cuneiform tablets and other objects), publishes journals and monographs, and has a subsidiary institute in Istanbul (www.nit-istanbul.org).

        This spring a plan has been drafted by a sub-committee of the NINO Board and Leiden University, which will transform NINO into an entity without its own staff, while the NINO assets (library books, tablet collection, and more) will be controlled by others. The present staff of NINO will be replaced by a "Research School" within Leiden University.

        We believe the fields of Ancient Near Eastern Studies in the Netherlands are better served long-term by maintaining an integrated and independent NINO. Generations of Dutch and international scholars and students have benefited from the NINO facilities. The viable alternative for the proposed plan is to continue NINO's independent management, as well as its existing fruitful cooperation with both Leiden University and the National Museum of Antiquities, but not to transfer its assets to them.

        We therefore urge you to speak out against this plan that puts in jeopardy the long-term future of Egyptology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in the Netherlands, and we ask you to support the continuation of an integrated and independent NINO by signing this petition:

        www.ipetitions.com/petition/save-dutch-egyptology-and-ane-studies/

        The online petition provides a more detailed description of the situation.

        Alice Mouton, Directrice de Recherche at the CNRS and Visiting Research Fellow of NINO (alicemouton@hotmail.com) and Wouter Henkelman, Maître de Conférences at the E.P.H.E., Paris and Visiting Research Fellow of the NINO (wouterhenkelman@gmail.com)

        And thanks!


        Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten - Netherlads Institute for the Near Easat
        http://www.nino-leiden.nl/img/logofooter_nino.png
        NINO initiates, supports, and conducts scholarly research in the civilizations of the Near East from the ancient to the early modern period. In particular, it concentrates on the archaeology, history, languages, and cultures of Egypt, Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Persia.

            Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

            Warped Priorities


            Ten countries, who account for 2.5% of world GDP, host 56% of the world's refugees. The world's 6 richest countries host The world's 6 richest countries host less than 9%

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            But guess where the bulk of the looted cultural property goes. People before trophy artefacts.

            Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

            Some Punk Archaeology

            I was pretty excited to read Lorna-Jane Richardson’s recent critique of punk archaeology in World Archaeology. Not only was it a thoughtful engagement with the ideas at the core of punk archaeology, but with viability and sustainability of punk archaeology as an approach.

            She and I probably disagree more than we agree on whether a punk approach to archaeology has any benefit, but ultimately we recognize similar problems within the discipline of archaeology (and society) and articulate – ultimately – similar solutions. She argued that the most salient aspects of punk archaeology already exist in various forms of participatory practice in archaeology and rebranding them under the term “punk archaeology” amounts to little more than a “navel-gazing need for sub-cultural self-identification.” 

            There are few places where I sensed that we might have been talking past each other a bit, and as a very preliminary response to her article, I offer the following observations:

            1. Punk Archaeology in Context. One thing that didn’t come through in her response to punk archaeology was that whatever academic or theoretical formulations existed for punk archaeology, the project had a very personal element to it. The participants – Andrew Reinhard, Kostis Kourelis and the various other contributors to the volume – had thought about the overlap of archaeological work and punk music. In this sense, the project was, indeed, solipcistic (at worst) and personal (at best). Maybe we were thinking about archaeology wrong, but it still was how were were thinking about it.

            Richardson also seems to have overlooked that many of the key participants in punk archaeology worked in Mediterranean archaeology which, as a rule, occupies a more straight-laced and conservative place in World Archaeology. While participatory practice has occurred in Mediterranean archaeology (see, for example, some of Yannis Hamilakis’s work), it is hardly part of the dominant discourse or method. In fact, some practices that are widely accepted on the global stage, like intensive pedestrian survey and even historical archaeology (Kourelis is a Byzantinist; Caraher a survey archaeologist), have only in the 21st century become part of the mainstream of Mediterranean archaeology (which isn’t to say that there weren’t many significant intensive survey projects or a healthy Byzantine archaeology in the Mediterranean). As a result, our need for “sub cultural identification” was, indeed, “naval gazing,” but also the result of a disciplinary culture that tended to marginalize certain methods, periods, and practices. This coincidence with our interest in punk rock created the basis for our exploration of “punk archaeology.” Whatever the larger methodological and “untheorized” foundations that our association with punk offered, it was, at the end of the day, a reflection of our personal and disciplinary experiences.    

            2. Punk, Slow, and Craft. I am skeptical of her claim that “punk archaeology” places “the agenda, content and practice of participatory and collaborative projects in the hands of the non-professionals” and views DIY practices as part of an “an outright rejection of the structures of archaeological authority and knowledge gatekeeping.” While Richardson was clearly concerned with potential impact of this approach on heritage archaeology in the U.K. and professional practice, I’d like to imagine a punk archaeology that does not see the professional/non-professional dichotomy as the primary nexus in which DIY practices occur.

            I like to think that I developed this aspect of punk archaeology a bit more thoroughly in my exploration of craft and “slow archaeology.” Whatever the flaws in my thinking about slow practices in archaeology (and people have been quick to point them out), I think archaeological practice even on the professional level is a mixture of archaeological methods incubated within a disciplinary context and tightly controlled as standards, and practices that are not distinctly archaeological but nevertheless shape the kind of knowledge we produce. For example, stratigraphic excavation is a professional, disciplinary method, and punk archaeology is not calling for a disruptive, DIY, experimental approach to this foundational method (just as punk rock music, with some exceptions, maintained the basic structures of songs). On the other hand, punk archaeology is interested in challenging and playing with certain strands of archaeological practice like our growing obsession with 3D models and remote sensing, and injecting the spirit of low-fi and craft into those approaches to documenting the past. These strands of archaeological practice tend to be advanced in name of efficiency, accuracy, precision, and technology in a professional context that is both relatively uncritical and reflective of priorities that are not universal within the discipline. In this context, DIY approaches challenge the technological solutionism within professional practices. In some ways, these DIY (or to use Ivan Illich’s useful term: more convivial) practices draw not only unprofessional traditions, but pre-professional traditions within archaeology and remind us that no matter how much we “streamline workflows” a part of archaeology will “never be modern.” This space between professional standards, innovation, pre-professional practices, and the pressures of modernity (and super modernity) leave plenty of room for DIY and other ad hoc practices that connect professional archaeology with both the public and its own preprofessional past.       

            3. Punk Publishing. I was a bit bothered by Richardson’s characterization of punk publishing efforts. While her critiques of the web are fair, and I might even understand her fears of archiving, I will strongly contend that digital publishing has transformed the way in which knowledge is communicated and whether this rises to the level of democratization or not, I’m not entirely sure, but the internet, for all of its liabilities, has transformed the world.

            At the same time, there are standards for publishing on the web, archaeologists recognize the potential for ephemera to shape the discipline, and archival practices have emerged over the last decade to ensure that digital artifacts, like the book Punk Archaeology, are preserved. This is an old complaint that seems to equate short-term, spontaneous, and low-budget punk archaeology projects with naive approaches to producing useful archaeological analysis. 

            Shoestring budget projects have a growing body of resources available to archive their digital and non-digital material. In fact, I’d argue that shoe-string budget projects like my Digital Press at the University of North Dakota (annual budget of about $0) or the North Dakota Man Camp Project (<$10,000) have played a key role in documenting ephemeral and marginal practices that tend to fall through the cracks of traditional archaeology. In other words, digital tools allow for the documentation and preservation of our ephemeral recent past in ways that analogue tools do not. Punk archaeology embraces this opportunity and the challenges associated with critically engaging these new ways of working that are aware of both the growing reach of “large tech companies” and their role in making our digital heritage legible and accessible. Readers of Richardson’s article will likely find the free download of Punk Archaeology via a Google search or at the Internet Archive, but Richardson’s article is behind a paywall controlled by a large publishing house.

            4. Performing Punk Digitally. Richardson’s most troubling critique is that punk archaeology and its participatory ethos is a slippery slope toward reduced funding to archaeological projects and the exploitation of unpaid or inexperienced labor. This is a legitimate concern, but not one unique to punk archaeology, I’d suggest. First, as I have argued above, archaeology continues to have an apprenticeship system where students and junior scholars work with more senior scholars to acquire field skills and regional knowledge. This is less than idea, but it has been part of the discipline (and academia) for nearly a century. Academic credit, publications, and field knowledge cannot and do not pay the rent, keep lights on, or put food on the table, and this is a problem that archaeology – not just punk archaeology – must acknowledge. Second, the problem of unpaid work extend to include the messy world of academic publishing where scholars give uncompensated hours and days of their time in peer review to journals published by for-profit publishers.

            For its part, punk archaeology, including the book that coined the phrase, served as a critique of academic practices by being published by and for academics and circulated for free. While I would agree that punk archaeology remains under theorized, I rankle a bit at the assertion that “The punk movement does not seem to have properly thought through the potential political consequences and ethics of unpaid work…” I think punk archaeology has engaged some of those issues and this is demonstrated in the very book that Richardson cited in her article and the work of institutions like The Digital Press to promote archaeological work in a collaborative and collective way.

            While punk archaeology has not offered a definitive critique of the exploitative practices present in archaeology and academia more generally, punk practice within archaeology is hardly consistent with what Richardson’s statement: “So, while these projects may in fact be self-reliant and self-funding to an extent, and may also be the exact type of grassroots projects that ‘non-profits, charity organizations, and large foundations don’t want to be bothered with’ (Reinhard, pers. comm..), they are not advancing the understanding of archaeological knowledge within communities or providing open access to information.”

            5. Punk Archaeology in Context II. While Richardson and I might differ in how we approach the problem of archaeology in the age of austerity, I think the great value of this article is as a reflection on the complexities facing any approach to archaeology or the humanities in a time of diminished funding.

            Punk archaeology offers on approach to the problem through encouraging collaboration and collective action among archaeologists, by supporting and developing new models of archaeological publication (through projects like The Digital Press), by offering critiques of the relationship between archaeological practice and technology (through “slow archaeology”), and by recognizing the role of archaeological work in engaging pressing issues in our communities. The approach that punk archaeology has adopted does not solve the fundamental problem of austerity or the nefarious impact of neoliberal ideologies on academia, of course. I tend to see these pressures as being more than just the disinterested forces present in a fundamentally neutral economic regime, but rather a system designed, at least in part, to undermine values incubated in the humanities and archaeology. Punk archaeology, then, represents a kind of resistance to this larger project rather than a way to accommodate its impact.

            Richardson’s willingness to dismiss punk archaeology as a largely uncritical, austerity-influenced, “navel-gazing need for sub-cultural self-identification” is a bummer because I suspect that we’re actually on the same side.


            ArcheoNet BE

            Archeologisch onderzoek Noorderlijn legt resten Spaanse omwalling bloot

            Naast de infrastructuurwerken aan de Leien in Antwerpen, ging ook een volgende fase van het archeologisch onderzoek naar de Spaanse omwalling van start. Waar het nieuwe Operaplein wordt aangelegd, komen monumentale delen van de 16de-eeuwse Kipdorpbrug, de stadsmuur en het bastion aan het licht. De opgravingen zullen na onderzoek worden afgebroken en plaats maken voor de nieuwe aanleg. Sommige resten zullen geïntegreerd worden in de toekomstige archeologische site van de Kipdorpburg aan het toekomstige Operaplein.

            Wat wordt tussen juni en november 2017 opgegraven?

            – De Kipdorpbrug: deze brug aan de historische Kipdorppoort is 90 meter lang en zeven meter breed. De Kipdorpbrug ligt onder de Leien tussen de huidige straat met die naam en de Franklin Rooseveltplaats. In september-oktober wordt rondom het middengedeelte van de brug een grootschalige opgraving gepland. De resten worden later permanent zichtbaar als archeologische site.
            – Het Kipdorpbastion: dit vijfhoekig bolwerk verdedigde de stadstoegang aan de Kipdorppoort. De bastionmuren bleven goed bewaard en delen ervan zullen worden onderzocht. Het bastion beslaat de volledige Leien tussen de huidige ‘Kipdorpbrug’ en de Korte Winkelstraat. Nog 5 meter van de oorspronkelijk 12 meter hoge muur is ondergronds bewaard. Delen van het bastion zullen na onderzoek plaats maken voor autotunnels. De zuidelijke bastionflank en de geschuts- of kazematvloeren zullen wel permanent geïntegreerd worden in de archeologische site van de Kipdorpbrug.
            – De stadsmuur: tussen de Teniersplaats en ‘Kipdorpbrug’ loopt de stadsmuur. Deze muur was vroeger 10 meter hoog en met natuursteen bekleed. 5 meter bleef onder de grond bewaard. Over 60 meter lengte zal de stadsmuur worden onderzocht. Na onderzoek worden de bovenste delen ontmanteld om de ondergrondse parking aan te leggen. Later wordt de muur gerestaureerd en geïntegreerd in het parking- en tunnelcomplex onder het Operaplein.
            – De Rode Poort: op de Italiëlei worden tussen de Tunnelplaats en de Paardenmarkt de 16de-eeuwse brug en twee bastions van de Rode Poort onderzocht.
            – Op de Noorderplaats wordt bastion Schijn in kaart gebracht.
            – Meer zuidelijk op de Leien worden de geschuts- (of kazemat-)vloeren van de Huidevettersbastion opgegraven. In 2016 werden bij graafwerken voor de pre-metrotunnel de voorzijden van dit bastion tot 6 meter diep vrij gelegd.

            Bron en meer info: www.antwerpen.be

            Afbeelding: 16de-eeuws stadsplan van Pauwels van Overbeke met aanduiding van de Kipdorppoort waar nu opgravingen plaatsvinden. (Stadsarchief Antwerpen)