Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

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Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

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December 06, 2016

Insula: Le blog de la Bibliothèque des Sciences de l'Antiquité (Lille 3)

Les langues anciennes à la Faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille de 1855 aux années 1960

1/ La faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille de 1810 aux années 1960.

Le blog Insula reproduit la communication réalisée par Philippe Marchand lors du 37e Congrès international de l’APLAES qui s’est tenu à Lille en mai 2004. Le texte, édité dans les actes, est repris ici en quatre livraisons. Après une introduction présentant la Faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille, seront traités : la place du grec et du latin dans une faculté des lettres ; l’organisation des enseignements et pratiques enseignantes des langues anciennes ; les enseignants.

Philippe Marchand est maître de conférences émérite (HDR) en histoire moderne et contemporaine à l’Université de Lille 3, Laboratoire IRHiS-Lille 3 (UMR CNRS 8529).
Constant Martha - Antoine Meyer — Gallica (via Wikipedia)Constant Martha – Antoine Meyer — Gallica (via Wikipedia)

Avant d’en venir au sujet qu’il m’a été demandé de traiter, il convient de rappeler brièvement quelques éléments relatifs à la faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille. En application du décret du 17 mars 1808 créant l’Université impériale et spécifiant qu’il y aurait au siège de chaque chef-lieu d’académie une faculté de lettres, composée du professeur de belles-lettres du Lycée et de deux autres professeurs, c’est donc à Douai, chef-lieu de l’académie, qu’est placée la faculté des lettres. Solennellement installée le 10 mai 1810 par Taranget, premier recteur de l’académie, la faculté des lettres de Douai semble bien avoir végété. À l’exception de la liste des professeurs, on ne lui connaît aucune activité. Aussi fait-elle partie des dix-sept facultés des lettres supprimées par le décret du 31 octobre 1815 réorganisant la carte universitaire du royaume. Le décret du 22 août 1854, prévoyant l’ouverture d’une faculté des lettres dans chaque académie, donne satisfactions aux Douaisiens qui, depuis 1820, en réclamaient le rétablissement. Le 7 décembre 1854, elle est solennellement installée. Abritée dans les locaux de l’Hôtel de Ville, elle accueille ses premiers étudiants en janvier 1855 après que les programmes des cours des cinq professeurs nommés pour y enseigner − Caro pour la philosophie, Colincamp pour la littérature française, Filon pour l’histoire, Parisot pour la littérature étrangère et, enfin, Constant Martha pour la littérature ancienne −, aient été approuvés par le ministère de l’instruction publique. Dès avril 1855, la faculté des lettres organise sa première session de baccalauréat. En juillet 1855, se tient la première session de l’examen pour la licence ès lettres.

L’installation de la faculté des lettres à Douai suscite les protestations de la ville de Lille qui, ayant hérité de la faculté des sciences et forte de son titre de préfecture, entame un long combat pour obtenir son transfert. Au terme d’une lutte acharnée dont les épisodes ont été présentés par Jean-François Condette, le transfert, voulu par Louis Liard, directeur de l’enseignement supérieur, partisan de la création d’un grand pôle universitaire à Lille, prend effet avec la publication de deux décrets le 25 octobre 1887. À la rentrée de novembre 1887, les cours commencent, hébergés temporairement dans la faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, puis à partir de novembre 1892, dans les nouveaux bâtiments édifiés rue Joséphine, dénommée Auguste Angellier en 1913. La faculté des lettres, devenue faculté des lettres et sciences humaines, puis Université des Sciences humaines, des Lettres et des Arts − Lille 3 en 1968, dénommée Charles de Gaulle le 4 mai 1998, reste rue Angellier jusqu’à son transfert à Villeneuve d’Ascq décidée en 1970 et menée à bien, en 1974, par le président Pierre Deyon.

De 1855 à la Première guerre mondiale, la faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille est une petite communauté rassemblant un nombre réduit d’enseignants − 4 en 1855, 14 en 1887, 18 en 1902, 24 en 1913 −, et d’étudiants. Ils sont 25 en 1855, 138 en 1887-18888, 149 en 1902-1903, 353 en 1912-1913. Aux étudiants inscrits, il faut ajouter de nombreux auditeurs libres, de 250 à 3000, voire plus, qui suivent les cours publics. Au plan national, la faculté des lettres de Douai-Lille arrive loin derrière la faculté des lettres de Paris (12000 étudiants). Elle se classe au quatrième rang des facultés des lettres françaises derrière Paris, Lyon et Bordeaux.

Après la chute des effectifs pendant la Première guerre mondiale (55 étudiants en 1915-1916, 101 étudiants en 1917-1918), l’entre-deux-guerres est une période de croissance. On passe de 239 étudiants en 1919-1920 à un peu plus de 1000 étudiants en 1938-1939, et, dans le même temps, de 23 enseignants à 32. Mais, c’est à partir des années 1955-1960 que le changement de taille se produit : 1714 étudiants et 61 enseignants en 1955, 5223 étudiants en 1964 et 141 enseignants, plus de 10.000 étudiants en 1978 et plus de 250 enseignants, sans compter les chargés de cours.

À suivre …

Philippe Marchand

Épisode suivant :
2. La place du grec et du latin dans une faculté des lettres

La faculté de médecine et de pharmacie de Lille où les premiers cours de la faculté des lettres de Lille se sont tenus.La faculté de médecine et de pharmacie où les premiers cours de la faculté des lettres de Lille se sont tenus.

Archaeology Magazine

Bronze-Age Bone Objects Discovered in Cremated Remains

bone knife pommelDOUGLAS, ISLE OF MAN—Isle of Man News reports that Michelle Gamble of the Manx Museum discovered a collection of small bone objects while reassessing a box of cremated human remains excavated from a cist tomb in 1947. The stone-lined grave contained 4,000-year-old burned bone fragments, two flint tools, and two pots. The bones are thought to have come from four skeletons mixed together, including two adults, one of which was male, an adolescent, and an infant. Gamble explained that the bone objects were burned as well and mixed in with the cremated human remains. One of the objects was a bone pommel for a bronze knife—the first to be found on the Isle of Man. The other objects include a bone point or pin that may have been attached to clothing or a head covering. Gamble and her team are still examining what may be bone beads and worked bone strips. The bone items may have been worn by the dead, or placed on the funeral pyre by the mourners. The researchers have not been able to determine whether all four burials took place at the same time. For more, go to “Artifact: Bronze Age Dagger.”

Evidence of Malaria Parasites Found in Ancient Roman Teeth

Italy malaria parasiteHAMILTON, CANADA—The International Business Times reports that genetic evidence for the presence of malaria in the ancient world has been found in human teeth. Historical sources describe fevers in ancient Greece and Rome, but the specific disease that caused them has been unknown. A team of researchers led by geneticist Hendrik Poinar of McMaster University’s Ancient DNA Center examined mitochondrial DNA obtained from the teeth of 58 adults and ten children who had been buried in three different cemeteries in Italy between the first and third centuries A.D. They found genetic evidence of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite transmitted by mosquitoes that causes malaria, in teeth from two individuals. Plasmodium falciparum is the most common species of malaria parasite that infects people in sub-Saharan Africa—and the most deadly. Scholars now want to know how widespread the parasite was in the ancient world. The new evidence also provides scientists with more information about how the disease has evolved. For more, go to “Vikings, Worms, and Emphysema.”

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Getting the Cowboys off the US Antiquities Market


A useful account of the story behind the recent US/Egypt MOU: Rick St. Hilaire, 'After Long Delay, US and Egypt Sign Historic MoU Restricting Endangered Heritage from American Import' Cultural Heritage Lawyer blog, Sunday, December 4, 2016.

It is difficult to see why trade lobbyists such as Peter Tompa and the American 'Committee (sic) for Cultural Policy' are going absolutely bananas over this:
Cultural objects covered by the new MoU's import restrictions may legally pass through America's borders when accompanied by either an export permit or proof showing that the artifacts left Egypt before the adoption of US import regulations.
Since that is 'now', I do not see why there should be any difficulty in dealers having documents (invoices for example) differentiating between items in old collections 'before now' and those that will be taken out of Egypt 'after now', legally (or illegally). But it is stopping the latter reaching the US market that is the aim of this action - which I assume responsible collectors will welcome. It remains to be seen how many dealers will be expressing their approval of the decline of the cowboy no-questions-asked dealing which taints the international antiquities market.

Geoff Carter (Theoretical Structural Archaeology)

Hadrian's News in Brief

Any archaeologist will tell you that dealing with press is always fun; you may get all the right words—but not necessarily in the right order, so I am reasonably happy with results of a recent press briefing to my local paper,  The Hexham Courant.  I am not sure if maverick is an upgrade on controversial, but perhaps after 7 years I've earned it, although I'll be sticking to structural archaeologist for the time being.
They had previously reported my work on the Hadrian’s Wall and I wanted to bring them up to date with my latest discovery that the idea of a “Turf Wall” –  a Roman Wall made from turfs - was scientifically unsustainable.[1] Once I had managed to get the absolute untruths edited out of the final copy, I am reasonable relaxed about the minor factual inaccuracies, and some of it is spot on.  
However, I have never learned the lesson of producing a nice crisp press release, which does most of the hard work for you, although it has prompted me to try and produce a summary of my view of the evidence for an early Wall in succinct a form, at least as it differs from traditional accounts.
Hadrian's Wall in 400 words.
It is my understanding of the evidence, that at the beginning of Hadrian’s reign, after a period of warfare, the Roman army built a timber rampart and ditch across Northern England as part of wider policy of frontier consolidation.
Behind this timber Wall they built the infrastructure that would house the Legionaries, auxiliaries and probably slaves that would construct the stone frontier.
Hadrian’s Wall was subsequently built immediately behind this rampart, which was then dismantled and the timber recycled.
This was an active military frontier, and the Wall was built a permanent barrier to defend Roman assets in the South from the threat of raiders from the North.
As part of this plan, behind the Wall, a construction trench for a paved road running was dug, except across the bog at White Moss where an inverted trench was built up to accommodate a wooden corded road.  The road was never completed, as initial priority was given to building the Wall and forts.
This was constructed from East to West, with gangs of specialist legionaries working ahead, prioritising the more complex aspects, particularly the gateways of the milecastles and forts.
At a point when the work had reached the North Tyne and central sector construction was disrupted by what is known as a “dislocation”, which are thought to have been caused by a resumption of warfare.
When construction resumes after the dislocation[s]; [2]
  • The wall is built narrower gauge;
  • The technical quality of the stonework is significantly poorer;[3]
  • The plan to build a road is abandoned;
  • New forts are added in the central sector;
  • Even at this lower standard, the Western end of the Wall takes a long time to complete; [if it was fully completed];
  • The original timber rampart of the Wall to west of the Fort at Birdoswald, [“Turf Wall”], had rotted in situ, presumably because it was in fit state to be recycled by the time construction reached this sector.

All of the above argues for a major military setback, with a significant loss of manpower, particularly among the legionaries. It is consistent with a successful attack on the central sector when the disposition of the Roman forces was at its most disadvantageous. 
After end of Hadrian’s reign the project was abandoned in favour of shorter more easily defended frontier closer to enemy and further away from Britannia.
Thinking outside the guide book
The force that built the Wall was probably based around 3 legions, which as a block of fighting men 1000 metres wide with auxiliary infantry in front and cavalry on the flanks was in terms of the British Isles in this period probably invincible.  When deployed in depth, with in their ”normal” legionary bases, with room and time to manoeuvre, the Romans could counter any attack on the Wall, but spread over an 117 km front they are at a huge disadvantage.  As I have concluded that the frontier plan was much more ambitious than previously thought, the scale of the disaster represented by dislocation could have been serious.  
 “... under the rule of your grandfather Hadrian what a number of soldiers were killed by the Jews, what a number by the Britons”
Marcus Cornelius Fronto, letter to Marcus Aurelius, AD162
I think by the mid 120’s the plan was in ruin, in addition to the evidence of the dislocation, we know that London was burnt in this period [4]; [at some time the bronze statue of the Hadrian commemorating his visit was knocked about a bit and thrown in the Thames]; it thought Aulus Platorius Nepos, the governor brought with him by Hadrian in 122, was back in Italy, out of favour and public life. Little is known of his successor, [Trebius Germanus], but he is replaced by Sextus Julius Severus, well known as a top general and trouble shooter; significantly, he was transferred to the Palestine to deal with a rebellion in AD 133.
We know a lot more about the series of wars in the East ending with the conflagration of Bar Kokhba rebellion, but as in Britain, the actual levels of casualties and even the units involved is still a matter of speculation. It is the fact that the two situations are considered comparable that is telling. 
It is clear that Hadrian’s Wall was not a strategic success, perhaps even a disaster, which is not to say that it did not become of value in later periods, or was not a remarkable engineering achievement.
Archaeology, censorship and the politics of ideas.
It is 7 years since I first briefed the Courant about my work on the Wall, it coincided with the Congress of Roman Frontier Studies or Limes Congress 2009 at Newcastle, where this work could have been presented, if it had not been branded worthless by a college, although it might have been considered a courtesy to read it first. [5]
Their principle contribution to Wall studies has been to suppress my research into the evidence for an early rampart, which gives rise to a very different narrative than that sold by universities, English Heritage, Tyne and Wear Museums, and other stakeholders.   Clearly, it is not in the financial interests of institutions to support any research that challenges their product. In addition, commercial pressures to dumb down, have replaced reasoning and interpretive skills with a dependent belief in a text based narrative.  
This is perfectly illustrated by the idea of a “Turf Wall”, first mooted by amateurs in the 1890’s,[6] and confirmed by English Heritage archaeologists as recently as 2009 [7] where adherence to the existing text based narrative completely subverted all the meticulously collected scientific evidence.  
This is a peer reviewed report by England's premier tax payer funded archaeological agency on a World Heritage Site, - but it’s only heritage, nobody died, and frankly, who cares about archaeology beyond the availability of funding, certainly none of the above.   
Unlike science , where innovation and discovery is seen as good, faith based academic subjects like archaeological are dependent of belief in the narrative, so tend to be regressive, and naturally suppress any evidential challenges to conventional wisdom.   The ideas that postholes should contain posts or soil contain stones is challenging for the text based narrative, which has arisen largely independently of the evidence, a product of an academic system too often denuded of any practical understanding of the subject.   
While this is bang on the zeitgeist of a venal post-truth low cost base mediocracy, it's long way from an academic meritocracy.

“The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”― Edmund Burke

Sources & further reading
Previous articles on the Wall; here
[1]  Deturfing Hadrian's Wall; 
http://structuralarchaeology.blogspot.co.uk/2014/12/de-turfing-hadrians-wall_28.html
[2] Breeze, D.J. 2003. "Warfare in Britain and the Building of Hadrian's Wall." Archaeologia Aeliana 32, 13 –16
[3] Hill, P. R. 2006. The construction of Hadrian's Wall. Tempus
[4]. G. C. Dunning, 1945,  Two Fires in Roman London', Ant. J. 25
and 
Roskams, Steve & Watson, Lez 1981 `The Hadrianic fire of London - a reassessment of the evidence' London Archaeol 4, 1981 62-6
[5] [above] The Armstrong Building when it was part of Durham University; for my Father and Grandfather, entering this building marked the beginning of their careers, but for me it was the end, ironically,because my use of simple engineering rather than “cosmology” to model ancient structures could not be understood, a shocking betrayal of our intellectual and regional culture.  If the concept of a 'load bearing wall' is now too advanced for academic staff at PhD level, what is the point of higher education.
[6] see; Hodgson, E. 1897. "Notes on the Excavations on the line of the Roman Wall in Cumberland in 1894 and 1895," Trans Cumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc, o ser, 14, 390-407. And Haverfield, F. 1897. "Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee, 1896," TransCumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc, o ser, 14, 413-433
 p. 114 the pollen  James Wells
 p.116 The plant macrofossils,  Allan Hall,

see also;
Bidwell, P T, 2005 'The system of obstacles on Hadrian's Wall; their extent, date and purpose', Arbeia J, 8, 53-76. 
http://www.arbeiasociety.org.uk/journal.htm

Graafstal, Erik P.: 2012,   Hadrian's haste: a priority programme for the Wall. Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th Series, vol 41, 123–84

Simpson F. G. and I. A. Richmond I.A., 1935, The Turf Wall of Hadrian, 1895-1935, 
The Journal of Roman Studies Vol. 25, (1935), pp. 1-18

Welfare, H. (2000). "Causeways, at Milecastles Across the Ditch of Hadrian’s Wall". Archaeologia Aeliana. 5 (28): 13–25. And Welfare, H. 2004. ‘Variation in the form of the ditch, and of its equivalents, on Hadrian’s Wall’. Archaeologia Aeliana, ser 5, 33, 9-24

Archaeology Magazine

Island Monastery May Be Britain’s First

England earliest monasterySOMERSET, ENGLAND—BBC News reports that radiocarbon dating of human remains unearthed earlier this year at Beckery Chapel revealed that they date to the fifth or early sixth century A.D. “It’s the earliest archaeological evidence we’ve got for monasticism,” said Richard Brunning of the South West Heritage Trust. The wattle-and daub monastery buildings stood on a small island near the future site of Glastonbury Abbey, which dates to the seventh century. In the 1960s, an excavation at Beckery Chapel unearthed 50 to 60 skeletons. Most of the burials contained the remains of adult males, but the bones of two young men, perhaps novice monks, and a woman’s skeleton, thought to have been a visitor, were also found. Further analysis of the bones could reveal whether the monks were locals, or whether they traveled to region to join the monastery. Burials at the cemetery are thought to have stopped in the early ninth century, when the Vikings attacked southwest England. For more, go to “Legends of Glastonbury Abbey.”

December 05, 2016

ArcheoNet BE

Restanten middeleeuws klooster op site Zeemanshuis in Antwerpen

Op de site van het voormalige Zeemanshuis aan de Falconrui in Antwerpen hebben archeologen restanten gevonden van het middeleeuwse O. L.-Vrouwendaalklooster, ook wel Mariëndaal of Falcontinnenklooster genoemd. Het omvangrijke klooster dateert uit de middeleeuwen en werd uitgebreid in de daarop volgende eeuwen. Bij eerdere opgravingen werden al restanten gevonden van de pastorij en van de noordelijke kloostergebouwen. Nu brengen de archeologen de kloosterkerk, delen van het kloosterpand en van bijgebouwen zoals keukens aan het licht. In en naast de kloosterkerk zijn er ook resten van een dertigtal begravingen teruggevonden.

Lees meer op www.antwerpen.be of bekijk onderstaande reportage van ATV.

Centre for the Study of Christian Origins

Reflections on SBL 2016, PT. 2

sbl-reflections-pt-2-novenson

With many of my colleagues and postgrads, I’ve just arrived back home from the Annual Meetings of the AAR and SBL in San Antonio, where Edinburgh was ably represented. Helen Bond spoke in a session on John’s relation to the Synoptic Gospels. Paul Foster spoke in the Q section reviewing new books by Sarah Rollens and Giovanni Bazzana. Larry Hurtado’s new book Destroyer of the Gods was itself the subject of a very interesting panel review. Edinburgh PhD student Teresa McCaskill gave a paper on the ecstasy of Hildegard of Bingen, Daniel Jackson a paper on divine presence in Paul’s Letter to the Romans, and Elijah Hixson on a staurogram in a fragmentary manuscript of John’s Gospel.

For my part, I was a participant, together with David Frankfurter and Kyle Harper, in the panel review of Hurtado’s book, which raised crucial methodological questions about comparison in the study of religion. Larry has written a brief report on the session on his own blog. I was also part of the Extent of Theological Diversity in Earliest Christianity Seminar, where I gave a paper entitled “Whither Messiah Christology?”—an exploration of the curious fate of messiah Christology in early Christianity. I argued that, contrary to a view popular among New Testament scholars (e.g., George MacRae), patrists (e.g., Aloys Grillmeier), and rabbinicists (e.g., Jacob Neusner), it is not the case that early Christian writers abandoned messianism as a category and redefined “Christ” to suit their own theological projects. In fact, the interpretation of Jesus as “messiah” or “anointed” persisted both as a puzzle and as an opportunity for a wide range of early Christian writers, proto-orthodox, proto-heterodox, and otherwise: from Hebrews and Luke-Acts, to Justin and Tertullian, to the Gospel of Philip and the Pseudo-Clementines. The paper explored what these various early Christian messiah texts suggest about the extent of christological diversity in early Christianity. The research summarized in the paper forms a chapter of my new book The Grammar of Messianism: An Ancient Jewish Political Idiom and Its Users (Oxford University Press), forthcoming in March 2017. The book gives a programmatic account of the many, varied uses of the figure of speech “anointed” (“messiah,” “Christ”) in texts spanning the Hellenistic and Roman periods. I’ll have more to say about the book on the CSCO blog in due course; for now I urge readers to keep an eye out for it in the new year.

 

matt-novenson-use

Written By Dr. Matthew Novenson

Turkish Archaeological News

Parion (Kemer)

The ruins of the ancient city of Parion are located on the territory of modern Turkish village of Kemer, in Çanakkale Province, on the coast of the Marmara Sea. The ruins are far from the beaten track, so it is difficult to reach them, and even find interesting information in a language other than Turkish is a challenge. Thanks to intensive archaeological excavations, conducted in Parion, crucial findings are made every year, shedding light on the history of the settlement.

Parion excavations

Robert Consoli (Squinches)

Accuracy vs. Precision in the Mycenaean Atlas Project


"You're traveling through another dimension, 
a dimension not only of sight and sound but of mind. 
A journey into a wondrous land whose boundaries 
are that of imagination. That's the signpost up 
ahead - your next stop, the Twilight Zone."
Rod Serling


In a recent post I talked a little about how precise ideal lat/lon pairs are.  One thing I said was that a measurement to one one-millionth of a degree resolves to about four inches in latitude and longitude (4.4 in. in latitude equals 11.176 cm).  Any system that provides measurements like that is said to have a precision of one one millionth of a degree.   In that discussion I ignored the difference between accuracy and precision.  The lat/Lon pairs I provide from Google Earth have a precision of one one-millionth of a degree.  But there’s the additional question of Google’s accuracy.  Imagine that Google Earth was a giant machine for producing lat/lon pairs.   How accurate are those pairs when they come out of the machine? How close do these pairs come to an idealized model of the earth?  Do Google's numbers accuracy match their precision of representation? No.  It appears that they don't.

This is the same as asking how well Google has fitted its source photography to an ideal representation of the earth.  Do the photographs match the ideal grid of the earth itself?  This is a question worth asking because many operations have to be performed on the aerial photography before it’s presented on-line.

For a brief tour of orthorectification issues see this. In this study the authors checked how well Google's lat/lon pairs matched up with lat/lon pairs from a verified data set. The whole article is worth reading. Their conclusion?

"Using accurate field and photogrammetric measurements (extracted from a cadastral database) as the reference dataset and comparing them against well-defined and inferred locations (CPs) in GE’s medium and high resolution imagery, the estimated horizontal positional accuracy of GE’s imagery over rural areas (5.0 m RMSEr) was found to meet the horizontal accuracy requirements of the ASPRS (1990) for the production of “Class 1” 1:20,000 maps. "[1]

The RMSEr is an estimator of the standard deviation based on model results.  So you could, as a rule of thumb, think of 5 m. as the standard deviation of Google's modeling error.  This would mean that 68% of the time the Google lat/lon pair is within 5 m. of the actual position of the sought-after object and about 32% of the time it's further away than 5 m.

But the authors also add some cautions:

"However, the results also suggest that this accuracy requirement might not be met for rural areas if coordinates are extracted only from GE’s medium resolution imagery or from imagery collected before 2008. Furthermore, despite the results presented here, GE’s imagery should be used with caution due to the presence of large georegistration errors in both GE’s medium and high resolution imagery."[2]

In other words we are being warned against actual positioning and alignment errors in Google Earth's images. This can be easily seen if you pick a specific feature on an image and then drop a marker on it for each of Google's available images at that location. Let's look at an example. Here we have a church in Messenia called the Panagia (37.033444°, 21.737154°). If you look into the field across the road you see a circular field feature (I think that it's a well).



I brought up the 'Show historical imagery' slider and marked that well on each layer. The result was this:


Positions of a field feature based on four different available images in Google Earth
Here we see that the field feature (along with everything else) appears to drift and to appear to be associated to different lat/lon pairs depending on the date. The radius of the circle which includes them all is 11.32 meters. So, there's some surprising drift in Google's image alignments. Not fatal but something to take account of.


And just to emphasize what's going on I also show just the image from the May 20, 2003 plate:


Here the entire image has 'drifted' under the markers (which are fixed) until the
5/20/2003 marker is over the field feature.  Notice the displacement of the 'Panagia' label
which should be over the right-side building on the upper left.  This label is displaced nearly
22 m. from where it started.




So there are several potential sources of error in my DB lat/lon.  The first is the degree of Google’s fidelity to an underlying model of the earth's surface, the second consists of Google's alignment of its images. I should just wrap this up by saying that even though GE provides measurements with a precision of 10^(-6) or one one-millionth of a degree (i.e. about 4 inches) the accuracy it provides is, perhaps, a little better than 10⌃(-4) or one ten-thousandth of a degree which at 37 degrees north latitude is about 353 inches (8.96 meters). And this does not take into account imagery offsets.

The third kind of error is the error I introduce when I choose a lat/lon pair to represent a gazetteer entry.

For my general concept of my own 'Introduced' error let's say that we were looking for the field feature mentioned above (the well) and I had only this (entirely made-up) written description as to its whereabouts:

"The church of the Panagia is a kilometer or so to the northeast of the town of Myrsinochori. About 20 or 30 m. to the east of the driveway leading to the church there is a field feature which consists of a stone circle. It is about 10 m. south of the road ..."

Now, given that I could find the Church of the Panagia at all (it is 1200+ m. in a straight line from the northeast edge of Myrsinochori to the church and nearer 1500 m. by road) I would proceed to follow the directions and mark my field feature in good faith like this (I'm pretending that I can't actually see the feature in GE):



In this map the 'H Line' is 25 m. in length (halfway between 'twenty or thirty' meters).  The 'V Line' is 10 m. in length.  After having drawn both those lines (and, I emphasize, based on the written description) I would put a marker at the S end of the vertical line and advertise the lat/lon pair of that push pin as the location of the sought-for feature.  If I had really proceeded like this I might very well feel that my mark was within ten meters of the real feature.  And I would associate my lat/lon pair (at the yellow push-pin) with an introduced error term of ten meters.  In this case I drew a circle with a ten meter radius centered at the push pin.  This circle does, indeed, touch the field feature I'm trying to mark. 

This introduced error term is intended to reflect how well I think I’ve located the object of interest.  I have defined this error term as the radius of a circle, in meters, centered exactly at my lat/lon pair and which covers some part of the sought-for feature.   For example, if the feature can actually be seen in GE then I mark the feature and set the error term to zero.  In that case the "real" error is reduced simply to Google’s accuracy at that point. Given that the features are of various types a non-zero introduced error radius has several possible meanings.  If my introduced error term is ten then, finding yourself exactly at my lat Lon pair means that you are distant from the object by, at most, 10 meters plus Google’s error.  If Google’s error term is 5 meters then, in the worst case, you are fifteen meters away from the goal.  At best the two errors would offset and you would be 5 meters from your goal.

If I can’t see the feature but the description is constrained in some way, a cave opening or a narrow hill- or ridge-top, then I set the introduced error radius to 10, 20, or perhaps even fifty meters.  When the directions available to me are imprecise but I know generally where the feature “ought to be” then I’ll set the error radius to one hundred or two hundred meters. A feature on a "hill-side" would be the classic example.  Sometimes directions to a small site or find are described as being in a certain town.  In such a case, and with no additional info, I will put a marker on the town but set the error term to ‘N’ or ‘unknown’.   I hope it's clear, from the foregoing, that these introduced error radii are subjective only.  They are merely my opinion about how well I did after taking everything into account.  Of course, they’re not fixed in stone, either.  If I rethink an area or if I receive more accurate information from someone who’s been there then the error term can be driven to zero.  In that sense they’re simply a progress report of accuracy; ultimately my introduced error radii should all be driven to 0.

Remember that even small introduced error radii can specify very large areas.  An error radius of ten meters describes a circle with an area of 314 square meters or 3379.0 square feet which is about half the size of the average house lot.  In my DB that’s the best non-zero case.  A 20 meter radius specifies a circle with an area of about 1256 sq m. or 13519 square feet.  This is about the size of two average house lots.  A 30 meter radius specifies a circle of about 2827 sq m.  A fifty m radius a circle of about 7853 sq m.  If the error radius is 100 m then you should  imagine  a circle with the radius of a football field.  On rocky and rugged terrain (not unknown in Greece) such an object is still lost.  On flat terrain (the golf course at Pylos comes to mind) such a radius might be feasible.  Much larger than that and you should consider the object is still not found in any useful field sense and you’ll want to do additional research before going out to the field.

Finding something successfully also depends on what you’re looking for.  There’s a huge difference between looking for a plainly visible hilltop fort on the one hand or some area where, long ago, some researcher found a single sherd.  In the first case you may have sloppy and inaccurate directions but that makes no difference because you can see the feature from a kilometer away.  In the second case you may have directions that are accurate and precise; you may reach the exact spot and stand exactly in Richard Hope Simpson’s footprints and still not be confident that you have found the right place because, on the day you’re there, no sherds are visible.  In that case the error term takes on the subtle meaning of extent.  It indicates over how much area I think a reported sherd scatter should extend.  An introduced error term can also be interpreted as a degree of confidence. It can designate the area where I'm most confident of finding the feature but, granted, the desired feature may still be outside the circle.

This raises the question about what my lat/lon pairs are intended to facilitate, anyway.  What are they for?  First of all I hope that they can be of some assistance to students who are reading about the Mycenaean sites and have no prior familiarity with where those sites are.  I hope, also, that this DB can be of help to researchers that are planning to go into the field.  But it’s more than that.  My very strong feeling is that, in the field, and no matter what you find, whether it’s a worn, barely recognizable sherd or a palace complex, Datum One is where the object was found, exactly.    Why is location so important when generations of archaeologists have supposed it to be unimportant?  Location is important because only that can relate your specific find to everything else.  For example, how far is it on the average from a BA habitation to a water source?  What’s the standard deviation of that distance?  What’s the average elevation of a BA settlement, tholos, chamber tomb?  Is the average habitation above or below the average BA cemetery?  What’s the average distance from a habitation to its associated cemetery (when such an association can be determined)?  How many BA habitations do we know that were within 100 m of the ocean?  500 m?  1000 m?  Did the Mycenaeans live in the mountains?  What proportion of BA habitations were obviously maritime in orientation or were not so oriented?  How many habitations with a LHIIIB2 burn layer are there and how are they distributed, exactly?   How about some accurate and useful maps of all those variables?  

All of the foregoing questions are quantitative questions/problems/techniques and none of them can be answered without accurate locations, and not only that but accurate locations for every object site in the field of study.  In this respect, at least, every sherd is the equal in significance to every megaron.

Here's a practical example.  Earlier this year Dr. Michael Galaty sent me the URL for an article that he and his colleagues had written about Mycenaean civilization's place in the World System.  The article is here.  It is a very interesting article; part of its purpose is to calculate slopes around various Mycenaean locations in Messenia and in the Argolid.  To obtain the slope for a particular place you divide the change in altitude by the change in distance over which the altitude is measured.  Slope is really just the tangent of the distances involved; the lower the number the smoother the landscape; the higher the number, the steeper the landscape and when the slope approaches infinity you're dealing with a cliff or something like that.  Part of Dr. Galaty's intention was to show that Messenia and the Argolid differ with respect to the generalized concept of slope in their respective landscapes.  I only bring up his article in order to point out that he and his colleagues had to determine, one by one, the exact positions of the Mycenaean sites in which they were interested.  As he says:

"It was a difficult and time-consuming process to identify sites with the accuracy demanded by Geographic Information Systems (GIS), although Google Earth and Hope Simpson and Dickinson’s Gazetteer were indispensable resources in this regard. As a result, only some of the more important sites are included, and they may not be precisely located in our GIS. Though we did not visit each of them with a Global Positioning System (GPS), we are confident that our GIS database is accurate enough and our results meaningful."  (emphasis is mine)

I intend no criticism of this very useful article.  My feeling is just that it's too bad that Dr. Galaty and his colleagues did not have access to a large accurate database of Mycenaean find spots and, consequently, had to perform a lot of work to create the DB they needed. If they're having this kind of difficulty then everyone in the field must be having the same difficulty.


Mycenology is a science.  Experiments in science have to be repeatable.  The definition of repeatable also includes, at a minimum, 'locatable'.

Let's get Mycenology out of the Twilight Zone.



~~~


If you like these posts then please follow me on Twitter (Squinchpix) or on Google+   (Robert Consoli)

Anyone who wants a copy of my Mycenaean DB or an importable file to Google Earth with some 1400+ Mycenaean find-spots accurately located just leave a comment here or send me an e-mail at bobconsoli (at) gmail.com


By the way, I've just learned that Hope-Simpson and Dickinson's Gazetteer (1979) to which I've never had access (over $100.00 most places) is for sale, brand-new, by the publishers (Astrom Editions) for about 32 euro.  With shipping it should be around $40.00.  

Notes

[1] Paredes-Hernandez et al. [2013], p. 598.
[2] Idem.
[3] Galaty [2012], 450, 'Landscapes'.

Bibliography

Galaty [2012]: Galaty, Michael L. and William A. Parkinson, Daniel J. Pullen, Rebecca M. Seifried. "Mycenaean-scapes: Geography, Political Economy, and the Eastern Mediterranean World-System", in Physis. L'Environnement Naturel et la Relation Homme-Milieu dans le Monde Égéen Protohistorique, pp. 449-454 and Plates CXXXVII to CXLI. In Actes de la 14e Rencontre égéenne internationale, Paris, Institute National d'Histoire de l'Art (INHA), 11-14 décembre 2012. Edd. Gilles Touchais, Robert Laffineur et Francoise Rougement. 2012. Online here.

Paredes-Hernandez et al. [2013]: Paredes-Hernandez, Cutberto and Wilver Enrique Salinas-Castillo, Francisco Guevara-Cortina, Xicotencatl Martinez-Becerra, "Horizontal Positional Accuracy of Google Earth's Imagery over Rural Areas: A Study Case in Tamaulipas, Mexico", Boletim de Ciências Geodésicas, vol.19 no.4 Curitiba Oct./Dec. 2013. Online here.

Current Epigraphy

Conference on Greek numerals in inscriptions

International Conference “Epigrammata 4. L’uso dei numeri greci nelle iscrizioni”

16-17 December 2016

Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Sala R. Pretagostini, Via Columbia 1, Rome

Programme attached

Epigrammata 4 – Programma

Research project on epigraphic forgeries

The Italian Ministry of Education has recently funded a three-year National Research Project (PRIN) on fake Roman inscriptions. The Project, entitled “False testimonianze. Copie, contraffazioni, manipolazioni e abusi del documento epigrafico antico”, is led by ASGLE and BES member Lorenzo Calvelli, tenured lecturer in Roman History and Latin Epigraphy at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. The project goals include: (1) the creation of an open-access online database of fake inscriptions called EDF (Epigraphic Database Falsae), (2) the organization of an international conference on epigraphic forgeries and the publication of its proceedings, and (3) the organization of two temporary exhibits in Venice and Rome. Project participants include scholars from the Universities of Venice, Rome, Bari, Genoa, Pisa, Macerata, Trieste, Milan, Verona, Turin, and Bologna. The project will last from February 2017 to January 2020. For further information, please contact lorenzoc@unive.it

Archaeology Briefs

ARTIFACTS FOUND ON SCHOOL GROUNDS IN UPSTATE NEW YORK THAT ARE OVER 3,000 YEARS OLD


During the rebuilding of its elementary school, officials from the Owego Apalachin Central School District brought in the Binghamton University Public Archaeology Facility (PAF) to help examine the school grounds. During the excavation, the BU team unearthed Native American artifacts that are over 3,000 years old. After the building was destroyed by flooding during Tropical Storm Lee in 2011, the BU PAF was hired by the district in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as they rebuilt the school.

According to the act, if construction is to be done on public land, a section of the area must first be examined to determine if it meets one of the criteria for a historic site. These criteria include the site having significance to the formation of the United States or native populations, importance to cultural foundations of the nation and the preservation of the area in a way that benefits the public’s understanding of history. In its excavation, the archaeological group found over 500 prehistoric artifacts, including multiple projectile points from spears or darts. The dating of the artifacts placed them around 1,500 B.C. before the invention of the bow and arrow. In addition, researchers were able to determine that the artifacts were likely left by a nomadic group during a nut collection based on hickory and butternut shells preserved in the area.

The funds and permits for the excavation were provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which also provided assistance in the area following the tropical storm. The BU PAF was called in because of their prior relationship working with the school to put on different educational programs for elementary school students and their proximity to the site. According to Nina Versaggi, director of the PAF and an associate professor of anthropology, the facility moved through a three-phase process while in communication with both FEMA and district officials.

First, they determined if there was an archaeological site at the elementary school by examining the soil for artifacts. Next, the site was considered according to the guidelines put out in the National Historic Preservation Act to determine if it had historical significance to Native American tribes. After the excavation, FEMA communicated with Native American groups, from the Onondaga and Seneca Nations, so that their wishes for the preservation of the artifacts could be taken into account.

Among the requests from the Onondoga representative was to put on a program, with the PAF, for the children who attend Owego Apalachin Elementary School about the artifacts found beneath their school. Andrea Kozub, the project director and faunal analyst for the PAF, helped work on-site in the discovery of the artifacts. She felt that smaller archaeological sites had not been properly utilized in understanding prehistoric life. “In the past, the importance of smaller encampments the Owego Elementary School were overlooked or the sites were dismissed with little investigation, and yet we know that people were not living in big villages all the time,” Kozub wrote in an email. “They used the whole landscape in a variety of ways. So preserving the information about these sites before they are impacted by construction is essential to having a three dimensional understanding of how people lived.”

Versaggi hoped that the discovery of prehistoric artifacts locally could help remind people that even though they can feel very far from the prehistoric past, it is still an important part of human heritage.

OLDEST AXE EVER FOUND IN EUROPE UNCOVERED IN IRELAND'S EARLIEST RECORDED BURIAL


About 9,000 years ago, Mesolithic humans in Ireland buried someone important on the banks of the River Shannon in Hermitage, County Limerick. The burial, originally uncovered in 2001, is notable for several reasons. First, according to a press release, it is the earliest recorded burial in Ireland. Second, the remains were cremated, which was unusual since in most burials of this period bodies were covered intact. The site also had a large wooden post planted near it, marking the site, another unusual feature for burials in Europe.

But new analysis of a polish adze or axe head recovered from the grave is changing the story of Ireland’s early inhabitants even more. Laura Geggel at LiveScience reports that the axe, made of shale, appeared little used, meaning it was likely an object created to accompany the deceased. Researchers took a closer look at the axe and found that the axe was probably never used as a tool and that tip was intentionally blunted, perhaps as a funerary rite symbolizing the owner’s death. The research appears in the Cambridge Archaeological Journal.

“This type of insight into burial practices is incredibly rare for this part of the world,” Aimée Little, an archaeologist at the University of York and lead author of the study tells Geggel. “Nine thousand years ago, people in Ireland were making very high-quality artifacts specifically to be placed in graves.”

The polished axe is probably the oldest such axe ever found in Europe. According to the press release, it’s also something of an anachronism. “The adze is exceptional as we traditionally associate polished axes and adzes like this with the arrival of agriculture in Europe, around 3000 years later,” says Ben Elliott, an archeologist at York and co-author. “Although polished axes and adzes are known from pre-agricultural sites in Ireland and other parts of Europe, to find such a well-made, highly polished and securely dated example is unprecedented for this period of prehistory.”

Little tells Fiona Gartland at The Irish Times that the axe shows that people in Ireland at that time weren’t just hunter-gatherers eking out an existence. They had a well-developed culture that included taking care of the dead. “You have really, very complex behavior at play here, in terms of the making and treatment of the adze as part of the funerary rights,” says Little. “We make the argument it was probably commissioned for the burial and was probably used as part of the funerary rights, possibly to cut the wood for the pyre for the cremation, or to cut the tree used as the grave post marker.” The cremation too, which requires a fire between 645 and 1,200 degrees would have also required some know-how and experience, Little tells Gartland. In fact, she says whoever prepared the grave took painstaking effort to pick up every tiny fragment of bone to put in the burial.

While the axe may prove to be the oldest polished axe in Europe, it is by no means the oldest in the world. That distinction goes to a 49,000-year-old stone axe found in Australia in May.



Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/europes-oldest-polished-axe-found-ireland-180961043/#6UzHFbiXgvklyEbA.99
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Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

Lark ascending: Paradiso 20


The simile of the lark that comes in the middle of Paradiso 21 reminded me of a lovely piece by Bernard de Ventadorn:



 

When I see the lark beat his wings
for joy against the sun’s ray,
until he forgets to fly and plummets down,
for the sheer delight which goes to his heart,
alas, great envy comes to me
of those whom I see filled with happiness,
and I marvel that my heart
does not instantly melt from desire.Alas, I thought I knew so much about love,

and really I know so little,
for I cannot keep myself from loving her
from whom I shall have no favor.
She has stolen from me my heart, myself,
herself, and all the world.
When she took herself from me, she left me nothing
but desire and a longing heart.

Never have I been in control of myself
or even belonged to myself from the hour
that she let me gaze into her eyes-
that mirror that pleases me so greatly.
Mirror, since I saw myself reflected in you,
deep sighs have been killing me.
I have lost myself, just as
handsome Narcissus lost himself in the fountain.

I despair of women,
no more will I trust them,
and just as I used to defend them,
now I shall denounce them.
Since I see that none aids me
against her who destroys and confounds me,
I fear and distrust them all
for I know well they are all alike.

In this my lady certainly shows herself
to be a woman, and for it I reproach her,
for she wants not that which one ought to want,
and what is forbidden, she does.
I have fallen out of favor
and have behaved like the fool on the bridge;
and I don’t know why it happened
except because I tried to climb too high.

Mercy is lost, in truth,
though I never received it,
for she who should possess it most
has none, so where shall I seek it?
Ah, one who sees her would scarcely guess
that she just leaves this passionate wretch
(who will have no good without her)
to die, and gives no aid.

Since with my lady neither prayers nor mercy
nor my rights avail me,
and since she is not pleased
that I love her, I will never speak of it to her again.
Thus I part from her, and leave;
she has killed me, and by death I respond,
since she does not retain me, I depart,
wretched, into exile, I don’t know where.

Tristan, you will have nothing from me,
for I depart, wretched, I don’t know where.
I quit and leave off singing
and withdraw from joy and love.


===

Can vei la lauzeta mover

de joi sas alas contra.l rai,
que s’oblid’ e.s laissa chazer
per la doussor c’al cor li vai,
ai! tan grans enveya m’en ve
de cui qu’eu veya jauzion,
meravilhas ai, car desse
lo cor de desirer no.m fon.

Archaeology Briefs

ROME'S COLOSSEUM IS HAVING PROBLEMS STABILIZING THE CRACKS IN THE WALLS

A row over the future of Rome's metro is threatening to delay urgent work to stabilize the Colosseum, adding to fears for the ancient amphitheatre after Italy's recent earthquakes caused troubling cracks in its exterior walls. The 2,000-year-old, partly-ruined structure was allocated four million euros in 2014 to carry out reinforcements deemed necessary to offset the impact of tunneling for a new underground train line which will pass close by. But the money was never released and guardians of the city's architectural heritage now fear it never will be after new mayor Virginia Raggi announced she plans to dissolve the underground company, Roma Metropolitana.

"By liquidating Roma Metropolitana, the mayor has left us without anyone to deal with regarding the financing needed for the urgent strengthening of the Colosseum," a spokesman for the superintendent of the city's archaelogical treasures told AFP. The superintendent himself, Francesco Prosperetti, has warned that he will seek to block any further work on the still-unfinished metro extension if the funds are not released. "The Colosseum cannot wait any longer," Prosperetti told Italian media. "As a citizen I would not like to delay the metro but as the defender of this monument I may not have any choice."

Raggi has said work on the metro project will continue with new management progressively replacing Roma Metropolitana, an organization she has accused of overseeing the "shameful squandering of public funds." The new line is supposed to run from the city center to the eastern suburbs. Most of it opened last year but the final section, which will bring it into the Colosseum area and connect with the capital's two other metro lines, remains unfinished.

Started in 2007 with a budget of 2.2 billion euros ($2.4 billion), the work is now forecast to cost at least 3.7 billion and Raggi has put plans for a northern extension of the line on indefinite hold. Earthquakes in central Italy on August 24th, October 26th and October 30th were powerful enough in Rome to result in a number of new cracks appearing in the Colosseum's exterior walls. But Italy's top tourist attraction has remained open to the public. The landmark site has survived dozens of earthquakes over the centuries although it was a tremor that led to the collapse of its southern wall in 1703.

Prosperetti said work was most urgently required on interior walls in the top section of the structure, which is not open to the public.
The exterior of the Colosseum has recently been given a facelift thanks to a three-year clean-up financed by the upmarket fashion and footwear company Tod's.

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

DNA Evidence Of Malaria Found In Imperial-Era Skeletons In Southern Italy

An international group of researchers have identified malaria in skeletons from southern Italy during the Roman Empire.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Researchers find overwhelming evidence of malaria's existence 2,000 years ago

An analysis of 2,000-year-old human remains from several regions across the Italian peninsula has...

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Pop Mythology Reviews Theology and Science Fiction

There is a review of Theology and Science Fiction on the blog Pop Mythology. In it, Matt Hlinak argues the case that I ought to have spent more time interacting in detail with specific stories, especially as an alternative to including three very short stories of my own. It is a fair point, and I acknowledged the dilemma of [Read More...]

The post Pop Mythology Reviews Theology and Science Fiction appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

Byzantine News

New Translation: Stories of Holy Men of Mount Athos



Often simply called the Holy Mountain, Mount Athos was the most famous center of Byzantine monasticism and remains the spiritual heart of the Orthodox Church today. This volume presents the Lives of Euthymios the Younger, Athanasios of Athos, Maximos the Hutburner, Niphon of Athos, and Philotheos. These five holy men lived on Mount Athos at different times from its early years as a monastic locale in the ninth century to the last decades of the Byzantine period in the early fifteenth century. All five were celebrated for asceticism, clairvoyance, and, in most cases, the ability to perform miracles; Euthymios and Athanasios were also famed as founders of monasteries.

Holy Men of Mount Athos illuminates both the history and the varieties of monastic practice on Athos, individually by hermits as well as communally in large monasteries.

The Lives also demonstrate the diversity of hagiographic composition and provide important glimpses of Byzantine social and political history.All the Lives in this volume are presented for the first time in English translation, together with authoritative editions of their Greek texts.

Click here to read more

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

LATIN PLACE NAMES found in the imprints of books printed before 1801

[First posted in AWOL 13 August 2011, updated 5 December 2016]

LATIN PLACE NAMES found in the imprints of books printed before 1801 and their vernacular equivalents in AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules) form
A note on orthography: This database was compiled from the imprint information in cataloging records of several Anglo-American research libraries. Because these records were created over a long period of time and under different standards and rules of transcription, the orthography of the place names with respect to I/J and U/V/W does not necessarily reflect what was found in the original. Therefore, the orthography is standardized in this database. I/J will always be transcribed “I”; U/V will be transcribed “V” for upper case, and “u” for lower case; “VV,” “uu,” “Vu,” etc., will be transcribed “W.”

Main entry points for names are given in the locative case, as they generally appear in the books. Other forms, if they appear in early printed books, are given as cross references.

Places whose jurisdictions have changed over time may have more than one valid AACR2 form. Second and subsequent valid forms will be preceded by an equals sign (=). In the case of identical Latin forms that refer to different modern locations, the various AACR2 forms are presented without connecting equals signs.

Main entries accompanied by an asterisk (*) have a note giving the documentation for the place name. The main sources are:
  • R.A. Peddie, Place Names in Imprints : An Index to the Latin and Other Forms Used on Title Pages (1968) [cited as: Peddie]
  • J.G.T. Graesse, F. Benedict, and H. Plechl, Orbis Latinus : Lexikon lateinischer geographischer Namen des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit (1972) [cited as: Graesse]
Additional Resources

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z

New AMBROSIA Launched

New AMBROSIA Launched
 ASCSA
We are pleased to announce the launch of our new union online catalogue AMBROSIA! Home to the catalogues of the Gennadius, Blegen, Wiener Laboratory, and the British School, the new Ambrosia is simpler and easier to use.
New features include the ability to limit your search to books or journals only in a general keyword search. 

 
One can conduct a more advanced search by author, title, series, subject, publication date, publication place and more. 

 
Users can even simply browse through the titles.

 
Each catalogue can be both searched through and browsed through independently.

 
Our favorite updated feature is the inventory of new books added to the collection, listed month by month. 

 
Try it out here.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Centuries-old rental agreement unearthed in Turkey’s İzmir

Excavations that are ongoing in the ancient city of Teos in İzmir’s Seferihisar have unearthed a...

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

Boule and demos in Miletus and its Pontic colonies

Nawotka, Krz. (2014) : Boule and demos in Miletus and its Pontic colonies, Wiesbaden. Cet ouvrages réédition d’un ouvrage plus ancien, s’intéresse au processus législatif à Milet et dans ses colonies pontiques d’Apollonia à Olbia.  À travers l’étude des inscriptions … Lire la suite

BiblePlaces Blog

Was Paul Heading for Alexandria?

At last month’s meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, Mark Wilson suggested in a lunch gathering sponsored by Tuktu Tours that Paul’s original destination on his first journey was not Galatia but Alexandria. This talk was based on an article that he co-authored with Thomas W. Davis that is available at the website of Pharos Journal of Theology. I thought that a brief sketch of their argument might be of interest to readers here.

The discovery that the proconsul Sergius Paulus hailed from Antioch near Pisidia has previously led to speculation that it was his influence that led Paul and Barnabas to travel there from Paphos. This seems even more reasonable given an understanding of the island of Cyprus. Paphos had strong ties with Alexandria, a situation encouraged by the prevailing winds which made sailing south from Paphos the norm, but sailing north to Perga unusual. If Paul had been intending to head north, Wilson argues that he would have traveled not to Paphos but to Cyprus’s northern coast.

John Mark’s desertion at Perga also may suggest that Paul’s plan had changed. With the new itinerary, Mark may have felt freed from his commitment to serve the team. Later Paul and Barnabas parted ways because of their disagreement over Mark, and Barnabas took his cousin back to Cyprus. It could well be that from there Barnabas and Mark continued on to the original destination of Alexandria.

That Mark did missionary work in Alexandria and North Africa is supported by his Gospel and church tradition. In Mark 15:21, the writer mentions Simon of Cyrene (in North Africa) and his sons Alexander and Rufus, a comment that suggests personal acquaintance. The church historian Eusebius writes that Mark started the church in Alexandria and was later martyred there. His tomb is located in Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Alexandria. This suggests that Mark did indeed spend time here, and it may support the theory that Paul’s original destination was Alexandria. As for why Paul never traveled to this city, given that it held one of the largest Jewish populations in the world, it may be that by the time that Paul turned his gaze back in that direction, he recognized that this was no longer an area “where Christ was not known” and so he opted to travel elsewhere.

You can read the full argument of Davis and Wilson in their journal article. You might also enjoy Wilson’s 2016 article in Adalya, “Saint Paul in Pamphylia: Intention, Arrival, Departure,” available through his academia page.

Alexandria, Saint Mark's Cathedral, adr1603268481

St. Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in Alexandria

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

New AMBROSIA Launched

The online home to the catalogues of the Gennadius, Blegen,Wiener Laboratory, and the British School, the new AMBROSIA is simpler and easier to use.

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

More on Mobilizing the Past

Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future: The Potential of Digital Archaeology is the most recent book from The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota continues to produce downloads, sales, and page views. 

If you feel like the prospect of a free download or a $20 book is just too much of a commitment, then check out editor Jody Gordon’s summary of the book’s scope and perspective. He presented this paper at the recent American Schools of Oriental Research annual meeting and released it to the world under a CC-By license. So rather than read something blather I’ve hacked out, go and read Jody’s summary.

MtPbannercolor

(And if you’re still hungry for more, go and check out the next book from The Digital Press, Micah Bloom’s Codex. We’re doing a very quiet little conversation and preview here.)

Unnamed 4


Archaeological News on Tumblr

The Cholula pyramid and the fight for its preservation

Puebla, Mexico - Cholula is a seemingly unremarkable village three hours from Mexico City, the...

Beckery Chapel near Glastonbury 'earliest known UK monastic life'

Skeletons unearthed at a site said to have been visited by King Arthur are the oldest example of...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: The Societas Magica Newsletter

[First posted in AWOL 14 December 2011, updated 5 December 2016]

The Societas Magica Newsletter
http://w.societasmagica.org/themes/default/images/SMN_head.gif
The Societas Magica is an organization dedicated to furthering communication and exchange among scholars interested in the study of magic, both in the positive contexts of its expression as an area of necessary knowledge or religious practice (as in early modern occultism and contemporary paganism), and in its negative contexts as the substance of an accusation or condemnation (as in sorcery trials, and many philosophical and theological accounts, both early and late). The interests of our membership include, but are not limited to, the history and sociology of magic; theological, and intellectual apprehensions of magic; practices and theories of magic; and objects, artifacts and texts either qualified as magical by their creators, or forming the substance of an accusation of magic by others.

Spring_2015_Issue_32
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Women, Ritual, Power, and Mysticism in the Testament of Job
Rebecca Lesses
Fall_2014_Issue_31
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Ciphers and Secrecy Among the Alchemists: A Preliminary Report
Agnieszka Rec
Spring_2014_Issue_30
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Warding Off Doom in Mesopotamia and the Bible
Marian Broida
Fall_2013_Issue_29
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Objects as Demonic Subjects in Spiritual Warfare Handbooks
Sean McCloud









Spring_2013_Issue_28
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A Report on Current Magical and Esoteric Blogs
Laura Mitchell
Spring_2012_Issue_27
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Bewitched in their privities: Medical Responses to Infertility Witchcraft in Early Modern England
Jennifer Evans
Fall_2011_Issue_26
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Purification in the Papyrae Graecae Magicae
Jonathan Shen
Spring_2011_Issue_25
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Magic as the Basis for Social Cohesion in pre-Islamic Mesopotamia
Siam Bhayro
Fall_2010_Issue_24
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Some Observations on Jewish Love Magic: The Importance of Cultural Specificity
Ortal-Paz Saar
Spring_2010_Issue_23
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Clerical Magic in Icelandic Folklore
Thomas B. de Mayo
Fall_2009_Issue_22
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Developing a Curriculum on the History of Esotericism and Magic in Colombia
Johann F.W. Hasler
Spring_2009_Issue_21
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Magical Letters, Mystical Planets: Magic, Theosophy, and Astrology in the Sefer Yetsirah and two of its Tenth-century Commentaries
Marla Segol
Fall_2008_Issue_20
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Theses de magia
Marco Pasi
Fall_2007_Issue_18
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Up on the Roof: Understanding an Anglo-Saxon Healing Practice
K. A. Laity
Spring_2007_Issue_17
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The Key of Solomon: Toward a Typology of the Manuscripts
Robert Mathiesen
Fall_2006_Issue_16
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Real, Apparent and Illusory Necromancy: Lamp Experiments and Historical Perceptions of Experimental Knowledge
Robert Goulding
Spring_2006_Issue_15
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“Pictures passing before the mind’s eye”: the Tarot, the Order of the Golden Dawn, and William Butler Yeats’s Poetry
Anke Timmermann
Fall_2005_Issue_14
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Approaches To Teaching the History, Practice, and Material Culture of Magic: A Roundtable on Pedagogy
Amelia Carr
Fall_2004_Issue_13
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Magic and Impotence in the Middle Ages
Catherine Rider
Spring_2004_Issue_12
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What is and is not Magic: the case of Anglo-Saxon Prognostics
Roy M. Liuzza
Fall_2003_Issue_11
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Islamic Magical Texts vs. Magical Artefacts
Emilie Savage-Smith
Spring_2003_Issue_10
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A Magic All Its Own
Michael D. Swartz
Summer_2002_Issue_9
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John of Morigny's Liber Visionum and a Royal Prayer Book from Poland
Claire Fanger and Benedek Láng
SMN_Winter_2001_Issue_8
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Images of Desire
Geoffrey McVey
Spring_2001_Issue_7
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Magic in the Cloister
Sophie Page
Fall_2000_Issue_6
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Encounters with Amulets
Peter Murray Jones
Fall_1998_Issue_5
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Issue on Pedagogy
Carol Menning
Fall_1997_Issue_4
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The Warburg Institute: History and Current Activities
Will F. Ryan
Fall_1996_Issue_3
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Sessions and Papers on magic at Kalamazoo
Claire Fanger
Spring_1996_Issue_2
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A Report on Recent Work on Charms
Lea Olson
Fall_1995_Issue_1
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Introduction of Societas Magica Newsletter
Richard Kieckhefer

AIA Fieldnotes

Commercial Networks and Cultural Connections in Thrace: Evaluating the Pottery Evidence

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Mimar Sinan Fine Arts Universiy/Istanbul; Uludag University/Bursa
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
conference
Start Date: 
Wednesday, April 26, 2017 to Friday, April 28, 2017

"Commercial Networks and Cultural Connections in Thrace: Evaluating the Pottery Evidence"

International Congress for Thracian Pottery
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University/Istanbul, 26-28 April 2017

Location

Name: 
Prof. Dr. Zeynep Erdem, Dr. Reyhan Sahin
Call for Papers: 
yes
CFP Deadline: 
December 30, 2016

ArcheoNet BE

BNA-contactdagen op 18-19 mei in Gent: call for sessions

De Contactdagen voor Belgische en Nederlandse archeologen en bouwhistorici (BNA) 2017 zullen plaatsvinden op donderdag 18 en vrijdag 19 mei in De Zwarte Doos in Gentbrugge. De BNA-dagen worden georganiseerd door Stadsarcheologie Gent en de Stichting Promotie Archeologie (SPA). Geïnteresseerde sprekers kunnen al reageren op de ‘call for sessions’.

Voorlopig werden volgende thema’s al geselecteerd:
-Leder (sites en productie)
-Middeleeuwse stadsversterkingen
-Middeleeuwse ontginningen
-Maritiem archeologisch onderzoek
-Actualiteit: recente archeologische bevindingen

Wie een presentatie wenst te verzorgen, kan tot 15 februari 2017 contact opnemen met Stadsarcheologie Gent via stadsarcheologie@stad.gent.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Spontaneous Singing in the Bible

As I prepare to teach my course on the Bible and music next semester, I’ve been thinking more about the music behind and in the Bible, as well as music that takes up the already-existing Bible and works with it. As I think about the depictions of spontaneous singing by individuals (or what is often so construed [Read More...]

The post Spontaneous Singing in the Bible appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

ArcheoNet BE

Duizend jaar orakelen in Egypte

Op zondag 11 december geeft prof. Willy Clarysse (KU Leuven) in het Brusselse Jubelparkmuseum een aperitieflezing over Egyptische orakels. Orakels waren in Egypte al goed bekend vanaf het Nieuwe Rijk, maar in de lezing concentreert Clarysse zich op de periode vanaf Alexander de Grote tot de komst van de Islam.

Orakelvragen uit die tijd worden neergeschreven op kleine papyrusbriefjes, waarbij de godheid kiest tussen een positieve en een negatieve vraag. Aanvankelijk zijn ze geschreven in het demotisch en gericht aan Egyptische goden, later zijn ze in het Grieks en in het Koptisch en gericht aan Christus of aan een lokale heilige. Een heel ander type zijn de ‘do-it-yourself oracles’, waarbij vooral het orakel van Astrampsychus veel succes kende, tot ver in de Middeleeuwen. Meer info op www.kmkg.be.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

Blegen Library holiday hours

During the Christmas holiday period, the Blegen Library will be closed to visitors on the following days: December 24, 26, 31 and January 6. No new cards will be issued and no orientations will take place between December 24th and January 6th.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Pirqé Rabbi Eliezer Electronic Text Editing Project

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/PxZGae8U0O4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

DSS conference in Paris

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/yO3t6c2guCY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Vetus Latina Workshop in Wuppertal, Germany

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/cSY3b73c5lA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Jewish-Christian Studies Position

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/o0gL-vv5Ars" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Palmyra loot seized in Geneva

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/Y0fU2bWt0Sg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Computational Color Imaging Workshop: aperta la call for papers

Aperta la Call for Papers per il sesto "Computational Color Imaging Workshop" che si terrà a Milano dal 29 al 31 marzo 2017.

ArcheoNet BE

ARON bvba zoekt medewerkers

aronlogo16Het archeologische projectbureau ARON bvba uit Tongeren is op zoek naar gemotiveerde veldarcheologen (junior en medior) voor verschillende vooronderzoeken en opgravingen, hoofdzakelijk gesitueerd in de provincie Limburg. Er wordt van je verwacht dat je zowel in groep als zelfstandig kan werken. Aanvankelijk zal het accent liggen op het opbouwen van veldervaring, maar je doorloopt op termijn het volledige traject van een archeologisch onderzoek, gaande van bureauonderzoek en het uitvoeren van het veldwerk, tot de vondstverwerking, het digitaliseren van de velddata en de rapportage na afloop.

Je beschikt over uitstekende communicatieve vaardigheden, zowel mondeling als schriftelijk en je kan vlot werken met Ms Word en Excel. Ervaring met het werken in Ms Access, Autocad of met een GIS-systeem zijn een pluspunt. Ook expertise in materiaalverwerking is een voordeel. Wegens de aard van het werk is het in het bezit zijn van een rijbewijs B een noodzaak. Kans op vaste indiensttreding.

Geïnteresseerden mogen hun digitale CV en motivatiebrief doorsturen naar Elke Wesemael (ARON bvba, Neremweg 110, 3700 Tongeren – +32(0)12/225.250). Deze sollicitatieronde wordt afgesloten op 31 december 2016.

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

L'esperienza dei ricercatori nei laboratori dell'infrastruttura E-RIHS

Mecoledì 14 dicembre alle ore 10 a Lucca si svolgerà l'incontro con i ricercatori di E-RIHS, che raccontano la loro esperienza nei laboratori fissi e mobili dell’infrastruttura IPERION CH.it e illustrano i risultati del loro lavoro alle prese con l’arte: esami diagnostici su quadri, sculture, mosaici, etc. eseguiti con il supporto delle strumentazioni e delle competenze di IPERION CH.it.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Από τον ύστερο ρωμαϊκό mundus στον πρώιμο βυζαντινό κόσμον. Η μετάβαση μέσα από τη νομισματοκοπία

December 12, 2016 - 11:26 AM - NUMISMATIC SEMINAR Ευάγγελος Μαλαδάκης - Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2016.12.04: Ἰουλιανοῦ τοῦ Σύρου, Ἐπιστολὲς στὸν φιλόσοφο Ἰάμβλιχο, εἰσαγωγή, μετάφραση, σχόλια. Βιβλιοθηκή αρχαίων συγγράφεων 27

Review of Eleni Fassa, Ἰουλιανοῦ τοῦ Σύρου, Ἐπιστολὲς στὸν φιλόσοφο Ἰάμβλιχο, εἰσαγωγή, μετάφραση, σχόλια. Βιβλιοθηκή αρχαίων συγγράφεων 27. Athènes: 2016. Pp. 120. €13.78. ISBN 9789602692783.

2016.12.03: Greek Incubation Rituals in Classical and Hellenistic Times. Kernos. Supplément, 29

Review of Hedvig von Ehrenheim, Greek Incubation Rituals in Classical and Hellenistic Times. Kernos. Supplément, 29. Liège: 2015. Pp. 282. €35.00 (pb). ISBN 9782875620859.

2016.12.02: Ancient Warfare: Introducing Current Research, Volume 1

Review of Geoff Lee, Helène Whittaker, Graham Wrightson, Ancient Warfare: Introducing Current Research, Volume 1. Newcastle upon Tyne: 2015. Pp. xvi, 361. £24.99. ISBN 9781443876940.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Συλλογή βυζαντινών σφραγίδων άρτου του Μουσείου Λούλη των Μύλων Αγίου Γεωργίου

December 13, 2016 - 9:29 AM - LECTURE Ιωάννα Κολτσίδα -Μακρή, Επίτιμη Διευθύντρια Βυζαντινών Αρχαιοτήτων και Γενική Γραμματέας του Σωματείου

Μια μουσική ερμηνεία του Α΄ Πίνακα του Πιτσά

December 12, 2016 - 9:25 AM - LECTURE Νίκος Ξανθούλης, Δρ Μουσικολογίας, Συνθέτης, Ερευνητής της Αρχαίας Ελληνικής Μουσικής.

Νέο ψηφιδωτό δάπεδο στο Ακάκι (Κύπρος)

December 15, 2016 - 9:17 AM - LECTURE Φρύνη Χατζηχριστοφή, Τμήμα Αρχαιοτήτων Κύπρου

Das DAI Athen und die Aktivitäten deutscher Archäologen in Griechenland

December 12, 2016 - 9:09 AM - Tagung DAI Forschungscluster 5

Εκδήλωση εις μνήμην του Ευάγγελου Κακαβογιάννη

December 05, 2016 - 8:53 AM - ΕΚΔΗΛΩΣΗ Ο. Κακαβογιάννη, Σ. Κουρσούμης

Λατόμηση σφονδύλων κιόνων στην ευρύτερη περιοχή της Κορινθίας

December 15, 2016 - 8:44 AM - LECTURE Δημήτρης Μπάρτζης, Αρχιτέκτων Ε.Μ.Π., M.Sc

The Adonia: phenomenological readings of Greek religion

December 13, 2016 - 8:42 AM - GREEK RELIGION SEMINAR Chryssanthi Papadopoulou

From Production to Burials. Recent Fieldwork on a Ceramic Kiln in Thesprotia

December 13, 2016 - 8:39 AM - LECTURE Tommi Turmo

Bodily functions: Drinking to excess in Archaic Greece

December 12, 2016 - 8:37 AM - UPPER HOUSE SEMINAR Professor Alan Shapiro (W.H. Collins Vickers Professor of Archaeology Emeritus, Johns Hopkins University)

December 04, 2016

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

New life for an old post office

Frist-lobby-700x450

It was only a day trip we made to Nashville, but there was time for a bit more viewing than just the Parthenon. Pretty much as a shot in the dark, and armed only with sketchy guidebook on the iPad, we opted to go to the Frist Center for the Visual Arts. It turned out to be a very lucky choice (and not only because it had a rather nice caff attached).

The Frist has been converted out of what was the old main post office in town -- one of the grandest and most distinguished post office, you could ever hope to enter, in the finest and most extravagant art deco style.

FristWinter391x257

And with the most wonderful details and vistas (this photo of the stair well by Jay Farkas).

FriststairwellInterior_byJayFarkas_7439sm-450x0

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The Frist doesn't have a permanent collection, so it was a question of deciding which of the temporary shows to have a look at. We ruled out the Samurai exhibition (Japanese soldiery, being not much our cup of tea), and opted instead, a bit tentatively, for Ragnar Kjartansson's nine-screen video installation, The Visitors. We ended up staying more or less the full hour it lasted.

It was completely and compulsively mesmerising. The whole thing is set in the decaying splendour of the Astors' "Rokeby Farm" in New York state. Eight screens show individual musicians playing alone but together, in separate rooms connected to each other by head phones (just occasionally they go and visit each other). That's Kjartansson himself with the guitar in the bath...

RK_The_Visitors_04_Elisabet_Davids-675x450

And the ninth screen shows the house's residents and assorted friends on the verandah.

The dominant line sung repeatedly is "Once again I fall into my feminine ways", from a poem by Kjartansson's ex-wife. In some sense, though I wouldn't like to say exactly what, the whole thing (right up to the end, when the asssembled musical company plus residents walk off across the countryside) seemed to be an elegy for a dead marriage. And it just kept you looking, revelling in the tiniest details (like how Kjartansson got out of the bath, when the others took a cigarette break, and so on). And it was enlivened by the general jollity of the other viewers, who found themselves as surprised as we were that they were enjoying it quite so much.

We came home congratulating ourselves on the find, and how amazing it was to go all the way to Nashville to discover the work of this Icelandic guy we really liked... and other such slightly self-satisfied thoughts. The self-satisfaction was immediately rather punctured by the son, however, who pointed out that the same installation had actually been at the Barbican a couple of months ago. Not only had we missed it, we hadn't even noticed.

I wouldn't have skipped the old post office for the world, but we hadn't actually needed to go to Tennessee to discover The Visitors.

Archaeology Briefs

TOLEDO USA MUSEUM SELLING ANTIQUITIES DESPITE PROTESTS

According to the AP, despite protests from the governments of Cyprus and Egypt the Toledo Museum of Art in Ohio, U.S., decided to go ahead with the sales of nearly two dozen antiquities at Christie’s in New York. The auction that took place on Tuesday is said to have brought in $640,000 to the museum.

As to why they were selling the items, the museum stated that since the objects were not on display all the time and not considered prized artifacts, the selling of the pieces was not a big deal as Museum Director Brian Kennedy told the AP that the museum respects others’ viewpoints but sometimes sells items to maintain a high-quality collection. He stated that the money from the sale would go towards other acquisitions.

Expert archaeologists disagree with the museum, saying that these pieces should have stayed with the museum as modern laws make it difficult to acquire such objects. Furthermore, the government of Cyprus tried to get the museum to sway from selling the artifacts, saying that they are not trying to insist that they be returned to Cyprus, rather that they stay in a museum collection, protected and able to be viewed by the public.

The Toledo newspaper, The Blade reported that of the 23 pieces sold at auction at Christie’s in New York on Tuesday one piece was a Cypriot limestone head of a male votary from 6th century B.C. and is a prime example of the types of items the Cypriot government was fighting to keep at the museum. On Monday, less than 24-hours before the auction went forward, Ambassador Pantelides was still pleading with the museum to postpone the sale, but they did not. Officials from Egypt also tried to stop the sale and have the items that are of Egyptian origin returned to their country.

These items sold on Tuesday are only a part of the nearly 70 pieces that the Toledo Museum of Art is planning to sell at auction. The pieces all originate from the Mediterranean countries of Greece, Egypt and Italy.
- See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2016/10/26/antiquities-for-sale-ohios-toledo-museum-of-art-sells-ancient-artifacts-cyprus-and-egypt-protest/#sthash.uE6kJK5X.dpuf

LOOTING PROBLEMS IN EGYPT -- "STAGGERING"

Looting plagues archeology in Egypt. Using satellite data, scientists at the University of Alabama found that stealing more than doubled between 2009 and 2010 and then doubled again after the revolution. The professors and archeologists at the university consider the crime "simply staggering". And what the researchers in Alabama discovered from thousands of kilometers in the sky, Soliman saw with her own eyes. "Tens of monuments were being looted," Soliman told me.

Some of the stolen items went to Europe and the US, but much of the Islamic art found its way to the neighboring Gulf region. A lion’s share winds up in private collections in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. But without hard facts at hand, Egypt cannot hope to retrieve the treasure trafficked under radar to their new private owners.

Without trained staff to look after them, no less damaging is the abandonment of many antiquity sites. “Without tourism,” officials tell Egyptologists like Soliman, “there is no money.” Privately, one official even told her, “May some of these artifacts disappear so we have less on our shoulders.”

Egypt is not helping itself. Try and secure an Islamic monument home, as scholars and researchers do sometimes for academic purposes, and you will find outrageously priced daily rentals reaching nearly 30,000 Egyptian pounds, says Soliman. It is the same faulty logic that has a failing Suez Canal increasing tariffs to make up for lost revenue. The result? Even more ships finding alternate routes and costing Egypt much-needed revenue. It is the same with antiquities tourism: how do you insist on setting such high prices when demand is at an all-time low and services are lacking at many of these sites?

Personal relationships, sleight of hand, a few pounds and a smile get Soliman access to many sites so she can document them. But under the draconian political circumstances, photographing dilapidated sites to bring attention to corruption and a slow-as-black-Egyptian-molasses bureaucracy could mean prison time. "I think 9,000 times before going to photograph…I have to be smart," she said. But she does risk arrest for her blog, Bassara Heritage, where she documents all that she sees with her trusted assistant, Mohamed Soliman, no relation, but a fellow history buff.

Egypt is in an unenviable economic hole. The country’s income from tourism, which reached over $12.5bn in 2010, had fallen to $5.9bn by 2013. The return of that missing revenue would do wonders for an economy that is losing allies in the all-important Gulf, with Saudia Arabia pulling back so much that Sisi, on Twitter earlier this week, said "enough dependence on our Arab brothers".

To get you have to give and Soliman says three things need to happen for the twin fields of Pharaonic antiquities and Islamic art to flourish:

1. Admit there is a problem

2. Wipe out corruption in "every corner and every breath"

3. A short term and long term plan for the overall management of the country’s antiquities

Soliman is right, but even more needs to change. Egypt is a country not only stagnating, but one that is taking decisive steps backwards under the auspices of a counter revolution. In such an environment, the old rule and the young are thrown by the way side because they represent change. Change and counter revolutions don’t mix. There are those within those two crucial ministries who want to protect these treasures, to document their existence and to stamp out corruption. But all of their purity of intent is blown to bits within ministries where standard operating procedure is highly averse to change.

When the dollar hits 17 Egyptian pounds, the economic disaster can be used to bring tourists with their strengthened dollars back. In a country experiencing a monumental fit of xenophobia triggered by the Sisi cult’s hyper nationalism, this is a near impossible task. If the enemy is the foreigner, how can he also be the savior? For hope to return where archeologists roam, there must be change. Much like the country housing it, the world of antiquities awaits a revolution to protect its very existence.

- Amr Khalifa is a freelance journalist and analyst recently published in Ahram Online, Mada Masr,The New Arab, Muftah and Daily News Egypt. You can follow him on Twitter@cairo67unedited.

Projekt Dyabola Blog

The lastest from the past: 3187 new titles for the ‘Archaeological Bibliography’

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boris-thaser

Photo:Boris Thaser

Among the new publications, referenced in November, are three of the more significant journals with a large number of reviews: L’antiquité classique 85 (2016)”, the “Journal of Roman Archaeology 29 (2016)” and the “Archeologia classica 67 (2016)”, journal of the Roman University “Sapienza”.
Reviews  can and should  be an important medium for academic discussion. To display a true picture of these discussions in every detail, we reference all reviews – print and online – without exception and selection. Besides they help to control the completeness of the content of the “Archaeological Bibliography”, which is – as you know – one of our main objectives. As a result our database contains nearly 100,000 review citations of literature dealing with classical studies. Up to 10,000 new reviews from actually 3,500 indexed academic journals are added every year. Any advice and suggestions regarding missing reviews will be highly appreciated: please mail to Dr. Martina Schwarz.

By the way: in November we have referenced over 3187 new titles for the “Archaeological Bibliography”, evaluating 235 new monographs and 120 new volumes of periodicals.
Concerning technical support please contact info@dyabola.de.

New monographs November 2016 (new-monographs-november-2016/pdf):

  1. “Ein Wald von Statuen”. Kolloquium zum zwanzigjährigen Bestehen der Antikensaal-Galerie und zur Begründung der Kurpfälzer Abuss-Sammlung vor 300 Jahren. Freitag und Samstag, den 6. und 7. Mai 2011 im Mannheimer Schloss. (Mainz, Rutzen, 2014), ed. Franz, J.; Günther, R.; Stupperich, R., (Peleus, 62)
  2. A companion to Greek architecture. (Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 2016), ed. Miles, M.M.
  3. Akili, T.: Die grosse Moschee von Damaskus. Vom römischen Tempel zum islamischen Monument. (Mainz, Nünnerich-Asmus Verlag, 2016)
  4. Akten der 3. Österreichischen Römersteintagung in Carnuntum, 2. – 3. Oktober 2014, Hainburg a.d. Donau. (Wien, Amt der Niederösterreichischen Landesregierung, 2016), ed. Humer,  u.a.:
  5. Alexianu, M.; Cotiuga, V.: Salt effect. Second Arheoninvest Symposium. From the ethnoarchaeology to the anthropology of salt, 20-21 April 2012. (Oxford, Archaeopress, 2016), (British archaeological reports. International series, 2760)
  6. Alfano, G.B.; Parascandola, A.: Il Vesuvio e le sue eruzioni. Dagli appunti lasciati dagli autori. (Napoli, Doppiavoce, 2015), ed. Buondonno, C.; Luongo, G.
  7. Amarelli, F.: Esercizio del potere e prassi della consultazione nell’impero romano. (Napoli, Editoriale scientifica, 2015)
  8. Amato, E.; Thévenet, L.; Ventrella, G.: Discorso pubblico e declamazione scolastica a Gaza nella tarda antichità. Coricio de Gaza e la sua opera. (Bari, Edizioni di Pagina, 2014)
  9. Amilla. The quest for excellence. Studies presented to Guenter Kopcke in celebration of his 75th birthday. (Philadelphia, Instap, 2013), ed. Koehl, R.B., (Prehistory monographs, 43)
  10. An eye for form. Epigraphic essays in honor of Frank Moore Cross. (Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns, 2014), ed. Hackett, J.A.; Aufrecht, W.E.
  11. Anagnostou-Laoutides, E.: In the garden of the gods. Models of kingship from the Sumerians to the Seleucids. (London, Routledge, 2017)
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  144. Mondini, D.: San Lorenzo fuori le mura. Storia del complesso monumentale nel medioevo. (Roma, Viella, 2016)
  145. Montalbano, R.: La Via Lata meridionale. Contributo alla carta archeologica di Roma. (Modena, Diano Libri, 2016)
  146. Montemayor Aceves, M.E.; Vargas Valencia, A.: Estudios de derecho romano. Interpretación y tradición. (Mexico, Universidad nacional autónoma de México, 2013), (Nova Tellus. Supplementum, 5)
  147. Mordeglia, L.: Rozza ceramica d’impasto. La ceramica ligure nell’età del ferro. (Roma, Officina Edizioni, 2016), (Officina etruscologia, 12)
  148. Moreno Soldevila, R.; Martos, J.: Amor y sexo en la literatura latina. (Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, 2014)
  149. Morero, E.: Méthodes d’analyse des techniques lapidaires. Les vases de pierre en Crète à l’âge du Bronze (IIIe – IIe millénaire av. J.-C.). (Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2016), (Cahiers archéologiques de Paris 1, 4)
  150. Nea Paphos. Fondation et développement urbanistique d’une ville chypriote de l’antiquité à nos jours. Etudes archéologiques, historiques et patrimoniales. Actes du Ier colloque international sur Paphos, Avignon 30, 31 october et 1er novembre 2012. (Bordeaux, Ausonius, 2016), ed. Balandier, C.; Raptou, E., (Ausonius éditions. Mémoires, 43)
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  152. Occhipinti, E.: The Hellenica Oxyrhynchia and historiography. New research perspectives. (Leiden, Brill, 2016), (Mnemosyne. Supplementa, 395)
  153. O’Connell, M.; Dursteler, E.R.: The Mediterranean world. From the fall of Rome to the rise of Napoleon. (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016)
  154. Panke-Schneider, T.: Gräber mit Waffengabe der Mittel- und Spätlatènezeit in Kontinentaleuropa. (Mainz, Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 2013), (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum. Monographien, 102)
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  156. Papers of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome. Mededelingen van het Koninklik Nederlands Instituut te Rome [bis Bd. 61 Mededelingen van het Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut te Rome] 64 (2016)
  157. Parzinger, H.: Abenteur Archäologie. Eine Reise durch die Menschheitsgeschichte. (München, Beck, 2016)
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  159. Pezzelle, A.: L’immagine dei Veneti negli autori greci e latini. (Cargeghe, Editoriale Documenta, 2016), (Etnographica, 2)
  160. Pfeiffer, S.: Griechische und lateinische Inschriften zum Ptolemäerreich und zur römischen Provinz Aegyptus. (Münster, Lit, 2015), (Einführungen und Quellentexte zur Ägyptologie, 9)
  161. Piekarski, D.: Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Deutschland, 100. Bonn, Akademisches Kunstmuseum, 4. Geometrische und orientalisierende Keramik. (München, Beck, 2016)
  162. Pine, J.: Neolithic, Roman and Saxon settlement at Arlington Way, Thetford, Norfolk. (Reading, Thames Valley Archaeological Services, 2014) X, 59 S., Abb.
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  165. POCA 2012. Postgraduate Cypriot Archaeology Conference. (Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars, 2015), ed. Matthäus, H.; Morstadt, B.; Vonhoff, C.
  166. Porat, R.; Chachy, R.; Kalman, Y. u.a.:Herodium. Final reports of the 1972 – 2010 excavations directed by Ehud Netzer, 1. Herods tomb precinct. (Jerusalem, Israel Exploration Society, 2015)
  167. Previato, C.; Agus, M.; Cara, S. u.a.:Nora. Le cave di pietra della città antica. (Roma, Quasar, 2016), (Scavi di Nora, 6)
  168. Proceedings of the XVIIthe International Congress on Ancient Bronzes, Izmir. (Autun, Mergoil, 2016), ed. Giumlia-Mair, A.; Mattusch, C.C., (Monographies Instrumentum, 52)
  169. Prozessrecht und Eid. Recht und Rechtsfindung in antiken Kulturen, 1. (Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2015), ed. Barta, H.; Lang, M.; Rollinger, R., (Philippika. Altertumswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. Contributions to the study of ancient world cultures [former: Philippika. Marburger altertumskundliche Abhandlungen ], 86, 1)
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  178. Requena Jiménez, M.: Omnia mortis. Presagios de muerte. Cuando los dioses abandonan al emperador romano. (Madrid, Abada, 2014)
  179. Ricerca come incontro. Archeologi, paleografi e storici per Paolo Delogu. (Roma, Viella, 2013), ed. Barone, G.; Esposito, A.; Frova, C., (Sapienza, Università di Roma. Studi del Dipartimento di storia, culture, religioni, 10)
  180. Rimske keramicarske i staklarske radionice. Proizvodnja i trgovina na Jadranskom prostoru. Tema kolovija. Eksperimentalna arheologija. Zbornik II. medunarodnog arheoloskog kolokvija, Crikvenica, 28. – 29. listopada 2011. Officine per la produzione di ceramica e vetro in epoca romana. Produzione e commercio nella regione adriatica. Roman pottery and glass manufactures. Production and trade in the Adriatic region. (Crikvenica, Institut za arheologiju, 2014), ed. Lipovac Vrkljan, G.; Siljeg, B.; Ozanic Roguljic,  u.a.:, (Zbornik Instituta za arheologiju. Serta Instituti archaeologici, 2)
  181. Rivière, Y.: Germanicus. Prince romain, 15 av. J.-C. – 19 apr. J.-C. (Paris, Perrin, 2016)
  182. Roberto, U.: Rome face aux Barbares. Une histoire des sacs de la ville. (Paris, Seuil, 2012) Original: Roma capta (Bari 2012)
  183. Romane, J.: Byzantium triumphant. The military history of the Byzantines 959 – 1025. (Barnsley, Pen and Sword military, 2015)
  184. Rome, travel and the sculpture capital, c.1770 – 1825. (Oxon, Routledge, 2017), ed. MacSotay, T.
  185. Romm, J.: Der Geist auf dem Thron. Der Tod Alexander des Grossen und der mörderische Kampf um sein Erbe. (München, Beck, 2016) Original: Ghost on the throne (New York 2011),
  186. Roux, V.; Courty, A.: Des céramique et des hommes. Découder les assemblages archéologiques. (Paris, Presses universitaires de Paris ouest, 2016)
  187. Ruben, T.: Le discours comme image. Enonciation, récit et connaissance dans le Timée-Critias de Platon. (Paris, Les belles lettres, 2016), (Collection d’études anciennes. Série grecque, 153)
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  189. Rushworth, A.; Bishop, M.C.; Caruana, I.D. u.a.:Segedunum. Excavations by Charles Daniels in the Roman fort at Wallsend (1975 – 1984), 1. The structural remains. (Oxford, Oxbow, 2016)
  190. Salibra, R.: La necropoli di Passo Marinaro a Camarina. Campagna di scavo 1972 – 1973. (Roma, Bretschneider, 2016), (Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. Monumenti antichi. Serie miscellanea, 74)
  191. Santalucia, B.: La giustizia penale in Roma antica. (Bologna, Il Mulino, 2013)
  192. Sartre, A.; Sartre, M.: Palmyre. Verités et légendes. (Paris, Perrin, 2016)
  193. Scafuro, M.: L’area tra il Kolonos Agoraios e l’Areopago dall’XI al VI sec. a.C. Contesti e aree funzionali. (Atene, Pandemos, 2015), (Studi di archeologia e di topografia di Atene e dell’Attica. SATAA, 8)
  194. Scapini, M.: Le stanze di Dioniso. Contenuti rituali e committenti delle scene dionisiache domestiche tra Roma e Pompei. (Madrid, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 2016), (Arys. Anejo, 6)
  195. Scavare, documentare, conservare. Viaggio nella ricerca archeologica del CNR. (Roma, CNR edizioni, 2016), ed. Caravale, A.
  196. Scheurmann, E.S.: Cicero und das Geld. (Frankfurt a.M., Lang, 2015)
  197. Schmitt, C.: Aphrodite in Unteritalien und auf Sizilien. Heiligtümer und Kulte. (Heidelberg, Verlag Archäologie und Geschichte, 2016) Diss. Heidelberg 2010, (Studien zu antiken Heiligtümern, 5)
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  200. Semplici, A.: Il Museo civico archeologico Isidoro Falchi di Vetulonia. (Arcidosso, Effigi, 2015)
  201. Sironen, E.: Inscriptiones Argolidis. Consilio et auctoritate Academiae scientiarum Berolinensis et Brandenburgensis editae, 3. Inscriptiones Corinthiae saeculorum IV.V.VI. (Berlin, de Gruyter, 2016)
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  209. Stadterfahrung als Sinneserfahrung in der römischen Kaiserzeit. (Turnhout, Brepols, 2016), ed. Haug, A.; Kreuz, P.A., (Studies in classical archaeology. Brepols, 2)
  210. Steane, K.; Darling, M.J.; Jones, M.J. u.a.:The archaeology of the lower city and adjacent suburbs. (Oxford, Oxbow, 2016), (Lincoln Archaeological Studies, 4)
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  215. The Lod mosaic. A spectacular Roman mosaic floor. (New York, Israel Antiquities Authority, 2015)
  216. The lost art of drawing. L’arte perduta del disegno. Disegni inediti di architettura dal Fondo storico dell’Accademia di Belle Arti di Roma. Roma, Centro studi americani, palazzo Antici Mattei, 21 giugno – 8 luglio 2016. (Roma, L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2016), ed. Barbieri, C.
  217. The material sides of marriage. Women and domestic economies in antiquity. (Roma, Institutum Romanum Finlandiae, 2016), ed. Berg, R., (Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae, 43)
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  235. Zingg, E.: Die Schöpfung der pseudohistorischen westpeloponnesischen Frühgeschichte. Ein Rekonstruktionsversuch. (München, Beck, 2016), (Vestigia. Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte, 70)

New volumes of periodicals:

Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia 28 (2016)

Acta Musei Moraviae. Casopis Moravského muzea 100 (2015)

Acta Musei Moraviae. Casopis Moravského muzea 101 (2016)

Acta Musei Napocensis 50 (2013)

Adamantius 21 (2015)

Anabases 24 (2016)

Ancient Society 46 (2016)  online edition

Annuario. Accademia etrusca di Cortona 35 (2013-15)[2016]

Antike Welt (2016)  Nr.5

Apeiron 49 (2016) Nr.4 online edition

Archaeologia Bulgarica 20 (2016)  Nr.2

Archaeology and history in the Lebanon 44-45 (2016-17) online edition

Archaeometry 58 (2016) Nr.6  online edition

Archäologie im Rheinland 2015

Archeologia classica  67 (2016)

Archeologia Paris 547 (2016)  online edition

Archeologija 56 (2015)  Nr.1-2

Archeologija Kiiv (2016)  Nr.2

Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Jahrbuch (2013)

Biblica 97 (2016)

Bollettino dei Musei comunali di Roma 29 (2015)

Bryn Maw Classical Review (2016)  Nr.11  online resource

Bulletin du Cercle d’études numismatiques 53 (2016)  Nr.2

Cedrus. Akdeniz uygarlikari arastirma dergsisi. Journal of Mediterranean civilsations studies 2 (2014)

Cedrus. Akdeniz uygarlikari arastirma dergsisi. Journal of Mediterranean civilsations studies 1 (2013)

Cedrus. Akdeniz uygarlikari arastirma dergsisi. Journal of Mediterranean civilsations studies 3 (2015)

Codices, manuscripti et impressi. Zeitschrift für Buchgeschichte 105 (2016)

Colloquium Anatolicum 14 (2015)[2016]

Conimbriga 54 (2015)  online edition

Cristianesimo nella storia. Ricerche storiche, esegetiche, teologiche. Studies in history, exegesis and theology 37 (2016)

Current Archaeology 321 (2016)  online edition

Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg 45 (2016) Nr.3

Dike 18 (2015)

Diomedes 7 (2016)

Emerita 84 (2016) Nr.2  online edition

Eskiçag yazilari, 1.

Eskiçag yazilari, 2.

Eskiçag yazilari, 3.

Eskiçag yazilari, 4.

Eskiçag yazilari, 5.

Eskiçag yazilari, 6.

Eskiçag yazilari, 7.

Eskiçag yazilari, 8.

Eskiçag yazilari, 9.

European Review of History 23 (2016) Nr.5-6  online edition

Forma Urbis 21 (2016)  Nr.10   online edition

Gallia Prehistoire 56 (2014-16)

Gymnasium 123 (2016) Nr.4  online edition

Habis 47 (2016)

Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 108 (2015)

Harvard Theological Review 109 (2016) Nr.4  online edition

Helmantica 67 (2016)  online edition

Histoire urbaine 46 (2016)  online edition

Historische Zeitschrift 303 (2016)  online edition

Iraq 74 (2012)

Jahrbuch der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen (2015)

Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 55 (2013)

Journal of Field Archaeology 41 (2016) Nr.5   online edition

Journal of Mosaic Research 8 (2015)

Journal of Roman Archaeology 29 (2016) Nr.1, Nr.2  online edition

L’antiquité classique 85 (2016)

Les études classiques 83 (2015) Nr.1-4

Listy filologické 139 (2016)

Madrider Mitteilungen 56 (2015)

Mediterranean archaeology and archaeometry 16 (2016)  Nr.1  online edition

Mediterranean archaeology and archaeometry 16 (2016)  Nr.2  online edition

Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez. Antiquité, moyen âge 46 (2016)  Nr.1

Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 59-60 (2014-15)

Near Eastern Archaeology 79 (2016)  Nr.3   online edition

Numen 63 (2016) Nr.5-6  online edition

Orientalia 84 (2015) Nr.3

Oxford Journal of Archaeology 35 (2016) Nr.4  online edition

Papers of the Langford Latin Seminar 16 (2016)

Phronesis 61 (2016) Nr.4   online edition

Quaderni storici 151 (2016)  online edition

Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica 103 (2013)  Nr.1   online edition

Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica 105 (2013)  Nr.3   online edition

Quaternary Science Reviews. The International Multidisciplinary Research and Review Journal 136 (2016)    online edition

Revue archéologique de Picardie (2016)  Nr.3-4

Revue biblique 122 (2015)  Nr.2

Revue biblique 123 (2016) Nr.3

Revue historique 318 (2016)   online edition

Rhizomata. A journal for ancient philosophy and science 1 (2013)  online edition

Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 34 (2011)  Nr.66  online edition

Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 35 (2012)  Nr.67  online edition

Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 36 (2013)  Nr.68  online edition

Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 37 (2014)  Nr.69 online edition

Rivista dell’Istituto nazionale d’archeologia e storia dell’arte 38 (2015)  Nr.70  online edition

Rivista di cultura classica e medioevale 57 (2015)  online edition

Rivista di cultura classica e medioevale 58 (2016)  online edition

Römische Jahrbuch der Bibliotheca Hertziana 40 (2011-12)

Rudiae 1 (2015)

Saldvie 10 (2010)   online edition

Saldvie 11-12 (2012)  online edition

Saldvie 13-14 (2013-14)  online edition

Saldvie 15 (2015)  online edition

Scripta 5 (2012)  online edition

Scripta 6 (2013)  online edition

Scripta 7 (2014)  online edition

Scripta 8 (2015)   online edition

Sehepunkte (2016)  Nr.10   online resource

Sehepunkte 16 (2016)  Nr.11  online resource

Studi di antichità 13 (2015)

Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni 82 (2016)

Studi romagnoli 66 (2015)

Studia Hercynia 19 (2015) Nr.1-2  online edition

Studia Hercynia 20 (2016) Nr.1-2  online edition

The Classical Journal 112 (2016) Nr.1

The Economic History Review. A journal of economic and social history 69 (2016) Nr.4  online edition

The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 67 (2016) Nr.4   online edition

Ugarit-Forschungen 43 (2011)

Ugarit-Forschungen 44 (2013)

Ugarit-Forschungen 45 (2014)

Ugarit-Forschungen 46 (2015)

Vetera Christianorum 52 (2015)

Vichiana 53 (2016) Nr.2   online edition

Vigiliae Christianae 70 (2016) Nr.4   online edition

Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte. Romanistische Abteilung 133 (2016)

Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 64 (2016) Nr.9

Zeitschrift für schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte 73 (2016) Nr.3


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Turkish Archaeological News

Çorum Archaeology and Ethnography Museum

Çorum Archaeology and Ethnography Museum

The building that hosts the Çorum Museum displays typical architectural features of the 19th century. It was initially built in 1914 as a hospital. Later on, it was used as the School of Agriculture, School of Medicine, School of Art, School of Trade, Machinery Academy and Atatürk High School. After a fire in 1988 had damaged the building, restoration work was initiated in 1989. On 11 March 2003, the building started to serve as the new Çorum Museum.

Compitum - publications

M.-L. Chaieb (éd.), Les Pères de l'Église à l'écoute du Peuple de Dieu

couverture_-_150.jpg

Marie-Laure Chaieb (éd.), Les Pères de l'Église à l'écoute du Peuple de Dieu, La Rochelle, 2016.

Éditeur : CaritasPatrum
Collection : Colloques de La Rochelle
328 pages
ISBN : 979-10-95732-00-6
32 €

"Sensus Fidelium" et discours autorisés dans l'Antiquité tardive Tout au long de l'antiquité chrétienne et tardive, on rencontre sous des formes variées sinon l'expression, du moins l'idée du sensus fidelium, ce sens aiguisé qui agit au sein de la communauté comme un flair, un instinct pour repérer l'authenticité de la foi. Dans un mouvement d'adhésion plein et entier à la « Tradition qui vient des apôtres », le "sensus fidelium" peut d'abord jouer un rôle de conservation et de préservation. Mais les circonstances ne manquent pas pour lesquelles le "sensus fidelium" joue également un rôle de discernement : au sujet du contenu de la foi mise en question, et de sa transmission dans son intégrité. En outre, le souci de rechercher des voies toujours nouvelles d'actualisation et d'inculturation peut manifester aussi un "sensus fidelium" soucieux d'entrer en dialogue avec le monde contemporain.

Lire la suite...

Robert Consoli (Squinches)

In Memoriam Richard Hope Simpson


Ulysses deriding Polyphemus
J.M.W. Turner, 1829
London National Gallery


Richard Hope Simpson passed away on November 11 of this year. There's a notice on the website for the British School at Athens.

For the last year I have spent countless hours in his company or, rather, in the company of his books.  He taught me much and I am forever in his debt.

He loved Homer and he loved Greece.  What better epitaph?

Turkish Archaeological News

Panionium

Panionium (Panionion) was an Ionian sanctuary dedicated to Poseidon Helikonios, and, at the same time, the Ionian League meeting place. This unusual site was located on the northern slopes of Mount Mykale (tr. Samsun Dağı or Dilek Dağı), opposite the island of Samos, about 100 km south of Smyrna (now Izmir). Mykale Massif forms Dilek Peninsula, which is a part of the Aegean Sea coast of Asia Minor. On the southern side of the mountain, the Ionian city of Priene was situated. Its residents were responsible for the sanctuary of Panionium and for the organization of games (panegyris) called the Panionia.

Panionium

Brice C. Jones

Stephen Carlson on the "Inn" in Luke's Infancy Account

Jesus born in an inn
Since Christmas is quickly approaching, I thought I would point my readers to a fantastic article by my colleauge, Dr. Stephen Carlson, titled "The Accommodations of Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem: Κατάλυμα in Luke 2.7." This article was published in the academic journal New Testament Studies in 2010.

​Carlson's study turns the traditional interpretation of the "inn" as being a kind of ancient hotel on its head. He also denies the view that Jesus was born in a stable or barn. Through a detailed lexical and semantic analysis of the term κατάλυμα (traditionally translated "inn") and Jewish patrilocal marital customs during the time of Jesus, Carlson demonstrates that the reference to κατάλυμα in Luke 2.7 alludes to a marital chamber built on top, or onto the side of, the main room of a family village home. According to Carlson, the phrase διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι should be rendered "because they did not have room in their place to stay." The reference to "their place" is the marital chamber attached to the family village home of Joseph where the married couple would have stayed for some time before finding their own place. Since there was no space in their room, Mary had to give birth in the larger main room of the house, where the rest of the family slept. Carlson also shows that it was common for a "manger" to be present in the main room of most Jewish homes and so this detail of the birth account is in keeping with Jewish living customs. I quote Carlson's conclusion found on page 342 of the article:


"Luke's infancy narrative therefore presupposes the following events. Joseph took his betrothed Mary from Nazareth to Bethlehem (2.5). Bethlehem was his hometown (v. 3) and, in accordance with the patrilocal marital customs of the day, it must also have been the place where they finalized their matrimonial arrangements by bringing her into his home. As a newly married man, he no longer would have to sleep in the main room of the village house with his other relatives, but he and his bride could stay in a marital chamber attached to the house until they could get a place of their own. They stayed there for some time until she came to full term (v. 6), and she gave birth to Jesus in the main room of the house rather than in her marital apartment because it was too small, and she laid the newborn in one of those mangers (v. 7) common to the main room of an ancient farmhouse. After staying at least another forty days in Bethlehem (v. 22; cf. Lev 12.2–8), Joseph and Mary eventually moved to Nazareth to make their home together in her family's town (v. 39; cf. 1.26–27). To be sure, this scenario as presupposed in Luke's infancy account diverges greatly from the conventional Christmas story. There is no inn, no innkeeper, and no stable. But it is grounded in a careful exegesis of the text."

Carlson's conclusions are so convincing that it would take considerable evidence to overturn them. Indeed, some may be uncomfortable with how this evidence changes the face of the traditional Christmas story, but it is, as Carlson admits, "grounded in a careful exegesis of the text." This article needs to be circulated widely, not only among academics, but also pastors and lay people alike, because it has serious implications for how we should understand this story as told by Luke. Carlson has posted this article on his personal website and it can be found here. Happy reading and happy holidays to all!

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Iberia-Kolxetʻi : Sakʻartʻvelos klasikuri da adremedievuri periodis arkʻeologiur-istoriuli kvlevani = Iberia-Colchis : researches on the archeology and history of Georgia in the classical and early medieval period

 [First posted in AWOL 21 September 2014, updated 4 December 2016]

Iberia-Kolxetʻi : Sakʻartʻvelos klasikuri da adremedievuri periodis arkʻeologiur-istoriuli kvlevani = Iberia-Colchis : researches on the archeology and history of Georgia in the classical and early medieval period
ISSN: 1512-4207
Iberia-Colchis იბერია-კოლხეთი (Researches on the Archaeology and History of Georgia in the Classical and Early Medieval Period)

C’est une revue géorgienne consacré à l’archéologie et l’histoire anciennes et médiévales de la Géorgie. [Description from here]




2016Iberia-Colchis N12გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2015Iberia-Colchis N11გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2014Iberia-Colchis N10გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2013Iberia-Colchis N9გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2007Iberia-Colchis N3გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2008Iberia-Colchis N4გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2011Iberia-Colchis N7გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2010Iberia-Colchis N6გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2009Iberia-Colchis N5გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

2012Iberia-Colchis N8გამყრელიძე, გელა; Gamkrelidze, Gela

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

R. Akiva's pesher call-to-arms against Rome?

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/NGg3_2_bB-g" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Punic pomegranates?

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/zqiVgOSQLxg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Education in ancient Galilee

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/Vgw6j6c-o0M" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Spanish coin replicas

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/ZAMWJfdzn5c" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Memory, Acts, and the Letters of Paul

I sometimes wonder if I am unusual in not always remembering things that I have done and experienced at times in the past, about which others appear to have a clear recollection. I suspect that this is just the way that memory works, and that the other individual had recalled the event in the intervening [Read More...]

The post Memory, Acts, and the Letters of Paul appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

What watered the ground in Genesis 2:6?

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/or_UeHdYmgc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

ArcheoNet BE

Doctoraatsverdedigingen Maxime Poulain en Jan Trachet

Op 20 en 21 december verdedigen respectievelijk Maxime Poulain en Jan Trachet hun doctoraat aan de Universiteit Gent. Poulain deed onderzoek naar vroegmodern aardewerk in Vlaanderen, terwijl Trachet de middeleeuwse havensites in het Zwingebied onderzocht. De doctoraatsverdedigingen zijn openbaar, maar om praktische redenen wordt gevraagd om voor 6 december in te schrijven.

Doctoraatsverdediging Maxime Poulain

Op dinsdag 20 december verdedigt Maxime Poulain (Vakgroep Archeologie, Universiteit Gent) zijn doctoraat. De titel van het proefschrift luidt ‘The habits of war: Early modern ceramics in Flanders’.

Het belang van alledaagse goederen in de constructie, het onderhoud en de transformatie van identiteit tijdens vroegmoderne conflicten is het onderwerp van een levendig debat. Verder bouwend op deze discussie, onderzoekt Maxime Poulain in deze thesis hoe aardewerk werd gebruikt tijdens de Tachtigjarige Oorlog (1568-1648) door de studie van 16de- en 17de-eeuwse contexten. Er wordt beargumenteerd dat aardewerk, als een alledaags goed par excellence, een belangrijk element vormde in het vormen van groepsidentiteit en in het bieden van een houvast aan mensen die werden samengebracht door uitzonderlijke omstandigheden. Aangezien soldaten nooit alleen betrokken zijn in conflict, focust dit werk op meerdere sociale groepen, van Arme Klaren tot zoetelaars. De studie van hoe aardewerk functioneerde in het sociaal discours van zowel militairen als niet-militairen biedt nieuwe inzichten in de manier waarop materiële cultuur verbonden is met groepsidentiteit in vroegmodern Vlaanderen.

De verdediging vindt plaats om 14.30u in de Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (Koningstraat 18, 9000 Gent). De doctoraatsverdediging is openbaar, om praktische redenen wordt echter gevraagd om voor 6 december in te schrijven via ugent.be.

Doctoraatsverdediging Jan Trachet

Op woensdag 21 december verdedigt Jan Trachet (Vakgroep Archeologie, Universiteit Gent) zijn doctoraat. De titel van het proefschrift luidt ‘Inland outports: An interdisciplinary study of medieval harbour sites in the Zwin region’.

Het middeleeuws havengebied van het Zwin is een dynamisch landschap dat eeuwenlang beïnvloed is door de interactie tussen natuur en mens. De brede zeearm van het Zwin maakte niet enkel van Brugge een economische en culturele metropool, maar kreeg er op zijn oevers ook een ketting van bloeiende voorhavens bij. Na 1500 waren de economische hoogdagen van Brugge en zijn voorhavens voorbij, verlandde het middeleeuwse havencomplex en bleven historici en archeologen achter met een rits ‘verdwenen dorpen’. Al bijna 150 jaar wordt het onderzoek naar de verbinding van Brugge met de zee en de verdwenen dorpen aangevoerd door historici en bodemkundigen, terwijl de bijdrage van archeologen eerder beperkt is geweest. De laatste decennia echter heeft de landschapsarcheologie het potentieel van non-invasieve methodes aangetoond. Met de combinatie van traditionele en nieuwe non-destructieve prospectietechnieken heeft dit project een brede en waardevolle archeologische dataset aangeleverd, die tot een beter begrip van de evolutie van het Zwingebied en de verdwenen Zwinhavens heeft geleid.

De verdediging vindt plaats om 14.30u in Het Auditorium, Muziekcentrum De Bijloke (Jozef Kluyskensstraat 2, 9000 Gent). De doctoraatsverdediging is openbaar, om praktische redenen wordt echter gevraagd om voor 6 december in te schrijven via ugent.be.

Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi (Stone Pages' Archaeonews)

Stone Age could be when Brits first brewed ale

How far back does beer-making go in Britain? One 1980s archaeological dig at Kinloch on Scotland's Outer Hebrides Isle of Rhum found apparent residue from a long-evaporated beverage in pottery...

Compitum - publications

J. N. Adams, An Anthology of Informal Latin, 200 BC–AD 900

9781107039773.jpg

James Noel Adams, An Anthology of Informal Latin, 200 BC–AD 900. Fifty Texts with Translations and Linguistic Commentary, Cambridge-New York, 2016.

Éditeur : Cambridge University Press
728 pages
ISBN : 9781107039773
120 £

This book contains over fifty passages of Latin from 200 BC to AD 900, each with translation and linguistic commentary. It is not intended as an elementary reader (though suitable for university courses), but as an illustrative history of Latin covering more than a millennium, with almost every century represented. Conventional histories cite constructions out of context, whereas this work gives a sense of the period, genre, stylistic aims and idiosyncrasies of specific passages. 'Informal' texts, particularly if they portray talk, reflect linguistic variety and change better than texts adhering to classicising norms. Some of the texts are recent discoveries or little known. Writing tablets are well represented, as are literary and technical texts down to the early medieval period, when striking changes appear. The commentaries identify innovations, discontinuities and phenomena of long duration. Readers will learn much about the diversity and development of Latin.

 

Source : Cambridge University Press

All Mesopotamia

mostlydeadlanguages: A brief text history of Gilgamesh, put...

















mostlydeadlanguages:

A brief text history of Gilgamesh, put together for my students.

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: December 4

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): pridie Nonas Decembres, the day before the Nones of December.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Odysseus and the Sirens, and there are more images here.


TODAY'S MOTTOES and PROVERBS:

TINY MOTTOES: Today's tiny motto is: Amicus amico (English: A friend to a friend).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word verb-less proverb is Tussis pro crepitu (English: A cough to cover a fart)

AUDIO PROVERBS: Today's audio Latin proverb is Tempus est vitae magister (English: Time is the teacher of life). To read a brief essay about this proverb and to listen to the audio, visit the Latin Via Proverbs blog.

PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Effugere cupiditatem regnum est vincere (English: To escape desire is to conquer a kingdom).

ERASMUS' ANIMALS: Today's animal proverb from Erasmus is Vel muscas metuit praetervolitantes (English: He's scared even of flies that flutter by; from Adagia 1.5.66).

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Dei Donum Fides. Click here for a full-sized view.


And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:



Post nubila Phoebus.
After the clouds, sunshine.

Arma tuentur pacem.
Arms protect the peace.

TODAY'S FABLES:

FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Canes et Corium, the story of some greedy dogs (this fable has a vocabulary list).

MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Cera Lateri Invidens, the sad story of a wax candle.

Cera

Gaudium Mundo. Today's holiday song is O Viri, Este Hilares, Latin versions of "God Rest Ye, Merry Gentlemen."


December 03, 2016

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

Collecting all ancient texts referring to the gift of tongues

Charles A. Sullivan writes to say that his Gift of Tongues Project is up and running:

 It has been a while, but I have the majority of ancient church writings located, digitized, organized, and analyzed for the Gift of Tongues Project. Of course, there is always more to do, but a sound framework is in place. Here is the actual source texts along with some other apparatus.

This is a new website, and a useful resource.  While the Charismatic movement of the 1980s has faded rather, the basic idea – just what do the early Christians say about the gift of tongues – is a subject that will appeal to many.

Well done.

A previously unknown governor of Judaea

Via Haaretz (beware incredible amounts of popups, popunders and other junk), an excellent article gives us the following information:

Divers find unexpected Roman inscription from the eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt – A statue base from 1,900 years ago found at Dor survived shellfish and seawater, and to the archaeologists’ shock, revealed a previously unknown governor of Judea.

An underwater survey conducted by divers off Tel Dor, on the Mediterranean Sea, yielded an astonishing find: a rare Roman inscription mentioning the province of Judea – and the name of a previously unknown Roman governor, who ruled the province shortly before the Bar-Kochba Revolt.

Historians had thought that based on Roman records, the leaders Rome imposed on its provinces were all known.

The rock with the 1,900-year-old inscription was exposed by a storm on the seabed at a depth of just 1.5 meters in the bay of Dor. The town had been a thriving port in Roman times that even minted its own coins, which proudly proclaimed the city to be “Ruler of the Seas”.

1304220223

Found by Haifa University archaeologists surveying the remains of the ancient Roman harbor at Dor in January 2016, the rock, 70 by 65 centimeters in size, was partly covered in sea creatures when it was found.

The statue base found on the seabed at Dor is only the second known mention of the province of Judea in Roman inscription. The other is the “Pontius Pilate stone” dating to around 100 years earlier. Discovered by archaeologists in 1961 at the ancient theater in Caesarea, it is a rare piece of solid evidence mentioning Pilate, prefect of Judea, by name.

The newly found inscription, carved on the stone in Greek, is missing a part, but is thought to have originally read: “The City of Dor honors Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, governor of the province of Judea, as well as […] of the province of Syria, and patron of the city of Dor.”

The name Gargilius Antiquus had been known from another inscription previously found in Dor – as the governor of a province whose name was missing from that inscription. So far, reconstructions have suggested either Syria or Syria-Palaestina as the province he was governing. Dr. Gil Gambash, head of the Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, and Yasur-Landau were excited to read on the new inscription that Gargilius Antiquus was in fact the governor of Judea, shortly before the Bar Kochba Revolt.

The inscription outing Gargilius Antiquus was apparently the base of a statue, going by the tell-tale marks of small feet incretions on its top.

The putative statue has not been found, but it could plausibly have been of Gargilius Antiquus himself, who was not only the province’s governor but also a patron of Dor, as the inscription states.

During Israel’s War of Independence, in 1948, another statue base fragment was found at the east gate of the ancient city of Dor, with writing that reads: “Honored Marcus Paccius, son of Publius…Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, imperial governor with Praetorian rank of the province Syria Palaestina”.

Clearly the Roman emperor, in this case Hadrian, had appointed Gargilius Antiquus as governor of the province of Judea, somewhere between 120 – 130 C.E. (perhaps around 123 C.E., succeeding Cosonius Gallus). …

(I was going to look up the other inscription, and compile the data; but I see that David E. Graves has already done this, with photographs and references, in his fine article here.)

This sort of discovery should be a constant reminder to us of a basic principle of archaeology.  Absence of evidence is NOT evidence of absence.  We must never use lack of archaeological evidence as a reason to ignore literary evidence.  Only positive archaeological evidence may be used to confute an ancient mistake.

Our knowledge of the sequence of ancient officials is not comprehensive, however impressive it may look in a nice printed modern edition.

Many of these lists are compiled by guesswork.  We know how long a normal appointment would be; we have a number of people which seems about the right number in the right order; and there is suddenly “no room” for another one.

But in reality people are people.  Governors are called home unexpectedly for personal or political reasons, and a stand-in holds their post for an irregular period of time until another can be sent out.

It is a terrible anachronism to imagine the Roman empire as being like a modern state.  It was not.  Communications and travel were slow and difficult, as it was in Europe until comparatively recently.  Administration was loose.  Law could be, and was, enforced capriciously.  We can never say with confidence that such-and-such could never happen; only that with our limited knowledge, we do not think it accords with what we already know.

At this Christmas season, many of us will think of Luke 2:1-2:

In those days Caesar Augustus issued a decree that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world.  (This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria.)

How much ink has been spilt, to show that Luke – and hence the bible! – is wrong at this point; or, alternatively, that it is not.  The choice made, in this as other political or religious matters, depends in both cases all too often on the prejudices of those writing.

This stone, hoisted out of the sea, is a reminder that we know much, much less than we think we do.  Only one stone records Pontius Pilate’s governorship.  Only one stone records Gargilius Antiquus’ tenure.

Nothing is gained by pretending knowledge that we do not have; or arguing from what we do not know.  Five minutes in a time machine would undoubtedly shatter our preconceptions of the ancient world in a million ways.

When the data is contradictory, we may decide to discard bits of it, especially when it fits our modern eyes.  But this we must avoid.  Contradictory data from antiquity always, always means that we have a little window into a situation which is more complex than the sources that have reached us reveal.  Let us hold lightly to our theories.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

New Open Access Journal: In-Scription: revue en ligne d'études épigraphiques

In-Scription: revue en ligne d'études épigraphiques
http://in-scription.edel.univ-poitiers.fr/css/images/fond-bandeau.png
La revue In-Scription: revue en ligne d'études épigraphiques propose de créer le premier lieu de publication en ligne de textes scientifiques consacrés à l'étude des écritures médiévales en dehors du monde manuscrit, et en particulier à celle des inscriptions médiévales. Elle est animée par l'équipe du Corpus des inscriptions de la France médiévale de Poitiers (CESCM) et entend favoriser la publication dans des délais courts de textes originaux en français et en anglais, produits notamment par de jeunes chercheurs. Un comité de lecture évalue la qualité et la pertinence des textes et sollicite des expertises extérieures le cas échéant. Le responsable prépare la publication en lien avec les auteurs et le webmaster. La revue entend publier les textes au fil de l'eau afin de mettre les textes le plus rapidement possible à disposition d'une communauté scientifique qui possède aujourd'hui assez peu de journaux spécialisés.

David Gill (Looting Matters)

An Apulian Situla, the Becchina Archive, and a Munich Auction

Source: Becchina Archive
The forthcoming auction at Gorny & Mosch is due to include an Apulian situla attributed to the Lycurgus painter (Lot 87). The collecting history is presented:
Aus der James Stirt Collection, Vevey in der Schweiz, erworben 1997 bei Heidi Vollmöller, Zürich.
Dr Christos Tsirogiannis has pointed out that an image of the situla appears in the Becchina archive. He notes: "A handwritten note indicates that the images were sent from Raffaele Montichelli, a convicted antiquities trafficker, to Becchina on 18 March 1988". The image shows that the situla is covered in salt encrustations and is presumably relatively fresh out of the ground.

It is known that part of the James Stirt collection was derived from Ellie Borowski (e.g. an Athenian black-figured cup that passed through Christie's London in 2014 [see Beazley Archive]). In this case the source is Heidi Vollmöller of Zurich.

Dale Trendall [not Sir John Boardman as in the catalogue] described the Lycurgus painter as representing "the culmination of the second phase of the 'Ornate'" (Red Figure Vases of South Italy and Sicily, p.80).

The Becchina image suggests that this situla surfaced post-1970. The Munich auction-house needs to be seen to act responsibly, to withdraw the situla from the auction, and to contact the Italian authorities.


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Archaeology Briefs

VIKING RAIDS WERE LOOKING FOR WIVES

Now, researchers suggest a new twist on an ancient explanation: Scandinavian practices that led powerful men to monopolize women also might have led to significant pools of unwed men. Many of these single men, looking for marriage, might have gone on raids to gain status, wealth and captives, and thus go on to secure brides and concubines of their own.

The idea that an excess of single young men led to Viking raiding is one of the oldest explanations for the Viking Age, put forward about 1,000 years ago by historian Dudo of St. Quentin in his tome "History of the Normans."

The new model links this older idea with the customs of polygyny, or having multiple wives, and concubinage, or the keeping of concubines, that ancient texts such as the "Sagas of Icelanders," medieval German chronicles, and reports by travelers such as the 10th-century Arab envoy Ahmad Ibn Fadlān suggested that Scandinavians once practiced, the researchers said.

Polygyny and concubinage would have limited the number of women eligible for single men to marry. Evolutionary biology suggests that such an imbalance would have then boosted competition for mates among unmarried men. Indeed, prior work has suggested that, on average, men die in warfare more often in polygynous societies than in monogamous ones, the researchers said.

This resulted in volatile societies in Scandinavia in which men were moved to engage in risky behavior, such as raiding expeditions to gain wealth and status to attract brides and to secure female slaves. One consequence of this was a surge in raiding that is linked with the start of the Viking Age, the researchers suggested.

NIMRUD STRUCTURES BULLDOZED BY RETREATING JIHADISTS

American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) late last week released a set of satellite images which show retreating Islamic State jihadists have all but destroyed the remains of two ancient Assyrian capitals near Mosul.

The famous, 2900-year-old mud-brick ziggurat of Nimrud appears to have been bulldozed in recent weeks, along with several outlying ancient structures.

PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY IS PLANNING TO CLAIM OWNERSHIP OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS!

The Palestinian Authority is planning to claim ownership of the Dead Sea Scrolls and demand that UNESCO order Israel to surrender the artifacts, Israel Hayom learned over the weekend.


Discovered in the Qumran Caves in the eastern Judean Desert between 1947 and 1956, the scrolls -- a trove of 981 different texts dating back to the time of the Second Temple -- are believed to be the work of members of a Jewish sect known as the Essenes.


The majority of the scrolls are written in Hebrew, some are written in the Aramaic dialects common to the area at that time, and a handful of parchments are written in Greek.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Book: Das Mausoleum von Belevi

Das Mausoleum von Belevi

Author: Ruggendorfer ,Peter
ISBN: 9783700177586 Year: 2016 Pages: 576 Seiten Language: de
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Subject: History of arts --- Arts in general --- Architecture --- History --- Archaeology --- Religion --- Social Sciences --- Zoology --- Biology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
License:
Abstract The current volume of the Forschungen in Ephesos presents the concluding results of the recent archaeological and art-hisorical investigations at the monumental tomb in the hinterland of Ephesos. The date ot the Mausoleum can be fixed accumulative between 310 and 280/70 BC and following the interpretation of references regarding the monument`s dedication and the sources for the historical events Antigonos I. Monophthalmos is recognised as the newly identified personality to whom the Mausoleum belonged.
Der aktuelle Band der Forschungen in Ephesos ist den abschließenden aktuellen archäologischen und kunsthistorischen Untersuchungen an dem monumentalen Grabbau im Hinterland von Ephesos gewidmet. Auf Basis des akkumulativ gewonnenen Datierungsansatzes in die Jahre 310 bis 280/270 v. Chr., der Interpretation der am Monument angetroffenen Hinweise auf den Stifter und der Analyse der Quellen zur Ereignisgeschichte wird Antigonos I. Monophthalmos als neuer Grabherr des Mausoleums vorgeschlagen.

Archaeology Briefs

EXCAVATION OF AKKADIAN SITE OF BASSETKI -- IN IRAQ -- NEAR ISIS BUT BRONZE AGE PROJECT WILL BE SET UP

Scientists headed by Professor Peter Pfälzner from the University of Tübingen and Dr. Hasan Qasim from the Directorate of Antiquities in Dohuk conducted the excavation work in Bassetki between August and October 2016. As a result, they were able to preempt the construction work on a highway on this land. The former significance of the settlement can be seen from the finds discovered during the excavation work. The city already had a wall running around the upper part of the town from approx. 2700 BC onwards in order to protect its residents from invaders.

Large stone structures were erected there in about 1800 BC. The researchers also found fragments of Assyrian cuneiform tablets dating from about 1300 BC, which suggested the existence of a temple dedicated to the Mesopotamian weather god Adad on this site. There was a lower town about one kilometer long outside the city center. Using geomagnetic resistance measurements, the archeologists discovered indications of an extensive road network, various residential districts, grand houses and a kind of palatial building dating from the Bronze Age. The residents buried their dead at a cemetery outside the city. The settlement was connected to the neighboring regions of Mesopotamia and Anatolia via an overland roadway dating from about 1800 BC.

Bassetki was only known to the general public in the past because of the "Bassetki statue," which was discovered there by chance in 1975. This is a fragment of a bronze figure of the Akkadian god-king Naram-Sin (about 2250 BC). The discovery was stolen from the National Museum in Baghdad during the Iraq War in 2003, but was later rediscovered by US soldiers. Up until now, researchers were unable to explain the location of the find. The archeologists have now been able to substantiate their assumption that an important outpost of Akkadian culture may have been located there.

Although the excavation site is only 45 kilometers from territory controlled by the Islamic State (IS), it was possible to conduct the archeological work without any disturbances. "The protection of our employees is always our top priority. Despite the geographical proximity to IS, there's a great deal of security and stability in the Kurdish autonomous areas in Iraq," said Professor Peter Pfälzner, Director of the Department of Near Eastern Archaeology at the IANES of the University of Tübingen. The research team consisting of 30 people lived in the city of Dohuk, which is only 60 kilometers north of Mosul, during the excavation work.

In another project being handled by the "ResourceCultures" collaborative research center (SFB 1070), Pfälzner's team has been completing an archeological inspection of territory in the complete area surrounding Bassetki as far as the Turkish and Syrian borders since 2013 -- and 300 previously unknown sites have been discovered. The excavations and the research work in the region are due to be continued during the summer of 2017. "The area around Bassetki is proving to be an unexpectedly rich cultural region, which was located at the crossroads of communication ways between the Mesopotamian, Syrian and Anatolian cultures during the Bronze Age. We're therefore planning to establish a long-term archeological research project in the region in conjunction with our Kurdish colleagues," says Pfälzner. The excavation work is being funded by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation.

Geoff Carter (Theoretical Structural Archaeology)

Virtual Archaeology; A Roman Timber Rampart


The need to illustrate recent speaking engagements, has necessitated the revisiting a virtual model of the Roman timber rampart based on foundations found at Shields Road, Byker, which a real place in Newcastle. [1]  In addition, live reaction to my work, provides an opportunity to reconsider and improve its subsequent presentation, and thus every question, comment or observation is important. 
Since this particular technological approach, and in particular the underlying reverse engineering, has proved  too advanced for a parochial academia, it is worth restating the fundamental methodical differences between CAD modelling and visualisation of the past.  
The use of engineering  in the understanding of structures can produce models with varying degrees of certainty and spatial accuracy, but what it cannot really do is tell you what the past looked like.  While the artist’s reconstruction has become the de facto money shot of archaeotainment staples such as Time Team, and even on the front of serious archaeological reports, a picture is worth a thousand peer reviewed words, ultimately, there is no inherent entitlement or legitimacy to a visual culture of the past. 

Above. Trajan’s Column; contemporary representations [enhanced] of timber ramparts and structures built by the Roman army during the Dacian War, although stylised, they are clearly constructed with horizontal timbers.  
In essence we are trying to understand how this structure worked, not necessarily how it looked. So in addition to a consideration of how such a rampart might be put together, the use of 3D modelling in archaeological analysis will also be discussed in terms of methodology, application, and pitfalls
Reverse engineering ramparts

Previous Work on this type of structure has been well documented on this site; my initial modelling is always on paper in the form of a technical drawing, although in this case, I also built a scale models using match wood.  Since they are time consuming, I only build 3d computer models of structures to test and demonstrate ideas, once I have a clear objective in mind. 
This post is illustrated with screen “snapshot” of a 3d computer model in SketchUp, the quality of which is related to my computer's screen resolution.  I could also output moving images from the model, such as a walk through or a panning view. 
Quite unlike modelling a building, the key conceptual idea is that it the spaces between the posts that give the structure its utility.  The robbed post pits at Shields Road suggest a foundation of posts placed in pairs, around which a rampart constructed from horizontal timbers placed at 0˚/ 90˚ to the line of the structure with others placed at 60˚.  This would produce a very strong and credible structure with a wide fighting platform. The plan of this  structure is entirely consistent with scale of timber ram parts frequently mentioned in the writings of Caesar.
“He orders him to fortify a camp with a rampart twelve feet in height, and a trench eighteen feet in breadth”.


Caes. Gal. 1.6[2]

General Methodology
Computer modelling, while it has become much easier, is still labour intensive, so it is important to define the objectives and scope of your project at the beginning.  This helps determine the structure of your model in terms of components and layer; each baulk of timber is a component, and can belong to a layer, a group of components that can be visually turned off and on. 
In most cases the model is based on an archaeological plan, which is imported into the model as an image and scaled.[left]
Since we can be absolutely certain that old buildings were not laid out in metres, I always work in feet and inches, as this is usually how ancient structures in Western Europe were conceived and built. 
In theory, the model is as accurate as the information transferred from the original plan [and section] data; if necessary you can work to an accuracy of fractions of an inch, way beyond the tolerances of most archaeological planning.

 [Above] Scaled posts are placed on the ground plan in their original position; these are the fixed points around which the model is constructed.
[Above] In this case, a reconstructed ground level with ditch and spoil mounds is developed from the archaeological plan to provide a visual context for the model.

[Above]  A set of standard components are usually prepared in advance; there are roughly 600 timber baulks in the model with 13 variations, ranging in frequency from 3 to 182.
Each cloned component is then individually positioned in the model, in this case, fitted into the spaces between the posts.
The original layout of the posts lends itself to particular methods of construction which are demonstrated in different parts of the model.
[Above] A front view of the model showing construction detail; the base is constructed using pseudo-randomised forward pointing angled baulks.  The section above is built using 0˚ & 90˚  baulks in a regular pattern, alternating in direction to compensate for taper.
Above: A detail showing how baulks projecting at an angle obscure, lock, and protect the posts at the front of the structure, [the most obvious point of weaknesses in the design].

The issue of what happens at the top of the posts i.e. are they jointed or nailed together in some way, which would be desirable, is not addressed. This represents another set of possibilities which could be modelled, but it’s not an issue that be easily or satisfactorily resolved.

Getting it wrong....

Modern systems are comparatively easy and quick to use, or equally abuse; a casual click or an inadvertent flick of the mouse can create components and pitch them into another part of the model. In positioning of components you have to attend to the fit at both ends which are often not both in view at the same time.  [Left] A badly constructed section with components overlapping and intersecting inappropriately.  It is usually best to "lock" components in place one they are satisfactorily placed, and to be constantly vigilant about checking fit between components, much of which is "hidden" inside the structure. [Right] Did you spot the deliberate mistake above? The pencil-like tips of some of the baulks are missing; due to a error, they are part of a different layer which was not visible.


[Above]. A typical error, with the two baulks in the centre occupying almost the same space and visually merging. 

Hadrian’s Wall of pencils.
In most systems there is a practical limit to amount of information that can be displayed or rendered.  While it is possible to store vast amounts of image data, to process and display a high level of detail is more complex especially if the image is ‘moving’.  
In this model a basic timber baulk is a tapering cylinder [frustum of a cone] with a cone at one end, painted with 2 or 3 very basic material patterns.
[Above] a plan view showing a section built from regularly placed [0˚/ 90˚] baulks over a layer of regular 15' bracing  60˚baulks.

This is a simple set of data, providing the viewer with information indicating the nature of the material, in this case wood [bark], and those areas where the interior is exposed, also providing a visual clue as to the orientation of the timber in terms of its taper.
[Above]; Art for art sake; potentially, each component can be unique; an amount of time was invested in creating some slightly more realistic timber baulks, principally, to make the point that this was unnecessary and a waste of time in this context.  
The slightly more realistic baulks with stubs and scars of side branches represents 10 or 20 more data to be displayed and manipulated.  
They are bespoke hand crafted “digital art”, and extremely time consuming to produce, but apart from adding to artistic realism of the image, they contribute nothing to technical aspect of the model.  Real timber baulks/ logs in this context would be effectively random within some complex parameters to the extent that is impractical to reproduce this in a model.  Building in a computer is thus  different from building something out of real wood that might be attempted by an experimental archaeologist.
[Above] a section of  typical "box rampart" structure built with some more "realistic" individualised baulks.
Each component can be unique, however, while it might be “visually” more realistic and could to some extent reproduce the practicalities of construction, using pseudo–random components is no more “real” than using standard components, it only appears so.
At some point in modelling a structure such as this you reach a point of diminishing returns; enough has been done to demonstrate the basic thesis, further speculation adds nothing to our understanding of this structure as a rampart.
[Above], A plan view the use of 15' baulks at 60˚ in bracing the structure near the top.
The model has successfully served to demonstrate how the archaeological plan can be projected and superstructure modelled. All the basic constructional techniques which appeared inherent in the ground plan have been successfully modelled to scale. It may appear unfinished, but this is a 3 dimensional cutaway diagram, archaeologically accurate in two dimensions and proportionate in a third.
[Above] A platform on top of the rampart with a wickerwork front [battlement] as described by Caesar [2]; this component is highly detailed and represents a significant amount of  information, probably equivalent to several hundred of cloned baulks forming the majority of model structure.

Visual literacy and theoretical structural spaces
We have noted an underlying conflict between the requirement for some degree of “realism” to convey a sense of materials and the need to ensure the observer is aware that this is technical diagram designed to convey understanding.
While “pictures” and “diagrams” both convey information, the former tends to interact on a more emotional level, while the latter is aimed at comprehension and rational engagement.
Each individual model, like any diagrammatic representation, has to be understood on its own terms and visual conventions; your house may have started off flat with a bluish tinge, but that is not how it ended up.  You may buy a new build house based on a picture, and perhaps a plan, but the builder required a set of diagrams, to convey the precise technical information required.
While such observations are already out of date, the ability to build virtual models in photo-realistic detail threatens to blur this important distinction.  For the house builder this is a sales tool which can visualise the house with red carpets and green walls, or vice versa.   However,  for the archaeologist a diagram should express real data, as distinct from a picture, which however artistic or realistic is a work of the imagination. 
Computer models are clever diagrams.
This explains why it is this websites somewhat radical policy to add anachronistic spoilers to images, just in case the viewer imagines they are dealing with an artistic representation, a picture of the past - one of those fictionalised conceptions  which is added to enhance and give weight to a peer reviewed text.
Archaeology is only credible if we are able to embrace the idea of doubt and close our eyes to the beguiling simplicity of a visual past. 
SketchUp Roman rampart model seen in plan.



Sources

[1] Grey literature: Shields Road, Newcastle, Phase 2b, archaeological excavation. TWM archaeology 10/2006
See also;  Bidwell, Paul T.; Watson, Moira. 1989 'A Trial Excavation on Hadrian's Wall at Buddle Street, Wallsend'. Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th ser., 17 (1989), 21-28.
And
 T. Frain, J. McKelvey & P. Bidwell 2005 Excavations and watching brief along the berm of Hadrian’s Wall at Throckley, Newcastle upon Tyne, in 2001-2002. Arbeia J, And Bidwell, P T, 2005 'The system of obstacles on Hadrian's Wall; their extent, date and purpose', Arbeia J, 8, 53-76. http://www.arbeiasociety.org.uk/journal.htm
Grey literature; Throckley, Newcastle upon Tyne, archaeological excavation and watching brief. TWM Archaeology 12/2003  


[2] Caius Julius Caesar "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries English translation by W. A. MacDevitt, introduction by Thomas De Quincey (1915) http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10657

Centre for the Study of Christian Origins

Reflections on SBL 2016, PT. 1

sbl-reflections-pt-1-foster

I will have two abiding memories of my first trip to Texas – the warmth and the flatness of the terrain. For somebody who resides in hilly Edinburgh to be warm in November and to go out at night without a coat is almost impossible to comprehend. The other striking memory was the view from the restaurant of the Tower of the Americas. At a height of over 200 metres one certainly gets a sense of how few hills there are on the horizon. But SBL is about more than warmth and views.

 

My conference experience kicked off on Saturday morning with examining an Edinburgh PhD – along with my colleague and good friend Prof. Craig Evans of Houston Baptist University. So Saturday morning felt more like work than a conference. Straight afterwards, I attended the board meeting for the Journal for the Study of the New Testament. This involved lunch at the Chart House restaurant in the Tower of the Americas – I think the whole board was enthralled and captivated with the amazing view. Then finally at 4pm I managed to get to my first session: John, Jesus and History – Synoptic Gospels and Q. Many of the papers were fine presentations, but I had a sense of frustration. Since a number of the papers were by Q-sceptics, my sense was that there were few insights into any possible relationship between Johannine material and Q traditions. So although the papers were superbly presented and interesting, I went away with a sense that they had not delivered at least what I was expecting.

 

Sunday was not a day of rest. I met with several publishers in the morning and early afternoon, before heading to one of the few sessions I was able to attend. That was fortunate – because I was presenting! The session was a review of two recent books on Q: Sarah Rollens, Framing Social Criticism in the Jesus Movement (2014) and Giovanni Bazzana, Kingdom of Bureaucracy: The Political Theology of Village Scribes in the Sayings Gospel Q (2015). These are both exceptionally learned and well-written monographs – that both situate Q in a rural Galilean context being written by middling or sub-elite scribes in the early 60s. They argue respectively that these scribal figures advanced their own concerns of either social reform, or a small “p” political agenda. Despite the obvious scholarship on display, in the end I remained unconvinced by the central theses of both books. Both books appear to have neglected the creative impetus that the movement’s founding figure may have provided for challenging political elites or calling for social reform. The theories that these two agendas originated with middling scribal figures make it unclear why the Q document has any need to attribute these sayings to Jesus. For me, this raises the question of the relation of the Q traditions to the message of the historical Jesus. Admittedly, Q as a document written in Greek and perhaps arranged by various compilers, does not reflect the connected pristine ipsissima verba Jesu. However, one might ask whether Q is a faithful rendition of the message of Jesus? If so, are these assumed scribal figures those responsible for the intellectual creativity in challenging societal structures, or should that role be more accurately attributed to the movement’s founding figure? If not, then why is Jesus remembered at all in Q? Apparently he is not remembered for his sacrificial death in Q, but instead for his provocative teaching. If, however, that teaching does not originate with Jesus, but rather with a middling intellectual creative why are they not remembered rather than Jesus? Thus the difficulty with Rollens’ and Bazzana’s accounts of Q is to understand the need of reference to Jesus – unless he is indeed in some sense the source of the message found in the Sayings Gospel. If Q does correctly attribute that role to Jesus, then are not the scribes mainly responsible for the translation, arrangement and transmission of the Q material? This would imply they are not so much creative intellectual figures challenging the social norms of their day, but rather better described as literate individuals who transmitted the traditions of Jesus’ teaching. And if so, then it is that teaching of Jesus that is the creative impetus and origin of the social reform or political challenge, rather than viewing it as stemming from a set of faceless and nameless scribes who supposedly were struggling to cope with their own sense of obsolescence in first century Galilee.

 

On Monday morning I took some time to visit the Alamo. It was already packed by the time I arrived, but being in San Antonio a visit to this place of origin for the founding myth of Texas seemed essential. And besides, it was another opportunity to enjoy the warmth of a November day in Texas. In the afternoon I attended the session on Digital Humanities in Biblical, Early Jewish and Christian Studies: Christian Apocrypha. I was fascinated by Brent Landau’s paper on Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 210 and the use of a digital microscope to recover the text to a greater extent. Admittedly the gains are incremental, but with its use of new technology to study papyri this was a paper from which I learnt genuinely new techniques that will enhance my own study of papyri.

 

This year’s SBL conference was a wonderfully enriching time, somewhat curtailed by a change in my plane schedule that meant I had to miss the final Tuesday morning session. The jet-lag has almost gone, but the memories of warmth, panoramic views, and wonderful scholarship will linger for a long time to come.

 

paul-foster-usable-smile

Written By Prof. Paul Foster

Ancient Peoples

Painted plaster mummy portrait-head of a woman with a gilded...



Painted plaster mummy portrait-head of a woman with a gilded roll hairstyle across her forehead and ringlets behind her ears.

Roman Period Egypt, 90-100 AD 

British Museum EA26799  

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

YouTube Video: Conversation with Anthony Buzzard

Here is the video recording of the conversation I had with Anthony Buzzard yesterday about Christology, monotheism, and related subjects. I talk about how I came to a personal faith and ended up studying the things that I did, and explaining my views on the Christologies in the letters of Paul and the Gospel of [Read More...]

The post YouTube Video: Conversation with Anthony Buzzard appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

BiblePlaces Blog

Weekend Roundup

Archaeologists have finally discovered the port of ancient Byblos.

Philippe Bohstrom looks at the history of the city of Dan and the tribe of the Danites in a well-illustrated Haaretz article.

Wayne Stiles beat me to the new Virtual Reality tour at the Western Wall in Jerusalem and I asked him to write about it. He did.

Albawaba has a short slide show of the pre-Islamic Middle East.

New tests on the (probably fake) lead codices from Jordan suggest that the lead is ancient.

The Jewish Virtual Library posts a list of significant archaeological discoveries in Israel from 2004 to present. The list seems to be more complete for the last two years than for earlier ones.

Leon Mauldin visited the largely ignored site of Tirzah on his recent trip to Israel.

The Jewish Press posts a 15-minute video entitled “Secrets of the Machpela in Hebron.”

Amazon has a $5 off code good through Sunday on any book(s) that total $15 or more. Enter GIFTBOOK at checkout. Here are three books that qualify:

HT: Charles Savelle, Joseph Lauer, Agade

The Archaeology News Network

2,000 year old Ashoka Pillar in Delhi suffers heavy damage

A valuable piece of India's ancient history in the heart of the nation's modern capital is being erased word by word, literally. Ashoka Pillar at Ferozeshah Kotla, Delhi [Credit: WikiCommons]The Ashoka pillar in central Delhi's Ferozeshah Kotla, erected by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka originally in Haryana's Ambala area between circa 273 and 236 BCE, is showing clear signs of flaking and deterioration. The sad thing is that the...

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ArcheoNet BE

Zie de Antwerpse stadsarcheologen aan het werk in het Felixatelier

Vanaf nu zie je de Antwerpse stadsarcheologen ‘live’ aan het werk in hun nieuwe atelier. Naast hun werkplaats bevindt zich ook een kleine expo over het verleden van Antwerpen. Jerry, de coördinator van het Felixatelier, nodigt je uit…

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Why Roman skeletons could be first evidence of Leicester's African population

Skeletons found during an archaeological dig in Leicester could be the first example of African...

ArcheoNet BE

In memoriam Jan Thijssen

janthijssen2We hebben de droeve plicht het overlijden mee te delen van Jan Thijssen, stadsarcheoloog van Nijmegen tot 2008. Hij breidde deze dienst uit van éénmansbedrijfje tot een ploeg van 60 mensen, in de pre-commerciële fase van de preventieve archeologie, leidde tal van belangrijke opgravingen in de oudste stad van Nederland, maar was ook bekend als een voorvechter van kwaliteitsvolle en wetenschappelijke archeologie.

Thijssen was ook een groot ceramiekspecialist, ontwikkelde mee het Deventer Systeem (classificatiesysteem voor Laat- en Postmiddeleeuws aardewerk en glas), waarvan hij nog steeds een van de wetenschappelijke redactieleden was. Jan was als goede vriend van Hemmy Clevis ook een van de bezielers van de BNA, de Belgisch-Nederlandse contactdagen Archeologie en Bouwhistorie, van de Stichting Promotie Archeologie, die vooral in de jaren ’90 enkele belangrijke symposia rond aardewerkstudies organiseerde. Jan stond er ook voor bekend dat hij geen blad voor de mond nam en bleef strijden voor een kwaliteitsvolle archeologie.

(tekst: Dries Tys)

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Psalm 110:1 and Hebrew Vowels

I thought I would try to clarify the point I was making when the webinar last Friday got interrupted. I don’t at all dispute the interpretation of Psalm 110 as involving Yahweh saying to another distinct figure, whom the author of the Psalm refers to as his lord, that he bestows upon that individual an exalted [Read More...]

The post Psalm 110:1 and Hebrew Vowels appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Review of Chapman and Rodgers (eds.), A Companion to Josephus

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/AeNYeVMU50o" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Jewish Social Studies 22.1

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/2JQZrxcAPmA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

DSS forgeries in Accordance?

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/D2M1gylibHc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Review of "Golem" in Berlin

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/URxtXLyr0Dw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Vandalism in Sebastia

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/ECJwkxw8EVg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

He has a wife you know

Ashurbanipal: The Oldest Surviving Royal Library in the World with Over 30,000 Clay Tablets

ancientorigins:

The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal has sometimes been described as the ‘first library’ in the world, or the ‘oldest surviving royal library in the world’. The library was discovered by archaeologists who were excavating at the site of Nineveh, today known as Kuyunjik. As this was the imperial capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the reign of Ashurbanipal, the library has been attributed to this ruler. The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal contains over 30000 clay tablets and fragments with texts written in the cuneiform script. The subjects of these texts range from governments records to works of literature and technical instructions.

Read more…

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

A Review of the PAS Conference 2016


A Review of the PAS Conference 2016 - Alan Simkins It all looks to have been a bit pointless - a waste of time and public money, especially as there is no 'hard' product.
John Maloney from the NCMD [...] came over as an unpleasantly smug Trump-like bully – someone who is used to getting his own way and seeing no possible reason for that status quo to change. He started his talk by disparaging the efforts of the likes of David Gill and Paul Barford to debate some of the issues behind artefact collecting, and implied that figures used by critics of the hobby (such as those used by the Artefact Erosion Counter) have no substance in fact (as we know, the counter is based upon figures supplied by the NCMD, CBA et al). I suspect he came away from the conference very pleased with the cap-doffing shown to the metal detecting fraternity during the talks throughout the day. Very much a ‘you couldn’t do it without us’ attitude which was not pleasant to see.
I wonder though what a talk in such a tone has to do with 'can detectorists be archaeologists?' Certainly, when spokesmen for the milieu go on the stage at a national conference and persist in their denial of the very real issues that surround artefact collecting in the UK and elsewhere, you will not find much uptake for the idea that they can be archaeologists in any real sense of the word. He may not take the HA figures, the PAS recently has released their own (actually very similar) which indicate that while on average they record 80 000 objects in a year, around 190000 never get shown to the PAS in that same year, nearly three times as many. So about a third of the finders perhaps 'could' become archaeologists, two thirds are simply knowledge thieves and never will. According to this account, Mr Balony came along to the PAS conference apparently to defend the latter against their critics.

US signs Cultural MOU with Egypt


US signs Cultural MOU with Egypt - restricting imports of Egyptian antiquities and helping combat looting and smuggling.
Under the agreement, the United States will impose import restrictions on archaeological material representing Egypt’s cultural heritage dating from 5200 B.C. through 1517 A.D. Restrictions are intended to reduce the incentive for pillage and trafficking and are one of the many ways the United States is fighting the global market in illegal antiquities. The cultural property agreement [was] negotiated by the State Department under U.S. law implementing the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property,
Shockinglt, this is the first MOU between the US with its clunky 1980s selective implementation legislation and a country in the Middle East. Time for legislative change giving wider protection from one of world's largest market countries.

Vignette: Just another antiquity from Egypt seized in US

The Amazing Cheek of the Treasure Hunter (Alton Hoard)


Nicely timed by 'Ancient Coin News' to coincide with the annual Treasure report hoo-haa in the UK 'Metal Detectorist Challenges Alton Hoard Value'.Everett Millman  of Gainesville Coins (that's not Gainsville as in Old Man Sayles, but the one where Eric Procopi onetime dealer in Mongolian dino bits was based) writes:
In 1996, a Briton who was interested in archaeology and metal detecting as a pastime discovered one of the most significant treasure hoards in the history of the U.K., the Alton Hoard. A full two decades later, the finder--a bricklayer named Peter Beasley--believes that expert appraisers downplayed the historical significance and value of this massive discovery in order to suppress how much money the museum had to pay for the artifacts. Now, Mr. Beasley is looking for answers. “It’s not about the money but the principle,” he emphasized.

He was interested in what? Let us call a spade a spade, this is nothing more nor less than artefact hunting. Mr Beazley says he is now 'not interested in the munny'. That's not what he was saying when this blog began (http://paul-barford.blogspot.com/2008/09/mixed-media.html).
Beasley found the ancient relics in a farm field with the help of his friend Peter Murphy. Beasley and Murphy came upon the coins while sifting through Celtic and Roman pottery at a site they had identified as potentially holding clues to Britain’s first-century history. 
Oh, pleeeease...  One can almost hear the plaintive violins. So, two artefact hunters rifling through a known site looking for something valuable. And how much of that 'sifted through' pottery from that site is documented on the PAS database? What have we learnt about the extent, nature and zoning of the site from the material meticulously collected and documented by these two folk seeking "clues" to Britain's first century history? Is there a publication? Citizen archaeology means what, precisely (British Museum)?
Ultimately, the two finders and the landowner split the £103,000 valuation that was offered by experts at the time. However, subsequent sales of comparable relics have far exceeded the Alton examples. According to the Alton Herald, another Caesar ring that was given to King Herod of Israel sold for over £11,000, while the Tincomarus ring netted just £2,900. Moreover, the gold torque garnered only £1,650 when a similar Roman-Egyptian bracelet from the same time period realized £60,000 at auction.
Not only have many of the experts who provided the hoard’s value been discredited, but Beasley’s complaint of the items being “grossly undervalued” holds weight when one considers the newest estimate for the items’ value: £256,000. It remains to be seen whether Mr. Beasley’s informal appeal will produce any results.
Yeah. like discrediting the whole milieu who quite obviously are lying when they say that the money is no account. This guy is still moaning about allegedly being short-changed  in 1996. Perhaps Beasley, Murphy and Millman might like for a minute to think about what would happen to the value of coins of  Commios, Tincomarus, Epillus, and Verica when 250 of them suddenly appear legally on the open market as another hoard is found. And Tincommius is a name which as the same cachet as Herod? Really?Mr Millman, you should know better, and as for the Treasure hunter Mr Beasley...

Archaeology Magazine

Dutch Authorities Return Sculpture to Italy

ROME, ITALY—The Associated Press reports that Dutch police returned a second-century marble sculpture of the Roman empress Giulia Domna to Italian authorities at a ceremony in Amsterdam. The 12-inch head is thought to have been plundered from Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli in 2012. Two people have been charged with the theft and with trying to sell the sculpture at an auction in Amsterdam. Carabinieri Major Massimo Maresca said that the auction house alerted Italian authorities. For more, go to “Rome's Imperial Port.”

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Resuming the Conversation with Anthony Buzzard

Unfortunately, my conversation with Anthony Buzzard got interrupted by an internet outage in my building. So we’re planning to resume the conversation next Friday, a little later than we started this evening (or a little earlier than we got interrupted – whichever way you prefer to look at it). When the video recording of the [Read More...]

The post Resuming the Conversation with Anthony Buzzard appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

Archaeology Magazine

Roman Ruler of Judea Named in 1,900-Year-Old Inscription

Israel Gargilius Antiques InscriptionHAIFA, ISRAEL—The Times of Israel reports that the name of a Roman ruler of Judea has been found in a 1,900-year-old inscription by scholars from the University of Haifa. Gargilius Antiques is now thought to have ruled over Judea in the years prior to the Bar Kochba revolt against Rome, which was fought between 132 and 136 A.D. The seven-line inscription, carved on a 1,300-pound rock, was found underwater at the site of Tel Dor, an ancient port city on the Mediterranean Sea. The rock may have been a statue base. “This is ... just the second time that the mention of Judea has been discovered in inscriptions traced back to the Roman era,” noted Assaf Yasur-Landau of Haifa University. To read more about underwater archaeology in Israel, go to “Sun and Moon.”

2,000-Year-Old Pet Cemetery Unearthed in Egypt

Berenike pet cemeteryNEWARK, DELAWARE—USA Today reports that a 2,000-year-old pet cemetery has been discovered near a trash heap at the archaeological site of Berenike, a remote Roman port town on the Red Sea. The remains of dogs, monkeys, and cats have been unearthed. Some of the carcasses had been carefully placed under mats or jars. A few of them were wearing iron collars, some of which were decorated with ostrich-shell beads. Marta Osypińska of the Polish Academy of Sciences notes that the necks of the cats were not twisted, as the necks of cats mummified for ritual reasons often were. The remains of a mastiff-like dog suffering from bone cancer was found to have eaten a final meal of fish and goat, before its body was wrapped in a basket and covered with pieces of pottery. The dog is thought to have been imported from Greece or Rome, and was “a very loved animal,” said Steven Sidebotham of the University of Delaware. “What makes this unique is (despite) the very rough circumstances in which these people are living, they still manage to find the time and effort to have companion animals with them,” he said. For more, go to “Animal Mummy Coffins of Ancient Egypt.”

U.S. Repatriates Artifacts to Egypt

USA repatriation EgyptWASHINGTON, D.C.—Five artifacts seized by federal agents have been handed over to Egyptian officials in a ceremony at the Egyptian embassy in Washington D.C. by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, according to a report from ABC News. The objects, including a child’s wooden sarcophagus, a mummy shroud, and a mummified hand, were recovered during investigations based in New York and Los Angeles. Dubbed “Operation Mummy’s Curse” and “Operation Mummy’s Hand,” the investigations uncovered a network of smugglers, importers, money launderers, restorers, and purchasers. The agents traced the artifacts and money to Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Iraq, France, and other nations. Yasser Reda, Egyptian ambassador to the United States, praised the agents for their efforts, saying that their work is essential to the preservation of the world's ancient cultures. For more, go to “Egypt’s Immigrant Elite.”

December 02, 2016

David Gill (Looting Matters)

A Gnathian squat lekythos and the Becchina Archive

Source: Becchina archive
Dr Christos Tsirogiannis has spotted that a Gnathian squat lekythos that is due to be auctioned by Gorny & Mosch (lot 127). The collecting history is provided:
Ex Christie´s London, 15.04.2015, ex 113; aus der Privatsammlung von Hans Humbel, Schweiz, erworben bei der Galerie Arete, Zürich in den frühen 1990er Jahren.
Tsirogiannis points out that the Becchina photograph is dated to 24 September 1988. The objects appear to have been supplied by Raffaele Montichelli.

The significance of the collecting history is that the object was offered for auction at Christie's (London) on 15 April 2015 (lot 113). This is one of four lots withdrawn from the Christie's sale after Tsirogiannis had raised concerns about their collecting histories. It is perhaps noteworthy that the online Christie's catalogue has removed information about the askos.

This raises a number of questions:

  • Was the askos sold at Christie's in spite of being withdrawn?
  • Was the askos returned to its vendor?
  • Is the vendor at Gorny & Mosch the same as at Christie's?
This raises further issues about the lack of sufficient rigour on the part of the team at Gorny & Mosch. Were they unaware of the controversy surrounding the askos at last year's sale?

Gorny & Mosch need to take responsible action and withdraw the askos from the auction and to contact the Italian authorities.


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Sarah E. Bond

Numbering The Stars: Remembering the Contributions of Medieval Muslim Astronomers And Catalogers

This week over at the Forbes blog, I discuss the International Astronomical Union (IAU)‘s publication of an official catalog of 227 star names. The list was published this week in order to further standardize how we reference stars and constellations, since each one has had numerous monikers in Greek, Roman, Chinese, Arabic and many other languages over the many millenia that people have been studying the stars.

Although I laud the IAU’s attempt to streamline naming, I was dismayed to see that in the section of the website recounting the history of cataloguing of the stars, the association begins with the western astronomers that worked during the European Renaissance. By crediting Johann Bayer’Uranometria atlas of 1603 as the first such popular catalog of stars, they in fact omit the great contributions of ancient astronomers and Muslim celestial cataloguers in particular. I attempt to remedy that by recounting a short history of Muslim mathematicians and astronomers (as well as a few forgotten medieval women).

I am also posting a list of digital resources and manuscripts below that I consulted for this article, so that you too can investigate the myriad contributions of Muslim scientists via the manuscripts themselves:

6a017ee66ba427970d01b8d0892894970cUrsa major (الدب الأكبر) as viewed on a celestial globe (upper) and as viewed in the sky (lower) (Or 5323, f.8v). Image via the British Library and is in the Public Domain.
  1. Library of Congress, “Astronomical Innovation in the Islamic World”
  2. Marika Sardar, “Astronomy and Astrology in the Medieval Islamic World
  3. Abd-al-Rahman al-Sufi, “Tables from the Book of the constellations of the fixed stars (Kitab suwar al-kawakib) in a Latin translation,” via the British Library
  4. Ursula Sims-Williams, “Arabic scientific manuscripts go live in Qatar Digital Library,” Asian and African Studies Blog, via the British Library.
  5. The J. Paul Getty Museum, “Astronomical and Medical Miscellany: Toledan Constellation Tables; De Dispositione Aeris; De Prognosticationibus Egritudinem; etc., English, late 14th century, shortly after 1386Ms. Ludwig XII 7
  6. Elly Decker, Illustrating the Phaenomena: Celestial cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
15181198_10104030019844748_76570874655340741_n I am grateful for the help given to me by the University of Iowa’s Special Collections librarians. Map librarian Paula Balkenende pulled a number of celestial maps for me and then gave me a special look at Lanciani’s Forma Urbis Romae–just for kicks. 

 


AIA Fieldnotes

2017 Gennadius Library Summer Session in Medieval Greek

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA)
Listing: 
non-AIA
Type: 
fellowship
Deadline(s): 
January 15, 2017

THE GENNADIUS LIBRARY

OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS

MEDIEVAL GREEK SUMMER SESSION AT THE GENNADIUS LIBRARY, SUMMER 2017

Deadline: January 15

The Gennadius Library of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens announces the summer session focused on the teaching of Medieval Greek, from June 26 to July 25, 2017.

Contact Name: 
The Committee on Libraries and Archives

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

ΜΟΝΟΓΕΝΗΣ: Data Anecdotes

This isn’t an empirical corpus study of μονογενής. It isn’t comprehensive or thorough; it’s just a handful of examples that popped out at me while looking at instances of μονογενής in Koine texts. At best these are anecdotes. Still, I thought it would be worth doing something as a follow up on my previous post on method and native speakers. I refused to speculate on the meaning of μονογενής there. While I still have no intention of drawing a hard conclusion, I did think it might be worth a few moment to look through some Koine texts to see what I’d find.

I can understand why μονογενής could be justifiably translated as ‘only begotten’ in contexts like  Judges 11:34, where μονογενής is the head noun.

Καὶ ἦλθεν Ιεφθαε εἰς Μασσηφα εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἡ θυγάτηρ αὐτοῦ ἐξεπορεύετο εἰς ἀπάντησιν αὐτοῦ ἐν τυμπάνοις καὶ χοροῖς, καὶ αὕτη μονογενὴς αὐτῷ ἀγαπητή, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτῷ πλὴν αὐτῆς υἱὸς ἢ θυγάτηρ.
And Jephthah went to Mizpah to his house; and behold, his daughter was going out to meet him with drums and dancing. She was his μονογενὴς beloved; there was not another son or daughter to him.

My big question would be:

What’s the benefit of maintaining ‘begotten-ness’ for biological contexts in texts where μονογενής is modifying ‘child’ or ‘son’ or daughter’ What’s its semantic contribution in such cases?

Consider the following:

Psalms of Solomon 18:4
ἡ παιδεία σου ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς ὡς υἱὸν πρωτότοκον μονογενῆ ἀποστρέψαι ψυχὴν εὐήκοον ἀπὸ ἀμαθίας ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ
Your instruction is upon us as a first-born μονογενῆ son to divert the obedient soul from ignorance in sins.

So this text has, “first born μονογενῆ son.” That’s a lot of redundancy if μονογενής means ‘only begotten.’

Another interesting example is from Josephus, Antiquities 2.181, where the contrast is on quantity rather than ‘begotten-ness’ in the context of Josephus retelling of the Old Testament historical books:

καὶ τὸ μὲν γνήσιον γένος τῷ Ἰακώβῳ τοῦτο ἦν, ἐκ Βάλλας δὲ αὐτῷ γίνονται τῆς Ῥαχήλας θεραπαινίδος Δάνος καὶ Νεφθαλίς, ᾧ τέσσαρες εἵποντο παῖδες, Ἐλιῆλος Γοῦνις Σάρης τε καὶ Σέλλιμος, Δάνῳ δὲ μονογενὲς ἦν παιδίον Οὖσις.
This was the children born to Jacob in wedlock. And from Balla (i.e. Bilhah), the maidservant of Rachel, there were born to him Dan and Nepthali, from whom four children were born—Eliel, Gunis, Sares, and Sellim. Dan had an μονογενὲς child, Usi.

Dan has a single son. Nepthali has four. Are Nepthali’s less ‘begotten’ somehow?

This other example from Josephus is also quite striking:

ἦν δὲ αὐτῷ Μονόβαζος τούτου πρεσβύτερος ἐκ τῆς Ἑλένης γενόμενος ἄλλοι τε παῖδες ἐξ ἑτέρων γυναικῶν. τὴν μέντοι πᾶσαν εὔνοιαν ὡς εἰς μονογενῆ τὸν Ἰζάτην ἔχων φανερὸς ἦν.
He [Bazeus king of Adiabene] had [the son\ Monobazos, his [Izates] elder brother also from Helena, and he had other sons by other wives additionally. Yet he [Bazeus] openly placed all his affections on this his μονογενῆ Izates.

Seems that something like ‘particularly special’ or ‘preferred/favorite’ would be best here.


Filed under: Greek, Historical Linguistics, Language, Lexicography, Linguistics, OT, Semantics

Archaeological News on Tumblr

2,000-year-old pet cemetery uncovered in Egypt

A nearly 2,000-year-old pet cemetery holding the remains of dogs, monkeys and scores of cats has...

The Archaeology News Network

Ancient pollution hints at possible early copper smelting in Jordan

Industrial pollution may seem like a modern phenomenon, but in fact, an international team of researchers may have discovered what could be the world’s first polluted river, contaminated approximately 7,000 years ago. Wadi Faynan, Jordan, where researchers found evidence of ancient pollution caused by the combustion of copper  [Credit: Barqa Landscape Project/University of Waterloo]In this now-dry riverbed in the Wadi Faynan...

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José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

@perezreverte, escríbete algo

Leo que 200 niños, convenientemente manipulados por sus mayores (la aclaración y la mala leche son mías), han dado a luz el llamado Manifiesto de Santander. Entre las perlas del manifiesto de los mayores que se expresan impostando la voz de los menores a su cargo, me subleva esta, mal redactada para más inri:

Fomentar la mediación en los casos de acoso escolar, escuchando a ambas partes, tanto la del acosador como la del que ha sufrido el acoso.

Otra vez la maldita —cobarde, calculada— equidistancia. Digo yo que, cambiando objetos y sujetos, la misma recomendación sirve para otros conflictos, tales que: “Fomentar la mediación en los casos de violación, escuchando a ambas partes, tanto al violador como a la víctima de violación”. O bien, y esta se la regalamos a Amnistía Internacional, que lo agradecerá a buen seguro: “Fomentar la mediación en los casos de tortura, escuchando a ambas partes, tanto al torturador como a la víctima de las torturas”.

En caso de acoso escolar, como de violación o tortura, lo prioritario es detener el acoso, la violación y la tortura, protegiendo a la víctima del victimario, en segundo lugar atender a la víctima y promover su recuperación y, en último lugar, hablar con el agresor e intentar curarlo de sí mismo. Es cierto que, en el acoso escolar, el agresor también es un niño sujeto de derechos, como el violador y el torturador son personas y sujeto de derechos, pero la necesidad de ayuda de unos y otros no son comparables en absoluto. En caso de no tener claras las prioridades, el riesgo es obvio: el desamparo de la víctima que, por lo pronto, acaba ocupando el último lugar en la frase “…escuchar a ambas partes, tanto al acosador como a quien ha sufrido el acoso”. ¡Qué gran delator el lenguaje, qué transparente!

Hacemos mal en llamarlo “corrección política” cuando su nombre real es “cálculo político”: los acosadores, varios, acostumbran a ser más que la víctima, una, y por eso son muchos más los padres de acosadores con derecho a voto en el consejo escolar, en la junta de distrito, en las elecciones municipales… y no es cuestión de que se enfaden y perdamos sus votos.

Por cierto, que unos niños mentalmente sanos lo que piden, si les dejan sueltos, es más recreo, más vacaciones, más videojuegos con más sangre, más tele, más grasas trans, más chuches… Anda, @perezreverte, escríbete algo.

Añadido 2/12/2016. Quien tenga un rato puede oír una excelente conversación sobre abusos sexuales en la infancia con Margarita García Marqués, de ASPASI, y Alicia en Mágica Vida 31 (minutos 11 a 54). Más que una gran profesional, probablemente una mujer sabia.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Stolen Mummy Hand Makes Its Way Home

The blackened, cloth-wrapped hand arrived in a parcel at Los Angeles International Airport in...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Greek and Latin Project of the Open Philology Project

Open Greek and Latin Project of the Open Philology Project
The ultimate goal is to represent every source text produced in Classical Greek or Latin from antiquity through the present, including texts preserved in manuscript tradition as well as on inscriptions, papyri, ostraca and other written artifacts.  Over the course of the next five years, we will focus upon converting as much Greek and Latin, available as scanned printed books, into an open, dynamic corpus, continuously augmented and improved by a combination of automated processes and human contributions of many kinds. The focus upon Greek and Latin reflects both the belief that we have an obligation to disseminate European cultural heritage and the observation that recent advances in OCR technology for Greek and Latin make these intertwined languages ready for large-scale work.

The Open Greek and Latin Project aims at providing at least one version for all Greek and Latin sources produced during antiquity (through c. 600 CE) and a growing collection from the vast body of post-classical Greek and Latin that still survives. Perhaps 150 million words of Greek and Latin, preserved in manuscripts, on stone, on papyrus or other writing surface, survive from antiquity. Analysis of 10,000 books in Latin, downloaded from Archive.org, identified more than 200 million words of post-classical Latin. With 70,000 public domain books listed in the Hathi Trust as being in Ancient Greek or Latin, the amount of Greek and Latin already available will almost certainly exceed 1 billion words.

Where existing corpora of Greek and Latin have generally included one edition of a work, Open Greek and Latin Corpus is designed to manage multiple versions of, and to represent the complete textual history of, a work: every manuscript, every papyrus fragment, and every printed edition are all versions within the history of a text. In the short run, this involves using OCR-technology optimized for Classical Greek and Latin to create an open corpus that is reasonably comprehensive for the c. 100 million words produced through c. 600 CE and that begins to make available the billions of words produced after 600 CE in Greek and Latin that survive.

Open Greek & Latin Texts

A collection of machine-corrected XML versions of classical authors and works, freely available to download and reuse. For more information, click on the tabs below. Texts are published in GitHub on an ongoing basis. Watch this space and our Facebook page for updates.

athenaeus-dev

The works of Athenaeus of Naucratis, Greek rhetorician and grammarian.

church_fathers_dev

A selection of Church Fathers.

english_trans-dev

English translations of classical works.

misc-dev

An undefined collection of TEI and EpiDoc versions of classical texts.

cag-dev

The Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca.

csel-dev

The Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum.

fragmentary-dev

A Collection of classical fragmentary authors and works.

italian_trans-dev

Italian translations of classical works.

patrologia_latina-dev

The Patrologia Latina.

catenae-dev

The Catenae Graecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum.

dfhg-dev

The Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum.

french_trans-dev

French translations of classical works.

libanius-dev

The works of the Greek rhetorician Libanius.

philo-dev

The works of Philo Judaeus, the Hellenistic Jewish philosopher.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Hendel on the rainbow

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/NAClJbBxRpo" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

The Archaeology News Network

Swiss seize artefacts looted from Syria's Palmyra

Swiss authorities said Friday they had seized cultural relics looted from Syria's ancient city of Palmyra, as well as from Libya and Yemen, which were being stored in Geneva's free ports. A funeral bas-relief from Palmyra in Syria discovered during a custom control on April 2013 in the free ports of Geneva [Credit: AFP/Getty Images]The free ports provide highly secured warehouses where basically anything can be stashed tax-free with...

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Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

More on the Jordan lead codices

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/bElHHDIaIe4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Karanis Housing Project

Karanis Housing Project
Karanis was a Greco-Roman town located in Egypt's Fayoum Region. Founded in the third century BCE, the town remained inhabited until the fifth century CE. A small population of Roman mercenaries lived in the primarily agrarian town, where sustenance farmers produced crops such as wheat, barley, olives, figs, and walnuts. Alexandria, one of the major centers of Roman trade, lay a mere 124 miles to the north of Karanis, making this small, rural town a gateway to more populated and urban areas.

The site was primarily excavated by a team from the University of Michigan, lead by Francis W. Kelsey, in the 1920s. However, Kelsey was not the first person to show interest in Karanis; local farmers had been obtaining government permits to remove nitrogen-rich soil from the site to use as fertilizer (sebbakh) up until the early twentieth century, and the papyri they inevitably unearthed caught the attention of English scholars Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt, who completed minor excavations of the site in 1895 before moving to a different site. As a result, Kelsey and his team were forced to work around whole swaths of the town that had been destroyed by earlier activities -- most notably, an area right in the center of the Karanis mound. The Michigan team completed a wonderfully thorough excavation of the areas that remained intact, cataloging each artifact and making careful note of where exactly each item was discovered. This provides crucial information to archeologists and classicists who wish to consider artifacts in their original contexts.

The Karanis Housing Project seeks to bring this valuable information into the twenty-first century by digitizing the dig and making a comprehensive list of finds easily accessible and searchable online. While still in its early stages, the model developed based on data from Karanis will eventually be applied to other excavations, providing a way to analyze finds and query specific artifacts that is far more user-friendly than sifting through boxes of field notes.

Ancient Peoples

Two mosaic glass slices joined: a grotesque male head, frontal...



Two mosaic glass slices joined: a grotesque male head, frontal on a dark-blue field, perhaps intended as a tragic mask. The top edge of the panel is framed with an opaque white and a pale-red rod fused. In turn the ensemble is inset into ancient wood.

Graeco-Roman Egypt, 1st century BC

Source: British Museum EA29396

The Archaeology News Network

American School of Classical Studies investigating deviant burials at Phaleron

In sociology, deviant behaviour can be either malum in se, meaning wrong in itself, or malum prohibita, wrong because it is prohibited. The term deviant is also used to define the mystery of an ancient necropolis unearthed at the Phaleron (present-day Faliro) Delta, where classical archaeology has called on the help of CSI-style archaeologists from the Malcolm H. Wiener Laboratory for Archaeological Science at the American School of...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Zoroastrian and Jewish apocalyptic literature

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Review of Fine, The Menorah

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Review of Lavan and Mulryan (eds.), Field Methods and Post-Excavation Techniques in Late Antique Archaeology

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/3CuprGNN3XA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

The Archaeology News Network

Dutch return looted 2nd century marble head to Italy

Dutch police have returned to Italy a 2nd century marble head that was stolen from a famous archaeological site outside Rome and offered up for auction in Amsterdam. The marble head depicting the Roman Empress Julia Domna was stolen in 2013  from Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, near Rome [Credit: ANSA]Italy's national police art squad says the 31-centimeter head of Roman empress Giulia Domna was worth 500,000 euros. It was stolen,...

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Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

War and the Plague in the Sixth Century (AD)

I've been going back over some material on the sixth-century plague in the past month or two, partially for another project (digital textbook), partially for this new (ish) research project, and partially out of interest.  I've made Meier's new article (Early Medieval Europe 2016) bus reading, and so I've been slowly working my way through it, and definitely enjoying it.  My bus trips are short, so I only ever get so far.

So far, just over halfway through, I think he's done a good job of summarizing earlier research - it's an excellent introduction as is to the subject - and is making some good points all the same.  Earlier today, I came across his brief sections, lines even, on the effects of the plague on waging war.  As he notes, this is an issue that hasn't been resolved. 

Some hold that the plague had a significant impact on Rome's ability to wage war, let alone that of other states like Persia.  This impacted everything from financing war to the paying of troops.  The varied instances of military unrest that cropped up afterwards in places like Africa should be attributed to the lack of money to pay the men.  Problems with recruitment too - Belisarius had to rely on finding men himself later during the war in Italy - would also come down to the impact of the plague.  There simply weren't enough men. 

Others, however, hold the opposite line.  Rome was able to wage war on at least two fronts simultaneously during the outbreak of the plague, which would seem to minimize its impact on the empire's ability to wage war.  The thinking goes:  if plague really did have a significant impact on Justinian's military, how could they put 1000s of men in the field in Africa, Italy, Bulgaria, and Syria at the same time? 

As noted, this is an issue that hasn't been resolved, and it's one that's interested me for a little while.  Coming back to it again now, however, is it even possible to get any kind of resolution?  Most importantly, how could we hope to measure the plague's direct impact on the state's ability to wage war?  Our evidence isn't good enough, so far as I can tell, to indicate changes in the number of soldiers fighting for Rome before or after the plague took hold.  There are a few big figures for the military as whole, and references to various armies by Procopius and others.  But those are very much context specific, and there's often a lot of material that gets left out.

We also know little about the specifics of recruitment.  There are a few pieces of legislation that get into recruitment, and some of this we can date with a good deal of precision.  But the recruitment material is from the years before the plague broke out.  It also tends to be about the process itself:  these are the sorts of men who can and should be recruited, and this is what they should and should not do.  It doesn't reveal anything, really, about where they might be from and what to do if men couldn't be found.  There's no legislation that reveals any sort of crisis in recruitment in the middle years of the sixth century. 

The truth is, the evidence, as a whole, is often ambiguous.  While it might reveal things like damage, depopulation, financial instability, and mixed success in war, it doesn't connect these potential impacts of war to the wars themselves or the plague.  For instance, was the Roman Empire in the 540s and 550s struggling in war so much because of the plague, or because it was engaged on so many different fronts?  To take another example, Procopius spends a good deal of time on the impact of the plague on the empire in his famous passage.  He also details the impact of the wars in his Wars and Secret History.  What he doesn't do, however, is connect the plague to the mixed success at war.  It could be because there was no connection.  It could also be that he didn't realize that there was a connection.  Or it could be that there was one that he recognized, but one he chose to ignore in favour of other explanations, like the evils of Justinian. 

In short, there's no resolution yet for this problem, but I'm not sure we could ever get a definitive one.  With that said, the best, I think, that we could hope for is an analysis of the indirect or circumstantial kind.  There seems to be better evidence for the impact of the plague on other aspects of life, like the broader economy and rural agriculture.  If we can establish its impact on all these other matters, it seems likely that it would have had an impact on the military too.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Conversation Tonight With Anthony Buzzard

I thought I would post a reminder about the conversation tonight. It will be recorded, and so you can just watch and listen later. But if you’d like to listen as it is happening, and perhaps even join in, then here is the link to follow, for your convenience:  http://zoom.us/j/725748189

The post Conversation Tonight With Anthony Buzzard appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Ancient Greek speakers & their intuitions

nicene-creed-greek

381 CE text from the First Council of Constantinople

Nobody would be shocked to hear that native speakers know their language really well. They speak it natively after all. Everything that you could imagine to put in a reference grammar, they already have all of that knowledge in their heads.

So when a bible professor decides to write up an argument online for why μονογενής should be understood as meaning “only begotten” rather than “unique” and he appeals to native speaker knowledge of the language, surely we should all stop and listen to it, right?

Well, no. That’s probably not a good idea–or, at least, there are a number of caveats we need to think about first.

That’s because there is a significant difference between someone knowing a language and someone knowing about a language. To put it another way: there is a significant gap between one’s ability to speak a language and one’s ability to explain to another person why they spoke the way they did and why they used the grammatical structures they used. Now, of course, there is a sense in which the limit there is terminological: if I asked you to tell me whether the verb ‘ask’ is an object-raising predicate or an object-controlling predicate, your ability to answer would depend primarily on how much language of syntactic theory you have (for those interested, you can read about raising and control predicates on their Wikipedia page).

In linguistics, the term that gets thrown around is native speaker intuition. And in biblical studies, some who have heard the phrase have jumped on it and found it a useful concept to appeal to when they find a dead Greek speaker who wrote something that agrees with their interpretation. That sort of view of things, however, misses the key word: intuition. The moment a native speaker is talking about their language, they’re not using their intuition, they’re just talking. Now, what they’re saying is still going to be useful and important, but probably not for whatever the question at hand is. Native speakers talking about their language are providing insights about their own perceptions and biases, not insights into their language itself. The insight there is sociolinguistic. It isn’t lexical, phonological, morphological, or syntactic.

For example, if you encounter an English speaker who rebukes someone else because they used the word decimate to mean destroy, saying, “Decimate can only mean to reduce by 10%” (see John McIntyre’s recent video the topic at the Baltimore Sun, for example), such a statement says very little about the meaning of the word decimate, but a whole lot about the speaker own attitudes toward their language.

Another great example is the rule about passive voice in English. Don’t use it, they say. It makes for weak writing. But again, did we just learn something about English voice? Or did we just learn something about language education in North America and the hierarchical structure of sociolinguistic authority in English? Probably the latter. The fascinating thing about the passive voice example, is just how often the people pontificating on the topic either cannot actually recognize what a passive is or how often they, fully unaware, break their own rules (see, Geoffrey Pullum’s excellent essay in the Chronicle of Higher Education: 50 Years of Stupid Grammar Advice).

So how do we get around these difficulties? Well, the first answer is simply: Be suspicious about language statements. Do not take them at face value. In the context of Ancient Greek, such statements could be taken as an opportunity to do research. Test the claim on the actual language and see if it’s correct.

The linguist William Labov was the 20th century trailblazer for establishing principles for eliciting linguistic data in a way that did not disrupt the native speakers’ language use or introduce bad data. He was studying how the pronunciation of r varies among English speakers (Labov 1966). Rather than asking directly how they pronounced certain words (which would immediately place the speakers in a situation where their speech is non-natural), he instead went to the mall and asked various people throughout the mall where various department stores were in the building–all of which he knew ahead of time were on the fourth floor. This gave him a means of getting unaffected linguistic data. He also pretended to have misheard so that he could get a repeated statement of the response. The result? One response at natural speed and one response at a slower speed.

This is the challenge of eliciting data. It is difficult to do naturally. Field linguists studying undocumented minority languages have an even more difficult time, since they cannot elicit natural data until they’ve learned the language. So usually, the majority of work is done in the context of asking some form of How do you say… and then transcribing the answer and asking for a translation of it. This can be highly risky for getting trustworthy dat. Claire Bowern (2015) has an entire section dedicated to how to make sure one’s elicited data is reliable in this context and since most of my audience is interested in ancient languages, I won’t go into the details.

Other field linguists will say that the answer is to simply not elicit data at all: only work for corpus texts. Dixon’s (2009) view is corpus work is the only acceptable method for studying language structure and elicitation is only acceptable for the purpose of filling in morphological paradigms that have gaps from the corpus.

So what can we take away from this in terms of Ancient Greek?

  • Explicit statements about lexical meaning or grammatical structure shouldn’t be trusted outright. They might be correct, but you need to do the corpus research to make sure–and you needed to do that research anyway.
  • Polemic debates about the meaning of words or sentences are even less reliable. If there’s a debate, that means some other native speaker holds the opposite view. Neither can be trusted. Do the corpus research yourself.
  • Assumptions about the meaning of words and sentences without argument are more interesting, particularly if there’s significant modern debate. This is more like Labov’s work–unelicited, intuitional information. If a native Ancient Greek speaker simply assumes one view with no awareness that there’s an alternative, that’s something that could be important, but negative data is still not as good as positive data. Check your corpus research and see if it coheres.

Moises Silva (2005, 27) actually provides a good summary of these points in the introduction to his Philippians commentary:

9780801026812Strange as it may sound, Chrysostom, along with other Greek fathers, can be particularly helpful when he does not offer an opinion on an exegetical problem. As a native Greek speaker, his innate sense of the language—but not necessarily his conscious reflection on it—provides an important bridge between the modern commentator and the Pauline writings (with the qualification that Paul’s Greek was of course not identical to Chrysostom’s). Educated speakers are notoriously unreliable in analyzing their own language. If Chrysostom weighs two competing interpretations, his conclusion should be valued as an important opinion and no more. If, on the other hand, he fails to address a linguistic problem because he does not appear to perceive a possible ambiguity, his silence is of the greatest value in helping us determine how Paul’s first readers were likely to have interpreted the text.

Now, I cannot say that I’m comfortable with how far Silva goes here. I would emphasize that any source of linguistic information ought to be corroborated from other sources. So when Silva says, “of the greatest value,” my fear is that readers will take that to mean that such linguistic intuitions are enough to move on without confirming the conclusion with other data. That would be an unwise move.

Now then, coming back to μονογενής, the fact that the Nicene Creed’s authors chose to say γεννηθέντα is certainly interesting. Here’s the larger context (the 325 CE text):

Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, γεννηθέντα ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς μονογενῆ, τοὐτέστιν ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας τοῦ Πατρός, Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα, οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί

I suppose the main question for me would be: Is it interesting in the context of John 3:16? Or it is interesting in the context of the debates about the nature of orthodoxy in the 3rd and 4th centuries? I hope that everything above makes it clear the methodologically responsible answer. Now, that doesn’t mean Denny Burk is right or wrong about the meaning of μονογενής. It just means that the way he is appealing to native speaker’s knowledge is wrongheaded.

As for myself, I can’t say my view of μονογενής. I haven’t studied it personally. The most striking point in Burk’s article was the fact that BDAG continues to include it as the first entry. But without digging more, I couldn’t say whether that’s a result of traditions of continuity in lexicography from one edition to the next or because of the data that Danker worked through.

Works Cited:

Bowern, Claire. 2015. Linguistic fieldwork: A practical guide. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dixon, Robert M. W. 2009. Basic linguistic theory: Methodology. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Labov, William. 1966. The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Silva, Moises. 2005. Philippians. 2nd Edition. Baker Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic.


Filed under: Exegesis, Grammar, Greek, Historical Linguistics, John Chrysostom, Language, Lexicography, Linguistics, Sociolinguistics

The Archaeology News Network

Archaeologists uncover name of Roman Prefect of Judea before Third Jewish Revolt

University of Haifa researchers have made an important underwater discovery: a rare inscription from the period preceding the Bar Kochba revolt permits for the first time the definite identification of Gargilius Antiques as the Roman prefect of Judea at that time. The massive rectangular stone discovered during a maritime excavation at the Tel Dor  archaeological site south of Haifa [Credit: Ehud Erkin Shalev]The inscription was...

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Mummified remains identified as Egyptian Queen Nefertari

A team of international archaeologists believe a pair of mummified legs on display in an Italian museum may belong to Egyptian Queen Nefertari – the favourite wife of the pharaoh Ramses II. Mummified legs from Nefertari's tomb on display in 2014 exhibition at Museo Egizio in Turin  [Credit: © 2016 Habicht et al.]The team, which included Dr Stephen Buckley and Professor Joann Fletcher from the University of York’s Department of...

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BiblePlaces Blog

Inscription Discovered Underwater Naming Roman Governor of Judea

Haaretz reports on this new discovery:

An underwater survey conducted by divers off Tel Dor, on the Mediterranean Sea, yielded an astonishing find: a rare Roman inscription mentioning the province of Judea – and the name of a previously unknown Roman governor, who ruled the province shortly before the Bar-Kochba Revolt.

Historians had thought that based on Roman records, the leaders Rome imposed on its provinces were all known.

The rock with the 1,900-year-old inscription was exposed by a storm on the seabed at a depth of just 1.5 meters in the bay of Dor. The town had been a thriving port in Roman times that even minted its own coins, which proudly proclaimed the city to be "Ruler of the Seas".

Found by Haifa University archaeologists surveying the remains of the ancient Roman harbor at Dor in January 2016, the rock, 70 by 65 centimeters in size, was partly covered in sea creatures when it was found.

The article continues with many large photos. For more information, see the University of Haifa press release, the Times of Israel article, and blog postings by Ferrell Jenkins and David Graves.

HT: Charles Savelle, Joseph Lauer, Agade

ArcheoNet BE

Koloniën van Weldadigheid in 2018 UNESCO-werelderfgoed?

In januari 2017 zal de Vlaamse regering, samen met Nederland, bij de UNESCO een werelderfgoednominatiedossier indienen voor de Koloniën van Weldadigheid. Het gaat in totaal om zeven koloniën uit het eerste kwart van de 19de eeuw, waarvan twee zich in Vlaanderen bevinden: Merksplas en Wortel. Het streefdoel is om het dossier in 2018 te laten behandelen door de UNESCO. Dat jaar markeert immers de 200ste verjaardag van de oprichting van de Maatschappij van Weldadigheid en de 25ste verjaardag van de afschaffing van de wet op de landloperij.

De Koloniën van Weldadigheid getuigen van een uitzonderlijke onderneming, die twee eeuwen geleden haar ontstaan kende in het Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Geworteld in het geloof in de maakbaarheid van de mens en zijn omgeving stichtte de private Maatschappij van Weldadigheid tussen 1818 en 1825 zeven landbouwkoloniën. In deze utopische koloniën moesten armen, landlopers en wezen de draad van hun leven weer oppikken. Dat deden ze aan de hand van een gedisciplineerd patroon van werken en leren. Individuele vrijheid was vrijwel onbestaande. Na het afschaffen van de landloperswet in 1993 volgde een periode van leegstand. De site van Merksplas krijgt momenteel een herbestemming.

Het dossier benadrukt de wereldwijde uniciteit van de Koloniën omwille van:
– de basistypologie van het landschap van de vrije en onvrije Koloniën
– de structuur van wegen, beplanting en waterstructuren, het maatsysteem dat werd toegepast en het patroon van de bebouwing
– de bebouwing en beplanting die representatief is voor het utopische experiment van armoedebestrijding en disciplinering

Na het akkoord van de Nederlandse regering, naar verwachting volgende week, zal het dossier met alle bijlagen op vrijdag 21 januari 2017 aan UNESCO worden overhandigd door diplomatieke vertegenwoordigers van Vlaanderen en Nederland, vergezeld van een delegatie uit de koloniën. De behandeling door het Werelderfgoedcomité gebeurt dan in de zomer van 2018.

Geert Bourgeois: “Vandaag zijn de verschillende koloniën van weldadigheid nog duidelijk herkenbaar. Wegens de hoge integriteit van dit onroerend erfgoed gaan Nederland en Vlaanderen ervan uit dat de zeven koloniën van weldadigheid een terechte en relevante bijdrage kunnen betekenen aan de Werelderfgoedlijst.”

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Friday Varia and Quick Hits

It finally feels like winter here in North Dakotaland, but fortunately there are plenty of reasons to stay inside by the fire. This weekend’s highlights involve numerous conference championship footballing contests as well as the Mighty Spiders of the University of Richmond taking on the Fighting Hawks of the University of North Dakota right here in Grand Forks. It doesn’t get any more exciting than that, folks. Throw the records out.

While the excitement builds for the big game, please do enjoy a little list of varia and quick hits:

IMG 0053


Martin Rundkvist (Aardvarchaeology)

November Pieces Of My Mind #3

  • There was a major 19th century arts magazine titled Glissons, n’appuyons pas. This means “Let’s glide, not support”, that is, “Let’s live an easy life without having to support ourselves”. Opera reviews were a big thing in the mag.
  • Private parking is “idiot parking” in Greek, because here the word idiot means “private person”. Our sense of the word comes from the ancient distinction between a skilled person who could take part in public affairs and an untrained one who was just himself, an idiot. The Greek word for the mentally challenged, meanwhile, is vlakas.
  • I saw an old high-wheel bicycle the other day at Malmö’s tech museum. And it struck me: maybe they were designed like that because everybody expected them to be as high as the back of a horse?
  • Gyros in Kavalla involves none of the sauces common at Swedish kebab places, nor the sublimely odd German curry mayonnaise. Here they offer you mustard and ketchup.
  • None of the movies I saw at the festival won a prize. This probably somehow has to do with the fact that I go to daytime screenings.
  • In 1435 King Erik put a new bailiff at Stegeborg Castle: Ivan Fleming. The bailiff is reported to have been shaken but not stirred by this royal preferment.
  • Having cooked my own simple dinners for a week, tonight I treated myself to a taverna meal. Fava-bean hummus for a starter, then the chef’s special, a super-rustic stew of cuttlefish and onions. Swedes, imagine a really savoury cuttlefish kalops. Yum.
  • Renting a car today and taking the ferry out to Thassos to go for a spin with a retired wind power expert.
  • Recently I’ve begun to realise that a lot of things I believe about the world were true 20 years ago and I can’t honestly say that I have any idea what their current status is.
  • Beta is pronounced “v” in modern Greek. Thus basileos –> Vassilis. But some loan words are pronounced with a “b” sound. So they write “mp” for that. As in delicious mpeikon.
  • Kavalla has been flipping between Semitic, Greek, Latin/Romance and Turkic languages since the Phoenicians arrived 2700 years ago.
  • At home, my Sisyphean attempts to empty the fridge are constantly frustrated by other family members who inexplicably keep putting new food into it. But here at the Swedish house I finally get to empty one! The place is closing for the season and I’m one of the last few visitors. People are going home and leaving their food behind. I get to empty the fridge and lead a Spartan life where I don’t buy anything! Woo-hoo!
  • No, Jason Mraz. If you have the expression “God-given right” and need another syllable, you can’t put “God-forsaken” instead.
  • I wonder what’s going to be my main occupation a year from now. Hope it’ll be fun.
  • I’ve been wondering what’s best, to change currency in Sweden before I travel or to get it out of an ATM in the country I visit. So now I’ve done both. In the case of euros and Greece, you get a slightly better rate in Sweden, but the difference between the two rates is less than 1%.
  • Vassilis is a photographer who came to Uppsala in the 70s and used to be married to a Swedish woman. “I like Swedes, I really do. Swedes are Man’s best friend.”
  • After two weeks of work and being cut off from my family, I can feel myself sinking into substance abuse. I have run out of tea. Going to hit the instant coffee. Wish me luck. “First it giveth, then it taketh away.”
  • How do we know that Denisovans are not Heidelbergensis? One has morphological traits, the other has a genome.
  • The Akademibokhandeln chain bookstore cancelled this anti-racist event. Not because they had received any threats. But because they were afraid they would receive threats. Still, it’s taking place anyway thanks to the Workers’ Educational Association, ABF. I’ve had the pleasure of co-organising events with them for the Swedish Skeptics, and also given talks there myself.
Inscriptions, backstage at the Kavalla Archaeological Museum.

Inscriptions, backstage at the Kavalla Archaeological Museum.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Dutch return looted 2nd-century marble head to Italy

Dutch police have returned to Italy a 2nd-century marble head stolen from the Tivoli archaeological...

ArcheoNet BE

Herinnering: laatste kans om in te schrijven voor ‘Conflict in Contact IV’

Graag herinneren we nog even aan de vierde contactdag over conflictarcheologie die op vrijdag 9 december plaatsvindt in Gent. De inschrijvingen voor ‘Conflict in Contact IV’ lopen vandaag af. De contactdag wil een ontmoetings- en overlegforum bieden aan allen die geïnteresseerd zijn in de archeologie van conflictsites uit een ver en minder ver verleden. De lezingen hebben betrekking op de actualiteit van het archeologisch onderzoek, de opgravingen en vondsten van de voorbije jaren. Bekijk het (licht gewijzigde) programma in deze bijlage (pdf) en schrijf je meteen in!

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

The Fake Jordan Lead Codices

It is distressing to see people blogging and “news” outlets reporting once again about the lead codices from Jordan as though they might conceivably be authentic ancient artifacts. It has been shown that they take text and images from known artifacts and reproduce them over and over again in an attempt to produce something that aims to [Read More...]

The post The Fake Jordan Lead Codices appeared first on Religion Prof: The Blog of James F. McGrath.

ArcheoNet BE

Erfpunt zoekt erfgoedconsulent bouwkundig erfgoed

De Wase onroerenderfgoeddienst Erfpunt wil zijn team versterken met een erfgoedconsulent bouwkundig erfgoed. Heb je een open, creatieve en innovatieve geest en wil je mee werken aan een actief en hedendaags beleid rond onroerend erfgoed en ruimtelijke ordening? Bekijk dan zeker de vacature en reageer vóór 17 januari 2017 via admin@erfpunt.be.

Virginia L. Campbell (Pompeian Connections)

Damnation

About a month ago I managed to escape from the library long enough to pop into a small temporary exhibit at the  British Museum – Defacing the past: damnation and desecration in imperial Rome. It focuses on the practice of damnatio memoriae, where (mostly) bad emperors were condemned by the Senate, and had their name and likeness removed. In some instances, this was done by one emperor in order to remove a rival. Caracalla’s destruction of his brother Geta’s memory is the most obvious example, and one that featured heavily in the exhibit. But it was also a practice engaged in by the people after to removal of a particularly hated ruler. Pliny the Younger, writing after the damnatio memoriae had been issued for Domitian, said ‘How delightful it was, to smash to pieces those arrogant faces, to raise our swords against them, to cut them ferociously with our axes, as if blood and pain would follow our blows.’ (Panegyric 52.4-5). As I expected, the collection on display included some re-modelled or damamged portrait busts, a lot of coins that had one face rubbed out, and a few monumental stone inscriptions with lines chiseled out. What surprised me was to see a graffito, imitating a monumental inscription, and bearing the same erasure that a lapidary text would suffer. (The original graffito is not on display, but there is a large reproduction).

 

20161014_150313

 

Found in a guardhouse of the nightwatch in Trastevere in Rome, the original text says:

CIL VI 3075
Imp(eratore) d(omino) n(ostro) Alexandro III / co(n)s(ule) |(centuria) Auli Terentius / Felix devotus numini / eorum feci(t) sebac{c}i/aria m(ense) Mai{i}o / salvis commanipu/los.
‘To the emperor our lord Alexander, consul for the third time, Terentius Felix member of the division of Aulus, devotee of the protective gods of the imperial family, performed the [night watch] rota of the month of May with all his companions safe.’

The graffito includes what looks like an altar, with the text inscribed on the base, and surmounted with a statue of Victory holding a palm, and busts of Alexander Severus and his mother, Julia Mamaea, on either side. When Alexander was assassinated in AD 235, this death marked the end of the Severan Dynasty and the start of nearly fifty years of civil wars and upheaval, in which twenty-six of the next twenty-eight emperors were also assassinated. After his death, his memory was condemned. The graffito was then defaced – the images of him and his mother were both crossed out, and his name was struck through in the first line of text. The damage done to the graffito is clearer in a line drawing:

 

20161014_150317

 

Although the Senate issued a damnatio memoriae at the time of his death, this was lifted in AD 238, when Alexander Severus was instead deified. What is particularly interesting about that is that it potentially allows the execution of the damnatio memoriae on the graffito to be dated to a three year period. Furthermore, I find the act of defacing a graffito in this manner unusual in and of itself, and would surmise that it has only happened because it isn’t just a random scribbling, but one that was specifically made to replicate a monumental inscription. I have written about this practice before, but never have I come across a text that was defaced after a Senatorial decree. This, I think, puts a whole new twist on the concept of a damnatio memoriae, and how it was viewed or enacted by ordinary Romans.


Tagged: British Museum, Emperors, Exhibit, Figural Graffiti, Graffiti, Graffiti Friday

Faculty of Classics, Cambridge

'The Impact of the Ancient City': PhD Studentship

Applications are invited for a 3-year fully-funded PhD studentship in the context of the ERC Advanced Grant project, 'The Impact of the Ancient City', supervised by Professor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill.

Antiquitas (Sciences de l'Antiquité à l'Université de Lorraine)

L’idéologie de l’accueil humanitaire des barbares au IVe siècle

s200_alessandro-barberoÀ l’occasion de la cérémonie de remise à Alain Chauvot de son ouvrage, Les « barbares » des Romains. Représentations et confrontations, et dans le cadre du Séminaire International d’Histoire Ancienne, nous aurons le plaisir d’accueillir Alessandro Barbero, professeur à l’Université de Piémont Piémont oriental « Amedeo-Avogadro », pour une conférence intitulée « L’idéologie de l’accueil humanitaire des barbares au IVe siècle ».

La cérémonie et la conférence auront lieu le jeudi 8 décembre sur le Campus Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Nancy (CLSHS), 1, place Godefroy de Bouillon, Salle A104 (Bâtiment A).

Télécharger l’affiche.

Illustration : colonne d’Arcadius (Trinity College Library, MS O.17.2)

Les dates de la Saison 2016-2017

Semestre 1 :

Bertrand Lançon6 Octobre 2016 – 18h. Salle des Actes (Bâtiment G, salle 04) Bertrand Lançon (Université de Limoges) : « Stilicon caméléon : Romain? Barbare? Païen? Chrétien ? Quelles frontières pour une ‘romanité hétérogène’ au début du Ve s.? »

s200_lerouge-cohen-charlotte20 Octobre 2016 -18h. Salle des Actes (Bâtiment G, salle 04) Charlotte Lerouge-Cohen (Université de Paris Ouest-Nanterre) : « Les rois parthes sont-ils des souverains hellénistiques ? Les Arsacides face aux institutions macédoniennes »

sophie-photo-couleur-echelle10 Novembre 2016 -18h. Salle des Actes (Bâtiment G, salle 04) Sophie Laribi-Glaudel (Université de Lorraine) : « De Lamaštu à Lamia : les ‘croqueuses d’enfants’ dans le monde méditerranéen IIe-Ier millénaire »

a-binsfeld24 Novembre 2016 -18h. Salle des Actes (Bâtiment G, salle 04) Andréa Binsfeld (Université de Luxembourg) : « L’origine et l’identité des esclaves dans l’Empire romain et l’Antiquité tardive »

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Cooperazione Italia-Giappone sulla Prevenzione del Rischio Sismico

Con l'obiettivo di fornire una buona cooperazione e il sostegno reciproco in materia di danno sismico di strutture storiche, l'Architectural Institute of Japan ha effettuato un sondaggio degli edifici danneggiati dal terremoto del 2016 nel centro Italia.