Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

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April 29, 2016

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Egyptian Statue Bought by Belgian Collector Stolen from Museum Store

Youm 7 reported on Saturday that an Egyptian antiquities ministry official and three security personnel are to face trial over charges of theft and smuggling of a Middle Kingdom limestone statue from antiquities storerooms at Egypt’s archaeological site of Memphis, and replacing the original there with a replica. The statue of an ancient Egyptian couple was bought by a Belgian collector who failed to determine how the object had entered the market. The collector and dealer from whom he bought it have not been named.

 The statue, alongside other four artifacts, had been unearthed by the U.S. mission in 2011 before they were handed over for the inspector to store them [...], the disappearance of the double statue was revealed after a curator in the British Museum in London told Nagwan Bahaa Fayez, a member of the U.S. mission who was visiting the museum to display photos for the team’s discoveries in 2011, that he saw the statue with a Belgian antiquity collector. The Administrative Prosecution formed a committee to inspect the U.S. mission’s storehouse in Memphis. The committee confirmed the statue had been replaced by a replica. Meanwhile, the Criminal Investigative Unit at the Egyptian Museum has confirmed that the statue has been stolen and smuggled outside Egypt.
Cairo Post 'Antiquities inspector, 3 guards stand trial over theft of 3,600 year-old statue', Apr. 23, 2016

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Empirical data grounding prototype theory

There’s plenty of already existing evidence for the nature of linguistic categorization and prototype theory. I laid much of it out in my (old) discussion of middle voice several years ago, where I explain categorization and cognitive linguistics in the context of discussions of middle voice.

But there’s a recent article on lexical semantics from a group of researchers at UC Berkeley using fMRI scans of people’s brains to map out how lexemes light up the brain. The result is fascinating and beautiful. It also provides additional compelling data for how the relationship between metaphor and meaning is realized neurologically.

Scans Show ‘Brain Dictionary’ Groups Words By Meaning (NPR Article)

On a more “linguisticky” note, if Jack Gallant and his research team work here had been possible in the 1970’s, the linguistic wars wouldn’t have ended they way they did. It’s a solid affirmation, too, of the models put forward in Langacker’s Foundations of Cognitive Grammar.

Filed under: Cognitive Linguistics, Language, Lexicography, Linguistics, Semantics

April 28, 2016

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Archaeology in Syria Network

[First posted on AWOL  201 June 2014, updated 28 April 2016]

Archaeology in Syria Network

Archaeology in Syria NETWORK is created for disseminating accumulated multidisciplinary knowledge
تم إنشاء شبكة “أركيولوجي إن سيريا” لنشر المعرفة المتراكمة متعددة التخصصات
The main goal for creating “Archaeology in Syria” NETWORK is to connect those who are involved or interested in disseminating accumulated multidisciplinary knowledge through continuous archaeological excavation and research in the Near East in general and Syria in particular.
الهدف الرئيسي لإنشاء شبكة “أركيولوجي إن سيريا” هو الربط بين المشاركين أو المهتمين في نشر المعرفة المتراكمة المتعددة الإختصاصات من خلال أعمال التنقيب والأبحاث الأثرية المستمرة في الشرق الأدنى بشكل عام وسوريا بشكل خاص
Contact us للتواصل مع

Open Access Journal: Études et travaux / Centre d'archéologie méditerranéenne de l'Académie polonaise des sciences

Études et travaux / Centre d'archéologie méditerranéenne de l'Académie polonaise des sciences
p-ISSN: 0079-3566 (until 2010), 2084-6762 (from 2011)
e-ISSN: 2449-9579
Institut des Cultures Méditerranéennes et Orientales de l'Académie Polonaise des Sciences = Studia i Prace / Instytut Kultur Śródziemnomorskich i Orientalnych Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Études et Travaux (commonly abbreviated EtudTrav ) deals with archaeology of the ancient and early medieval cultures of the Mediterranean Basin, Near East and North Africa. We invite every scholar willing to share results of her/his studies on the research field to contribute our journal. Études et Travaux is a scholarly annual of the Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and is indexed by the European Reference Index for Humanities (ERIH , ERIH PLUS ). The journal is edited primarily in a print version, with black and white illustrations only. However , from volume XXVII on , an electronic version with colour photos will be published alongside the printed one . 
Open Access

Numer XXVIII - 2015

No. XXVII - 2014
Partially Open Access

No. XXVI - 2013
TOC Only

No. XXV - 2012
No. XXIV - 2011
No. XXIII - 2010
No. XXII - 2008
No. XXI - 2007
No. XX - 2005
No. XIX - 2001
No. XVIII - 1999
No. XVII - 1995
No. XVI - 1992
No. XV - 1990
No. XIV - 1990
No. XIII - 1983
No. XII - 1983
No. XI - 1979
No. X - 1978
No. IX - 1976
No. VIII - 1975
No. VII - 1973
No. VI - 1972
No. V - 1971
No. IV - 1970
No. III - 1969
No. II - 1968
No. I - 1966

Ancient World Mapping Center

Richard Talbert to Speak at AAH

AWMC founder and faculty advisor Dr. Richard Talbert will give a talk on Friday, May 6 at the Association of Ancient Historians Conference in Tacoma, WA.  The talk is entitled “Latitude and Worldview: The Evidence from Roman Portable Sundials.”  Details on the conference are here.


Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Wissen in Bewegung. Institution – Iteration – Transfer (Episteme in Bewegung. Beiträge zur einer transdisziplinären Wissensgeschichte, Bd. 1)

Wissen in Bewegung. Institution – Iteration – Transfer (Episteme in Bewegung. Beiträge zur einer transdisziplinären Wissensgeschichte, Bd. 1)

Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum, Anita Traninger (Hg.)— 2015

Institutionen geraten normalerweise gerade nicht in den Blick, wenn es um Prozesse des Wissenswandels geht. Vielmehr ist es eine weithin geteilte Überzeugung, dass Wandel wenn, dann stets nur außerhalb dieser Kreativitätsblockierer stattfindet. Nun ist aber gerade dort, wo vermeintlich rigide und stur am Überkommenen festgehalten wird, stets auch Wandel feststellbar. Ganz offensichtlich bringen also Praktiken, die auf Wiederholung gepolt sind und so institutionelle Zusammenhänge stabilisieren sollen, zugleich auch Veränderung hervor. Dieses Zusammenspiel von Wiederholung und Veränderung wird in diesem Sammelband mit dem Begriff der ‚Iteration‘ gefasst. Die Autorinnen und Autoren zeigen anhand einer breiten Palette historischer Fallbeispiele, welche Varianten des Wechselspiels von Wiederholung und Wandel zu beobachten sind und welche Befunde sich daraus für eine transdisziplinäre Wissensgeschichte ergeben. Der Band eröffnet die Reihe „Episteme in Bewegung. Beiträge zu einer transdisziplinären Wissensgeschichte“, in der die Ergebnisse der Zusammenarbeit im Sonderforschungsbereich 980, der an der Freien Universität Berlin angesiedelt ist, präsentiert werden.
TitelWissen in Bewegung. Institution – Iteration – Transfer
VerfasserEva Cancik-Kirschbaum, Anita Traninger (Hg.)
MitwirkendeBeteiligte Disziplinen: Ägyptologie, Assyriologie, Germanistik, Iranistik, Islamwissenschaft, Judaistik, Kirchengeschichte, Klass. Philologie, Koreanistik, Kunstgeschichte, Medizin-, Rechts-, Religionsgeschichte, Romanische Philologie u.v.m.
Erschienen inEpisteme in Bewegung. Beiträge zur einer transdisziplinären Wissensgeschichte, Bd. 1

Archaeology Magazine

Morocco cave femurPARIS, FRANCE—Camille Daujeard and Denis Geraads of France’s National Museum of Natural History recently examined a hominin femur recovered from a Moroccan cave in 1994. Likely to have belonged to Homo rhodesiensis, the bone is covered with tooth marks that the researchers say were left by a large carnivore, possibly an extinct hyena. A report in Live Science adds that the marks were covered with sediment, so they were likely to have been made at the time of the hominin’s death or shortly after it. “During this period, early humans likely competed for space [such as natural caves] and resources with large carnivores, who occupied many of the same areas,” said Daujeard. The cave also contained the bones of animals such as gazelles and jackals, and stone tools dating to the Middle Pleistocene, between 781,000 and 126,000 years ago. Hominins are also thought to have scavenged and hunted large carnivores at this time. To read more about Pleistocene archaeology, go to "An Opportunity for Early Humans in China."

Virginia James MonroeCHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA—Excavations at Highland, the home of the United States' fifth president, James Monroe, have uncovered the foundation of a large house, according to a report in The Virginia Gazette. It had been thought that the modest building on the site was Monroe’s home, built in 1799, but dendrochronology of its corner posts suggests that they were cut between 1815 and 1818. This building is now thought to have been constructed during renovations of the property, perhaps as a guest house, mentioned by Monroe in a letter to his son-in-law in September 1818. “This finding represents a breakthrough in how the nation understands Monroe and how he lived,” said Sara Bon-Harper, executive director of James Monroe’s Highland. The newly uncovered foundation includes a chimney base and a stone cellar. Charred wood suggests that the house was destroyed by fire sometime after Monroe sold the property in 1826. Later newspaper accounts refer to the destruction of the former Monroe residence, and the construction of another home on the property in the 1870s. To read more about archaeology in Virginia, go to "Letter from Virginia: Free Before Emancipation."

Ocean One robotSTANFORD, CALIFORNIA—Scientists from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology teamed with Oussama Khatib, a professor of computer science at Stanford University, to create OceanOne, a prototype humanoid robot designed to perform intricate underwater tasks. The robot has a head with stereoscopic vision and two fully articulated arms and hands that relay haptic feedback to the pilot’s controls. “You can feel exactly what the robot is doing. It’s almost like you are there; with the sense of touch you create a new dimension of perception,” Khatib told In addition, sensors in the body monitor the current and automatically adjust to keep the robot stable. To test OceanOne, the team explored the wreck of La Lune, King Louis XIV’s flagship, which sank in 1664 off the southern coast of France. The deep water makes it a dangerous place for human divers, but OceanOne, guided by Khatib back on the boat, carefully recovered a vase from the wreck and placed it in a recovery basket. For more on underwater archaeology, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks..."

SPOKANE, WASHINGTON—According to an Associated Press report, the Army Corps of Engineers has determined that Kennewick Man, discovered in 1996 in southeastern Washington, is related to modern Native American populations. “I am confident that our review and analysis of new skeletal, statistical, and genetic evidence have convincingly led to a Native American Determination,” said Brig. Gen. Scott A. Spellmon, commander of the corps’ Northwestern Division. This means that the 8,500-year-old remains are now covered by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Kennewick Man is currently held at the Burke Museum in Seattle, under the custody of the Army Corps of Engineers. Interested tribes, such as the Colville, Yakama, Umatilla, Nez Perce, and Wanapum Indians, are planning to submit a joint request for the repatriation of the remains, also known as the Ancient One. To read about the earliest people to arrive in North America, go to "America, in the Beginning."

Carole Raddato (Following Hadrian)

Art and sculptures from Hadrian’s Villa: Headless statue of Athena

This month’s sculpture from Hadrian’s Villa is a headless statue of Athena of the Vescovali-Arezzo Type and made of Luna marble. The goddess is depicted wrapped in a himation (cloak). She wears her aegis bordered with small snakes over the … Continue reading

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Underwater archaeology looks at atomic relic of the Cold War

The April issue of Springer’s Journal of Maritime Archaeology (JMA) focuses on a single...

Magnus Reuterdahl (Testimony of the Spade)

Time to close shop!

As much as I loved bloging, and this blog has a special place in my heart, I just don’t have the time anymore. I write in several other places around the web, mainly about wine but still work as an archaeologist. You can find me om twitter, instagram or facebook. I might come back one day, but for now Testimony of the spade is closed. All posts are open though, but don’t expect answers to comments etc.


All the best – archaeology is still taxes well spent!



He has a wife you know

A little something on the Roman infantry helmet

A little something on the Roman infantry helmet

Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

Catafractarius: officer rank, type of soldier, or both?

I'm frantically trying to make some notes and do some reading so that I can do some typing. I have three draft chapters due June 1st (thought they were do July 1st, then double-checked and saw the mistake). I'm also giving a paper in 2 weeks (the ideas, and nearly an outline, are ready to go -and I've been told the rougher the better). I also have a paper that was due May 31, but which has been pushed to July 1st. Anyway, frantically working away.

One of those pieces is a chapter in my intro to the Roman military book-project, and a chapter on combat at that. I've been struggling, a bit, with how much to include, especially since you can only say so much about combat in 8,500 words (my target) - and given it's meant, really, as in introduction, I'm cognizant of the need to keep the material manageable (not overwhelming with titles, for instance). Anyway, nearly ready to start typing the chapter and gather some last minute research. In particular, I'm going back over Speidel's (the elder, so to speak) 2000 paper, "Who Fought in the Front?". It's a bit fuzzy, because I read it ages ago. Essentially it takes the evidence of Maurice and uses it to look at who was at the front of the ranks in combat fighting in the years between 300 and 600.

It's not an unreasonable idea - using Maurice for an earlier period. After all, Vegetius is regularly used in that way, though he does regularly refer to this antiqua legio (though scholars use other information too). Now, all well and good in this chapter until I get to Speidel's claim that catafractarius could refer to a rank in the military, like decurio (a cavalry rank, usually), and that it under-officers of this new rank were those who fought in the front. That they were heavily-armoured would, on the surface, seem to support his claim. Indeed, if you're at the front doing most of the fighting, then you really do or probably would need more armour, though there's a lot we don't know about what actually happened when opposing sides came to blows, so to speak.

As suggested, what stood out to me was Speidel's claim that catafractarius could refer to rank, and not just a type of soldier. On the surface the suggestion struck me as just plain wrong - I did an encyclopaedia article on them, and I didn't come across any indication it could be an officer. So, I decided to do some digging and find out if I'd been mistaken (wouldn't be the first or the last time I've gotten things wrong). It turns out, however, that the evidence for this is comprised of two lone papyri: CHLA 18 660, and CHLA 43 1248. You can look up all the papyri at, and the inscriptions I'll allude to at The two papyri, however, need not be interpreted as Speidel (and actually Rea in ZPE 56 and Zuckerman in ZPE 100) suggest.

CHLA 18 660, a list of sorts (of supplies) seems to be contrasting soldier catafractarius with actuarius, and an actuarius in this case isn't a rank in the military, but effectively an accountant (albeit one doing paperwork for the military). So, to my mind a type of civilian in the military, and unintentionally contrasted, with a type of soldier in the military. CHLA 43 1248 might point to catafractarius as a rank – for we have a Sarapio promoted (provectus) to decurio at line 1.13: sarapio catafracta(rius), prou(ectus) decur(io), and an Apion promoted to catafractarius at line 1.14: Apion eq(ues) prou(ectus) catafra(ctarius). But in the case of Sarapio, why must it be evidence he’s going from catafractarius to decurio, and why can’t it be that he’s a catafractarius who’s promoted to decurio?  In the case of Apion, might it not be evidence for a regular cavalryman (eques) who’s just been upgraded to catafract? Indeed, in the other two instances, in the same papyrus (CHLA 43 1248), catafractarius is clearly being used to refer to soldier-type. It would seem to me to be needlessly complicated to use both (potential) senses of term, rank and soldier-type, in this document (Contra see Speidel 2000: 477, n. 22).  The two other uses are at 2.8, where we find scholam catafractariorum, and at 3.15, where we find catafractarii. The latter, admittedly, is a bit more ambiguous.

In any case, in these instances it's best to bring in comparative evidence, and for that I turned to the Notitia Dignitatum, and the aforementioned epigraphic and papyrological databases.  In the ND, it should come as no surprise that all mentions of catafract denote a type of soldier (or type of unit). There are at least three units of catafractarii in the eastern praesental armies (Not. Dign. or. 5.34, 6.35, 6.36), one in Thrace, (Not. Dign. or. 8.29), another in the Thebaid (Not. Dign. or. 31.52), and a third in Scythia (Not. Dign. or. 39.16), to say nothing of those we find in Britain   (Not. Dign. oc. 7.200, Not. Dign. oc. 40.21).  

In the epigraphic database there are 16 inscriptions (Latin) that come up that list a form of "cataf", the term I used in my search.  They are AE 1912, 192; AE 1919, 18; CIL 3.99; CIL 3.10307; CIL 3.14406a (here specifies that he’s a heavily armoured cavalryman – equites catafractarios); CIL 5.6784; CIL 11.5632; CIL 13.1848; CIL 13.3493; CIL 13.7323; CIL 16.110; IBulgarien 52; IIFDR 110; IK 31.40 (this one lists both catafractariorum and clibaniariorum); ILCV 504; and AE 1931, 68.  In all 16 of those inscriptions, a form of catafract is used to refer to describe or denote a type of unit, and without question. 

Next I turned back to the papyrological database and decided to try the Greek form, kataphraktos/oi.  In this instance I got 9 hits, but of those only 7 of 9 dated to the common era, and those 7 generally dated between the early third and middle fourth centuries. The first, BGU 1.316, uses the term to refer to a heavily-armoured horse. The second,  P. Abinn. 77, is a lot like CHLA 18 660, and so makes distinctions between civil-military persons and strictly military ones, again actuarius vs. catafractarius (though Hellenized forms, of course). Yes, it could be for officials, but I think catafractarius as heavily-armed cavalry soldier conveys the sense just as well.  The next one, P. Abinn. 78, another this food or supply list, like the previous one makes a distinction between a soldier, and in this case a citizen (or something like a citizen - completely civil then). The next case, P. Oxy 41.2951, uses catafractrius in the exact manner we find it in the epigraphy, namely as a kind of soldier or unit (line 19, ἀριθμοῦ καταφράκτων). P. Panop. Beatty 2 makes the sort of contrast we have in P. Abinn. 77 and 78 and CHLA 18 600.  The penultimate case, SB 18.13852, is the only really ambiguous one, where it could refer to a type of officer. It could also, however, refer to a type of solider. Finally we come to

Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

From geometry to rapture: Paradiso 14

Paradiso 14 begins with a geometric structure, captured in the rhetorical pattern known as chiasmus. The word pattern is reflecting, or mimicking, the echoic pattern of water moving in a round vase - from center to circumference, or vice versa, depending upon where something strikes it:
Dal centro al cerchio, e sì dal cerchio al centro
movesi l'acqua in un ritondo vaso,
secondo ch'è percosso fuori o dentro:
From centre unto rim, from rim to centre,
In a round vase the water moves itself,
As from without 'tis struck or from within. (Par. 14. 1-3)
The geometry is not only exact, it is also ineluctable -- the water (or a light, or a sound) will always behave this way. The structure of the circle is such that it will produce the same result each time something either strikes it on the outside, or drops from above.

Such patterns and their identification belong to the work of pattern recognition, which Dante draws our attention to (as we saw a few posts back) with regard to the patterns found in the night sky, and in the sphere of the sun. The reliability of knowledge, we learned, depends upon our capacity to detect formal patterns in nature as well as in language.

Sophie Germain
Some patterns occur in ways that are easily explicable. Others occur quite reliably, but seem less easily explained. Chladni plates (named for Ernst Chladni, whose research explored the invisible interface between sounds and visual patterns) offer evidence of relationships between grains of sand (or couscous) and different frequencies which manifest in distinct patterns at different vibrations. The relationships turn out to be mappable by equations (worked out by Sophie Germain and others) that describe wave dynamics:

Beyond the Sun

This pattern of pattern recognition is violated in Paradiso 14 right after Solomon explains how, after the Resurrection of the body, the souls will still have their glowing light, but now they will have their senses, newly strengthened and able to experience all things new.

No sooner does Solomon end his resonant (and very chiastic) account of this event (at line 66) than we hear Ed ecco -- behold! -- something new and unexpected occurs:
Ed ecco intorno, di chiarezza pari,
nascere un lustro sopra quel che v'era,
per guisa d'orizzonte che rischiari.
E sì come al salir di prima sera
comincian per lo ciel nove parvenze,
sì che la vista pare e non par vera,
parvemi lì novelle sussistenze
cominciare a vedere, e fare un giro
di fuor da l'altre due circunferenze.
Oh vero sfavillar del Santo Spiro!
come si fece sùbito e candente
a li occhi miei che, vinti, nol soffriro!
And lo! all round about of equal brightness
Arose a lustre over what was there,
Like an horizon that is clearing up.

And as at rise of early eve begin
Along the welkin new appearances,
So that the sight seems real and unreal,

It seemed to me that new subsistences
Began there to be seen, and make a circle
Outside the other two circumferences.

O very sparkling of the Holy Spirit,
How sudden and incandescent it became
Unto mine eyes, that vanquished bore it not!  (14.70-78)
The moment is mysterious -- a third circle, but not quite stable, begins to surround the other two. It glimmers like faint lights flickering at dusk, then suddenly becoming blindingly incandescent, overpowering the pilgrim's eyes, which had so far supported the potent rays of the Sun.

Joachim of Flora
Commentators have pondered he meaning of this third circle at length, relating it to the other circles as the Holy Spirit to the Father and Sun, and to prophecies of the Calabrian Joachim of Flora and the dawning of a third age.

What we can say for sure is that in this gloaming nothing is sure: The nove parvenze, or novel appearances, are said to "appear to begin to be seen,"
Si che la vista pare e non par vera,  
So that the sight seems real and unreal.
The canto moves from a realm of regular and predictable order (like the geometry of a vase of water) to a place where appearances are such that they suspend, put into question, our apprehension of pattern. This cognitive predicament, known to psychologists as apophenia, has been described as "the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data." To find a man or a face in the moon is a common example. The article goes on to note:
Apophenia has come to imply a universal human tendency to seek patterns in random information, such as gambling.
Paradiso 14 is quite clear in breaking with patterns it has produced. It's at line 67 for example that we expect to find another set of 33 lines reiterating the first two, whose clear structure was noted by early commentators like Benvenuto da Imola.

This moment of sunset takes place just as Dante and Beatrice, before they even know it, leave the sun and with it the confidence owed to its clarity. In this darkling moment nothing is certain. If the new circle contains dottori, learned authors, it's unclear how many authors, let alone who they might be. It's all indistinct, says Benvenuto:
non tamen plene et manifeste sicut primae, sed confuse, quia hic erat maximus numerus doctorum quos autor non poterat nominatim numerare, sicut fecerat superiores, nec distincte; sed sub involucro comprehendit omnes.
A new circle appears to appear, and the passage puts stress not upon the solid form of a new circumference, but rather seems to find astonishment that what had been the circumference seems surpassed (sublated, i.e., cancelled and transcended)  by a new circumference -- yet one whose borders remain vague, with the possibility of containing millions of sussistenze in its sparkling (sfavillar). 

The challenge of not knowing is not trivial. It's at this moment that Dante and Beatrice are translated to the sphere of Mars, and now the pilgrim seems to fall back upon his own powers. He raises his eyes, and, as he does so, he and Beatrice are raised up; he now performs a sacrifice in his breast. He is doing these things unprompted and undirected. The action brings results -- a glowing redness in the new sphere appears to answer and approve his internal holocaust.

Close attention to the remainder of the canto will show that the language of action, of performative utterance, supplants the descriptive language of pattern. As the vast galaxy within Mars appears, the vision seems boundless, open-ended, and what the pilgrim begins to experience are, not patterns, not meanings that are understood, but potent beauties that seize the soul:
E come giga e arpa, in tempra tesa
di molte corde, fa dolce tintinno
a tal da cui la nota non è intesa,

così da' lumi che lì m'apparinno
s'accogliea per la croce una melode
che mi rapiva, sanza intender l'inno.
And as a lute and harp, accordant strung
With many strings, a dulcet tinkling make
To him by whom the notes are not distinguished,

So from the lights that there to me appeared
Upgathered through the cross a melody,
Which rapt me, not distinguishing the hymn. (14.118-123)
Three times in quick succession we hear that something is non intesa -- not understood. To go from the Sun to Mars is to go from an aesthetic of beauty to that of the sublime. Perhaps nothing makes this more "clear" than the simile that juxtaposes the vast armies that seem to move along the flashing crossbeams to specks and motes moving at random in a sunbeam. The beam shines through an artificial shade devised by human cunning and art to shield us from the harsh sun. Ingenio e arte provide a glimpse of what was always there, unseen in the full light of day:
così si veggion qui diritte e torte, 
veloci e tarde, rinovando vista, 
le minuzie d'i corpi, lunghe e corte, 
moversi per lo raggio onde si lista 
talvolta l'ombra che, per sua difesa, 
la gente con ingegno e arte acquista.
Thus level and aslant and swift and slow
We here behold, renewing still the sight,
The particles of bodies long and short,

Across the sunbeam move, wherewith is listed
Sometimes the shade, which for their own defence
People with cunning and with art contrive. (14.112-117)
The random specks are not caught up in some Chladni pattern - they remain random. And, of course, they are tiny, compared to the galassia and the giant cross, and the figures moving along its beams. This is perhaps as Miltonic as Dante gets -- vast and small, order and unforced happenstance, equated in a heightened moment of sublime apprehension -- not of pattern, rather a new rapture, potent and uncircumscribed by finite meaning.

AIA Fieldnotes

Oklahoma Archaeology Month

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Spiro Mounds Archaeological Center
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Saturday, October 15, 2016

A day to celebrate International Archaeology Day and Oklahoma Archaeology Month at the only prehistoric, Native American, archaeological site open to the public in Oklahoma.  There will be lectures by archaeologists, artifacts identified, a guided tour of the Spiro Mounds at 2 p.m., a sand box for youngsters to dig in all through the day.


Dennis Peterson
Call for Papers: 

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Nuove installazioni tecnologiche per la memoria al Museo San Martino della Battaglia

…quanto a’sottoufficiali ed a’soldati morti, non possiamo darne tutti i nomi e ci contenteremo di darne il numero”, si trova scritto su una rivista del 1859. A distanza di 157 anni, finalmente i nomi dei caduti della Battaglia di San Martino sono a disposizione dei visitatori.

Impresarte-Industria, arte e cultura: laboratorio Campania

L’Italia possiede un primato unico al mondo, quello di avere il più ampio patrimonio culturale a livello mondiale con oltre 3.400 musei, 2.100 aree e parchi archeologici e 43 siti Unesco. Il ritorno degli asset culturali Italiani, tuttavia, è frequentemente inespresso sia in termini di ricaduta economica che di sviluppo sociale dei territori.
Valorizzare il patrimonio storico, artistico e culturale italiano significa al tempo stesso tutelare la nostra storia e le nostre tradizioni, innovare e dare opportunità.
Giovani Imprenditori di Confindustria e Giovani dell’Ance hanno deciso di dare luogo ad un evento che abbia un focus proprio sulla valorizzazione della cultura nelle sue diverse sfaccettature e alle strategie e prospettive da poter mettere in campo per una reale generazione di valore dell’immenso patrimonio artistico, pubblico e privato, del nostro Paese.

Virtual Museums and Photographic Heritage: Seminario Internazionale a Pisa

Pisa e il suo affascinante Museo della Grafica di Palazzo Lanfranchi ospiteranno l’evento annuale dell’associazione internazionale Photoconsortium per la valorizzazione del patrimonio fotografico. L’evento, in lingua inglese, si terrà il 4 Maggio 2016 dalle ore 14.30 ed è organizzato dalla società Promoter s.r.l. con la collaborazione dell’associazione culturale pisana Imago.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Acropolis Restoration Service: Newsletter of the Acropolis Restoration Service of the Greek Ministry of Culture

Acropolis Restoration Service: Newsletter of the Acropolis Restoration Service of the Greek Ministry of Culture
Οι ενημερωτικές ειδήσεις από την αναστήλωση των μνημείων της Ακρόπολης απευθύνονται σε ένα ευρύτερο κοινό σε μία προσπάθεια να επικοινωνήσουν την πορεία των εργασιών που λαμβάνουν χώρα στην Ακρόπολη. Την ίδια στιγμή επιδιώκει να προσελκύσει και αναγνώστες με εξειδικευμένα ενδιαφέροντα που ζητούν να έχουν περισσότερη πληροφορήση για ορισμένα ειδικά θέματα που αντιμετωπίζονται κατά την εκτέλεση των έργων. Η περιοδική αυτή ενημέρωση έχει ως στόχο να καταγράψει και να διαδόσει την εμπειρία και τις γνώσεις που έχουν συσσωρευτεί στη διάρκεια όλων αυτών των χρόνων της εκτέλεσης των έργων.
The Acropolis Restoration News is addressed to the general public interested in the progress of the works being carried out on the Acropolis. At the same time, it targets readers with a more specialised interest who would like further information on specific aspects arising in the course of the work. It is hoped that this periodical contributes to the dissemination of the experience and the valuable information that has been gathered in the archaeological and technological fields, throughout all the years this project has been under way.
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2001
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2002
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2003
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pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2008
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2009
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2010  
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2011 
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2012
pdf gif 18x16 Ενημερωτικό Δελτίο 2013

pdf gif 18x16 NewsLetter 2001
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pdf gif 18x16 NewsLetter 2011
pdf gif 18x16 NewsLetter 2012
pdf gif 18x16 NewsLetter 2013

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Museo Virtuale della Valle del Tevere: la ricostruzione virtuale del paesaggio possibile antico

Giovedì 5 Maggio 2016 dalle opre 14.30 alle ore 19.30 presso la Società Geografica Italiana, in Via della Navicella 12 a Roma si terrà l’evento Museo virtuale della valle del Tevere: la ricostruzone virtuale del paesaggio possibile antico.

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds

James Clackson, the classisist/historical linguist, recently published on book on sociolinguistics in Ancient Greek & Rome: Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds. I’m a little surprised that I hadn’t seen is before. I try to stay up on these things.

Publishers blurb:

Texts written in Latin, Greek and other languages provide ancient historians with their primary evidence, but the role of language as a source for understanding the ancient world is often overlooked. Language played a key role in state-formation and the spread of Christianity, the construction of ethnicity, and negotiating positions of social status and group membership. Language could reinforce social norms and shed light on taboos. This book presents an accessible account of ways in which linguistic evidence can illuminate topics such as imperialism, ethnicity, social mobility, religion, gender and sexuality in the ancient world, without assuming the reader has any knowledge of Greek or Latin, or of linguistic jargon. It describes the rise of Greek and Latin at the expense of other languages spoken around the Mediterranean and details the social meanings of different styles, and the attitudes of ancient speakers towards linguistic differences.
Even better, Staffan Wahlgren just published a review of the volume (link) in Bryn Mawr Classical Review.

To sum up, this is a really good book. It is up to date, well written and an easy read, and it is well produced with only a very few misprints. The factual errors are neither many nor, on the whole, serious. Perhaps it is not unfair to suspect a certain Anglo-Saxon bias: the bibliography mainly lists works in the English language, and there is an very slight tendency to present multilingualism as abnormal. More important, however, is that this is a work with a clear aim and a lot of coherence; it will serve its purpose as an excellent introduction to a vast subject. Comparing it with the many handbooks that are flooding the market, it seems fortunate that it was written by one person only.

I’ll be giving it a look when I get a chance. Introductory texts on topics like this are greatly needed, for classicists, historians, biblical scholars, and linguists alike.

Filed under: Book Reviews, Books, Greek, Historical Linguistics, Language, Latin, Sociolinguistics

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Nuova versione di Pigments Checker per l’identificazione dei pigmenti

Il laboratorio di Diagnostica CHSOS (Cultural Heritage Science Open Source) ha appena lanciato la versione 3.0 del Pigments Checker, una collezione di 58 pigmenti antichi e moderni tra i più importanti per l‘arte ed il restauro. 

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Crowdfunding the Public Humanities: Intersection Journal

Over the past few years, I’ve seen quite a few interesting public humanities projects float across Kickstarter, the popular crowd funding platform. As people likely know, the catch in using Kickstarter is that you set a target for the amount of money that you want to raise, but you don’t get a penny (and your backers don’t pay a penny) unless you meet that target. It’s all or nothing. 

With the slow decline in funding for the humanities and the public humanities more broadly, these kinds of crowdsourcing platforms have emerged as an alternative way to generate revenue for projects that seek to engage the public in meaningful conversations. As a small publisher and an editor of a recently-defunded public humanities journal, I’ve been drawn to Kickstarter as a way to generate funds for specific projects as well as to promote the work of The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota and North Dakota Quarterly. Whatever the strategy involved in using Kickstarter (picking achievable target, promoting the campaign over social media, and identifying desirable “rewards” for various funding levels, et c.), there are risks. The risk, it seems to me, isn’t that you don’t get funded or don’t deliver (these are real, but completely manageable risks), but that you end up contributing to an expectation that public humanities projects should be funded as commodities appealing as investments and designed to produce “rewards.” 

At the same time, it’s hard to argue with the idea that people working the public humanities deserve to get paid for their work and outside the university setting there is very little space for folks doing public humanities work to make a living.

This seems like a good chance to promote, Chad Ziemendorf’s Kickstarter campaign for his Intersection Journal. Intersection Journal is a visionary forum for long-form photo journalism, and he is looking for funding to support a new campaign of photography with stories from accomplished and award-wining professional photographers. Each photographer will focus on the resilience of rural communities in North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. 

He’s set an ambitious goal of $29,000 to fund the project and, for what it’s worth, the rewards are good. More importantly, the product of the funding will be publicly accessible. In other words, supporting this project does not give you exclusive access to content, but supports a product that is accessible to a wide audience. 

I supported it. You should too. 

Compitum - événements (tous types)

Hagnos, miasma e katharsis

Titre: Hagnos, miasma e katharsis
Lieu: Cittadella dei Musei / Cagliari
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 04.05.2016 - 06.05.2016
Heure: 18.00 h

Information signalée par Maria Paola Castiglioni

Hagnos, miasma e katharsis

Viaggio tra le categorie del puro e dell'impuro nell'immaginario del mondo antico



4 maggio (sessione mattutina)

09:15 Saluti delle autorità
10:00 Presentazione del Convegno
10:45 Enzo Lippolis (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Puro e impuro nel mondo antico: lo stato dell'arte
11:15 M. Menichetti, L. Cerchiai (Università di Salerno), La messa in scena della morte nell'immaginario della pittura tombale tarquiniese di età arcaica
12:00 Marco Rendeli (Università di Sassari), I percorsi dell'acqua dall'Etruria alla Sardegna
12:30 Serena Ferrando (Università di Genova), Antichi riti purificatori dell'Italia preromana: il caso del santuario di Mefitis nella valle d'Ansanto
13:00 Massimo Cultraro (IBAM - CNR), Cuore di cane: per un'archeologia dei rituali di purificazione nella Grecia micenea

4 maggio (sessione pomeridiana)

15:00 Mika Kajava (University of Helsinki), Purificare l'impu-ro nel mondo greco: come, quando, perché
15:30 Cristiana Zaccagnino (Queen's University, Kingston), Acqua di mare e sale nei riti purificatori greci
16:00 Romina Carboni (Università di Cagliari), “Devo ritornare indietro, dopo aver gettato via il vaso, come uno che ha gettato via gli oggetti delle purificazioni, senza volgere gli occhi”. Liminarità e impurità nel mondo greco
17:00 Paolo Vitellozzi (independent researcher), Tecniche di purificazione rituale nei papiri magici greci
17:30 Lech Trzcionkowski (Jagiellonian University, Kraków), Chernips (χέρνιψ) as the marker of ritual purity
18:00 Emiliano Cruccas, Dario D'Orlando (Università di Cagliari), “Vengo puro dal puro”. Iniziati e non iniziati tra culti misterici, orfismo e rituali per l'aldilà

5 maggio (sessione mattutina)

09:30 Enrica Zamperini (Università di Padova), Il corpo malato dell'eroe: impurità e allontanamento
10:00 Hélène Bernier-Farella (Université de Cergy Pontoise), La catharsis heroïque. La réstauration de la pureté au cours de l'héroisation
10:30 Eliana Mugione (Università di Salerno), Purezza, purificazione, salvezza negli amyetai della Nekya di Polignoto di Taso
11:30 Ilaria Sforza (Università Roma, Tor Vergata,), Miasma e condizione eroica nell'Iliade
12:00 Eleonora Colangelo (Université Paris Diderot / AnHiMA / Università di Pisa), Dinamiche di purificazione e abilitazione rituale nell'Inno omerico a Apollo (HHA)
12:30 Marco Giuman, Federica Doria (Università di Cagliari), “Θύραζε Κᾶρες, οὐκ ἔτ' Ανθεστήρια”. Alexipharmaka e apotropaia nei rituali dei Choes ateniesi

5 maggio (sessione pomeridiana)

15:00 Giancarlo Germanà (Accademia di Belle Arti di Napoli), Oreste supplice a Delfi su un cratere attico a figure rosse del Museo Archeologico Regionale di Siracusa
15:30 Alfonsina Benincasa (Università di Salerno), Il mito delle Danaidi su un cratere napoletano
16:00 Luca Pucci (Università della Calabria), Diacronia e diatopia delle pratiche purificatorie per omicidio: il caso di Oreste
17:00 Bartlomiej Bednarek (Jagiellonian University, Kraków), Sul riciclo di porcellini: il problema di consumo di carne contaminata
17:30 Irene Salvo (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen), Il sangue: miasma e trasmissione del sapere rituale nella Grecia antica
18:00 Tatiana Cossu (Università di Cagliari), “I frutti puri impazziscono”: approcci antropologici allo studio del mondo antico

6 maggio (sessione mattutina)

09:30 Arnaud Paturet (CNRS, Paris), La mort, le corps, la souillure, la terre et le droit dans l'ancienne Rome
10:00 Dorica Manconi (Soprintendenza Archeologica dell'Umbria), Un fulgur conditum a Todi (Umbria)
10:30 Mario Lentano (Università di Siena), La sacerdotessa prostituta e la vestale incestuosa. Dibattiti sulla purezza nella declamazione latina
11:30 Elena Emilia Stefan (Université de Bucarest), Les Romains face aux séismes: la reconstruction après un tremblement de terre comme moyen de purification de l'espace
12:00 Matthieu Soler (Université Toulouse II), Les dieux et les hommes face à la souillure de la mort et de la violence dans les amphithéâtres
12:30 Yann Rivière (EHESS, Paris), La deportatio aux deux derniers siècles de la République romaine (expulsions rituelles, procuration des prodiges et purification de l'ager romanus)

6 maggio (sessione pomeridiana)

15:00 Marie Augier (Université de Strasbourg), Nul n'entre ici s'il n'est purifié. Corps, gestes et souillure dans les prescriptions cathartiques de la période archaïque à la période romaine
15:30 Francesco Marcattili (Università di Perugia), Culti e purificazione postbellica lungo la Sacra Via
16:00 Ciro Parodo (Università di Cagliari), Impurità e steri-lità: i Lupercalia e la politica augustea di incremento demo-grafico
17:00 Gian Luca Grassigli, Benedetta Sciaramenti (Università di Perugia), Lustrare tergere abluere: forme di purificazione nelle Metamorfosi di Ovidio
17:30 Rossana Martorelli, Anna Mantega, Marcella Serchisu (Università di Cagliari), Puro e impuro nell'immaginario dei primi Cristiani
18:00 Presentazione della rivista Otium (Gian Luca Grassigli, Università di Perugia)
Discussione e tavola rotonda conclusiva

Lieu de la manifestation : Cagliari, Cittadella dei Musei
Organisation : Marco Giuman, Romina Carboni, Maria Paola Castiglioni
Contact : labeikonikos.call2016[at]

AIA Fieldnotes

Archeology and the U.S. Armory Grounds

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by National Park Service, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Saturday, October 22, 2016 - 2:00pm

This event will be held at the Train Station in Lower Town Harpers Ferry.  NPS archeologists will present a PowerPoint about the history of the Harpers Ferry Armory and the various excavations that have taken place since 2005.  The Harpers Ferry Armory site is a multi-component site spanning from the late Archaic to the early twentieth century.  


Darlene Hassler
Call for Papers: 

Current Epigraphy

Eikones Summer School (Basel, Sept 4–9, 2016)

eikones Summer School
September 4–9, 2016

Course 1: Iconicity in writing.
Practices and constraints

Complex writing systems—such as the Egyptian, the Cuneiform, the Anatolian Hieroglyphic, the Chinese or the Mesoamerican ones—display a characteristic iconic quality. To various degrees, their signs adopt forms with recognizable visual referents. Crucially, the values of these signs can be motivated in various ways by their visual referents. In a number of different manners, scribes could also deliberately enhance or obscure the iconic potential of signs. The field for this kind of playfulness or iconic manipulation is broad, yet it is constrained by certain rules. The same goes for the general level of iconicity in any complex writing system. The course aims at developing methodological approaches toward identifying the different facets of iconicity as a central phenomenon of complex writing systems. Iconicity is conceived here as an inherently pragmatic and dynamic category. It reveals its potential as a methodological framework at the interfaces between a) the text artefact in which the signs exist, b) the broader semiotics of the (visual) culture to which a writing system is more or less closely related, and c) the cognitive issues associated with sign recognition and reading.

The eikones Summer School invites applications from advanced and graduate students in any of the relevant fields (Egyptology, Assyriology, Sinology, etc.) as well as, more broadly, students with a marked interest in the semiotic, philosophical, cognitive, high-cultural or aesthetic facets of the problem. Familiarity with one complex writing system is obviously an advantage, but not a requirement.

Please send applications as a pdf to by 30 May 2016.

Full details and description in German at

Joint Library of the Hellenic & Roman Societies / Institute of Classical Studies Library

Bank Holiday reminder & ICS events 2nd-7th May 2016

Monday 2nd May

Wednesday 4th May
13:00 ICS Director's Seminar
A digital Edition of FGrHist 104 [Aristodemus]
Pietro Luzzo (Heidelberg)
Room 246 - Senate House

17:00 T.B.L. Webster Lecture
Two Reliefs and what they tell us about Athenian Comedy
Eric Csapo (Sydney)
G22/26 - Senate House

Thursday 5th May
16:30 ICS Ancient History Seminar
Greek culture and political power in the Hellenistic East
Laurianne Martinez Sève (Lille)
Room 349 - Senate House

Friday 6th May
16:30 ICS Postgraduate Work in Progress Seminar
Middle Comedy: Not only mythology and food. The political and contemporary dimension
Virginia Mastellari (Freiburg)
Room 246 - Senate House

If the ICS Events page is unavailable, please see the SAS Events brochure (pdf) or here for ICS events listings.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Jury Duty and the Historical Jesus

The first two days of this week, I was selected for jury service. This was my first time selected. I wished I could have recorded some of the ways that the lawyers explained the criteria of evidence during the voir dire, explaining that “beyond reasonable doubt” doesn't mean “beyond all doubt” and other things that [Read More...]

Jim Davila (

Report: Palmyra can be restored

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Review of Bayley, Freestone, Jackson (eds.), Glass of the Roman World

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Teenage antiquities vandals out themselves

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Samuel Hardy (Conflict Antiquities)

ISIS and the missing treasures, the missing treasures and ISIS?

Last year, Simon Cox led a team who investigated ISIS: Looting for Terror for the BBC (File on 4). Since then, he has led a team who have investigated ISIS and the Missing Treasures for Channel 4 (Dispatches). On both occasions, they have done solid investigative work and secured new evidence of antiquities trafficking. My […]

Compitum - publications

A. Rodolfi, Cognitio obumbrata. Lo statuto epistemologico della profezia nel secolo XIII


Anna Rodolfi, Cognitio obumbrata. Lo statuto epistemologico della profezia nel secolo XIII, Florence, 2016.

Éditeur : Sismel - Edizioni del Galluzzo
Collection : Micrologus' Library, 74
VIII-216 pages
ISBN : 978-88-8450-689-4
40 €

Nel XIII secolo la profetologia di lingua latina conobbe una grande fioritura. Il problema della conoscenza profetica fu posto al centro del dibattito teologico e filosofico: cosa succede nella mente del profeta quando accoglie i contenuti del messaggio profetico? Qual è il rapporto tra profezia e conoscenza ordinaria? Da Guglielmo d'Auxerre a Tommaso d'Aquino (e oltre), si sviluppò lungo tutto il secolo un vivace dibattito, di cui il presente volume tenta di fornire un'analisi complessiva.

Source : SISMEL - Edizioni del Galluzzo

Jim Davila (

John Ma on the Maccabees

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Mellon postdoc at Penn

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

Mégarika. Nouvelles recherches sur Mégare et les cités de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin.

Robu, A. et I. Bîrzescu (2016) : Mégarika. Nouvelles recherches sur Mégare et les cités de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin. Archéologie, épigraphie, histoire, Paris. Cet ouvrage publie les actes du colloque organisé en juillet 2012 à Mangalia ( Roumanie), l’ancienne … Lire la suite

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2016.04.46: Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Key themes in ancient history

Review of James Clackson, Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Key themes in ancient history. Cambridge: 2015. Pp. xiv, 204. £19.99. ISBN 9780521140669.

2016.04.45: The Greek Epic Cycle and Its Ancient Reception: A Companion

Review of Marco Fantuzzi, Christos Tsagalis, The Greek Epic Cycle and Its Ancient Reception: A Companion. Cambridge: 2015. Pp. xiii, 678. $195.00. ISBN 9781107012592.

2016.04.44: Return to Troy: New Essays on the Hollywood Epic. Metaforms, 5

Review of Martin M. Winkler, Return to Troy: New Essays on the Hollywood Epic. Metaforms, 5. Leiden; Boston: 2015. Pp. x, 284. $163.00. ISBN 9789004292765.

Compitum - événements (tous types)

Le Liber glossarum. Sources, composition, réception

Titre: Le Liber glossarum. Sources, composition, réception
Lieu: Université Paris Diderot - Paris VII / Paris
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 25.05.2016 - 27.05.2016
Heure: 15.30 h - 17.30 h

Information signalée par Jacques Elfassi


Le Liber glossarum (s. VII-VIII). Sources, composition, réception

25-27 mai 2016
Université Paris Diderot - Paris (France)

Au terme du projet ERC StG 263577, la rencontre se propose de présenter le site de l'édition ainsi que de réunir des spécialistes des divers champs concernés par le Liber glossarum. Les communications porteront principalement sur les sources isidoriennes, patristiques, grammaticales et scientifiques de l'oeuvre, sur les conditions de sa composition analysée au travers d'indices paléographiques, ainsi que sur sa réception carolingienne.

Source :

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: April 28

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem quartum Kalendas Maias.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Penelope, Laertes and Telemachus; you can also see the legends for the current week listed together here.


TINY MOTTOES: Today's tiny motto is: Semper liber (English: Always free).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word verb-less proverb is Littera custos historiae (English: Writing is the guardian of history).

AUDIO PROVERBS: Today's audio Latin proverb is Est unusquisque faber ipsae suae fortunae (English: Each and every person is the maker of his own luck). To read a brief essay about this proverb and to listen to the audio, visit the Latin Via Proverbs blog.

PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Stultum est queri de adversis, ubi culpa est tua (English: It's stupid to complain about difficulties when the fault is yours).

ERASMUS' ANIMALS: Today's animal proverb from Erasmus is Camelus desiderans cornua, etiam aures perdidit (English: Hoping for horns, the camel lost its ears, too; from Adagia 3.5.8, alluding to the famous Aesop's fable).

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Domus Propria. Click here for a full-sized view. I'm sharing these with English translations at Google+ now too.

And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:

Gratia referenda. 
 A favor should be returned.

Ubi pericula, ibi gloria.
Where danger, there glory.


MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Piscatores et Lapis Ingens, a story about life's ups and downs.

FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Pirata et Alexander Rex, a story about pirates big and small (this fable has a vocabulary list).

Growth Mindset Memes. For more about this growth cat, see this blog post. Nosce te ipsum. Know yourself.

Ben Blackwell (Dunelm Road)

The Psalms with Eugene Peterson and Bono

Thanks to Fuller Studios for producing this engagement between Bono and Eugene Peterson on the Psalms.

April 27, 2016

Calenda: Histoire romaine

Hagnos, Miasma et Katharsis

Le colloque international « Hagnos, Miasma, Katharsis. Voyage entre les catégories du pur et de l’impur dans l’imaginaire du monde ancien » (Cagliari, 4-6 mai 2016) propose une mise au point sur les études consacrées aux phénomènes du pur et de l’impur et à leur exégèse antique. La réflexion autour de ce thème privilégiera une approche interdisciplinaire, tenant compte des perspectives iconographique, littéraire, anthropologique et historico-religieuse, afin d’encourager une confrontation et un dialogue élargis entre les spécialistes de cette question cruciale pour comprendre les mentalités antiques.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

'Lost' Medieval Music Performed for First Time in 1,000 Years

The language of music is universal, but can be lost over time.After a 20-year reconstruction effort,...

ArcheoNet BE

Bezoek op 8 mei de opgraving van de Spaanse omwalling in Antwerpen

Op zondag 8 mei krijgt iedereen de unieke kans om de restanten van de Spaanse omwalling in Antwerpen te bezoeken en een archeologische werf van dichtbij te ontdekken. In het kader van de werken aan de Noorderlijn hebben archeologen een deel van de omwalling blootgelegd. In principe zijn er geen bezoekers toegelaten op de site, maar op 8 mei kan iedereen de vondsten komen bezichtigen.

Waar vandaag de Leien gelegen zijn, lag in de 16de eeuw de Spaanse omwalling. Dit was een versterkte stadsmuur om Antwerpen te beschermen tegen invallen van buitenaf. Met de werken aan de Leien in het kader van het project Noorderlijn, kwam de stadsomwalling terug aan het licht. Op 8 mei is een onderdeel ervan, namelijk het Huidevettersbastion tot 6 meter onder het straatniveau uitgegraven en dus volledig zichtbaar. De stad grijpt deze gelegenheid aan om een open werf te organiseren. Zo heeft iedereen de kans om deze archeologische vondst te komen bezichtigen. Daarna wordt op deze plaats de premetrotunnel aangelegd.

Praktisch: de ingang voor bezoekers is voorzien aan de hoek van de Frankrijklei en de Maria-Theresialei. Je kan de werf gratis bezoeken van 11 tot 17 uur. Inschrijvingen zijn niet nodig. Voorzie stevig schoeisel.

AIA Fieldnotes

Can You Dig It? Archaeology and Fossil Day

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
Start Date: 
Sunday, October 16, 2016 - 1:30pm

In celebration of International Archaeology Day and National Fossil Day, the McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture, University of Tennessee, and the Archaeological Institute of America, East Tennessee Society, are hosting Can You Dig It?–an event for families and the public on Sunday, October 16 from 1:30-5:00 p.m. at the Museum.


Debbie Woodiel
Call for Papers: 

Archaeology Magazine

TAICHUNG CITY, TAIWAN—Among the 48 sets of human remains unearthed in an ancient cemetery in central Taiwan, archaeologists found the graves of five children, and the remains of a woman who had been buried with an infant in her arms some 4,800 years ago. “When it was unearthed, all of the archaeologists and staff members were shocked. Why? Because the mother was looking down at the baby in her hands,” Chu Whei-lee of Taiwan’s National Museum of Natural Science said in a Reuters report. For more, go to "The Price of Tea in China."

Israel scarab sealHAIFA, ISRAEL—A birdwatcher visiting Tel Dor last winter discovered an Egyptian scarab brought to the surface by heavy rains. According to a report in The Times of Israel, the seal is thought to have belonged to an official from the Thirteenth Dynasty, dating back to the eighteenth century B.C. “The scarab belonged to a very senior figure in the kingdom, probably the viceroy responsible for the royal treasury,” said Ayelet Gilboa of the University of Haifa. Researchers think the scarab may have been carried to northern Israel by the viceroy or his representative, or it may have arrived at the site later, during the Roman period, when there was a demand for Egyptian artifacts. To read about another recent Egyptological discovery, go to "Egypt’s Immigrant Elite."

Denmark Neolithic axesVIBORG, DENMARK—The Copenhagen Post reports that two flint axes, said to be the largest ever found in Denmark, have been recovered from a drained bog near Tastum Lake. The flint axes date to the Neolithic period and are thought to have been placed in the bog as part of a ritual sacrifice between 3800 and 3500 B.C. “It’s fascinating that they could master the flint and produce such a perfect ax,” said archaeologist Mikkel Kieldsen of the Viborg Museum. To read about another discovery in Denmark, go to "Bronze Age Bride."

Oregon Old DetroitDETROIT, OREGON—Low water levels in Oregon’s Detroit Lake revealed a wooden cargo wagon and a concrete pit near what had been a Forest Service ranger station before the area was flooded in 1953 by the Detroit Dam. U.S. Forest Service archaeologist Cara Kelly interviewed locals who lived in the area, known as Old Detroit, and learned that at one time, the pit in question may have been lined with rocks and filled with goldfish. “It really was the beginning of full administration and protection of the forest reserves. Guard stations during this time served as backcountry living quarters where forest rangers were stationed during the summer, constructing trails, installing telephone lines, and patrolling land on horseback in search of smoke from wildfires,” she said in a report in the Appeal Tribune. To read about another site where the U.S. Forest Service is conducting research, go to "Off the Grid."

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Hominins may have been food for carnivores 500,000 years ago

Tooth-marks on a 500,000-year-old hominin femur bone found in a Moroccan cave indicate that it was...

Corps determines Kennewick Man is Native American

The ancient skeleton known as Kennewick Man is related to modern Native American tribes, the U.S....

The Archaeological Review

The First Wonder

First occurrence of Sed jubilee

Year 2 second month of the first season, day 3

This wonder which happened to his majesty : that the beasts of the highlands came down to him; there came a gazelle great with young, going with the face of the people before her, while her eyes looked backward; she did not turn back until she arrived at this august mountain, at this block, it still being in place, for this lid of this sarcophagus. She dropped her young upon it while the army of the king was looking. Then they cut off her neck before it and brought fire. It descended in safety.

Now, it was the majesty of this august god, lord of the highlands, who gave the offering to his son, Nibtowere, Mentuhotep IV, living forever, in order that his heart might be joyful, that he might live upon his throne forever and ever, that he might celebrate millions of Sed Jubilees.

The hereditary prince, count, governor of the city and vizier, chief of all nobles of judicial office, supervisor of everything in this whole land, the vizier Amenemhet.


Ancient Records of Egypt: James Breasted 

Ancient Peoples

Two-part kohl tubeRoman, 3rd - 4th century Glass and bronze,...

Two-part kohl tube

Roman, 3rd - 4th century

Glass and bronze, 11.5 cm high (4 ½ in)

Source: The J. Paul Getty Museum

Archaeological News on Tumblr

4,800-year-old fossil of mother cradling baby discovered

TAIPEI – Just in time for Mother’s Day, archaeologists in Taiwan have discovered a...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Biblica

[First posted in AWOL 27 October 2011. Most recently updated 27 April 2016]

ISSN: 0006-0887
Published since 1920 by the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, Biblica is a research journal and appears four times a year. 
It is dedicated to biblical studies on the Old and New Testament, and intertestamentary literature, and covers fields of research, such as exegesis, philology, and history.

You can contact the Biblica's editors and send your contributions by email:General EditorOld Testament EditorNew Testament EditorBook Review EditorManaging Editor
Roger Boily, Managing Editor for Biblica On-line
The On-line edition was launched in 1998.
It includes General Indexes by Authors and by Biblical Books, summaries and complete text of articles and short notes beginning with the year 1998.
To read non-Latin characters, please consult the font instructions.
Manuscripts submitted for publication in Biblica should conform to the directions given in "Editorial Instructions for Contributors".
For information about subscriptions to Biblica or about sending books for review, please click here.

      AIA Fieldnotes

      Learn to throw an Atlatl with the experts

      Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
      Sponsored by St. Louis County Park Service
      Event Type (you may select more than one): 
      Start Date: 
      Saturday, October 15, 2016 -
      10:00am to 2:00pm

      International Archaeology Day celebrated at Fort Belle Fontaine County Park (a National Registery Historic Site). Discuss prehistoric hunting and butchering tools, then practice throwing an Atlatl (under adult, expert supervision!!!). Experts from the Missouri Atlatl Association will be at the event. Also a discussion of the archaeological evidence for Fort Belle Fontaine that was established in 1805.

      AIA Society: 


      Linda Bickel
      Call for Papers: 

      Compitum - événements (tous types)

      La meχ rasnal étrusque

      Titre: La meχ rasnal étrusque
      Lieu: Université Jean Monnet / Saint-Etienne
      Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
      Date: 11.05.2016
      Heure: 13.30 h - 15.30 h

      Information signalée par Jacques Elfassi

      5e séance des Constitutions mixtes

      La meχ rasnal étrusque : une constitution mixte fille de la δημοκρατία athénienne et mère de la rēs pūblica romaine ?

      Jean Hadas-Lebel, MCF HDR de langues et littératures anciennes (Université Louis Lumière - Lyon 2, HiSoMA)

      mercredi 11 mai 2016 - de 13h30 à 15h30 - Faculté Arts Lettres Langues - salle KR4 - Campus Tréfilerie - Université de Saint-Étienne - 33 rue du 11 novembre

      Source : HiSoMA

      Héloïse et Abélard

      Titre: Héloïse et Abélard
      Lieu: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée / Lyon
      Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
      Date: 03.05.2016
      Heure: 18.00 h

      Information signalée par Jacques Elfassi



      Héloïse et Abélard

      Lettres d’amour, rhétorique et histoire des textes : les Epistulae duorum amantium sont-elles d’Héloïse et Abélard ?

      Anne-Marie Turcan-Verkerk, directeur d’études à l’EPHE, section des sciences historiques et philologiques, langue et littérature latines du Moyen Âge et Jean-Yves Tilliette, professeur de langue et littérature latine du Moyen Âge à l’Université de Genève.

      mardi 3 mai 2016 - 18h - amphi Benveniste - MOM - entrée par le 86 rue Pasteur - Lyon 7e

      Source : HiSoMA

      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      Altertumswissenschaften in a Digital Age: Egyptology, Papyrology and beyond

      Altertumswissenschaften in a Digital Age: Egyptology, Papyrology and beyond
      Edited by Monica Berti and Franziska Naether

      Proceedings of a conference and workshop in Leipzig, November 4-6, 2015
      Dokumente und Dateien


      Bitte nutzen Sie beim Zitieren immer folgende Url:
      1. Chapter 1 = Research Area 1: How to Structure and Organize Data?
      1.1. Felix Schäfer (DAI Berlin, IANUS): Ein länges Leben für Deine Daten!

      1.2. Simon Schweitzer (Berlin): The Text Encoding Software of the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae

      1.3. Frank Feder (Göttingen): Cataloguing and editing Coptic Biblical texts in an online database system

      1.4. Tom Gheldof (Leuven): Trismegistos: identifying and aggregating metadata of Ancient World texts

      1.5. Monica Berti, Franziska Naether, Julia Jushaninowa, Giuseppe G.A. Celano,
      Polina Yordanova (Leipzig/Sofia/New York): The Digital Rosetta Stone: textual alignment and linguistic annotation

      1.6. Camilla Di Biase-Dyson, Stefan Beyer, Nina Wagenknecht (Göttingen/Leipzig):
      Annotating figurative language: Another perspective for digital Altertumswissenschaften

      1.7. Jochen Tiepmar (Leipzig): Release of the MySQL based implementation of the CTS protocol

      1.8. Simon Schweitzer (Berlin), Simone Gerhards (Mainz): Auf dem Weg zu einem TEI-Austauschformat für ägyptisch-koptische Texte

      1.9. Nicola Reggiani (Heidelberg/Parma): The Corpus of Greek Medical Papyri and Digital Papyrology: new perspectives from an ongoing project

      1.10. Marc Brose, Josephine Hensel, Gunnar Sperveslage, (Leipzig/Berlin): Von Champollion bis Erman – Lexikographiegeschichte im Digitalen Zeitalter, Projekt “Altägyptische Wörterbücher im Verbund”

      1.11. Lucia Vannini (London): Virtual reunification of papyrus fragments

      1.12. Matthias Schulz (Leipzig): What remains behind – on the virtual reconstruction of dismembered manuscripts

      2. Chapter 2 = Research Area 2: Which Fields of Research are
      Relevant? Established and Emerging Use Cases

      2.1. Anne Herzberg (Berlin): Prosopographia Memphitica. Individuelle Identitäten und Kollektive Biographien einer Residenzstadt des Neuen Reiches

      2.2. Felicitas Weber (Swansea): The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project: Second Millennium BCE

      2.3. Holger Essler, Vincenzo Damiani (Würzburg): Anagnosis – automatisierte Buchstabenverknüpfung von Transkript und Papyrusabbildung

      2.4. So Miyagawa (Göttingen/Kyoto): An Intuitive Unicode Input Method for Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing: Applying the Input Technology of the Japanese Writing System

      2.5. Mark-Jan Nederhof (St. Andrews): OCR of hand-written transcriptions of hieroglyphic text

      2.6. Svenja A. Gülden, Kyra van der Moezel (Mainz): „Altägyptische Kursivschriften“ in a digital age

      2.7. Claudia Maderna-Sieben, Fabian Wespi, Jannik Korte (Heidelberg):
      Deciphering Demotic Digitally 
      2.8. Christopher Waß (München): Demotisch, Hieratisch und SQL: Ein Beispiel für die Anwendung von DH in der Ägyptologie

      3. Chapter 3 = Research Area 3: How to Train Next Generations?

      3.1. Julia Jushaninowa (Leipzig): E-learning Kurs “Verarbeitung digitaler Daten in der Ägyptologie”

      4. Chapter 4 = Research Area 4: How to Impact Society? Citizen
      Science and Public Engagement

      4.1. Usama Gad (Heidelberg/Cairo): The Digital Challenges and Chances: The Case of Papyri and Papyrology in Egypt

      4.2. Aris Legowski (Bonn): The Project is completed! What now? The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead – A Digital Textzeugenarchiv

      5. Chapter 5: Additional Papers

      5.1. Rita Lucarelli, Images of Eternity in 3D. The visualization of ancient Egyptian coffins through photogrammetry

      5.2. Van der Perre, Athena (Brussels): From Execration Texts to Quarry Inscriptions. Combining IR, UV and 3D-Imaging for the Documentation of Hieratic Inscriptions

      6. Chapter 6: Workshops

      6.1. Protocol of Workshop 1 by Franziska Naether and Felix Schäfer: Disruptive
      Technologies: Feature on 3D in Egyptian Archaeology (Chair: Felix Schäfer)
      with short presentations

      6.2. Hassan Aglan (Luxor): 3D tombs modeling by simple tools

      6.3. Rebekka Pabst (Mainz): Neue Bilder, neue Möglichkeiten. Chancen für die Ägyptologie durch das 3D-Design

      6.4. Protocol of Workshop 2 by Monica Berti, Franziska Naether and Svenja A.
      Gülden: Annotated Corpora: Trends and Challenges (Chair : Svenja A. Gülden)

      6.5. Minutes of the Final Discussion with suggestions and decisions for the field by
      Monica Berti and Franziska Naether

      7. Poster Presentations

      7.1. Isabelle Marthot (Universität Basel): Papyri of the University of Basel (together
      with Sabine Huebner and Graham Claytor)

      7.2. Isabelle Marthot (Universität Basel): University of Minnesota Project: Ancient
      Lives, a crowd-sourced Citizen Science project

      7.3. Uta Siffert (Universität Wien): Project Meketre: From Object to Icon (together
      with Lubica Hudakova, Peter Jánosy and Claus Jurman)

      7.4. Charlotte Schubert et al.: “Digital Classics Online” Journal

      8. Photos of the Venue by Monica Berti, Julia Jushaninowa and
      Franiska Naether

      If you want to know more: Links

      Check out what people tweeted and posted about and during the conference by
      searching after the hashtag “#DHEgypt15” on Twitter ( and
      Facebook (

      Institutional Homepages in Leipzig:
      Digital Humanities:


      Julia Jushaninowa’s Blog Report about the conference:

      Antiquitas (Sciences de l'Antiquité à l'Université de Lorraine)

      Atelier « démotique pratique » à la MAE René Ginouvès

      Damien Agut-Labordère (CNRS, UMR 7041-ArScAn-HAROC), propose une formation pratique au démotique du 20 juin au 24 juin 2016 à la MAE René Ginouvès à Nanterre.

      «Pratique» signifie que cette formation s’adresse à tous ceux qui souhaitent se familiariser rapidement avec la documentation égyptienne démotique (VIIe siecle av. J.-C. au IVe siecle ap. J.-C.). Il s’agira d’aller directement aux documents pour permettre aux auditeurs d’acquerir le plus rapidement possible les bases permettant de se repérer dans les éditions de textes.

      Aucun pré-requis en langue égyptienne n’est nécessaire pour suivre cette formation.

      Programme (horaires des séances : 9h30-12h00 – 13h30-17h00) :

      Lundi 20 juin : Documentation économique et fiscale. Lire des reçus de taxes (époques saïte, hellenistique et romaine).

      Mardi 21 juin : Documentation funéraire. Épigraphie funéraire et étiquettes de momie (époques hellénistique et romaine).

      Jeudi 23 juin : Documentation notariale. Ventes et locations de terres. Reconnaissance de dette. « Contrat de mariage »

      Vendredi 24 juillet : Documentation littéraire. Extraits de contes et de sagesses. Littérature prophétique.

      Si vous souhaitez vous inscrire, merci de prendre contact :

      10 places disponibles

      Maison Archéologie & Ethnologie, Reneé-Ginouvès
      21, allée de l’Université, F-92023, Nanterre Cedex

      Télécharger le programme.

      Compitum - événements (tous types)

      Roma antica nell'età dei Lumi

      Titre: Roma antica nell'età dei Lumi
      Lieu: Università di Firenze - Dipartimento SAGAS / Florence
      Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
      Date: 26.05.2016
      Heure: 15.30 h - 17.30 h

      Information signalée par Marco Cavalieri

      Roma antica nell'età dei Lumi


      Le vendredi 26 mai 2016, au Département SAGAS (Dipartimento di Storia, Archeologia, Geografia, Arte e Spettacolo) de l'Université de Florence (Palazzo Fenzi, via San Gallo 10, Sala Bartolomeo Ricci), aura lieu un workshop interdisciplinaire sur le thème « Roma antica nell'età dei Lumi ».

      Le séminaire, qui s'insère dans le cycle de rencontres « TEMI e PROBLEMI 2015-2016 » (sous la responsabilité de L. Felici), est promu par le « Laboratorio di Storia Moderna » et plus particulièrement par l'unité « Antiquitates e storia romana nella cultura del Settecento » coordonnée par Mme la Professeure I. G. Mastrorosa. L'objectif de l'activité est d'approfondir les questions de l'interprétation et de la réception du culte de Rome et de l'Antiquité au XVIIIe siècle par une approche interdisciplinaire, à travers l'examen de divers aspects d'ordre historique, culturel, archéologique ou relatifs aux antiquités.

      L'activité, qui est organisée conjointement par les Professeurs I. G. Mastrorosa (Université de Florence) et M. Cavalieri (Université catholique de Louvain), s'articule en deux sessions : la première est consacrée à l'interprétation des institutions et des personnages de la Rome antique qu'on retrouve dans les œuvres de personnalités renommées de l'époque des Lumières en Europe (Montesquieu, Mably, Saint Croix, Voltaire) ; la deuxième sera plutôt axée sur l'analyse des formes et des caractéristiques du collectionnisme et de la culture inspirée de l'Antiquité dans la Vénétie, la Campanie (Pompéi et Herculanum) et le duché de Parme et Plaisance à l'époque des Lumières.


      S. ZAMPONI (Università di Firenze)
      Direttore del Dipartimento SAGAS
      L. FELICI (Università di Firenze)
      Coordinatore del Laboratorio di Storia Moderna

      10.30 INTRODUZIONE
      I. G. MASTROROSA (Università di Firenze)
      M. CAVALIERI (Université catholique de Louvain)

      10.45 PRIMA SESSIONE
      Istituzioni e figure di Roma antica nell'Illuminismo europeo
      Coordina R. MAZZEI (Università di Firenze)

      10.45 I.G. MASTROROSA (Università di Firenze)
      «une ambition plus lente et plus douce que celle de César»: la strategia politica di Pompeo secondo Montesquieu e Mably
      11.30 M.S. MONTECALVO (Università di Foggia)
      Il barone de Sainte-Croix e l'impero: i poteri di Augusto e il ritratto di Adriano
      12.15 U. ROBERTO (Università Europea di Roma)
      Voltaire, l'impero romano e i cristiani: considerazioni su alcune voci del Dictionnaire philosophique (1764)
      13.00 Discussione

      Dall'antiquaria all'archeologia: la cultura dell'antico nell'Italia dell'età dei Lumi
      Coordina D. PEGAZZANO (Università di Firenze)

      15.15 I. FAVARETTO (Università di Padova)
      Collezioni di antichità e il loro spazio: allestimenti e scenografia nelle raccolte veneziane del Settecento
      16.00 S. FORESTA (Università di Napoli Federico II)
      La scoperta di Ercolano e Pompei: cultura antiquaria e nascita dell'archeologia nel Secolo dei Lumi
      16.45 M. CAVALIERI (Université catholique de Louvain)
      «Velleja [...] est une des curiosités de ce siècle». Le Antiquitates veleiati: collezionismo, archeologia e politica tra Italia e Francia nel XVIII secolo
      17.30 Discussione – Chiusura dei lavori

      Lieu de la manifestation : Florence (Italie), Université de Florence (Palazzo Fenzi, via San Gallo 10, Sala Bartolomeo Ricci)
      Organisation : I.G. Mastrorosa et M. Cavalieri
      Contact : marco.cavalieri[at]

      La préfecture du prétoire d'Italie

      Titre: La préfecture du prétoire d'Italie
      Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
      Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
      Date: 04.05.2016
      Heure: 16.00 h - 18.00 h

      Information signalée par Guillaume Flamerie de Lachapelle

      Pierfrancesco PORENA, Naissance et disparition de la préfecture du prétoire d'Italie : de Constantin à Théodoric

      Séminaire d'antiquité tardive


      Séminaire d'antiquité tardive à l'ENS organisé par M. Christophe Goddard (AOrOc-CNRS-ENS).

      Pierfrancesco PORENA, Professeur invité à l'ENS, Prof. Associato di Storia Romana (L-ANT/03), Università degli Studi di Roma Tre - Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici

      Naissance et disparition de la préfecture du prétoire d'Italie : de Constantin à Théodoric.
      1. La préfecture du prétoire et l'installation des Ostrogoths en Italie en 493 après J.-C.

      Programme détaillé:

      Lieu de la manifestation : ENS Ulm - salle F

      AIA Fieldnotes

      Archaeology as Social and Cultural Practice: Experience and Prospects of Managing Heritage

      Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
      Sponsored by Samara State Institute of Culture
      Event Type (you may select more than one): 
      Start Date: 
      Saturday, October 15, 2016

      Learning-practical project "Archaeology as Social and Cultural Practice: Experience and Prospects of Managing Heritage" with publishing of collection (book).


      Vladimir Ionesov
      Call for Papers: 
      CFP Deadline: 
      June 10, 2016

      Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

      Magnus, l'app che riconosce le opere d'arte

      È stata lanciata ufficialmente Magnus, la nuova app dedicata al mondo dell'arte. Già soprannominata lo "Shazam per l'arte", l'app permette di avere informazioni su un'opera semplicemente scattando una foto. Scaricabile gratuitamente dall'Apple Store consente di fruire di dettagli sull'opera compresi i prezzi.

      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      ISAW Papers 11 (2016): The moon phase anomaly in the Antikythera Mechanism

      The moon phase anomaly in the Antikythera Mechanism
      Christián C. Carman and Marcelo Di Cocco
      ISAW Papers 11 (2016)

      Abstract: The Antikythera Mechanism is a mechanical astronomical instrument that was discovered in an ancient shipwreck at the beginning of the twentieth century, made about the second century B.C. It had several pointers showing the positions of the moon and sun in the zodiac, the approximate date according to a lunisolar calendar, several subsidiary dials showing calendrical phenomena, and also predictions of eclipses. The mechanism also had a display of the Moon’s phases: a small ball, half pale and half dark, rotating with the lunar synodic period and so showing the phases of the moon. The remains of the moon phase display include a fragmentary contrate gear. According to the reconstruction offered by Michael Wright, this gear is now pointing unintentionally in the wrong direction. In this paper we offer for the first time a detailed description of the remains of the moon phase mechanism. Based on this evidence, we argue that the extant contrate gear direction is the originally intended one, and we offer a conjectural explanation for its direction as an essential part of a representation of Aristarchus’s hypothesis that half moon phase is observably displaced from exact quadrature.

      Library of Congress Subjects: Antikythera mechanism (Ancient calculator); Astronomy, Greek.

          Section 1: the moon phase mechanism
          Section 2: the direction of the contrate gear
          Section 3: non-uniform motion of the moon phase ball

      Corinthian Matters

      Religion for Breakfast

      If you are interested in issues of ancient religion and early Christianity, check out Andrew Henry’s YouTube channel “Religion for Breakfast.” Religion for Breakfast is (as the about page notes) an educational video log “dedicated to the academic, nonsectarian study of religion. We strive to raise the level of conversation about religion on YouTube by exploring surprising facts about humanity’s beliefs and rituals through an anthropological, sociological, and archaeological lens.” And the home page for the channel describes the purpose of the series in this way:

      Religion for Breakfast believes everyone should know a little bit more about religion. It touches every aspect of human civilization—our art, politics, history, and culture. It has inspired some of our most ethereal music. It has motivated some of our greatest leaders. And, yes, it has also sparked some of our biggest wars and social injustices…

      Andrew has an academic blog on the subject as well but his really original contribution is this YouTube channel that regularly releases short (2-10 minute), fast-paced, and jumpy video blogs designed to educate the public about the academic study of ancient religion. Influenced by educational videolog channels in the sciences (check out, for example, this PBS Space Time vlog on the speed of light and this CrashCourse vlog on the history of early Christianity), Andrew is a pioneer in applying this genre to ancient religious studies.

      His series so far has included short videos on topics such as:

      ReligionforBreakfastAnd while most of these concern religion generally–and not Corinth per se–at least a few are directly relevant to the Corinthian situation, including, for example, How to Make an Ancient Curse Tablet (cf. Stroud’s publication of curse tablets in Corinth XVIII.6) and Where did Ancient Christians Meet?, which begins with a survey on Acrocorinth and discusses meeting places in Corinth and other regions of the Roman Mediterranean.

      And for some background: Andrew is an advanced PhD student in religious studies at Boston University with interests in the intersection of material culture and early Christianity. He has worked at the ASCSA Excavations in the Athenian Agora, and participated for a summer in the Pyla-Koutsopetria Archaeological Project, a project that Bill Caraher, Scott Moore, and I direct in Cyprus. I also had the privilege of working with Andrew during his brief stint at Messiah College.

      These vlogs should be a great resource for use in the classroom and will be of interest for anyone who wants to know about the academic study of ancient religion.

      With Passover and Orthodox Easter approaching, this marks our final post in a series about resources for the study of religion, Judaism, and Christianity in Corinth. Earlier posts include:


      Archaeological News on Tumblr

      Half of Western European men descended from one Bronze Age ‘king’

      Half of Western European men are descended from one Bronze Age ‘king’ who sired a dynasty of elite...

      The Archaeology News Network

      Two Egyptian mummy portraits restored

      The Institute of Archaeology of the University of Zurich restituted two Egyptian mummy portraits from the 1st to 2nd century AD to the heirs of Berlin publisher Rudolf Mosse (1843-1920). Portrait of a young woman, mid to late Antonine [Credit: Frank Tomio/ University of Zurich]Erna Felicia and Hans Lachmann-Mosse, Mosse’s daughter and son-in-law, were unlawfully deprived of the two objects shortly after the Nazi takeover in Germany in...

      [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

      Stephen Chrisomalis (Glossographia)

      Lexiculture: Michigander

      Jaime Baker

      Wayne State University

      Cite as: Baker, Jaime. 2016. Michigander. Lexiculture: Papers on English Words and Culture, vol. 2, article 5.

      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

      (Download PDF version)

      The word Michigander was coined among American elites in the mid-nineteenth century as a patrial, or name describing a resident of some place, in this case the state of Michigan. At first glance the word clearly makes no sense. It is seemingly a portmanteau of the prefix Michi– referring to the State of Michigan, and gander, a male goose. Yes, there are giant Canadian geese populations abundantly found in Michigan, but that does not connote anything about the people that live or settled here. We are certainly not known as the “Northern Geese People” (although there have been some violent geese-human interactions), but geese had nothing to do with the formation of this state. Or did they? What happened to all of the other variants of Michigander that group together the people of Michigan? Was Michigander used right from the start of statehood or was it coined later? Why is the most popular term for the people of Michigan such a ridiculously formed noun? My research has led me to ask all of these questions and the answers may be surprising.

      Where did it come from?

      According to the Google Ngram Viewer (Figure 1), the word Michigander emerged in 1850. That year, I found, is somewhat accurate but not entirely precise. The Online Etymology Dictionary places its origins in simply 1848 with no citation. However, the Oxford English Dictionary Online states its first citable roots lie in the Hampshire Gazette in 1838, with a quotation by Senator Abraham Lincoln a decade later.


      (“Michigander, n.” OED Online 2014)

      So which is the precise answer? Upon further investigation, I was unable to retrieve the original articles from the Hampshire Gazette or the Bellows Falls Gazette. There are, however, two pieces of evidence I was able to retrieve that may slightly antedate Lincoln’s speech. The first is from an 1848 United States Presidential campaign debate between General Lewis Cass of Michigan and John Parker Hale of New Hampshire but there is no precise date associated with it: “’Tell Hale,’ said Cass ‘that he is a Granite goose.’ ‘Tell Cass,’ said Hale, ‘that he is a Michi-gander[!]’” (Bungay 1854, 93). The second is a quotation from Hans Sperber of Ohio State University, citing an Ohio newspaper article, which came out on the same day as Lincoln’s speech in Congress. This signifies that Michigander must have been used before Lincoln’s speech since there were no telegraphic lines available for the Xenia writer to have any knowledge of it (Sperber 1954, 25)


      The next question is with whom and where did it originate? As shown, Michigander was coined as a political slur for General Lewis Cass during the Presidential campaign for the election of 1848. As the timeline would have it, there is a high likelihood that it was later in 1848 when Lincoln notably used Michigander as a political attack against Cass’ campaign and his decisions as a General in the war of 1812. This was not the first time that a politician was personally attacked based on physical appearance and it was also not the first time General Cass had been mockingly related to an animal. His opponents also stated that he was like a donkey, apparent in this political cartoon referring him to as “Cass-ass.”(Dexter 1848, 184):


      The name Michigander was not originally a partial given to the people of the state but rather a nickname directly for Cass himself and it remained just that for several years (Sperber 1954, 25). Cass reportedly hated the term and had good reason to. A quote from Mrs. Varina Davis attests to this; “Mr. Cass was testy sometimes, but it was the testiness of an over-worked man, not an ill-natured one. Nothing annoyed him so much as being called a Michigander; he said the name was suggestive.” (Shriner 1918, 104). Political cartoons, commercials and nicknaming still widely continue on in national politics today. Though, I have not come across a nickname since that has gained so much popular attention.

      What Drove the Semantic Shift and How Long Did it Take to Assume its Current Fame?

      Michigander has since taken a dramatic semantic shift from a derogatory slur to its place atop the list of acceptable patrials for the people of the State of Michigan, though it did not spike in popularity until 1860, the year that Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the United States, Cass left Washington, and the year before the Civil War began. Cass also stated in 1860 in opposition to any state’s secession from the union and in defense of his personal integrity; “I speak to Cobb, … and he tells me he is a Georgian; to Floyd, and he tells me he is a Virginian… I am not a Michigander, I am a citizen of the United States.” (Klunder 1996, 304).

      Prior to Michigander, many terms were, and still are, acceptable when referring to the people of Michigan including Michiganian, Michiganite, and Michiganese. Slightly before Michigander emerged, Michiganian was the predominant term for the people of Michigan and still firmly holds second place among recent English literature (Figure 1). An article published in 1847 from the Detroit Free Press, originally taken from the Milwaukee Courier, praising the educational system of Michigan while the rest of the infrastructure was somewhat lagging behind, reads, “After reading it, what Michiganian will not feel proud of his home?” (Figure 2). Conversely, Michiganese never caught on as much as its supporter, David Dudley Field in 1888, desired it to when he presented before the congressional Committee on Territories (Marckwardt 1952, 204)

      Michigander has no obvious place in the English language, referring to people or otherwise. It is a portmanteau, or combination of two existing words to form a new word with both meanings (for example: bodacious, edutainment, or frenemy). Therefore, the word Michigander literally breaks down to “the gander from Michigan” (Sperber 1954, 27). The logical thing to do when referring to a population or a person’s native land is to tack on an ending such as: –ian, -an, -ite, or -er. Ex: Pennsylvanian, Alaskan, New Hampshirite, and Detroiter. Following that, the noun Michiganian makes the most sense when referring to the people of the Michigan. Since the word already ends in –an, it was necessary to add –ian to make an easy transition from one word to the next (Marckwardt 204). Michiganian was first used in The Weekly Register by Hezekiah Niles in 1813, according to Albert Marckwardt and the OED Online. However, since the Michigan Territory was created by an act of Congress on January 11, 1805, the term may have been used before 1813 but was not as widely well known (Marckwardt 204). The State was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837 and the patrials Michigander and Michiganian have been used interchangeably throughout our history. Though previously, Michigander was the “odd goose out” so to speak.

      Michigander Today

      Today Michigander, and its various forms, is the most widely used term to index and refer to people from Michigan, but some still prefer to use Michiganian and some prefer Michiganite. A poll taken by the Michigan Natural Resources Magazine in the July-August 1983 issue of relays that between Michigander, Michiganian, and Michiganite; Eighty-two percent of responders voted for Michigander, only fourteen percent voted for Michiganian, and just four percent voted for Michiganite. Many of the published comments in the poll were issues with the use of Michigander, mainly focusing around the term not being gender neutral. Though, some commenters defended its use as strong and inclusive. One even stated that it does have the ability to change by gender, “I’m a Michigander, my wife is a Michigoose, and our children are Michigoslins” (Michigan Natural Resources 1983). This comment in the article was the first time I had ever heard of the terms Michigoose or Michigoslins but further research reveals that the terms have also been in use almost as long as Michigander has been the preferred patrial.

      The U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (GPOSM) is the official handbook for printed text released from the U.S. Houses of Administration. In the current GPOSM, updated in 2008, the official term for residents of the state of Michigan is Michiganians and that is what must be used in all official printings (Office 2008, 108). Though it appears that this may not have always been the case. In the Journal Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review there is an article entitled Wolverine and Michigander By Dr. Albert H. Marckwardt. He writes, “Officially, of course, we are all “Michiganites,” for that is the term approved by the U.S. [GPOSM], in its revision of January, 1945. This particular edition undertakes to give an approved designation for citizens of each of the forty-eight states, and it appears to be the first to make such an attempt. At least none of the earlier editions I have examined have a comparable department.” (Marckwardt 1952, 206). Thus, in national capacities, the people of Michigan were Michiganites and are now Michiganians, not Michiganders.

      Chapter seventeen of the book Language Myths by Laurie Bauer and Peter Trudghill is entitled They Speak really Bad English Down South and in New York City. The author of the chapter, Dennis R. Preston, describes a survey of language correctives that he took of people from Texas, New York City, Alabama, and Michigan. He refers directly to the Michigan responders as Michiganders six times in the chapter with no indication at all of any other patrials for the people of Michigan (Preston 1998, 142-47). This shows the common thought shared by many that Michigander is a neutral term perfectly acceptable for use when one needs to make reference to the people of the State of Michigan.

      I also conducted my own poll using a non-random sample of friends and family (in-state natives and out-of-state non-natives alike) to evaluate what their primary word choice is for the patrial of Michigan natives and residents. Of a sample of twelve responses collected, here are my results. Eight respondents instinctively chose and relate with Michigander, three chose Michiganian, and only one chose the term Michiganite. The term Michiganese was not mentioned by anyone. When informed of this term, eleven of them accepted it as another possibility for a patrial and one of them said that Michiganese only makes sense as the dialect of English that the people from Michigan speak, using the example Portuguese. It is also of good note that one of the respondents to my poll was a part of Governor Rick Snyder’s 2014 campaign and he preferred the use of Michigander to any other cognate. (Interviewee 2014).


      The term Michigander has emerged and changed drastically over the past one hundred sixty-four years or so. It began as a direct personal attack against one of the great founders of the State of Michigan and has drastically grown in popularity to far surpass any of its related patrials over its lifetime. Michigander is reportedly the preferred patrial noun by people of the State of Michigan according to the Google Books, a poll by the Michigan Natural Resources Magazine, and possibly Governor Rick Snyder. It is also safe to state that most residents of the State have no idea that the term has such a rich history dating back nearly to the time of Michigan’s admittance as a state, and did not come about naturally but instead was thrust into the American culture through the American democratic process. While it began as a very derogatory slur for one of the founding fathers of the State of Michigan and indexed him as a goose, it has since become the most widely accepted and unique patrial word among the fifty states. May the Great Michigander for whom it was created live on in our memory and respect for our Great State.


      (Figure 1: Google Books 2014)


      (Figure 2: (Democratic Free Press 1847, 2)



      Bungay, George Washington. Off-hand Takings; Or, Crayon Sketches of the Noticeable Men of Our Age. New York: De Witt & Daventport, 1854.

      Democratic Free Press. “Complimentary to our State.” Democratic Free Press (1842-1848), May 12, 1847: 2.

      Dexter, George. “The John-donkey.” (George Dexter, Burgess, Stringer and Co.) 1 (1848).

      Google Books. Google Books Ngram Viewer. 2014. (accessed October 25, 2014).

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      Interviewee, interview by Jaime Baker. (October 2014).

      Klunder, Willard Carl. Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996.

      Marckwardt, Albert H. “Wolverine and Michigander.” Edited by Frank E. Robbins. Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review (The Alumni Association of the University of Michigan) 58, no. 18 (May 1952): 203-208.

      Michigan Natural Resources Magazine . “”Michigander” Wins Landslide Vote of MNR Readers.” State of Michigan, July-August 1983: 9.

      OED Online. “Michigander, n.”. Oxfoed University Press. September 2014. (accessed November 10, 2014).

      —. “Michiganian, n.”. Oxford University Press. September 2014. (accessed November 10, 2014).

      Office, U.S. Government Printing. “U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual.” U.S. Government Printing Office. September 16, 2008. (accessed November 10, 2014).

      Preston, Dennis R. “They Speak Really Bad English Down South and in New York City.” In Language Myths, by Peter Trughill Laurie Bauer. London: Penguin Group, 1998.

      Shriner, Charles Anthony. Wit, Wisdom and Foibles of the Great: Together with Numerous Anecdotes .. New York: Funk and Wagnalls , 1918.

      Sperber, Hans. “Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander.” American Speech (Duke University Press) 29, no. 1 (February 1954): 21-27.



      Filed under: Anthropology, Guest post, Lexiculture, Linguistics

      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      Open Access Journal: JANES - Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society

      [First posted in AWOL 23 October 2009. Updated 27 April 2016]

      [n.b. The digital archive of JNES, long hosted at the Jewish Theological Seminary, is no longer accessible on their servers. Luckily, there seem to be several archived iterations at the Internet Archives's Wayback Machine. I have changed all the links below to a recently archived version. I have not checked all the pdfs of the articles, though my spot check gives me 100% success]

      JANES - Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society
      ISSN: 0010-2016
      Image result for Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society
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      The Burney Relief Reconsidered2/2 (1970)86–93

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      The Relations between Tyre and Carthage during the Persian Period13 (1981)15–29
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      Elman, YaakovBabylonian Echoes in a Late Rabbinic Legend4 (1972)12–19

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      Fleishman, JosephThe Age of Legal Maturity in Biblical Law21 (1992)35–48

      On the Meaning of the Term melek 'ashur "The King of Assyria" in Ezra 6:2226 (1998)37–45

      On the Significance of a Name Change and Circumcision in Genesis 1728 (2001)19–32
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      Notes on Sargonic Royal Progress12 (1980)29–42

      The Siege of Armanum14 (1982)27–36
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      Freedman, Leslie R.Biblical Hebrew 'rb, "to go surety," and Its Nominal Forms19 (1989)25–29
      Freedman, R. DavidA New Approach to the Nuzi Sistership Contract2/2 (1970)77–85

      Counting Formulae in the Akkadian Epics3 (1970–71)65–81

      A New Lexical Fragment4 (1972)33–35

      subat basti: A Robe of Splendor4 (1972)91–95

      The Dispatch of the Reconnaissance Birds in Gilgamesh XI5 (1973)123–29

      Cuneiform Texts in the Sacramento Vicinity8 (1976)35–47

      Cuneiform Texts from the Piepkorn Collection, III9 (1977)11–25

      The Father of Modern Biblical Scholarship19 (1989)31–38
      Frisch, AmosJeroboam and the Division of the Kingdom: Mapping Contrasting Biblical Accounts27 (2000)15–29
      Gabba, EmilioThe Holy Spirit, the Roman Senate, and Bossuet16-17 (1984–85)55–65
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      Isserlin, B. S. J.The Names of the 72 Translators of the Septuagint5 (1973)191–97
      Izre'el, ShlomoOn the Person-Prefixes of the Akkadian Verb20 (1991)35–56

      Linguistics and Poetics in Old Babylonian Literature: Mimation and Meter in Etana27 (2000)57–68
      Jacobsen, ThorkildThe Sister's Message5 (1973)199–212

      A Maidenly Inanna22 (1993)63–68
      Japhet, SaraThe Prohibition of the Habitation of Women: The Temple Scroll's Attitude toward Sexual Impurity and Its Biblical Precedents22 (1993)69–87
      Johnson, Gary K.An Experiment in Ancient Egyptian Silver Vessel Manufacture8 (1976)97–104
      Joosten, JanDo the Finite Verbal Forms in Biblical Hebrew Express Aspect?29 (2002)49–70
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      and Fred Hiebert
      The Relation of the Finds from Shahdad to Those of Sites in Central Asia21 (1992)135–40
      Katsh, Abraham I.Unpublished Geniza Talmudic Fragments5 (1973)213–23
      Kawami, Trudy S.Parthian Brick Vaults in Mesopotamia, Their Antecedents and Descendants14 (1982)61–67
      Kister, M. J.Pare Your Nails: A Study of an Early Tradition11 (1979)63–70
      Kitchen, K. A.Late-Egyptian Chronology and the Hebrew Monarchy5 (1973)225–33
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      Kselman, John S.Psalm 77 and the Book of Exodus15 (1983)51–58
      Kutler, LaurenceA Structural Semantic Approach to Israelite Communal Terminology14 (1982)69–77
      Layton, Scott C."Head on Lap" in Sumero-Akkadian Literature15 (1983)59–62
      Leinwand, NancyRegional Characteristics in the Styles and Iconography of the Seal Impressions of Level II at Kültepe21 (1992)141–72
      Levine, Baruch A.Silence, Sound, and the Phenomenology of Mourning in Biblical Israel22 (1993)89–106
      Levin, YigalNumbers 34:2-12, The Boundaries of the Land of Canaan, and the Empire of Necho30 (2006)55–76
      Lichtenstein, Murray H.The Banquet Motif in Keret and in Proverbs 91/1 (1968)19–31

      Dream–Theophany and the E Document1/2 (1969)45–54

      A Note on the Text of 1 Keret2/2 (1970)94–100

      Psalm 68:7 Revisited4 (1972)97–112

      The Poetry of Poetic Justice5 (1973)255–65

      Idiom, Rhetoric and the Text of Genesis 41:1619 (1989)85–94
      Lipton, DianaBezalel in Babylon? Anti-Priestly Polemics in Isaiah 40–55
      31 (2009)
      Lo, AlisonDeath in Qohelet
      31 (2009)
      Loewenstamm, SamuelRemarks upon the Infinitive Absolute in Ugaritic and Phoenician2/1 (1969)53
      Malamat, AbrahamJosiah's Bid for Armageddon5 (1973)267–79
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      Marcus, DavidThe Three Aleph's in Ugaritic1/1 (1968)50–60

      Studies in Ugaritic Grammar I1/2 (1969)55–61

      The Stative and the wawConsecutive2/1 (1969)37–40

      Review of A. S. Kapelrud, The Violent Goddess 2/2 (1970)111–14

      The qalPassive in Ugaritic3 (1970–71)102–11

      A Famous Analogy of Rib-Haddi5 (1973)281–86

      The Term for 'Coffin' in the Semitic Languages7 (1975)85–94

      Sharruludari, Son of Rukubtu, Their Former King: A Detail of Philistine Chronology9 (1977)27–30

      Civil Liberties under Israelite and Mesopotamian Kings10 (1978)53–60

      The Barren Woman of Psalm 113:9 and the Housewife: An Antiphrastic Dysphemism11 (1979)81–84

      Juvenile Delinquency in the Bible and the Ancient Near East13 (1981)31–52

      The Bargaining between Jephthah and the Elders (Judges 11:4-11)19 (1989)95–100

      See Greenstein, Edward L.

      The Mission of the Raven (Gen. 8:7)29 (2002)71–80
      Margulis, BaruchThe Kôsarôt/ktrt: Patroness–saints of Women4 (1972)52–61

      Of Birds and Brides: A Reply to M. Lichtenstein4 (1972)113–17
      Matison, DahliaReview of E. Reiner, A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian 1/1 (1968)61–66
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      The Joy of Giving (Love and Joy as Metaphors of Volition in Hebrew and Related Literatures, Part II)11 (1979)91–111
      Murnane, WilliamOnce Again the Dates for Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II3 (1970–71)1–7
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      Neufeld, EdwardFabrication of Objects from Fish and Sea Animals in Ancient Israel5 (1973)309–24

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      Noegel, Scott E.Moses and Magic: Notes on the Book of Exodus24 (1996)45–59

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      Oppenheim, A. LeoA Note on sa resi 5 (1973)325–34
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      Paley, SamuelReview of A. L. Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia 1/1 (1968)67–71

      The Entranceway Inscriptions of the "Second House" in the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrod (Kalhu)19 (1989)135–47
      Pardee, DennisA Philological and Prosodic Analysis of the Ugaritic Serpent Incantation UT 60710 (1978)73–108
      Parente, FaustoFlavius Josephus' Account of the Anti–Roman Riots Preceding the 66–70 War, and Its Relevance for the Reconstruction of Jewish Eschatology during the First Century A.D.16-17 (1984–85)183–205
      Pattullo, Susan JayeAdditions to the Selected Bibliography for the Art of Ancient Iran10 (1978)109–11
      Paul, Shalom M.Heavenly Tablets and the Book of Life5 (1973)345–53

      Decoding a "Joint" Expression in Daniel 5:6, 1622 (1993)121–27
      Perkins, Dexter, Jr.See Daly, Patricia

      Piet, JohnNow in Archaeology: The Underground Revealed1/1 (1968)11–18

      An Old Babylonian Crystal Seal2/1 (1969)30–36
      Pittman, Holly, Sheridan, Mary Jane;
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      De Graeve, Marie–Christine
      Three Cylinder Seals of Ancient Iran9 (1977)59–65
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      On Prose and Poetry in the Book of Job24 (1996)61–97

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      The Oral and the Written: Syntax, Stylistics and the Development of Biblical Prose Narrative26 (1998)59–105

      The Style of the Dialogue in Biblical Prose Narrative28 (2001)53–95
      Porada, EdithNotes on the Sarcophagus of Ahiram5 (1973)354–72

      Bibliography for the Art of Ancient Iran9 (1977)67–84

      Introduction to Chronologies in Old World Archaeology: Archaeological Seminar at Columbia University21 (1992)117–18
      Porter, Barbara AdeleSee Pittman, Holly

      Rainey, Anson F.Syntax and Rhetorical Analysis in the Hashvyahu Ostracon27 (2000)75–79
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      A Reconstruction of Moabite-Israelite History13 (1981)67–73

      On Jan Best's "Decipherment" of Minoan Linear A14 (1982)79–87

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      Echoes of Gideon's Ephod: An Intertextual Reading30 (2006)89–102
      Shemesh, YaelLies by Prophets and Other Lies in the Hebrew Bible29 (2002)81–95
      Sheridan, Mary JaneSee Pittman, Holly

      Shupak, NiliThe God from Teman and the Egyptian Sun God: A Reconsideration of Habakkuk 3:3-728 (2001)97–116

      A Fresh Look at the Dreams of the Officials and of Pharaoh in the Story of Joseph (Genesis 40-41) in the Light of Egyptian Dreams30 (2006)103–138
      Silberman, Lou H.Manus Velatae5 (1973)383–88
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      The Problem of mahhû 3 (1970–71)112–18

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      The Archaeology News Network

      Teeth vs. tools: Neanderthals and Homo sapiens had different dietary strategies

      Over hundreds of thousands of years, the Neanderthal lineage developed successfully in western Eurasia and survived severe fluctuations between colder and warmer climactic cycles of the Ice Age. The Neanderthals disappeared at the high point of the last glacial period around 40 thousand years ago, at approximately the same time that modern humans migrated into Europe. Dental Microwear Texture Analysis, the method employed in this...

      [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

      Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

      The North Dakota Outrage Summit

      A couple of months ago I floated the idea of an “Outrage Summit” as a possible theme for the North Dakota University System Arts and Humanities Summit in late September. We floated the idea around and there were no objections to it, so this weekend, we put together a call for papers and it should appear on the summit’s website this week or next.

      One thing that many of the folks who saw early drafts of my outrage idea suggested is that I “keep it academic.” I thought about this a good bit and decided to ignore that suggestion. I decided that was one of the surest ways to rob the arts and humanities of their emotional power. In fact, I got a bit worried that calls for us to “keep it academic” were largely driven by people who were less invested in the distinctive power of the humanities to push human emotions, agitate the irrational, and propel people to act in ways that defy convention, overturn civility, and bring about radical change. 

      So my call for papers explicitly makes room for both academic, intellectual treatments of outrage as well as genuine expressions of outrage. The humanities (and arts!) do more than just obfuscate raw human emotions or insert a layer of opaque jargon between experience and understanding. The humanities and arts can and should form a direct conduit for anger, hatred, joy, love, passion, and even OUTRAGE. This summit should, then, embrace both thoughtful, rational, academic, technical treatments of outrage, and genuine or performed outpourings of emotional anger.   

      Screenshot 2 10 16 7 52 am

      Finally, I think we have an almost perfect keynote speaker. Hopefully we can make that announcement soon. 

      Here’s a preview. 

      Outrage has become a dominant feature of the 21st century. It has energized social media, shaped the global political discourse, fueled massive popular movements, and propelled candidates to public office. Outrage has accompanied and amplified mourning, it has been used to resist and affect change, and served both to reinforce authority and to subvert institutions of control. From Occupy Wall Street to the streets of Ferguson, Paris, and Cairo, outrage has become a defining feature of the public sphere.

      Historically, college campuses have served as an incubator and a stage for outrage, and recent events at the University of Missouri, for example, have demonstrated that this tradition is alive and well. At the same time, appeals to civility, safety, apathy, and even inclusiveness have challenged the role of college campuses as places for the violent, uncritical, visceral clashes of ideas. The increasingly marginalized place of outrage on college campuses has stifled the often-productive impact of mass movement, spontaneous actions, emotional calls for justice, and cascading, recursive spasms of irrational anger. In many cases, these aspects of outrage are exactly those that the arts and humanities seek to validate, authorize, and instill in our society.

      As a result, the Arts and Humanities Summit has decided to embrace outrage both as a form of expression and as an object of study. We encourage the submissions of papers, presentations, and projects that thoughtfully, critically or performatively engage outrage. We encourage contributors to be outraged, to flaunt civility, and to reflect seriously on why outrage matters for the arts and humanities today.

      ASOR Blog (American Schools of Oriental Research)

      5 Easy Tips For Promoting Your Dig

      Ever wish more people knew about your dig site and the research being completed? Here are 5 easy tips to promote your your research, increase your visibility to potential funders, and establish yourself as an expert [...]

      The post 5 Easy Tips For Promoting Your Dig appeared first on The ASOR Blog.

      ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

      Διακρίνεσθαι and a non-existant “semantic shift”

      I read an excellent article in Novum Testamentum yesterday that argues that the novel sense of διακρίνομαι ‘to hesitate,’ or as BDAG puts it: “to be uncertain, be at odds w. oneself, doubt, waver”, doesn’t actually exist. The author, Peter Spitaler, puts forward the argument that such a meaning is wholly unknown to Greek patristic interpreters of the text and that there is no solid evidence of this meaning outside of the New Testament. Rather, Spitaler argues, the meaning to “to hesitate/doubt/waver” came via Latin translation from Greek, which then influence. The article is particularly noteworthy in its analaysis of the distinction between the semantics of the active διακρίνω and the middle διακρίνομαι.

      It’s an excellent article–very much in the spirit of John Lee’s A History of New Testament Lexicography and worth the time to read–and you can because JSTOR let’s you read articles online for free.

      Spitaler, Peter. “Διακρίνεσθαι in Mt. 21:21, Mk. 11:23, Acts 10:20, Rom. 4:20, 14:23, Jas. 1:6, and Jude 22-the “semantic Shift” That Went Unnoticed by Patristic Authors”. Novum Testamentum 49.1 (2007): 1–39.


      This article investigates how patristic and medieval writers interpret New Testament passages with the middle/passive διακρίνω. Contemporary NT scholars posit a difference between NT and classical/Hellenistic Greek meanings and usually justify their choice by means of a semantic shift. In the texts analyzed for this article, there is little evidence that Greek patristic and medieval authors acknowledge a meaning of διακρίνομαι that deviates from the Koine meaning. If, indeed, a semantic shift took place, they show no awareness of that movement. The transformation of meaning first occurs in translations from Greek to Latin.

      Filed under: Greek, Historical Linguistics, Language, Latin, Lexicography, Linguistics

      Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

      ArtLab 16 Territori, Cultura, Innovazione: spazio ai progetti digitali per i musei

      Sarà Milano ad ospitare il 19 e 20 maggio la prima tappa di ArtLab 16 - Territori, Cultura, Innovazione la piattaforma indipendente e cross-settoriale orientata all’innovazione delle pratiche e delle politiche culturali. Grazie alla collaborazione con BASE Milano – il nuovo hub creativo, da poco inaugurato negli storici spazi dell’ex Ansaldo in via Bergognone 34 - ArtLab trova il proprio habitat naturale in un luogo di produzione culturale, sperimentazione e condivisione su progetti e tematiche legati alle industrie creative.

      Liz Gloyn (Classically Inclined)

      On being a productive academic mother

      I was having a conversation over e-mail with an academic of my acquaintance who has just had a child, and was wondering if I could offer her any suggestions about how I’ve managed to keep getting things done since infans was born. In all honesty, a big part of it has been the fact that I’ve not been required to do anything terribly creative – the book revisions and manuscript preparation, while chunky, haven’t really required me to put together much new material or think up fresh ideas, and there’s only so much imagination and intellectual capital you need to change the formatting of a bibliography. I am the first person to complain grumpily on Twitter about the slog of editing a passage for the dozenth time, but actually, that’s probably the level of mental demand I’ve been operating at. I’ve only started to think properly about the conference papers I’m giving this summer in the last month or so, and the effort required to put together something new has actually been quite daunting.

      However, I did have a couple of other thoughts and suggestions about getting stuff done, if you choose to, and thought I’d put them here in case anyone else find them useful. The first is to accept that for the first few months, you probably won’t get anything done, especially if you’re breastfeeding on demand as I was – and that’s totally alright and as it should be. Giving oneself permission for this is really, really hard (or at least I found it so after the first few weeks), but actually, stop.

      If you do have things that absolutely must get done, then naps are the way forward. If you’re lucky enough to have a baby giving you enough sleep during the night to function during the day without naps yourself, and have a baby who will go to sleep somewhere that is not on you, and for more than five minutes at a time. Sometimes babies do not seem to realise mummy needs time to reply to that research collaborator. And that is OK too. But thinking about how to use any nap time you do get strategically is key – what do you most need to do to give yourself piece of mind? It may be having a cup of tea and checking the proofs you’ve been asked to return before the end of the week; it may be washing up and tidying the kitchen so the thought of the post-lunch mess doesn’t keep you consistently on edge; it may be having a nap yourself, or a shower, or watching an episode of some mindless television. All of these things are also OK.

      The only way I did get anything done during those naps was lists. Lots and lots of lists. I prioritised things that had immediate deadlines or I had already committed to (like final revisions and copyedits for articles which were more or less done), and things related to the book manuscript. I did agree to take on a short piece for a web-based outreach project, which I thought would be a good way of getting me back into the groove of generating ‘new’ words, but in retrospect I wish I’d said no to that as I did to a book review invitation – it didn’t drain away time, but it was a bit of a distraction. What worked particularly well for me was accepting that tasks which came under the heading of ‘collegiality’ – things I should do not to hold up collected volumes/editors, meeting deadlines and so on – needed to be done; the book was the massive priority, even if it was advancing a paragraph of edits at a time; and everything else could wait. Really.

      So the big ‘formal’ advice I have is to push back firmly on anything related to teaching or administration, and to only let research in if there are imminent deadlines or if it is the most important project you have in hand. I was also a big fan of checking my e-mail even if only to delete or file it, as I did with about 95% of the e-mail I got during the course of my leave – the thought of coming back to an untouched inbox after even a few weeks gives me the shivers.

      Some of this is, of course, down to who you are as an individual and where you are in your career, and I really don’t want to suggest that I did the ‘right’ thing. I felt particularly under pressure about the book because of being, at the time, on a three year contract and being very aware that I needed to have the book in press for job hunting. I also inevitably start feeling a bit jumpy after a few weeks if I don’t have something academic to get on with – one of the reasons that a year’s maternity leave completely off from academia would have been a really, really bad idea for me. Please don’t look at this post and assume these have to be your choices – they don’t. I recommend Rachel Moss’s thoughts about some of the choices she made in the early months, and I’ll also mention that I went back to work after just under six months of maternity leave (again, entirely my choice but under the implicit pressure of a short-term contract). I am pretty sure that if I ever do this again, I will make a different set of choices.

      Since going back to work in September, I’ve also found that I think about far fewer projects than I did pre-infans. In those heady days (ahem), I could have two or three projects in various stages on the go at once, and could balance hopping between them – for instance, I often found I needed the other projects to give me something to do when the book was getting too much or had reached a pause point, and there would often be some outreach or cross-over work in there too. Now, with teaching and everything else, I think realistically I can only manage one project at a time. I was recently given the advice that with children, one should prioritise quality over quantity – and I now see why that was an excellent suggestion, if only because I cannot imagine trying to do more than one thing at once in the more strictly delineated working time I now have. This will change as infans gets older, of course, but right now that’s the reality.

      Now I find myself in the slightly strange vacuum between finishing a big project and starting a big project, and not knowing quite what to do with myself… but that’s another subject for another post.

      James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

      Problem Solved

      Sometimes science does indeed offer a clear answer to a supposedly insoluble problem…

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      Newly discovered titanosaurian dinosaur from Argentina, Sarmientosaurus

      Scientists have discovered Sarmientosaurus musacchioi, a new species of titanosaurian dinosaur, based on an complete skull and partial neck fossil unearthed in Patagonia, Argentina, according to a study published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ruben Martinez from the Laboratorio de Paleovertebrados of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (UNPSJB), Argentina, and colleagues. Digital rendering of the skull of...

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      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      Open Access Journal: Gladius

      [First posted in AWOL 15 June 2011. Updated 27 April 2016]

      eISSN: 1988-4168
      ISSN: 0436-029X 
      Gladius publica contribuciones científicas los siguientes temas: Armamento desde la Prehistoria hasta fines del siglo XVIII, Polemología, Historia de la guerra en Europa, el mundo colonial americano, y el Islam. Asimismo contiene una sección especial para la discusión científica y recensiones. 

      Gladius está indizada en Web of Science (Thomson-ISI) A&HCI y Elsevier Scopus. 

      Gladius proporciona acceso sin restricciones a todos los contenidos a texto completo desde el momento de su publicación en esta edición electrónica.
      Gladius publishes scientific contributions on the following subjects: Arms and Armour, Military History and Polemology, from the earliest times until the end of the Eighteenth century, mainly in the Iberian Peninsula, Europe, Islam and the Americas, although other contributions will be considered. It also contains a section on scientific discussion and reviews.

      Gladius is covered by the Web of Science (Thomson-ISI) A&HCI and Elsevier Scopus.

      Gladius provides free, unrestricted access to full-text articles immediately after publication in this online edition

      Vol 35 (2015)

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      [en] Guerra y jerarquías sociopolíticas: reflexiones sobre las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico 7-20 Resumen PDF

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      Mary Beard’s Ultimate Rome

      Op BBC 2 start vanavond de vierdelige documentairereeks ‘Mary Beard’s Ultimate Rome: Empire Without Limit’, waarin historica Mary Beard zich verdiept in de psyche van het Romeinse volk. Hoe kon een stadje in centraal-Italië uitgroeien tot een wereldmacht? Welke factoren hielden het Romeinse rijk samen en wat waren de oorzaken van het verval? In de eerste aflevering, die je om 22u kunt bekijken, gaat Beard terug naar de mythen en legenden over de oorsprong van Rome.

      The Archaeology News Network

      Intelligent? Brainless slime can 'learn': study

      What is intelligence? The definitions vary, but all infer the use of grey matter, whether in a cat or a human, to learn from experience. A single-celled protist Physarum polycephalum  [Credit: AFP/Audrey Dussfour]On Wednesday, scientists announced a discovery that turns this basic assumption on its head. A slime made up of independent, single cells, they found, can "learn" to avoid irritants despite having no central nervous...

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      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      Open Access Library: International Association for Obsidian Studies

       [First posted in AWOL 23 January 2012, updated 27 April 2016]

      IAOS Library [International Association for Obsidian Studies]
      Welcome to the IAOS online library, a growing collection of obsidian-related articles, reports, monographs, papers, theses, and dissertations, all in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. The documents may be viewed online with a web browser or can be downloaded and perused or printed with the free Adobe Acrobat Reader. The documents available here are fully searchable from within Adobe Acrobat Reader.

      This online library replaces the old IAOS Obsidian Bibliography, a pre-WWW resource that was rendered obsolete by the World Wide Web and that has now been retired. You'll have much better luck these days using the Google search form located below.

      AMBROSE, WALLACE R. (1994)    PDF
      Obsidian Hydration Dating and Digitised Computer Imaging. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 13:13-15.
      AMBROZ, JESSICA (1997)    PDF
      Characterization of Archaeologically Significant Obsidian Sources in Oregon by Neutron Activation Analysis. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

      Age of the Coso Formation, Inyo County, California. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1527.
      BALLIN, TORBEN B. (2011)    PDF
      The Scottish Archaeological Pitchstone Project: Results. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 45:8-13.
      BALLIN, TORBEN B. (2015)    PDF
      Pitchstone: The Poor Cousin of Obsidian. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 52:14-17.
      Obsidian Use in the Willamette Valley and Adjacent Western Cascades of Oregon. In Toolstone Geography of the Pacific Northwest, edited by Terry L. Ozbun and Ron L. Adams, pp. 218-233. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
      Flakes vs. Projectile Points: Changes in Obsidian Procurement in Prehistoric Mendocino County, California, Suggested by Hydration Analysis. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 7:4-6.
      On the Coupling of PIXE and Fission Track Dating for Obsidian Sourcing. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 16:3-7.
      BEVILL, RUSSELL W. (2004)    PDF
      Obsidian Hydration: The Squaw Creek Site Revisited. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 17:133-138.
      BIAGI, PAOLO and BARBARA A. VOYTEK (2006)    PDF
      Excavations at Pestera Ungureasca (Caprelor) (Cheile Turzii, Petresti de Jos, Transylvania) 2003-2004: A Preliminary Report on the Chipped Stone Assemblages from the Chalcolithic Toarte Pastilate (Bodrogkeresztur) Layers. Analele Banatului, S.N., Archeologie Istorie, XIV:177-202.
      New Data on the Archaeological Obsidian from the Middle-Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Sites of the Banat and Transylvania (Romania). In A Short Walk Through the Balkans: The First Farmers of the Carpathian Basin and Adjacent Regions, edited by Michela Spataro and Paolo Biagi, pp. 129-148. Trieste, Societ� per la Preistoria e Protostoria della Regione Friuli-Venezia Giulia Quaderno 12, 2007.
      New Data on the Archaeological Obsidians from the Banat and Transylvania (Romania). In The Lengyel, Polgar and Related Cultures in the Middle/Late Neolothic in Central Europe, edited by Janusz K. Kozlowski and Pal Raczky, pp. 309-326. Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Krakow, Poland, and Eotvos Lorand University, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
      The Neolithic Obsidians from Southeastern Ukraine: First Characterization and Provenance Determination. Anatolia 40:1-20.
      Obsidian Hydration, Cut Sample Selection, and Technological Aspects of Debitage. Poster presented at the 74th Annual Society for American Archaeology Meetings, Atlanta, Georgia, April 22-26th, 2009.
      BOHN, ALLISON D. (2007)    PDF
      Scattered Glass: Obsidian Artifact Provenance Patterns in Northwestern Wyoming. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
      Likely Source Attribution for a Paleoindian Obsidian Graver from Northwest Louisiana. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 49:4-7.
      BRADY, RYAN T. (2007)    PDF
      Prehistoric Wetland Use in the Mono Lake Basin, Eastern California. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California.
      BRALY, BOBBY R. and JEREMY L. SWEAT (2008)    PDF
      An Analysis of Obsidian and Other Archaeological Materials from the Southeast Portion of Neelys Bend on the Cumberland River, Davidson County, Tennessee. Tennessee Archaeology 3:131-138.
      BROWN, MORA M. (1941)    PDF
      We Went to Mono Craters for Obsidian. The Desert Magazine 5(2):14-17.
      BRUIJN, NATASJA DE (2006)    PDF
      Lithic Landscapes and Taskscapes: Obsidian Procurement, Production and Use in West Central Sardinia, Italy. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.

      CADENA, GUADALUPE P. (2012)    PDF
      Hunter-Gatherers, Mobility, and Obsidian Procurement: A View from the Malheur Headwaters, Northeast Oregon. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.
      Obsidian Circulation: New Distribution Zones for the Argentinian Northwest. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 40:5-11.
      CARTER, TRISTAN (1998)    PDF
      'Through a Glass Darkly': Obsidian and Society in the Southern Aegean Early Bronze Age. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Archaeology,University College London, London University,.
      Field Exploration and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of the Obsidian Sources in Southern Armenia. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 39:3-6.
      Geology of Yellowstone National Park. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 729-G.
      CIVITELLO, JAMIE A. (2006)    PDF
      Fire Effects to Obsidian during the Valle Toledo Prescribed Burn. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 35:2-5.
      CLELAND, JAMES H. (1988)    PDF
      A Tentative Culture-Historical Sequence for the Mokelumne River Canyon. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 1:217-223.
      A New Look at the Geochemistry of Obsidian from East Africa. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 39:11-14.
      Ancient Trade Routes for Obsidian Cliffs and Newberry Volcano Toolstone in the Pacific Northwest. In Toolstone Geography of the Pacific Northwest, edited by Terry L. Ozbun and Ron L. Adams, pp. 180-192. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
      CONROTTO, EUGENE L. (1958)    PDF
      Apache Tears in the Chuckwalla ... The Desert Magazine 21(5):11-14.
      CULICOV, O.A, M. V. FRONTASYEVA, and L. DARABAN (2012)    PDF
      Characterization of Obsidian Found in Romania by Neutron Activation Method. Romanian Reports in Physics 64:609-618.

      DARLING, J. ANDREW (1996)    PDF
      Recent Research on Obsidian Sources in the Southern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 15:2-5.
      DAVIS, M. KATHLEEN (1994)    PDF
      Bremsstrahlung Ratio Technique Applied to the Non-Destructive Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Obsidian. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 11:9-10
      The Obsidian Cliff Plateau Prehistoric Lithic Source, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Selections from the Division of Cultural Resources No. 6, Rocky Mountain Region, National Park Service, Denver, Colorado.
      DILLIAN, CAROLYN D. (2002)    PDF
      More Than Toolstone: Differential Utilization of Glass Mountain Obsidian. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California.
      DOERING, TRAVIS F. (2002)    PDF
      Obsidian Artifacts from San Andres, La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.
      DOUGHERTY. JOHN W. (1991)    PDF
      Obsidian Consumption and Obsidian Hydration at the King-Brown Site, CA-SAC-2. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 4:4-6.
      DOWDALL, KATHERINE M. (1991)    PDF
      Possible Correlations Between Environmental Fluctuations and Obsidian Use at Five Mono County Sites. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 4:45-65.
      DRAUCKER, ANNE C. (2007)    PDF
      Geochemical Characterization of Obsidian Subsources from the Coso Range, California Using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry as a Tool for Archaeological Investigations. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Geology, University of California, Bakersfield, California.
      DUKE, DARON (2011)    PDF
      If the Desert Blooms: A Technological Perspective on Paleoindian Ecology in the Great Basin from the Old River Bed, Utah. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada.
      Does an Obsidian Hydration Rim Care When a Temperature Fluctuation Occurs? International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 49:8-16.

      EXEL, REINHARD (2011)    PDF
      Iridescent Obsidian from the Island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 44:9-11

      FAULL, MARK R. (2006)    PDF
      Emerging Efforts to Define the Coso Obsidian Economic Exchange System in the Rose, Fremont and Antelope Valleys of the Western Mojave Desert, California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 19:169-167.
      FAULL, MARK R. (2007)    PDF
      The Coso Obsidian Economy and Possible Links to Village Establishment and Cultural Transition in the Rose Valley of Eastern California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 20:66-76.
      FERGUSON, JEFFREY R. (2000)    PDF
      Bone Cave: A Special-Use Site in the High Lava Plains. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Interdisciplinary Studies, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
      Colorado Obsidian? Preliminary Results of a Statewide Database of Trace Element Analysis. Southwestern Lore 69:35-50.
      Bone Cave: A Severely Disturbed Cave Site in Central Oregon. North American Archaeologist 26:221-244.
      Investigation of Assemblage Structure and Variation at CA-MNO-566 Near Bridgeport, Mono County, California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 4:77-87.
      Index to K-Ar Determinations for the State of Oregon. U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-596. Plate.
      FRAHM, ELLERY (2012)    PDF
      What Constitues an Obsidian "Source"?: Landscape and Geochemical Considerations and Their Archaeological Implications. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 46:16-28.
      FRAHM, ELLERY (2012)    PDF
      Fifty Years of Obsidian Sourcing in the Near East: Considering the Archaeological Zeitgeist and Legacies of Renfrew, Dixon, and Cann. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 46:7-18.
      FRAHM, ELLERY (2013)    PDF
      Obsidian Sourcing, Dating, and Technology in the New Word: Readings from American Antiquity and Latin American Antiquity (1962-2012). International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 48:21-26.
      FREDRICKSON, DAVID A. (1996)    PDF
      Obsidian Studies, Social Boundaries, Theoretical Models, and the Development of Tribelet Structure in Central California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 4:25-29.
      The Coso-Casa Diablo Hydration Conundrum. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 19:151-156.
      FREUND, KYLE P. and ROBERT H. TYKOT (2011)    PDF
      Lithic Technology and Obsidian Exchange Networks in Bronze Age Nuragic Sardinia (Italy). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 3:151-164.

      GARFINKEL, ALAN P. (2006)    PDF
      Paradigm Shifts, Rock Art Studies, and the "Coso Sheep Cult" of Eastern California. North American Archaeologist 27:203-244.
      GARFINKEL, ALAN P. (2006)    PDF
      Obsidian Studies in Sand Canyon and the Tehachapi Mountains of eastern California: Implications for the Timing of Numic Population Movements. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 34:3-10.
      The Little Lake Biface Cache, Inyo County, California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 17:87-101.
      Obsidian Bifaces of the Eastern Sierra: The Portuguese Bench and Cactus Flat Biface Cores. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 36:20-26.
      GATES, GERALD R. (2005)    PDF
      A Thematic Evaluation of Small Prehistoric Foraging and Logistical Locations on a Portion of the Modoc Plateau of Northeastern California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 18:70-75.
      A Geochemical Investigation of Obsidian Artifacts from Sites in Northwestern Iran. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 39:7-10
      Provenance of Obsidian Tools from Northwestern Iran Using X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Neutron Activation Analysis. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 43:14-26.
      GIAMBASTIANI, MARK A. (2004)    PDF
      Prehistoric Obsidian Use on the Volcanic Tableland and Its Implications for Settlement Patterns and Technological Change in the Western Great Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California.
      GIAMBASTIANI, MARK A. (2007)    PDF
      Prehistoric and Historic Occupations at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Walker Lake Valley, Nevada. Nevada Archaeologist 22:15-21.
      Obsidian in Western Pampas, Argentina: Source Characterization and Provisioning Strategies. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 38:15-18.
      X-ray Fluorescence and Neutron Activation Analysis of Obsidian from the Red Sea Coast of Eritrea. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 38:6-10.
      Site Chronology on San Clemente Island, California. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 36:31-40.

      Fingerprints in the Great Basin: The Nellis Air Force Base Regional Obsidian Sourcing Study. Report prepared by Prewitt & Associates, Inc., Austin, Texas, for Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.
      The Coleville and Bodie Hills NRCS Soil Inventory, Walker and Bridgeport, California: A Reevaluation of the Bodie Hills Obsidian Source (CA-MNO-4527) and Its Spatial and Chronological Use. Cultural Resources Report CA-170-07-08 prepared by the Bureau of Land Management, Bishop Field Office, Bishop, California, Nevada.
      HAMPTON, EUGENE R. (1964)    PDF
      Geologic Factors That Control the Occurrence and Availability of Ground Water in the Fort Rock Basin, Lake County, Oregon. U. S. Geological Survey Professiional Paper 383-B.
      What X Equals: The Archaeological and Geological Distribution of "Source X" Tuscan Obsidian in Northern California. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Chico, California.
      The Tuscan Obsidian Source of Northern California: Archaeological Implications and Geochemical Variability. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 8:13-32.
      HARRO, DOUGLAS R. (1997)    PDF
      Patterns of Lithic Raw Material Procurement on the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Seattle, Washington.
      HENDERSON, RANDALL (1954)    PDF
      Boatride in Desolation Canyon. The Desert Magazine 17(10):9-14.
      HICKS, SAM (1960)    PDF
      Power Scooters ... A New Way to Navigate the Desert. The Desert Magazine 23(10):9-11.
      HILTON, JOHN (1939)    PDF
      'Apache Tears'. The Desert Magazine 2(10):20-22.
      HILTON, JOHN (1959)    PDF
      Exploring Whispering Canyon on the Guardian Angel Island. The Desert Magazine 22(12):11-12.
      HUGHES, RICHARD E (1992)    PDF
      Northern California Obsidian Studies: Some Thoughts and Observations on the First Two Decades. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 5:113-122.
      HULL, KATHLEEN (1988)    PDF
      Obsidian Studies in Yosemite National Park: Preliminary Observations. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 1:169-187.
      HYLTON, LINDON B. (1999)    PDF
      Peavy Arboretum: An Archaeological and Historical Investigation of a Willamette Valley Landscape. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Interdisciplinary Studies, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.


      University of Oregon Archaeological Field School Northern Great Basin Prehistory Project Research Design. Report prepared for the University of Oregon Archaeological Field School, Eugene, Oregon.
      Archaeology of the Indian Grade Spring: A Special Function Site on Stinkingwater Mountain, Harney County, Oregon. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No.42, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
      Early and Middle Holocene Archaeology of the Northern Great Basin. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No.62, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
      JONES, MARTIN (2002)    PDF
      A Brief Prehistory of Time. Unpublished Ph.D, Dissertation, University of Auckland, Auckland, Newe Zealand.

      KERSEY, KIMBERLY M. (2007)    PDF
      Emerging Elite Economies: Formative Period Obsidian Distribution in the Belize River Valley. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 36:2-19.
      KELLER, J., G. BIGAZZI, and E. PERNICKA (1996)    PDF
      The Galatia-X Source: A Combined Major-Element, Trace-Element and Fission Track Characterization of an Unknown Obsidian Source in Northwestern Anatolia. In Archaeometry 94. Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 9-14 May 1994, Ankara, edited by S. Demirci, A. M. Özer, and G. D. Summers, pp. 543-551.
      Armenian and Caucasian Obsidian Occurrences as Sources for Neolithic Trade: Volcanological Setting and Chemical Characteristics. In Archaeometry 94. Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 9-14 May 1994, Ankara, edited by S. Demirci, A. M. Özer, and G. D. Summers, pp. 69-86.
      The Origins of Obsidian Tools from Kul Tepe, Iran. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 45:14-17.
      KING, JEROME (2004)    PDF
      Re-Examining Coso Hydration Rates. Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 14:135-142.
      KOHNTOPP. (2001)    PDF
      A Summary of Four Lithic Caches on the South Central Snake River Plain of Idaho: Their Possible Purposes and Relationships. Unpublished Master's Thesis, School of Archaeological Studies, University of Leicester, England.
      Analytical Study of the Obsidian Hydration Process. Revista Mexicana de Fisica 56:204-207.
      KUZMIN, YAROSLAV V. (2014)    PDF
      From Paektusan Volcano to Cambridge: Deciphering the Ancient Trade Routes. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 50:18-22.
      KWARSICK, KIMBERLY C. (2010)    PDF
      Lithic Raw Material Procurement and the Technological Organization of Olympic Peninsula Peoples. Unpublished Master�s Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington..

      LALANDE, JEFF (1990)    PDF
      Summary Report on the 1989 Obsidian-Sourcing Project. Report prepared for the Rogue River National Forest, Medford, Oregon.
      Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Seafaring in the Aegean: New Obsidian Hydration Dates with the SIMS-SS Method. Journal of Archaeological Science 38:2475-2479.
      LAUDERMILK, JERRY (1945)    PDF
      Glittering Stone of the Aztecs. The Desert Magazine 8(9):13-16.
      LAVALLEY, STEPHEN J. (2013)    PDF
      Late Holocene Toolstone Procurement and Land-Use Strategies in the Black Rock Desert and High Rock Country of Northwest Nevada. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada.
      LAYLANDER, DON (2002)    PDF
      Assessing the Magnitude of Hydration Chronology Error for Coso Obsidian in Western Inyo County. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 15:61-65.
      LEACH, MELINDA (2007)    PDF
      Three Brief Reflections on Obsidian: Population, Mobility, and Gender Roles in the Massacre Lake Basin, Nevada. Nevada Archaeologist 22:1-14.
      Obsidian: Archaeological Implications for the Central Oregon Cascades. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Interdisciplinary Studies, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
      LIRITZIS, IOANNIS (2002)    PDF
      Revival of Obsidian Studies. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 2:79-82.
      LIRITZIS, IOANNIS (2003)    PDF
      Revival of Obsidian Studies. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 30:10-12
      Obsidian Hydration Dating by SIM-SS: Surface Suitability Criteria from Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface and Interface Analysis 40:458-463
      Towards A New Method of Obsidian Hydration Dating With Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Via a Surface Saturation Layer Approach. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 2:3-20.
      Review and Software Assessment of the Recent Sims-SS Obsidian Hydration Dating Method. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 5:75-91.
      Advances in Obsidian Hydration Dating by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: World Examples. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267:144-150.
      Fifty Years of Obsidian Hydration Dating in Archaeology. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 357:2011-2023.
      Nano- and Micro-Scale Resolution in Ancient Obsidian Artefact Surfaces: The Impact of AFM on the Obsidian Hydration Dating by SIMS-SS. Current Topics in Solid State Physics 5:3704-3707.
      Obsidian Artifacts in La Pampa, Argentina, from Sources in Southwest Neuquen. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 42:4-8.
      The Effects of Fire and Heat on Obsidian. Report prepared by Tom Origer & Associates, Rohnert Park, California. Erratum.
      Changing Obsidian Sources at the Lost Dune and McCoy Creek Sites, Blitzen Valley, Southeast Oregon. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 23:273-296.


      The Origin oof COlor in "Fire" Obsidian. The Canadian Mineralogist 45:551-557.
      MACDONALD, RAY and D. K. BAILEY (1973)    PDF
      Chapter N. Chemistry of Igneous Rocks: Part 1: The Chemistry of the Peralkaline Oversaturated Obsidians. In Data of Geochemistry: 6th Edition, edited by Michael Fleischer, pp. N1-N37. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 440-N.
      Chemistry of the Subalkalic Silicic Obsidians. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1523.
      MACK, JOANNE M. (1983)    PDF
      Archaeological Investigations in the Salt Cave Locality: Subsistence Uniformity and Cultural Diversity on the Klamath River, Oregon.. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No. 29, Eugene, Oregon.
      Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Deschutes, Klamath, and Lake Counties, Oregon. U. S. Geological Survey Map I-2455.
      MARSCHALL, MARY E. (2005)    PDF
      A Preliminary Regional Analysis of Lithic Cache Sites in Central Oregon. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
      MARTIN, CHERYL M. (2009)    PDF
      Analysis of Flaked Stone Lithics from Virgin Anasazi Sites Near Mt. Trumbull, Arizona Strip. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada.
      MARTINEZ, JESSE E. (2009)    PDF
      An Archaeological Investigation of the Mt. Hicks Obsidian Source, Mineral County, Nevada. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California.
      MEIGHAN, CLEMENT W. (1992)    PDF
      Obsidian and "Exchange" Systems. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 6:2-3.
      MIKSICEK, CHARLES H. (1993)    PDF
      A Large Obsidian Database for the North-Central Sierra Nevada: Problems and Prospects. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 8:6-8.
      MINOR, RICK and AUDREY F. PECOR (1977)    PDF
      Cultural Resource Overview of the Willamette National Forest, Western Oregon. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers No. 12, Eugene, Oregon.
      MONE, SHEILA and CYNTHIA J. ADAMAS (1988)    PDF
      CA-MNO-574 and -833: A Look at Casa Diablo Obsidian Production at Stoneworking Sites in Long Valley, California. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 1:17-37.
      MOORE, JOE (2009)    PDF
      Great Basin Tool-Stone Sources - The NDOT Obsidian and Tool-Stone Sourcing Project: 2002 Progress Report [Draft Copy]. Report prepared by the Cultural Resource Section, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City, Nevada.
      MORRIS, LUTHER (1960)    PDF
      Apache Tears ... From an Arizona Perlite Mine. The Desert Magazine 23(3):40-41.
      MOUTSIOU, THEODORA. (2011)    PDF
      The Obsidian Evidence for the Scale of Social Life during the Palaeolithic. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London.
      MURBARGER, NELL (1951)    PDF
      On Black Rock Desert Traiils. The Desert Magazine 14(9):15-20.
      MURBARGER, NELL (1955)    PDF
      Rock Hunting Along Pioneer Trails in the Trinities. The Desert Magazine 18(7):16-20.

      Report on the Chogabon Site, A New Source of Obsidian Artifacts in West-Central Iran. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 42:9-12.
      WDXRF Spectroscopy of Obsidian Tools in the Northwest of Iran. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 37:3-6.
      NAESER, C. W., G. A. IZETT, and J. D. OBRADOVICH (1980)    PDF
      Fission-Track and K-Ar Ages of Natural Glasses. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1489.
      NAKONECHNY, LYLE D. (2015)    PDF
      Archaeological Survey and Testing in the Willapa River Valley of Southwest Washington. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
      NEGASH, AGAZI and M. S. SHACKLEY (2006)    PDF
      Geochemical Provenance of Obsidian Artefacts from the MSA Site of Porc Epic, Ethiopia. Archaeometry 48:1-12.
      NERI, LEEE M. (2003)    PDF
      Obsidian Sourcing in the Philippines. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 30:4-10
      NOLL, CHRISTOPER (2009)    PDF
      Late Holocene Occupation of the Birch Creek Site (35ML181), Southeastern Oregon. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.
      NORTON, MARK R. (2008)    PDF
      Obsidian research in Tennessee and Alabama. Tennessee Archaeology 3:123-130.
      NOVAK, STEVEN W. and CHARLES R. BACON. (1986)    PDF
      Pliocene Volcanic Rocks of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1383.

      O'BRIEN, HELEN L. and JON BOYD (2013)    PDF
      XRF Analysis of Obsidian from Central and Southern Arizona. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 48:15-20.
      Origin, Extent, and Thickness of Quaternary Geologic Units in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1620.
      ODDONE, M., P. MARTON, G. BIGAZZI, and K. T. BIRO (1999)    PDF
      Chemical Characterisations of Carpathian Obsidian Sources by Instrumental and Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 240:147-153.
      Preliminary Results on an Assessment of the Effects of Fire on Obsidian Specimens from CA-SON-458, Salt Point State Park, Sonoma County, California. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 12:3-4.

      PAGE, DAVE (2008)    PDF
      Fine-Grained Volcanic Toolstone Sources and Early Use in the Bonneville Basin of Western Utah and Eastern Nevada. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada.
      PAGE, DAVID and CRAIG E. SKINNER (2008)    PDF
      Obsidian Source Use at Danger Cave. Poster presented at the 31st Biennial Great Basin Anthropological Conference, October 8-11, 2008, Portland, Oregon.
      PARK, ROBIN J. (2010)    PDF
      A Culture of Convenience? Obsidian Source Selection in Yellowstone National Park. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
      PERNICKA, E. (1992)    PDF
      Herkunftsbestimmung späturukzeitlicher Obsidianfunde vom Hassek Höyük. In Hassek Höyük - Naturwissenschaftlilche Beiträge, edited by M. Behm-Blancke, pp. 124-131. Istanbuler Forschungen 38.
      PERNICKA, E., J. KELLER, J. RAPP, JR., and T. ERCAN (1996)    PDF
      Provenance of Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Obsidian Artefacts from the Troad. In Archaeometry 94. Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 9-14 May 1994, Ankara, edited by S. Demirci, A. M. Özer, and G. D. Summers, pp. 515-519.
      PHILLIPS, STEPHEN C. (2011)    PDF
      Networked Glass: Lithic Raw Material Consumption and Social Networks in the Kuril Islands, Far Eastern Russia. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Pullman, Washington.
      PXRF Sourcing of Obsidian Artifacts from Salamanca Cave, Northwest Argentina. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 48:10-14.
      POST, STEPHEN S. (1994)    PDF
      Excavation of a Lithic Artifact Scatter (LA 66471) and an Archaic Period Structure (LA 66472) Along State Road 44, Near Cuba, Sandoval County, New Mexico. Museum of New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies Archaeology Notes 26, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
      How Homogeneous is the 'East Gollu Dag" (Cappadocia, Turkey) Obsidian 'Source' Composition? International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 32:3-8.

      RALEY, PATRICK M (2011)    PDF
      Obsidian Procurement Area Studies: Excavations at Bear Gulch, Idaho. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Chico, California.
      REIMER, RUDY (2000)    PDF
      Extreme Archaeology: The Results of Investigations at High Elevation Regions in the Northwest. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
      REIMER, RUDY (2012)    PDF
      The Mountains and Rocks Are Forever: Lithics and Landscapes of Skwxwu7mesh Uxwumixw. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
      REIMER, RUDY (2014)    PDF
      The Nch'kay (Mount Garibaldi) Obsidian Source and Its Local to Regional Archaeological Distribution. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 50:10-17.
      Obsidian Source Characterization and Human Exchange Systems on California's Channel Islands. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 37:27-44.
      ROBERTS, THEODORE M. (2008)    PDF
      Footprints and "Fingerprints": A Northern Arizona Geochemical Study of Archaic Period Lithic Procurement and Mobility. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona.
      Hunter-Gatherer Igneous Toolstone Procurement in Northern Arizona: A Geochemical Study of Projectile Points and Raw Material Sources. Kiva 80:193-212.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2007)    PDF
      A Tale of Two Gophers: Depth Correction for Obsidian Effective Hydration Temperature in the Presence of Site Turbation Effects. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 37:7-12.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2008)    PDF
      A Reassessment of Obsidian Hydration Ages of Projectile Points from the Coso Volcanic Field. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 39:24-38.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2008)    PDF
      Obsidian Hydration Dating and Relative Humidity: An Issue and a Suggested Protocol. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 38:12-14.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2008)    PDF
      Regional Scaling for Obsidian Hydration Temperature Correction. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 39:15-23.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2009)    PDF
      An Evaluation of Obsidian Hydration Dating as a Chronometric Technique, Based on Data from Rose Spring (CA-INY-372), Eastern California. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 40:12-32.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2009)    PDF
      An Estimate of Coso Obsidian Hydration Rate, Based on Obsidian-Radiocarbon Pairings and the "Weighted Total Least Squares" Method. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 41:9-20.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2010)    PDF
      Curve-Fitting for Obsidian Hydration Laboratory Hydration Analysis: A Cautionary Tale. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 42:3-8.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2010)    PDF
      How Did Paleotemperature Change Affect Obsidian Hydration Rates. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 42:13-20.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2010)    PDF
      Bodie Hills Obsidian from Mono County. Eastern California: A Hydration Rate and An Issue. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 43:27-39.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2010)    PDF
      The Obsidian Hydration Cook Book: Aid for the Mathematically Disinclined. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 44:6-13.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2011)    PDF
      Do Flow-Specific Hydration Rates Improve Chronological Analysis? A Case Study for Coso Obsidian. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 45:18-25.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2012)    PDF
      Accuracy of OHD is Not Luimited by Microscope Resolution. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 46:29-31.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2013)    PDF
      Intrinsic Water in Obsidian and Its Effect on Hydration Rate: A Case Study from the Coso Volcanic Field, Inyo County, California. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 49:17-22.
      ROGERS, ALEXANDER K. (2015)    PDF
      A Method for Correcting OHD Age for Paleo-Temperature Variation. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 52:6-12.
      An Improved Equation for Coso Obsidian Hydration Dating, Based on Obsidian-Radiocarbon Association. Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 25:1-15.
      ROGERS, ANN (1993)    PDF
      Description of Paul's Fire Cache (35LIN542): A Biface Cache from the Western Slopes of the Cascades, Oregon. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 9:3-4.
      RONDEAU, MICHAEL F. (1990)    PDF
      Obsidian Hydration and Lithic Technology. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 3:2-5.
      Long Distance Trinket Trade: Early Bronze Age Obsidian from the Negev. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:775-784.
      The Camel Site Obsidian: Analyses, Synthesis, and Implications. In An Investigation Into Early Desert Pastoralism, by Steven A. Rosen. Monograph 69, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles, California.
      Wildland Fire in Ecosystems: Effects of Fire on Cultural Resources and Archaeology. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-Volume 3, U. S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Field Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.

      SCHLAGHECK, JOHN (2011)    PDF
      Obsidian Trade at Sand Hill Bluff. In Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology 25.
      SETZER, TEDDI J. and TYKOT, ROBERT H. (2010)    PDF
      Considering the Source: The Importance of Raw Material Characterization and Provenance in Obsidian Use-Wear Studies. In L'ossidiana del Monte Arci nel Mediterraneo. Nuovi apporti sulla diffusione, sui sistemi di produzione e sulla loro cronologia. Atti del 5 Convegno internazionale (Pau, Italia, 27-29 Giugno 2008), edited by C. Luglie, pp. 71-84.
      SHACKLEY, M. STEVEN (2005)    PDF
      Bull Creek (Formerly AZ Unknown B), Yavapai County, Western Arizona, USA. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 33:4-7.
      SHACKLEY, M. STEVEN (2010)    PDF
      Obituary: Roger Curtis Green (1932-2009) - Obsidian Studies Pioneer. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 43:5-6.
      SHACKLEY, M. STEVEN (2014)    PDF
      The Paliza Canyon Source of Archaeological Obsidian in the Southern Jemez Mountains, Northern New Mexico. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 50:6-9.
      SHAUB, MARY S. (1959)    PDF
      Touring Mexico for Minerals. The Desert Magazine 22(4):35-39.
      Characterization of New Zealand Obsidian Using PXRF. Journal of Archaeological Sciencee 38:45-56.
      SIBLEY, KRISSTIN I. (2013)    PDF
      Prehistoric Obsidian Use in the Truckee Meadows and Its Implications for Settlement Patterns Along the Sierran Front. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California.
      SIDRYS, RAYMOND V. (1976)    PDF
      Classic Maya Obsidian Trade. American Antiquity 41:449-464.
      Five Gem and Mineral Field Trips in the Barstow Area. The Desert Magazine 23(2):39-41.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1983)    PDF
      Obsidian Studies in Oregon: An Introduction to Obsidian and An Investigation of Selected Methods of Obsidian Characterization Utilizing Obsidian Collected at Prehistoric Quarry Sites in Oregon. Unpublished Master's Terminal Project: ISIP, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1986)    PDF
      The Occurrence, Characterization, and Prehistoric Utilization of Geologic Sources of Obsidian in Central Western Oregon: Preliminary Research Results. Unpublished report on file at the State Museum of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1993)    PDF
      Obsidian Research and the Pipeline Expansion Project: A 1991 View from the Pipeline. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 8:3-6.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1993)    PDF
      Obsidian Domes and Rock Art Chronologies. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 10:2.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1993)    PDF
      Obsidian Characterization Laboratory Survey Results. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 9:12-17.
      SKINNER, CRAIG E. (1999)    PDF
      X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Artifact Obsidian from the Orr Site, Western Cascades, Clackamas County, Oregon. Report 1999-55 prepared by Northwest research Obsidian Studies Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon.
      The Geologic Source of an Obsidian Wealth Blade from the Whale Cove Site (35-LNC-60), Central Oregon Coast: Results of X-Ray Fluorescence Trace Element Analysis. Current Archaeological Happenings in Oregon 22(3):8-10.
      Obsidian Studies of Two Possible Wealth Blade Fragments from the Umpqua/Eden Site (35-DO-83), Central Oregon Coast: Results of X-Ray Fluorescence and Obsidian Hydration Analysis. Current Archaeological Happenings in Oregon 24(2):17-23.
      Holocene Volcanic Tephra in the Willamette National Forest, Western Oregon: Distribution, Geochemical Characterization, and Geoarchaeological Evaluation. Report prepared for the Willamette National Forest, Eugene, Oregon, by Northwest Research, Corvallis, Oregon, and Trans-World Geology, Eugene, Oregon.
      X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Obsidian Hydration Rim Measurement of Artifact Obsidian from 34 Archaeological Sites Associated with the Proposed FTV Western Fiber Build Project, Deschutes, Lake, Harney, and Malheur Counties, Oregon. Report 1998-56 prepared for Northwest Archaeological Associates, Seattle, Washington, by Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon.
      X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Obsidian Hydration Rim Measurement of Artifact Obsidian from 35-DS-193 and 35-DS-201, Surveyor Fire Rehabilitation Project, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Report 1996-33 prepared for the Deschutes National Forest, Bend, Oregon, by Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon.
      Obsidian: An Interdisciplinary Bibliography. International Association for Obsidian Studies Occasional Paper No. 1, San Jose, California.
      SMITH, GEOFF M. (2005)    PDF
      The Paleoarchaic Occupations of Moonshine Spring South and Moonshadow Spring, Pershing County, Navada: Implications for Early-Period Mobility in the Great Basin. Nevada Archaeologist 29-21:57-70.
      STEFFEN, ANASTASIA (2005)    PDF
      The Dome Fire Obsidian Study: Investigating the Interaction of Heat, Hydration, and Glass Geochemistry. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
      STEVENS, NATHAN E. (2002)    PDF
      Prehistoric Use of the Alpine Sierra Nevada: Archaeological Investigations at Taboose Pass, Kings Canyon National Park, California. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, California State University, Sacramento, California.
      Lithic Procurement Strategies Through Time: A Study of Obsidian Source Utilization in Washington County, Utah. Poster presented at the 31st Biennial Great Basin Anthropological Conference, October 8-11, 2008, Portland, Oregon.
      Obsidian Hydration Dating of Site 6-58: A Southern Coastal Cave, Easter Island, Chile. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 10:3-5.
      An Inter-Laboratory Comparison of Hydration Rind Measurements. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 1:7-14.
      Glass Buttes, Oregon: 14,000 Years of Continuous Use. In Toolstone Geography of the Pacific Northwest, edited by Terry L. Ozbun and Ron L. Adams, pp. 193-207. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia.
      Investigations Towards the Hydration of Aegean Obsidian. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 2:93-109.
      SUMMERHAYES, GLENN R. (2009)    PDF
      Obsidian Network Patterns in Melanesia - Sources, Characterisation and Distribution. Bulletin of Indo-P{acific Prehistory Association 29:109-123.
      Emerging Patterns in Obsidian Usage in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 38:1-18.

      TAYLOR, FENTON (1953)    PDF
      Gem Stones in the Peloncillos. The Desert Magazine 16(12):19-22.
      TAYLOR, FENTON (1956)    PDF
      Smoky Chalcedony in the Gila Range. The Desert Magazine 19(12):15-18.
      TAYLOR, FENTON (1958)    PDF
      Gem Trails in Arizona's Whitlocks ... The Desert Magazine 21(10):13-16.
      THATCHER, JENNIFER J. (2001)    PDF
      The Distribution of Geologic and Artifact Obsidian from the Silver Lake/Sycan Marsh Geochemical Source Group, South-Central Oregon. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Interdisciplinary Studies, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
      Expanding the Range of PXRF to Ethnographic Collections. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 46:9-15.
      TREMAINE, KIMBERLY J. (1989)    PDF
      Obsidian As A Time Keeper: An Investigation in Absolute and Relative Dating. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Cultural Resources Management, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California.
      Quarries, Caravans, and Routes to Complexity: Prehispanic Obsidian in the South-Central Andes. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (1992)    PDF
      The Sources and Distribution of Sardinian Obsidian. In Sardinia in the Mediterranean: A Footprint in the Sea. Studies in Sardinian Archaeology Presented to Miriam S. Balmuth. Monographs in Mediterranean Archaeology 3, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield, England, edited by R. H. Tykot and T. K. Andrews, pp. 57-70.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (1995)    PDF
      Prehistoric Trade in the Western Mediterranean: The Sources and Distribution of Sardinian Obsidian. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (1996)    PDF
      Obsidian Procurement and Distribution in the Central and Western Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 9:39-82.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (1999)    PDF
      Islands in the Stream: Stone Age Cultural Dynamics in Sardinia and Corsica. In Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean, edited by Robert H. Tykot, Jonathan Morter, and John E. Robb, pp. 67-82. Specialist Studies on the Mediterranean 3, Accordia Research Institute, University of London, London, England.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (2010)    PDF
      Sourcing of Sardinian Obsidian Collections in the Museo Preistorico-Etnografico 'Luigi Pigorini' Using Non-Destructive Portable XRF. In L'ossidiana del Monte Arci nel Mediterraneo. Nuovi apporti sulla diffusione, sui sistemi di produzione e sulla loro cronologia. Atti del 5 Convegno internazionale (Pau, Italia, 27-29 Giugno 2008), edited by C. Luglie, pp. 85-97.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H. (2011)    PDF
      Obsidian Finds on the Fringes of the Central Mediterranean. In Exotica in the Western Mediterranean, edited by Andrea Vianello, pp. 33-44. Oxbow Books.
      New Directions in Central Mediterranean Obsidian Studies. Antiquity 71:1000-1006.
      TYKOT, ROBERT H., L. LAI, and C. TOZZI (2011)    PDF
      Intra-Site Obsidian Subsource Patterns at Contraguda, Sardinia (Italy). In Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 13th-16th May 2008, Siena, Italy, edited by I. Turbanti-Memmi, pp. 321-328. Springer.


      Tom Childs of Ten-Mile Wash. The Desert Magazine 9(2):3-6.

      WARD, ELIZABETH (1958)    PDF
      Back-Road on the Mojave ... The Desert Magazine 21(7):13-17.
      WEIGHT, HAROLD O. (1947)    PDF
      Geode Hunters of Searchlight. The Desert Magazine 10(9):23-26.
      WEIGHT, HAROLD O. (1948)    PDF
      Nature's Freaks on Salton Shore. The Desert Magazine 11(6):5-8.
      WEIGHT, HAROLD O. (1949)    PDF
      Grey Jewels of Bagdad. The Desert Magazine 13(1):13-18.
      WEIGHT, HAROLD O. (1950)    PDF
      "Volcanic Tears" on the Nevada Desert. The Desert Magazine 13(11):14-18.
      WEIGHT, HAROLD O. (1951)    PDF
      Gem Hunt on a Ghost Town Trail. The Desert Magazine 14(7):13-17.
      WERNER, LOUISE T. (1955)    PDF
      We Climbed Glass Mountain. The Desert Magazine 18(4):18-21.
      A Re-Evaluation of X-Ray Fluorescence Data from Idaho and Southeastern Oregon. Idaho Archaeologist 30:17-26.
      Jemez Mountains Chronology Study. Report submitted to the Office of Archaeological Studies, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
      WUNDERLICH, ROBERT G. (2014)    PDF
      Analysis of the Colorado and Wyoming Sourced Obsidian Database. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.

      YELLIN, JOSEPH (1996)    PDF
      Trace Element Characteristics of Central Anatolian Obsidian Flows and Their Relevance to Pre-History. International Association for Obsidian Studies Bulletin 15:5-29.
      Minor-Element Abundances in Obsidian, Perlite, and Felsite of Calc-Alkalic Rhyolites. American Mineralogist 62:426-437.

      Jim Davila (

      New Jerusalem in Colorado?

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      Research Projects Coordinator with the Museum of the Bible

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      Samaritan Passover a century ago

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      James Clackson et al. (Greek in Italy)

      Violent language contact near Sicily

      Carrying on the theme of my last post: the final battle of the First Punic War took place near the Aegates (now Egadi) Islands west of Sicily in 241 BC. A Roman fleet caught a Carthaginian fleet sailing to Eryx (now Erice) by surprise and sank or captured many of the Carthaginian ships. Amazingly, in recent years eleven bronze rams have been found on the seabed from this area, of which most or all probably come from ships sunk during the engagement.
      Seven of the rams bear Latin inscriptions, and one bears a Punic inscription, and they reveal quite different contents. A representative example in Latin reads L. QVINCTIO. C. F. QVAISTOR. PROBAVET ‘Lucius Quinctius, son of Gaius, Quaestor, approved (this ram)’. A quaestor is a Roman magistrate. While the language is a great example of mid-third century Latin, and there is much to interest the historian as well, it must be admitted that the actual message conveyed is on the dry side. Compare the Punic inscription, of which two translations of the visible part have so far been suggested: either ‘We pray to Baal that this ram will go into the enemy ship and make a big hole’ or ‘… Tanit, for in it are its officers. Blow, gales of Reshep! and build the surge under… ‘. The differences between the translations do not fill one with confidence, but both suggest a rather more direct relationship on the part of the Carthaginians between the function of a ram and its inscription.
      Since the battle was such a heavy victory for the Romans, it might seem surprising that it is primarily Roman rams (and hence Roman ships) that ended up on the sea floor. It’s been suggested that actually the Roman ships may have been manned by Carthaginians, who had captured them in an earlier battle.
      If you’re interested, you can find out more about the rams in two recent articles, both in the Journal of Roman Archaeology: ‘The landscape of the naval battle at the Egadi Islands (241 B.C.)’ by Sebastiano Tusa and Jeffrey Royal in JRA 25 (2012), which is freely accessible here. And ‘Bronze rostra from the Egadi Islands off NW Sicily: the Latin inscriptions’ by Jonathan Prag in JRA 27 (2014), for which a subscription is necessary. You can see a picture of the Carthaginian ram on the Wikipedia page about the battle here: and a cool video about how they found the rams here.

      Jim Davila (

      An Egyptian archaeologist on the Exodus

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      Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents

      Epigraphy Workshops Trinity Term 2016

      All meetings at 1.00 in the First Floor Seminar Room, Ioannou School, 66 St Giles.

      Monday, May 2: Theodora Jim, ‘Private Dedications to Hellenistic Monarchs’.

      Monday, May 9: Georgy Kantor, ‘The New Municipal Law from Troesmis’.

      Monday, May 16: Stephen Lambert, ‘Attic Inscriptions Online’.

      Monday, May 23: Gregory Crane, ‘How to help epigraphic data play a wider role in the study of the ancient world’.

      Monday June 6: Nathan Badoud, ‘Some unpublished inscriptions found on Rhodes by the Swedish explorer Johan Hedenborg (1786-1865)’.

      Monday, June 13 : John Wilkes, ‘Syrian migrants in the Roman Balkans; late memorials from Odessos, Salona and other places'.

      All welcome!

      Charles Crowther, Robert Parker, Jonathan Prag

      Jim Davila (

      More ancient glass on display

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      DigiPal Blog

      MMSDA Public Lecture: Modeling Textuality

      I'm happy to announce that Dr Arianna Ciula will be giving a public lecture on 'Material culture and societal resonance in Digital Humanities: Modelling Textuality' in London on Wednesday. This is part of the 'Medieval and Modern Manuscript Studies in the Digital Age' (MMSDA) course which is running again in London and Cambridge next week (as reported in an earlier post). The course is available to registered participants only (and is now very much full!), but two lectures next week will be public. Details of the talk are as follows:

      Material culture and societal resonance in Digital Humanities: Modelling Textuality

      When: 6 May 2016: 5.30pm - 7.30pm
      Where: Gordon Room/G34, Senate House
      To Register: E-mail

      Modelling is claimed to be a core research methodology in Digital Humanities. Inspired by a material culture framework, this lecture will reflect on the concept of modelling and its practices in particular with respect to textuality. While extensible to other cultural artefacts, the main remit of this lecture will be the modelling process of texts-bearing historical documents. By claiming that modelling is a meaning-making process, the lecture will emphasise the potential of Digital Humanities research to be socially resonant, for instance, with respect to public history and big data. Drawing on examples from the research conducted by the author herself as well as DiXiT fellows, the lecture will exemplify three intertwined levels of modelling textuality in the digital environment:

      1. image and document-based modelling of the material sources;
      2. modelling of the materiality of research publications and collections;
      3. modelling of the socio-cultural agencies shaping the understanding and historical interpretations of the documents and texts.

      Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

      Blame Game

      Archaeologist Donna Yates has again blamed Western collectors for looting in third world countries.  Yet, in so doing, Yates lets on that workers employed on digs she has worked on have admitted to her that they engage in looting in the long off season.  If archaeologists paid local diggers a fair living wage they would see no need to loot to help make ends meet.  So, perhaps the blame should be on rich American Universities and archaeologists themselves rather than on Western collectors, who after all, collect not for money or fame, but for genuine interest in past societies.

      Bryn Mawr Classical Review

      2016.04.43: The Rhetoric of Plato’s ‘Republic’: Democracy and the Philosophical Problem of Persuasion

      Review of James L. Kastely, The Rhetoric of Plato’s ‘Republic’: Democracy and the Philosophical Problem of Persuasion. Chicago; London: 2015. Pp. xviii, 260. $35.00. ISBN 9780226278629.

      2016.04.42: Cypriote Antiquities in Reading: The Ure Museum at the University of Reading and the Reading Museum (Reading Borough Council). Studies in Mediterranean archaeology, XX: 30; Corpus of Cypriote antiquities, 30

      Review of Sadie Pickup, Marianne Bergeron, Jennifer M. Webb, Cypriote Antiquities in Reading: The Ure Museum at the University of Reading and the Reading Museum (Reading Borough Council). Studies in Mediterranean archaeology, XX: 30; Corpus of Cypriote antiquities, 30. Uppsala: 2015. Pp. vii, 55. €24.00. ISBN 9789170812019.

      2016.04.41: L'histoire du corps dans l'Antiquité: bilan historiographie. Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, supplément, 14

      Review of Florence Gherchanoc, L'histoire du corps dans l'Antiquité: bilan historiographie. Dialogues d'histoire ancienne, supplément, 14. Besançon: 2015. Pp. 196. €22.00 (pb). ISBN 9782848675268.

      The Archaeology News Network

      Hubble discovers moon orbiting the dwarf planet Makemake

      Peering to the outskirts of our solar system, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has spotted a small, dark moon orbiting Makemake, the second brightest icy dwarf planet -- after Pluto -- in the Kuiper Belt. This artist's concept shows the distant dwarf planet Makemake and its newly  discovered moon. Makemake and its moon, nicknamed MK 2, are more than  50 times farther away than Earth is from the sun [Credit: NASA, ESA,  and...

      [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

      Archaeology Magazine

      Arkansas wood postPARKIN, ARKANSAS—Archaeologist Jeffrey Mitchem of the Arkansas Archeological Survey has sent a sample of a wooden post first unearthed at Parkin Archeological State Park in 1966 to David Stalhe, a tree-ring specialist at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. According to a report in Arkansas Online, carbon dating of the bald cypress post in 1966 indicated that it was cut between 1515 and 1663. Mitchem’s team has rediscovered the posthole, which measures about 35 inches in diameter and is more than five feet deep. Some have speculated that the post was part of a large cross said to have been erected by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto at a village called Casqui in 1541. “The best indication we could have is if the carbon-14 testing says it’s from 1541,” Mitchem said. For more on archaeology in Arkansas, go to "Off the Grid."

      The Archaeological Review

      The Second Wonder

       Eight days after the First Wonder occurred a Second Wonder was added to the king's stela recorded on the rocks of the Hammamat quarry.

      450. King of Upper and Lower Egypt Nibtowere, (Mentuhotep IV) who liveth forever, born of the king's mother, Imi, second month of the first season, day 23.

      451. One set to work on this day on the block of the sarcophagus. The wonder was repeated, rain was made, the forms of this god appeared, his fame was shown to men and the highland was made a lake, the water went to the margin of the stone. A well was found in the midst of the valley being 10 cubits by 10 cubits on its every side filled with fresh water to its edge, undefiled, kept pure and cleansed from gazelles, concealed from the troglodyte barbarians. Soldiers of old and kings who had lived in the aforetime went out and returned by its side, no eye had seen it, the face of man had not fallen upon it but to his majesty himself it was revealed............... Those who were in Egypt heard it, the people who were in Egypt, South to the Northland (Delta),  they bowed their heads to the ground, they praised the goodness of his majesty forever and ever.

                                                               Completion of the work

      452. On the twenty-eighth of the month work was completed, and the following appendix was added to the king's stela:

      453. Day 28. The lid of this sarcophagus descended, being a block of 4 cubits, by 8 cubits, by 2 cubits, on coming forth from the work. Cattle were slaughtered, goats were slain, incense put on the fire. Behold, an army of 3,000 sailors of the nomes of the Northland (Delta) followed it in safety to Egypt.


      Ancient Records of Egypt: James Breasted 

      Pages 242-243

      Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

      The first portable art from Southeast Asia

      The Cambodia Daily report about recent excavations at Laang Spean focuses on the possible cannibalistic angle, but I am more intrigued by the discovery of what seems to be the first instance of portable rock art in the region: a stone tool with deep etchings on it. Ancient Skull Points to Possible Cannibalism Cambodia Daily, … Continue reading "The first portable art from Southeast Asia"

      Hints of a pre-Angkorian Cambodia outside of Phnom Penh

      Numerous finds from a hill in Kandal province hint at a rich archaeological potential spanning to possibly the pre-Angkorian period, but there are insufficient funds to look deeper. Pre-Angkorian trove of artefacts found in Kandal Phnom Penh Post, 05 April 2016 The discovery of hundreds of ancient artefacts – most likely spanning several eras – … Continue reading "Hints of a pre-Angkorian Cambodia outside of Phnom Penh"

      The Archaeological Review

      The First Wonder

      First occurrence of Sed jubilee

      Year 2 second month of the first season, day 3

      This wonder which happened to his majesty : that the beasts of the highlands came down to him; there came a gazelle great with young, going with the face of the people before her, while her eyes looked backward; she did not turn back until she arrived at this august mountain, at this block, it still being in place, for this lid of this sarcophagus. She dropped her young upon it while the army of the king was looking. Then they cut off her neck before it and brought fire. It descended in safety.

      Now, it was the majesty of this august god, lord of the highlands, who gave the offering to his son, Nibtowere, Mentuhotep IV, living forever, in order that his heart might be joyful, that he might live upon his throne forever and ever, that he might celebrate millions of Sed Jubilees.

      The hereditary prince, count, governor of the city and vizier, chief of all nobles of judicial office, supervisor of everything in this whole land, the vizier Amenemhet.


      Ancient Records of Egypt: James Breasted 

      April 26, 2016

      Mary Harrsch (Roman Times)

      Hannibal's Route Over The Alps or just Horse S***?

      Hannibal embodying perseverance at the Mausoleum of Engelbert II
      of Nassau and Cimburga van Baden in the Grote Kerk or
      Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk (Church of Our Lady) in Breda, Netherlands.
      Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons user Vassil.
      Digitally enhanced by Mary Harrsch.
      A history resource article by Mary Harrsch © 2016

      Earlier this month the news media was whipped into a frenzy by reports that Bill Mahaney, a geologist and professor emeritus at York University in Toronto, Canada, had "found" Hannibal's route over the Alps.

      Unfortunately, many of the mainstream media outlets, eager to garner a bump in pageviews by armchair historians, published the findings and inferred a resolution without attempting to verify if the information provided was, in fact, definitive or could have had an alternative explanation. Some even used the word "pinpoint" even though the findings are based primarily on the inexact process of Carbon 14 dating.

      One of the less sensationalized articles appeared in The Guardian, a UK online news magazine:

      Dr. Patrick Hunt, the director of the Stanford University Alpine Archaeology Project, is another researcher who has been seeking Hannibal's route across the Alps since 1994. He is quoted towards the end of the above article but he, however, is more in favor of a northerly route.

      "The route in question is too often promoted by popularists who've never climbed competing Alpine routes, of which about 10 passes need to be totally eliminated before this study has any real credibility," Hunt observes, "The fact that so many today in the popular media are claiming this now solves Hannibal's route is both sadly superficial and premature. Although they could be hypothetically right, there's no real hard material evidence presented yet. Until they find actual material artifacts, it's moot. Datable remains of elephant dung would be much better, but possibly not enough because Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal followed him a decade later. I know several other Alps passes with at least as much corroborating evidence and one pass far better in terms of fitting Polybius, the best source."

      Although famed naturalist Gavin de Beer first proposed the Col de Traversette as Hannibal's crossing point in his 1955 book Hannibal's March: Alps and Elephants, eminent Polybian scholar, F.W. Wallbank rejected de Beer's theories the following year in his 1956 article Some Reflections on Hannibal's Pass published in volume 46 of The Journal of Roman Studies.

      Dr. Hunt's Stanford research team thinks the Clapier-Savine Coche is at least as good and actually closer to what Polybius describes as the Col de Traversette.

      "The Clapier-Savine Coche has a huge campground right by the summit as Polybius describes," explains Hunt, "while the campground on the Traversette route is much lower, around 3000 feet lower, on the west side of  the Col de Traversette summit.   The Traversette summit is also a knife blade scarcely capable of holding 100 people, let alone an army. There is no way Hannibal could have addressed his army encouragingly from the Traversette summit."

      Hannibal shows his army the valley of the Po from the summit of the Alps by Alfred Rethel, 1842.  Image courtesy of
      Wikimedia Commons
      "Also, Polybius states Hannibal's forces slipped through fresh snow to ice below from the previous winter on the initial descent, not frozen ground or firnpack as interpreted by the Traversette group," Hunt continues, "Such snow traces fitting Polybius are found each year on the summit of the Clapier-Savine Cloche around 8200-8500 feet but there is still ample grass for animal foraging and cattle graze there currently as well."

      Furthermore, Hunt thinks a route leading to the Col de Traversette must be twisted somewhat to make it fit the description given by Polybius.  Polybius says after Hannibal's army marched north of the point where the Rhone and Iskaras Rivers meet for approximately 800 stades (about 91 miles) the army began their ascent of the most rugged part of the Alps and found their way blocked by a fierce mountain tribe known as the Allobroges (according to Livy the most famous and powerful tribe in Gaul).  The border of the Allobroges territory was defined historically by the "Iskaras" (Polybius) or "Arar" (Livy) River, which Hunt thinks corresponds to the modern Isère River.

      "Given that the Rhone delta and mouth were less extended southward in antiquity due to less alleviation buildup and that Hannibal crossed at least a day's march inland - both because there were more salt marshes (etangs) then around the Rhone mouth and in order to avoid Massilian Roman allies around Marseilles - the Rhone crossing should be around Avignon, an ancient fording place", Hunt observes. "The traditional Allobroges boundary - like that of so many tribes partly demarcated by a river confluence - would then be the Isere-Rhone junction beyond Valence, not the more southerly Drome-Rhone confluence, proposed by Mahane's Traversette group."

      Hannibal traverses the Rhône by Henri Motte, 1878, (Public Domain) 

      "Mahane's team proposes the first ambush occurred in the upper Valdrome (which was not Allobroges territory).  This would require Hannibal to make a double Alps crossing then drop down southeastward into the Durance River watershed," Hunt continues, "They then have Hannibal marching up the Durance but turning away from the perfectly accessible broad northeast Mont-Genevre route (which they claim could be blocked by hostile Celts, but isn't very likely) detouring into the narrow Guil far southward into the Queyras region and over the extremely  difficult Traversette, which takes them southward away from Torino and the Taurini tribe, the point where Hannibal eventually emerged according to Polybius."

      This rather fanciful scene thought to depict Hannibal battling the Romans at Cannae adorns the shield of Henry II of France.
      Today it can be viewed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Gallery 374.
      Image courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
      "They claim the Po River only starts near Traversette," Hunt says, "but that's a geographic fallacy as there is no one source for a major river and the Dora Riparia is a primary Po watershed as well and runs directly eastward into the Po west of Torino.   They also say only the insanely narrow Traversette has the view for Hannibal's speech but clearly must have only tried the modern Clapier footpath and not the adjacent Savine Coche broad ridge immediately west where the ancient path ran, which has a great view of Torino and the Po plain."

      "If you assess the northern route toward the Clapier-Savine Cloche, you will find a satisfying first ambush place in the Isere near Voreppe, (clearly Allobroges territory)," Hunt points out.

      The likelihood that a major confrontation could have taken place there was also suggested by the recent discovery of what appears to be the remains of a large Celtic oppidum (hill fort) near there.

      Significant differences in the geophysical features between the two proposed passes is discussed in an article that appeared in this 2010 post in Earth Magazine:

      In this article Hunt also describes a two-tier rockfall at the Clapier-Savine Coche pass a short distance from the summit.

      "Polybius actually describes more of a multi-tier precipice," Hunt says, "and the Clapier-Savine Coche descent has multi-tiered rockfalls that geological weathering dates to more than a few thousands years ago."

      Hannibal crossing the Alps from The illustrated history of the world for the English people, 1881.

      But perhaps the best analysis of all candidate passes was prepared by John Hoyte, a British engineer whose team actually took an elephant over the Alps in an effort to settle the question in July 1959.
      Hoyte first distilled a list of conditions defined by Polybius in his Histories.

      (a) be large enough to camp 30,000 men and about 5,000 horses (on its French side)

      (b) command a panoramic view of the Po valley

      (c) have a difficult descent

      (d) be high enough to have large areas of snow, from two consecutive winters on its flanks

      (e) have a place for pasturing the horses immediately after the difficult stretch of the descent

      (f) give a distance of three days' march, from here to the plains.

      (g) lead straight down to the land of the Turini.

      (h) be a day's march from a probable site for the 'bare-rock' ambush (or a day and a night for the baggage and elephants).

      (i) be positioned so that the most direct route to it from the Rhône passes by the 'Island' (where the river 'Skaras' meets the Rhône) seven days' march from the sea (three days from the sea to the crossing of the Rhône and four from the crossing to the Island).

      He then scored each pass on a scale of 0-5 for each of these parameters with 5 awarded for a complete fit and less for more doubtful cases.

      Hoyte's group launched their attempt from Montmelian, France and followed the valley of the Arc River with the goal of crossing the Col de Clapier, since that pass scored the highest in Hoyte's comparison study of Polybian parameters.  However, the pass had become narrowed and dangerous due to rockfall so the group retracted down into the valley and crossed the Col du Mon Cenis, a route proposed by Napoleon.  After 10 days of travel, the expedition successfully reached Susa in Italy.
      Details of the expedition and a wonderful series of photographs can be viewed on Hoyte's website (

      Hoyte also published an account of the expedition in his book, Trunk Road for Hannibal - with an elephant over the Alps, in 1960.  It was republished in 1964 under the title Alpine Elephant - In Hannibal's Tracks.

      But in the latest research, Mahaney tackles the question from a different perspective.  The new findings most recently reported are based primarily on the discovery of a layer of soil disturbance and the findings of "a mass animal deposition event" -  bacterial remains indicating the presence of a large number of equines in the vicinity.  Although the articles currently circulated by the media claim the Carbon 14 dates obtained for the material in the disturbed layer point to 218 BCE, Carbon 14 dating methods are not that precise and are often within a range of 60 - 80 years give or take (standard deviation).  Contamination is always a concern and testing waste from ruminants can also be problematic as vegetation can have varying amounts of carbon that could impact test results.  All of these issues can make reliance strictly on Carbon 14 dating methods tricky.

      "The new hypothesis places the boggy dung mass on the eastern side at 2580 meters," Hunt points out, "Given the warmer climate around Traversette, since it's further south, vegetation is more lush there, so Alpine tribes have grazed animals there for thousands of years."

      In fact, Hannibal's expedition through the Alps, although truly legendary in its scope and military context, was not the first mass migration across the mountain range that could have left sizable animal waste deposits.

      When Hannibal harangues his troops about their fear of crossing the Alps, Livy says Hannibal himself describes earlier mass migrations.

      "What on earth do you think the Alps are except a collection of high mountains? Perhaps you think they are even higher than the Pyrenees? So what?  Nothing on earth can ever reach the sky; no mountain is too high for man to conquer. People actually live in the Alps, for goodness’ sake! They till the ground; animals breed and grow fat there. If a small group of natives can cross them, so can an army.  Look at these delegates from the Boii – they didn’t grow wings and fly here over the top. Even their ancestors were not born here; they came here as immigrant peasants from Italy; they crossed these selfsame Alps in huge migrating hordes, with all their women and children – and lived to tell the tale." - Livy, Book 21, Chapter 30.6 - 30.8 

      A reconstructed late La Tène Period (3rd-1st century BCE) Celtic settlement in Havranok,Slovakia.
      Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

      In fact, activities preceding the Gallic War of 225 BCE culminating in the Battle of Telamon had involved large scale movements of Gauls across the Alps.

      "After their defeats by Rome in the 280s, the Gauls were quiescent for forty-five years; but eventually a younger generation took their place, 'full of unreflecting passion and without experience of suffering or peril' (Polybius' Histories 2.21.1-2).  They began to disturb the existing equilibrium with Rome, and invited Gauls from across the Alps to participate in a new war...The leaders of the Po Valley peoples held out to the leaders of the Gauls beyond the Alps the promise of the rich loot that awaited them in Italy, along with assurances that Gallic military power could easily overcome the Romans; after all, this had happened before, when Rome itself had been taken and held for seven months by Gallic warriors (Polyb. 2.22.4-5)." - Arthur M. Eckstein, Polybius, the Gallic Crisis, and the Ebro Treaty. 

      Hannibal's crossing was also followed by more than twelve years of war-related traffic, again mentioned in Livy:

      "He [Hannibal] had believed, indeed, that his brother [Hasdrubal] would come over into Italy that summer; but when he recalled what he had himself endured during five months, in crossing first the Rhone, and then the Alps, in conflicts with men and the nature of the country, he looked forward to a crossing by no means so easy and so soon accomplished. This accounted for his slowness in leaving winter quarters. But for Hasdrubal everything moved more quickly and more easily than had been expected by himself and others. For not only did the Arverni, and then in turn other Gallic and Alpine tribes, receive him, but they even followed him to war.  And not merely was he leading an army through country for the most part made passable by his brother's crossing, although previously trackless, but, thanks to the opening up of the Alps by twelve years of habitual use, they were also crossing through tribes now less savagely disposed.  For previously, being never seen by strange peoples and unaccustomed themselves to see a stranger in their own land, they were unfriendly to the human race in general. And at first, not knowing whither the Carthaginian was bound, they had believed that their own rocks and fastnesses and booty in cattle and men were the objects of attack.  Then reports of the Punic war, with which Italy had been aflame for eleven years, had made it quite plain to them that the Alps were merely a route; that two very powerful cities, separated from each other by a wide expanse of sea and land, were contending for empire and supremacy." - Livy, The History of Rome, Book 27.39

      Replica of a Celtic warrior's garb
      In the museum Kelten-Keller, Rodheim-Bieber, Germany
      Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
      These activities all occurred within the time encompassed by the Carbon 14 dating period of the Col de Traversette equine waste remains.

      In fact, Hasdrubal's crossing of the Alps in 207 BCE, significantly complicates the search for Hannibal's crossing.  Although Livy makes it sound like Hasdrubal followed in the path of Hannibal, Polybius uses the word "shorter" in his fragmentary reference to Hasdrubal's easier crossing  in Polybius' Histories.  Much of the easier aspect can be attributed to Hasdrubal's much more friendly reception by native tribesmen who have, by then, decided to join the Carthaginian's war efforts.  But to have a reportedly shorter journey suggests a deviation from Hannibal's original route at some point.  Furthermore, Hasdrubal brought war elephants with him as well, so even finding pachyderm waste or remains may not definitely prove a route was Hannibal's and not Hasdrubal's.

      Apparently,The London Times has expressed their skepticism about the latest claims, too, as have noted historian Tom Holland and others.

      "We are unlikely to know definitively but the literature of ancient military campaigns has an allure regardless of strict accuracy. Caesar's Gallic War recounts a fantastical tale of how German tribesmen caught elks through a cunning plan reminiscent of Piglet's heffalump trap. Polybius and Livy tell of how Hannibal's elephants crossed the Rhone by walking along the riverbed and using their trunks as snorkels; evidently no one told these historians that elephants can swim. There is a pleasing symmetry that the latest scholarship of the ancient world is literally rather than metaphorically a pile of manure." - Elephantine Enigma: Scientists believe they have identified Hannibal's route over the Alps, Editorial, The Times (London), April 5, 2016

      Tom Holland was a little more succinct, "The evidence is s***," he said.

      "The amount of evidence needed is substantial indeed across multiple parameters; this new claim just does not have the kind of support required despite sounding so scientific," Hunt observes.

      The bottom line as I see it is that, despite our wishful thinking, none of the current findings are truly definitive without the discovery of supporting archaeological remains.

      Perhaps we should take the advice of Polybius, who once cautioned his readers about fully embracing statements by another Roman historian, Q. Fabius Pictor, "My own opinion is that one must not treat his authority as being of little weight, but at the same time one should not regard it as final."

      A Numidian horseman by Hocine Ziani, an Algerian artist who is a founding member of the Central Army Museum in Algiers.  Other examples of his amazing work can be viewed on Pinterest.
      I must admit I was intrigued with the possibility of finding ancient equine DNA from a breed originating in North Africa, though.  Hannibal's elite Numidian cavalry probably would have brought their own mounts with them so that does pose an opportunity for further study. However, finding the whereabouts of ancient equine DNA from North Africa for comparison, possibly locked away in some museum or research institution's dusty basement, may prove as challenging as trying to find a crated Ark of the Covenant in a government warehouse!


      Polybius, Histories

      Ball, P. (2016, April 3). The truth about Hannibal’s route across the Alps. The Guardian. Retrieved April 8, 2016, from

      Walbank, F. W.. (1956). Some Reflections on Hannibal's Pass. The Journal of Roman Studies, 46, 37–45.

      Hoyte, J. (1960). Trunk road for Hannibal; with an elephant over the Alps. London: G. Bles.

      Livy, The History of Rome

      Eckstein, A. M.. (2012). Polybius, the Gallic Crisis, and the Ebro Treaty. Classical Philology, 107(3), 206–229.

      Elephantine Enigma: Scientists believe they have identified Hannibal's route over the Alps. (2016, April 05). The Times (London). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from

      A Kindle preview of related reading:

      Other suggested reading:

      Geoff Carter (Theoretical Structural Archaeology)

      Reverse engineering the past

      It is spring, the swallows have returned to the farm, so it is time for a mission statement, or an explanation what after 8 years on the internet Theoretical Structural Archaeology is all about, again. 
      In essence it very simple, just as knowledge of potting is necessary for understanding pottery, so understanding engineering is important for a archaeologists dealing with the archaeological remains of engineered environments.  However, this really about being able to think like potter or an engineer, it concerns archaeology as a mind-set rather than a written subject.  Not that it is actually that technical, given the sorts of the data sets we recover, and of course it is only one of many core skills required for field archaeology.  The key point to grasp, at least in principle, is that engineered structures can be described mathematically, and therefore can be modelled.   
      While I regard this as a universal principle, my particular interest is those prehistoric timber environments of Western Europe, often represented by postholes usually without stratigraphy on plough reduced sites. [Right; E.G. a 10m² of the multiperiod site at Orsett, Essex].
      This is Process Archaeology or how to converting dirt to text; any understanding has to start with soil; while knowing how to pull it apart and record it is essential,  it is the process of converting soil to text that is the essence of archaeology; get this bit wrong and it can invalidate much of what subsequently uses this written information.  It is in this context that an understanding of some of the underlying principles of the built environments can prove invaluable if the objective is interpreting the archaeology.
      However, there is clearly an issue with what constitutes “engineering” and how would you distinguish from any other feature.    
      Motivational archaeology 
      Broadly, in addition to cultivation, we can perhaps think of digging in terms of engineering and disposal; however, regarding burial as an example of the latter or mining as an example of the former is probably inappropriate, even in the interests of simplicity.
      So let’s go with;
      • Engineering
      • Cultivation
      • Disposal
      • Burial
      • Mining / Quarrying
      • Other
      “Other” is to cover the digging out a badger set for entertainment, hiding a hoard, and other “ritual” activities that might be imagined to confound a rational approach; already I feel the approach is unravelling a little. Perhaps classifying holes in the ground by motivation is pushing the concept of context description into the realm of New Archaeology.. Also, it does imply a quite remarkable level of understanding, or at least self-confidence, on the part of the archaeologist.
      Besides ploughing, which is a usually self-evident,  most agricultural process happen on the surface, although the digging of beds for horticulture, and pits for trees can be easily overlooked.  Gardening can produce odd shaped holes, and can deploy a lot of stakes for plants such as beans or defining or protecting specific beds.
      Effective waste disposal is an essential part of any culture, and in appropriate conditions this may involve holes in the ground.   What is interesting about this process is that that digging holes produces an equivalent volume of spoil, which itself has to be disposed of.   Quarrying for material, such as daub or stone, used in construction of a building can provide ready-made holes for disposal of rubbish for the initial occupants, demonstrated again simplistic ideas about motivation are not helpful.
      Ancient buildings heated by open fires which generate considerable quantiles of ash, as well as other materials from regular cleaning.  In addition, any built environment used by humans or animals will generate waste, and provision its disposal should be a prior consideration of the basic design.
      There should be a lot more to say about burials; not a typical day for those involved, and frankly, all those little bones, very fiddly.  Besides, residences for the dead are specialised built environments that don’t have to obey normal rules of form and function, interesting but not typical. 
      The point I am trying to rescue is that digging holes is actually a relatively unusual activity, and within any form of stratified society would normally be considered to activity undertaken by a specialist.  
      While who digs holes, and individuals’ proximity to rubbish might in certain contexts be regarded as an interesting social indicator, it is not information normally available through this type of archaeology.  
      Parts of hunting forest, a space reserved for elite entertainment, may be defined by a bank and ditch which is engineering, or at least requires an engineer; someone has make a series of very specialised decisions.   
      A section of Hadrian's Wall; the effect of engineering on the Landscape.
      I do not wish to imply some sort of truism to the effect that digging in the ground is engineering, but simply note that most of the significant man-made features the landscape are the result of engineering or actions under the technical control of an engineer.    Clearly, this is engineering in a broad sense, encompassing what we think of as civil engineering, architecture, and surveying. 
      Thinking outside the box
      A key theme is about how to think in a fluid rather than crystalline manner; the latter is tick box thinking, the former is the provision of a box marked none of the above; if you think you know what you are looking for you are pretty much doomed to finding it.
      I think you can regard the primary function of the archaeologist as recording what is being destroyed through the process of excavation; beyond that, particularly the nature and quality of any interpretive report, expectations are more flexible.
      Where stratigraphy is present you always have some framework, but if everything is sealed by 20th plough soil and cut into periglacial deposits, it can be difficult to know where to start.   As a result many reports don’t progress much beyond identifying those aspects of the site that correspond in some way to previous discoveries elsewhere.  Thus, by most standards, our reliance on comparative methodologies is highly susceptible to both sample and observer biases, which helps create many circular arguments in our understanding of this type of archaeology.
      I would observe some archaeology is recorded in in somewhat peremptory tick box manner; taking a few samples and recovering finds which some hopefully some clever person will in a lab explain later.   The boxes being ticked for context descriptions with words like pit, posthole or gully are often sufficiently vague, generic and misapplied that they do not encourage further thought on the matter.   The persistence of ideas like “Drip Gullies” demonstrates an inability to escape from the futile circularity of finding what other people have found.   Such concepts become so embedded in the literature as to be invulnerable to rational deconstruction.   [1]
      Above; a section of the Orsett Multi-period site showing MIA to Saxon features
      Theoretical structural archaeology was an approach designed to extract value and meaning from archaeological data sets, by trying not to tick boxes, but by understand holes in the ground as engineering where appropriate. 
      In this approach it is important to think in terms of built environments rather than buildings. While it is perhaps customary to break these down into categories such as agricultural, military, industrial, or domestic, it is fairly obvious many types of archaeology encompass several, even all of these functions.
      It is through engineering that the environment is conditioned and transformed to allow sedentary agriculture, not just the cultivation and storage of crops, but also the protection of animals from predators, principle of which is often other humans.   The necessary technology to exploit these mid latitude environments had already been developed long before farmers tried to colonise these islands. 
      Putting the ox before the cart
      Consider, if you have a cart, then you also require a cart shed, with buildings for draught animals along with their food and bedding.  In addition, a paddock preferably with water supply, decent boundaries and gates would be useful, along with somewhere to put the muck.   However, if we have to accommodate a wagon rather than a cart, the built environment must be designed around its wider turning circle and the extended size of the vehicle with its team.  [Left; Baden culture Neolithic model wheeled vehicle] A wide variety of different engineered environments have to be accessible to particular types of wheeled vehicles and also require buildings of this type; somewhere there is a building where these vehicles were made and maintained. 
      The ergonomics of non-mechanised farming are inherent in the limitations of Human labour and that of draught animals that remain generally true into historical period. 
      Fluid structural thinking on the level
      In a complex archaeological dataset with no stratigraphy and lots of postholes, identifying an individual engineered structure is likely to involve not knowing what you are looking for.  It is a bit like code breaking, in that you need an insight or a crib; knowing the original language is important, as this has to conform to certain rules.  What is important about engineering is that fundamentally, it is maths, so can be understood as such, it has rules;  you can even model a pile of soil. 
      However, the most important diagnostic characteristic of an engineered structure is usually depth of its archaeological features.  the foundations of buildings are usually level, although in more complex structures the taller or substantial parts of a structure deeper foundations.
      There natural preference to think about archaeology in plan view, but important information about structural relationships can be encoded in the original depths of features.
      Modelling built environments requires a culturally appropriate understanding of local traditions particularly in terms materials, their properties, limitations, and the practicalities of their use.  The modelling of theoretical superstructures should consider the nature of materials, particularly the taper in timber.  Models of individual buildings should consider provision for appropriate light heat and ventilation, as well as drainage as these are often implicit the structural design.
      While all of this is fairly simplistic by engineering standards, is actually about mind-set, and the ability, strange though it may seem, to see without looking; to be able to evaluate data without too much prior assumption or expectation is the hardest aspect of thinking like a structural archaeologist.

      [1] So, just for the record; the idea that water dripping from a roof can erode a self-contained penannular feature is false, since it fails to explain where the original soil, with its inclusions, went to, and why, in this particular period of the Iron Age, water no longer goes downhill under gravity. 
      In other words. where does the run off from a modest roof, robbed of its momentum by its initial collision gets sufficient energy to penetrate into the subsoil, displacing a significant volume of earth, including inclusions like stones to leave a remarkably regular cavity several feet deep?  
      These features are foundation trenches for walls.

      Hadrian's Wall; understanding The Vallum

      The Vallum is one of the largest earthworks in the world, part of Hadrian's Wall World Heritage site, and yet is seldom discussed, perhaps because while its interpretation may work on paper, it makes less sense on the ground.
      It is an excellent example of how in archaeology, what we name something conditions the way we perceive it, and how our literary constructs  can develop independently of the underlying physical evidence. 
      The Vallum is one of the oldest concepts in the literature of Hadrian’s Wall, originating with the Venerable Bede in the eighth century, and while this structure is not a vallum in any way shape or form, all subsequent literature would appear to have developed from this idea.
      In more recent times, it was apparent that the earthwork was not defensive, but it was nonetheless usually regarded as a boundary or barrier between the Wall and something else, with even the language used to describe the earthwork being shaped to accommodate this underlying assumption.
      However, to understand the Vallum you have to look at it with the perspective of a structural archaeologist, luckily, I see it every day, so I know with a reasonable degree of certainty that is a construction trench for an unfinished road, an argument I discussed in detail 5 years ago [here]; subsequently and more generally [here].
      In terms of engineering the case is straight forward, but Archaeology is also a text based study, so its relevance to the Vallum as a literary construct, secure in its self-reverential and internally consistent space, is less certain.

      The Evidence
      The Vallum was originally a continuous earthwork running to the south of Hadrian’s Wall, from the bridgehead at Newcastle to the western terminus. It comprised a steep sided, flat bottomed trench, from which the spoil has been moved more than 30 feet and piled in neatly built heaps running parallel on either side. 
      It was laid out in straight lengths connected by gentle corners, and where ever possible  it  maintained even or moderate gradients to the extent that it did not always follow the same defensive line as The Wall, particularly in the central section. 
      The Vallum had a standard measured design, with the principle variations being the section at White Moss, where, in soft ground, there was only the trench, formed by two mounds, and also the intermittent presence of smaller mounds of spoil along south edge of the trench, known as marginal mounds.
      It was one of the earlier features of the frontier, but was built over during later phases of the construction.[1]

      The Vallum as mysterious earthwork
      “Along the whole line this mysterious earthwork keeps company with the Wall” [2]
      The conventional view is that the Vallum formed Boundary between a military zone and something else; with perhaps some wriggle room as to what is to the south of the Vallum that requires such a boundary.This idea has been firmly embedded in the literature for long time and remains more or less unchanged to present times.
      The straight lengths in which the Vallum is laid out are consistent with distances of the uninterrupted view of a surveyor. Changes in direction tend to occur where a new viewpoint is required to obtain another long straight view. This is the system used to lay out roads. It has been argued that as the Vallum was surveyed as a road would be, it must have functioned as a road. This does not follow, and if we accept that a road would require metalling, and metalling on the berms is sporadic, and sometimes doubtful, we have to discount all of the suggested variations of a function related to lateral communication.
      Richmond’s (1930) statement of the function of the Vallum remains valid:

      the Vallum takes its place as a prohibited zone delimiting the south side of the military area, an unmistakable belt in which an obstacle is provided by the great ditch. Neither commerce nor interference with the soldiery could take place across it unchecked.
      Tony Wilmott 2007 [3]

      From my student copy of Collins Field Guide to Archaeology in Britain [4]
      The continuous nature of the structure, with crossing points, later removed to form the marginal mounds, is perhaps the best argument for it being a boundary, albeit one set out like a road. The layout could conceivably result from the use of a method of surveying normally reserved for roads, but this does not explain its form.
      The Vallum corner at Down Hill on Google Earth
      In many accounts the idea of a boundary is enhanced by describing the earthwork using the term ditch and bank, which, if this was the case, would support the argument.  However, the key point is that it is not a bank and ditch, as conventionally understood; a flat bottomed hole in the ground is a trench - at least to an engineer and an archaeologist. 
      The reason it looks like a bank and ditch now is that steep sided trenches are not stable, which is why the Roman Army dug “V” profile ditches with banks to define a boundary or perimeter, not a trench, and certainly not by moving about 1.5 million cubic meters of spoil 30 feet or more.[5]
      One important aspect that should not be overlooked,   is that this form of structure is quite unique in archaeology, and as far as I can ascertain, nobody, anywhere, ever built a boundary like this before or since.

      The Vallum as engineering
      The resemblance of the Vallum's layout to a road is apparent particularly in its straight lengths, moderate gradients and corners designed to accommodate the poor turning circle of wagons.  The apparent priority to move the spoil keeping the margins of the trench free from obstruction is another aspect of the plan that is only explicable if the object is create a metalled road for carts and wagons with wide margins for ambulatory and equestrian users.
      Most archaeologists are familiar with trenches, they are only ever temporary structures, but they are essential for foundations, which, for reasons that should be obvious, require a level, even and stable base to spread the load.
      The basic engineering of building a road that works in this type of ground involves filling a uniform trench or cutting with layers of progressively finer compacted material  to create a roadbed, and capping it with a durable surface, such as interlocking cut stones in the case of the Romans.  This approach is not possible where soft or waterlogged ground has to be crossed, so here a floating structure made of wood known as a corded road has to be created.
      The profiles recorded in the 1890’s contain much of the important information required to support this argument and understand this structure.[6] 
      The section at limestone corner shows the desired profile cut into the hard bedrock at the crest of the hill, while a few yards away the Roman Army left the Wall Ditch unfinished; this is engineering, if it is not done this way, the combination of the crest of the hill and the transition in the underlying ground could have been problematic.  Similarly, the reversed profile at White Moss is only intelligible if the intention was to build a corded road between the two banks; there was probably no need for additional lanes, as all traffic would have had to use the road. If we accept that the marginal mounds result from the removal of crossings [across the trench], then this was not an engineering decision, although as far as possible it does preserve the integrity of the lanes, it can be only seen in the context of a “Dislocation”, a gap in the construction program presumably caused by warfare.[7]   Dislocations are key idea in the understanding the confusing structural sequence and changes of plan apparent in the archaeology of Hadrian’s Wall; they also explain why a road project requiring as much material as the Wall itself should be abandoned.

      Understanding the argument.
      I have detailed sixteen general features of the archaeological evidence, and scored the two theories in terms of how well they explain it. The theory scored 1 if it provides a reasonable explanation, and 0.5 for a less obvious connection; if the theory provides no account for a specific feature it scores 0.

      Road Foundation

      Runs from the Newcastle bridgehead

      Runs south of the Wall
      Frontier Road
      Military Zone

      Does not follow defensive line


      Laid out in straight lengths

      Gentle corners
      Required for Wagons

      Moderate gradients

      Consistent measured design plan
      Why not

      General form

      Marginal mound as removed crossings
      Spread along edge
      Why not dumped?

      Flat bottomed
      Not maintainable

      Steep sided
      Not maintainable

      Displaced spoil heaps

      Archaeological precedent

      Profile at White Moss marsh
      Corded road over marsh

      Abandoned following dislocation
      Unfinished/labour shortage
      Administrative change?

      15.5/16 or 97%

      5/16 or 31%

      Even if we argue that there is no reason that a boundary should not have gentle corners, moderate gradients, vertical sides and a flat bottom, allocating an extra couple of marks, this explanation still only offers 43%.

      Conclusions; Soil in Garbage out
      In terms of the assessment above, the conventional explanation, that the Vallum was constructed as a boundary, is evidently erroneous; if this was an exam, it would have failed, as it cannot account for evidence, and is clearly the wrong answer, irrespective of whether a better answer was available. However, for a variety of reasons and interests, mostly academic, the existence of the Vallum as a textural construct is not wholly dependent on evidence, being more akin to the product of a literary tradition.
      By far the most significant development in Wall Scholarship is the idea of Dislocations, periods of disruption, probably caused by continuing warfare along the Northern frontier, which resulted in significant changes in the speed, specification and quality of the work.  Old ideas about “Decisions”, prompting the various changes, can now be seen as a response to unfavourable circumstances, rather than as a result of imperial whim or some administrative ineptitude.
      Previously, our own imperial history has created a cultural bias that tends to perceive the Roman Empire in terms of success and superiority, which has often made it difficult to understand their archaeology in terms of failure. The Vallum is one aspect of the Wall literature that has not kept up with recent ideas about events.
      Archaeologists find soil / dirt and not text, but the process that converts the former into the latter, the very essence of archaeology, is not always understood in the teaching and study of the subject. It is also apparent that peer review encourages faith based thinking, a suspension of disbelief, where ideas are accepted on the basis of the perceived status of individuals or publications, rather than on an understanding of the argument's veracity.

      Sources and further reading.
      [1] The basic archaeology of The Vallum and other aspects of the Wall has been recently reviewed in: Wilmott, T., [ed]. 2009. Hadrian's Wall: Archaeological Research by English Heritage 1976-2000.
      [Most of the general information about the Vallum, used in this article, is drawn from the summaries of P72 –75 & 131 –136 cover, along with that from individual excavation reports] at
      [2] Conybeare, Edward,  1903 Early Britain--Roman Britain –[]
      [3]Wood, Eric S., 1973, Collins Field Guide To Archaeology In Britain, Book Club Associates, (first published 1967)
      [4] Wilmott, T. 2007. The Vallum
      [5] Hill, P. R.. 2006. The construction of Hadrian's Wall. Tempus. [Vallum logistics p 126-7]
      [6]Profiles after: Hodgson, E. 1897. "Notes on the Excavations on the line of the Roman Wall in Cumberland in 1894 and 1895," Trans Cumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc, o ser, 14, 390-407. Plate I.
      [7] Breeze, D.J. 2003. "Warfare in Britain and the Building of Hadrian's Wall," in Archaeologia Aeliana 32, 13 –16
      This article uses illustrations based on images from Google Earth:

      Archaeology Magazine

      Tanzania Laetoli footprintsDORSET, ENGLAND—Human ancestors may have had a modern, upright gait earlier than had been previously thought, according to research conducted by archaeologists from Bournemouth University. Sedimentologist Matthew Bennett used computer software developed for analyzing crime-scene footprints to create and analyze 3-D images of the 3.6 million-year-old hominin footprints preserved in Laetoli, Tanzania, and discovered in the 1970s. Archaeologists had only been able to make detailed casts of the prints of one individual for study. The Independent reports that the software has helped the research team to disentangle the rest of the overlapping footprints, and to provide insight into the size and gait of the walkers. The team now thinks that the prints were left by a total of four individuals who had been walking in pairs at a pace of about two miles per hour. The leading pair is thought to have been a male and a female, followed by a pair of males. “Understanding a range of footprints tells us more about a species and the variations within its population,” Bennett said. For more, go to "England's Oldest Footprints."

      England Roman VenusLONG MELFORD, ENGLAND—Volunteers digging a test pit in the Suffolk village of Long Melford uncovered a small “pseudo Venus” that is missing its head and pedestal. Fragments of similar figurines have been found in nearby Colchester and along Hadrian’s Wall. John Nunn, one of the volunteers, has conducted research leading him to conclude that the carving, which dates to the first or second century, could indicate that a Roman fort was located nearby. Archaeological officer Fay Minter says that evidence of a Roman town has been found in Long Melford. “To confirm that there was a Roman fort in Long Melford,” she said in a report in the East Anglian Daily Times, “we would have to make more early military finds such as armor or buckles.” To read about another Roman statue found in England, go to "Artifact."

      Archaeological News on Tumblr

      Rare statue could help unearth secrets of Long Melford’s Roman past

      A six inch tall figurine dating from the first or second century, known as a ‘pseudo Venus’, was dug...

      Compitum - publications

      Raymond Lulle, Livre de Contemplation


      Raymond Lulle, Livre de Contemplation, Paris, 2016.

      Éditeur : Schola Lvlliana
      Collection : Encyclopédies du Moyen Age
      641 pages
      ISBN : 9791092840087
      185 Euros

      Né à Majorque vers 1232, RAYMOND LULLE mourut en mer, pour amour de Dieu, en 1316. Il y a 700 cent ans depuis son martyre. Pour rendre hommage à l'effigie fantastique du Doctor Illuminatus, le traducteur Constantin TELEANU propose intégralement aux lecteurs enamourés de l'Art de Lulle la première traduction française du Libre de Contemplació du Bienheureux. Le chef-d'oeuvre de Lulle s'ouvre à l'oeil du lecteur par le rayonnement de la contemplation en Dieu qui enrichit abondamment la beauté spirituelle d'une oeuvre énorme. Le travail laborieux du traducteur reste fidèle à l'esprit du parler vernaculaire de Lulle pour redécouvrir son authenticité au moyen des meilleures transpositions françaises. Il répond bien à l'attrait intime de Lulle de faire traduire son meilleur Art à l'usage de tout contemplateur. La traduction française relance une tradition initiée par Lulle qui s'efforçait de traduire -premièrement en catalan et ensuite en latin- cette inestimable encyclopédie contemplative.


      Source :

      Ancient Peoples

      Portrait bust of a womanRome or Lazio, Italy, 150 -...

      Portrait bust of a woman

      Rome or Lazio, Italy, 150 - 160 AD

      Although the woman shown in this Roman portrait bust cannot be identified, stylistic features reveal when and where she was made. Her hairstyle copies one worn by the Empress Faustina, the wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D. 138 to 161. The highly polished surface of the bust also signals an Antonine date for its creation. Portraits of the imperial family defined high style and fashion, setting the standards for private portraiture of the social elite.
      This woman appears to be of mature years, yet she displays no physical signs of aging. Roman portraits of women tend to be more idealized and less individualized than those of men. The political or social message that a portrait conveyed was as important as its actual resemblance to the person portrayed. For this reason, portraits of Roman women often are concerned more with representing the latest ideas of fashion and beauty than they are with depicting actual features. 

      Source: The J. Paul Getty Museum

      The Archaeology News Network

      Taiwan finds 4,800-year-old remains of mother cradling baby

      Archaeologists in Taiwan have found the 4,800-year-old human remains of a mother holding an infant child in her arms, museum officials said on Tuesday. Archaeologists have uncovered the ancient remains of a young mother and an infant  child locked in a 4,800-year-old embrace. The remarkable find was among 48 sets  of remains unearthed from graves in Taiwan, including those of five children  [Credit: Reuters]The 48 sets...

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      The Archaeology News Network

      'Roman Mosaics across the Empire' at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Getty Villa

      Mosaics once decorated luxurious domestic and public buildings across the broad expanse of the Roman Empire. Scenes from mythology, daily life, nature, and arena spectacles enlivened interior spaces and reflected the cultural ambitions of wealthy patrons. Roman Mosaics across the Empire, on view March 30–September 12, 2016, at the J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa, presents the artistry of mosaics as well as the contexts of...

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      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      SEAL: Sources of Early Akkadian Literature

      [First posted in AWOL 20 July 2009. Most recently updated 26 April 2016]

      SEAL: Sources of Early Akkadian Literature

      A Text Corpus of Babylonian and Assyrian Literary Texts from the 3rd and 2nd Millennia BCE

      Sources of Early Akkadian Literature is a joint project of the Institute of Archaeology of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Altorientalisches Institut of the University of Leipzig.

      Project Description

      Akkadian, i.e. Babylonian and Assyrian, literature, documented on cuneiform tablets from Ancient Mesopotamia (together with Sumerian and Egyptian literature) forms the oldest written literature of mankind.

      In the 3rd and 2nd Millennia (c. 2400-1100 BCE), Akkadian literature developed many different literary genres: hymns, lamentations, prayers to various gods, incantations against a range of sources of evil, love-lyrics, wisdom literature (proverbs, fables, riddles), as well as long epics and myths - roughly 550 different compositions. Many of these compositions are not yet published in satisfactory modern editions or scattered throughout a large number of publications.

      SEAL ("Sources of Early Akkadian Literature"), which started at 2007, is updated regularly. It aims to compile a complete indexed corpus of Akkadian literary texts from the 3rd and 2nd Millennia BCE, attempting to enable the efficient study of the entire early Akkadian literature in all its philological, literary, and historical aspects.

      Many of the editions in SEAL rely on new collations and photos. (For the moment being, these photos cannot be shown publicly due to restricted copy rights.)

      As part of this project SEAL will publish the corpus in printed form, in monographs within the new series Leipziger Altorientalistische Studien. Several volumes are currently in preparation:
      • N. Wasserman: Old Babylonian Incantations.
      • N. Wasserman: Love Lyrics.
      • M. P. Streck: Old Babylonian Hymns.
      • Elyze Zomer: Middle Babylonian Incantations.
      • J. Fechner will publish a monograph on "Altbabylonische Gottesbriefe" outside the SEAL series.

      Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

      The Impossibility of a Slow Professor? (Part 2)

      The problem of making a post with a “part 1” is that I feel obligated to publish a “part 2.” Go read Part 1, which is basically a review of  Maggie Berg’s and Barbara Seeber’s The Slow Professor (Toronto 2016). In it, I suggest that the problem with their lovely little book is that many (if not all) of the conditions that produced a professionalized faculty are the same that have produced a corporatized university. We can’t be professionalized – with the clear distinction between work and life – and slow because the industrial roots of the process of professionalization are inseparable from the kind of social acceleration that has so impacted our working life. In other words, you can’t look for work/life balance without understanding the notion of “work” and “life” as products of the professionalization process.

      If Berg and Seeber really want to understand how to embrace being a slow profession, I think they need to consider a fundamentally new model for life in the academy. This isn’t a radical proposition, actually. Most faculty in the humanities are not fully professionalized and our refusal to completely grasp the work/life division provides us with the opportunity to do meaningful work. Part of the slow movement’s core philosophy (such as it exists beyond a series of vaguely interrelated platitudes) is to live life in a more deliberate, thoughtful, and engaged way and to avoid the slick efficiencies that dominate the corporate world and its tradition of industrial speed. After all, time is money.

      In the place of an industrial model, I wonder if we should think of what we do in the academy as craft rather than work. I recognize that this has risks. That standardization and professionalization of academia is part of a larger process that marginalized the kind of informal practices that made disciplines “old boys clubs” unfriendly to women, minorities, and unorthodox ideas. Professionalization has contributed to a more fair and inclusive work space by managing the grown of informal policies. The trick for the slow professor is to preserve the spirit of professionalism, the sense of fairness, the inclusiveness, and the democratic standards in university life, while at the same time grounding this in an earlier model for understanding academic life. 

      1. Do work that matters. One of the great things about the humanities is that we can blur work/life so easily by simply doing work that matters to our life. We can draw on our experiences, our community, and our family as an influence on our scholarship. A walk with my wife can be a research trip, serving on a committee in the community can spark new ideas, and my experiences on a lazy early summer day can shape a published article. Live a life where it’s impossible to “take time off” from doing “work.”

      2. Work with friends. One of the aspects of the Slow Professor that I really liked was their chapter on the value of collaboration in creating a more meaningful experience from research. (It goes without saying that the output of collaborative ventures tends to be better than that from the solo author… at least in my experience). I’d expand Berg and Seeber’s view of collaboration to suggest that we make a real effort to collaborate with friend. While there is always a risk of group think in these situations, I would add that there is also an opportunity to further erode the boundaries between work and life that threaten to box in creativity and to compartmentalize how we see the world.  

      3. Control your work. While academics often complain about the relentless pace and expectations of university life, we can equally impatient about our work as it wends its way through the publication process. I contend that the division of writing from publishing (that is the work of publishing) locates writing as a stage in the process of knowledge production that culminates, to some degree in the appearance of a publication. The division of labor throughout this process reinforces the professionalization of academic work (as well as publishing) and it supports a system that is designed – in large part – to improve the efficiency of our work. To be clear, I’m not overlooking the value of peer review, copy editing, careful typesetting, et c., but I do think that our work should adopt more fluid models that subvert the calls for professional efficiency by exploring ways to control the entire process of knowledge production.

      4. Break things. I loved that The Slow Professor recognized that the slow movement was a form of resistance. At a number of meeting on campus lately, administrators have emphasized that we as faculty need to assert authority through action. In most cases, the actions that we’re expected to take coincide with administrative initiatives. At the same time, being a slow professor does offer a strategy to undermine the “audit culture” so prevalent in the modern university. It takes a commitment, however, to slow processes down, to disengage from the pressures of both disciplinary and institutional expectations, and to break things designed to speed up, to improve efficiency, and to undermine our ability to blend work and life. Being a slow professor involves more than just embracing the virtues of a non-professional life, it involves working and taking risks to create that space within institutions designed to promote professional values. 

      The Archaeology News Network

      Artists reconstruct 'Altamura Man'

      A pair of Dutch artists specializing in paleontological reconstructions on Tuesday presented their life-size version of what a Neanderthal man whose fossilized skeleton was discovered in a cave near the city of Altamura in the southern Puglia region in 1993. The reconstruction of Altamura Man's face  [Credit: ANSA]The so-called Man of Altamura was of stocky build, about 1.65 meters tall, had a jutting brow, a wide pelvis, an...

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      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh

      The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh

      Sources of the Standard Babylonian poem

      The Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh is preserved on three groups of manuscripts (clay tablets), which give an account of the poem at different stages in its evolution, from the eighteenth century BC to the first millennium BC.
      So far eleven pieces of Old Babylonian versions of the epic are extant, and eighteen pieces are known from later in the second millennium (Middle Babylonian and other intermediate manuscripts). If these twenty-nine fragments were all that had survived we would not be able today to give an accurate account of the poem's narrative and plot. Fortunately we have 184 fragments from the first millennium (count at January 2003). These come from ancient libraries in Assyria, most notably the library of the seventh-century king, Ashurbanipal, and from slightly later collections of tablets found in Babylonia, chiefly at Babylon and Uruk.
      These Babylonian and Assyrian fragments bear witness to a standardized edition of the poem, which we call the Standard Babylonian epic. This last version of the poem was the result of a deliberate work of editorial, according to tradition carried out by a learned scholar called Sin-leqi-unninni, who probably flourished about 1100 BC. The oldest sources for his version are from the ninth or eighth centuries; the last dated manuscript comes from about 130 BC, when Babylonia was a dominion of the Parthian kingdom.
      The edition of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh published in Andrew George's critical edition of the poem (further details available from Oxford University Press) is a composite variorum edition, in which the evidence of the different first-millennium manuscripts is combined. The result is a transliterated text reconstructed from the cuneiform witnesses according to the editor's judgement.
      George's composite transliteration and translation of the standardized first-millennium text was based on a previous transliteration of the text of each individual manuscript. The text was established by first-hand study of each individual tablet and, for the most part, a newly drawn hand-copy (facsimile) of the cuneiform. The cuneiform of every fragment was published alongside the composite text.
      Readers of the epic who do not read cuneiform may wish to consult the evidence of individual manuscripts. To this end, George's synoptic ("score") transliterations of each of the twelve tablets of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilamesh are published here as PDF files.
      1. SB Gilgamesh Tablet I (PDF)
      2. SB Gilgamesh Tablet II (PDF)
      3. SB Gilgamesh Tablet III (PDF)
      4. SB Gilgamesh Tablet IV (PDF)
      5. SB Gilgamesh Tablet V (PDF)
      6. SB Gilgamesh Tablet VI (PDF)
      7. SB Gilgamesh Tablet VII (PDF)
      8. SB Gilgamesh Tablet VIII (PDF)
      9. SB Gilgamesh Tablet IX (PDF)
      10. SB Gilgamesh Tablet X (PDF)
      11. SB Gilgamesh Tablet XI (PDF)
      12. SB Gilgamesh Tablet XII (PDF)

      Open Access Monograph Series: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Suppléments

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Suppléments
      eISSN: 1955-270X
      Fondée en 1974, la revue Dialogues d’Histoire Ancienne est conçue comme un espace de présentation et de discussion des études sur l’histoire des sociétés antiques, de leurs structures sociales, économiques, religieuses et culturelles. DHA s’efforce d’offrir des approches diverses, d’inventorier des domaines nouveaux, de s’intéresser à des espaces considérés trop longtemps comme périphériques.

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°1, 2005. Hommage à Pierre Lévêque.

      315 - 321
      Résumés [résumés]

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°2, 2009. Traduire les scholies de Pindare… I. De la traduction au commentaire : problèmes de méthode.

      Sous la direction de S. David C. Daude É. Geny C. Muckensturm-Poulle

      203 - 204
      Résumés [résumés]

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°3, 2010. Inde-Grèce : regards et influences.

      Sous la direction de C. Muckensturm-Poulle É. Geny

      109 - 111
      Résumés [résumés]

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°4-1, 2010. Jeux et enjeux de la mise en forme de l'histoire. Recherches sur le genre historique en Grèce et à Rome.

      Sous la direction de Marie-Rose Guelfucci

      5 - 221

      I. Les sources de l’histoire. Objets historiques et sources littéraires

      317 - 325

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°4-2, 2010. Jeux et enjeux de la mise en forme de l'histoire. Recherches sur le genre historique en Grèce et à Rome.

      Sous la direction de Marie-Rose Guelfucci

      405 - 560

      IV. Enjeux et choix d’écriture : le travail de l’historien et les styles de l’histoire

      629 - 636

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°5, 2011. La notion d’empire dans les mondes antiques. Bilan historiographique. Journée de printemps de la SOPHAU - 29 mai 2010.

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°6, 2011. Diodore d’Agyrion et l’histoire de la Sicile.

      Sous la direction de Sophie Collin-Bouffier

      227 - 230

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°7, 2012. L’histoire de l’alimentation dans l’Antiquité. Bilan historiographique. Journée de printemps de la SOPHAU – 21 mai 2011.

      Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. Supplément n°8, 2013. Discours politique et Histoire dans l’Antiquité.

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