Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

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April 23, 2017

ArcheoNet BE

17de editie Erfgoeddag lokt 240.000 bezoekers

De zeventiende editie van de Erfgoeddag heeft vandaag ongeveer 240.000 bezoekers gelokt, zo meldt organisator FARO, het Vlaams steunpunt voor cultureel erfgoed. Dat zijn er iets meer dan vorig jaar. Doorheen Vlaanderen en Brussel presenteerden meer dan 500 organisaties zo’n 800 activiteiten rond het thema ‘Zorg’. De volgende editie, op 22 april 2018, zal in het teken staan van het thema ‘Kies voor erfgoed’.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Dismay in the Ranks

 . one of the most crass, ill informed and damaging articles in national press I've ever read encouraging metal detecting
Mike Nevell‏ @Archaeology_UoS 2 hrs ago. In reply to @lornarichardson    I can't see any redeeming features in this article or the event. Why would the BM do this? Undermines the PAS totally.
PAS started undermining their own mission from day two, I think. Anyhow, this seems to be the article meant (I do not know, because Ms Richardson thinks she has nothing to say of interest to me so has kindly blocked me from accessing her tweets): Laura Silverman, 'What it's like to uncover buried treasure with a metal detector – and how to do it yourself' Telegraph [in the 'Lifestyle' section] 23 April 2017
To celebrate 20 years of the Treasure Act, the Telegraph is launching Treasure 20 in association with the British Museum. The competition will highlight the 20 best treasure finds discovered over the past 20 years, picked by experts and Telegraph representatives. [...]  Readers will then be able to vote online for their favourite.
Which - pray tell us British Museum - will result in what, precisely? They most likely are totally unable to explain in any sensible way, but of what they did contribute to this nasty text, I was interested to see this bit:
Lewis says there are up to 10,000 regular metal detectorists.
You've pinched MY (old) figures Mr Lewis. Sam Hardy says there are many more. I think he's right. And who remembers how much trouble we had dragging out of the PAS any kind of an estimate for the number of artefact hunters in England and Wales in the past? One of the PAS staff seems a bit confused by the dumbdown outrech they are forced to undertake:
Dr Marsden believes “an absolutely enormous amount” of treasure is left in the ground. “Metal detectorists are like rescue archaeologists,” says Dr Marsden.
No, Treasure hunters are Treasure huntersm, archaeologists are archaeologists, archaeology is not 'just' about digging up old things and if Dr Marsden really does think that is all it is, in my opinion he needs to think about getting another job.

Treasure 20: 'What it's like to uncover buried treasure with a metal detector – and how to do it yourself'

Following the Code by Detecting on Pasture?
And here's some 'advice' how to trash an archaeological site on your own courtesy of Treasure 20 and Treasure seeker Dave Crisp:
Artefact Hunting: How to get started

  • Buy or borrow a metal detector. The Garrett Ace 150 (£149.95) is popular with beginners. Experienced enthusiasts swear by the XP Deus (from £715). Both from
  • Take a small spade for digging, and a bag and piece of cloth for potential finds.
  • Pick a field. There is no magic location. The same field can turn up nothing one day and a hoard the next.
  • Get written permission from the landowner. You can download a form from the National Council of Metal Detecting website (
  • Follow the Code of Practice for Responsible Metal D-detecting ( It is important that all finds, not only treasure, are recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme.
  • Be methodical. Swing the detector slowly, keeping the level with the ground.
  • Stay alert. I have found a Neolithic axe head, fossils and pottery in the grass just by looking.
  • Be patient. The joy of metal detecting is in the surprise. For your local metal- detecting club, see
Metal Detecting: All You Need to Know To Get Started by Dave Crisp (Greenlight Publishing, £12)

You see, that is "all" you need to know to go about dismantling an archaeological assemblage in order to fill your pocket with collectable artefacts. there is (of course) NOTHING more to know about deposit taphononomy, deposition conditions, soil changes, surveying and plotting techniques. ANYBODY can be a 'citizen archaeologist' by simply buying a machine and going out there wiv there spade.

Mr Crisp, you have a lot to answer for. British Museum too.


Binning a Large Part of the Nation's Archaeological Heritage

In a rambling unfocussed post on his blog ('Cufflinks, Superstitions and the Death of the Tanner' 23 April 2017) veteran artefact hunter John Winter is candid about just how much artefact hunting actually is 'artefact rescue' as is so often claimed by its unreflexive supporters:
In all my years of swinging the coil, I have amassed quite a few odds and ends. They will be worth very little – if anything – to my descendants. When I eventually shrug off my mortal coil they’ll just see them as a nuisance and hire a skip for disposal. 
They'd be 'worth' a whole lot more to us all if they were properly documented. Is that not part of the 'best practice' the PAS should be imparting to these folk? Since 'metal detecting' has been going on since the 1970s and demographically it always was a hobby predominantly associated with males already of about retirement age, one wonders just how many of the hundreds of thousands of unrecorded artefacts that they hoiked in their day have already ended up in skips and landfills, wasting all the information destroyed in their selfish removal?



Ancient Peoples

Egyptian Wine Jar19th Dynasty (early), 18th Dynasty...

Egyptian Wine Jar

  • 19th Dynasty (early)18th Dynasty (late)

  • Pottery wine-jar of Nedjmet: a slender shouldered jar with matching lid. It was thrown in four sections, joined at the base of the neck, middle of the body and top of the foot. The exterior of the vessel and lid are covered with pink slip applied with a brush. Painted decoration in blue with dark red outlines comprises plain bands alternating with pendant leaf and lotus bands. There is a hieroglyphic inscription in black around shoulder, naming the lady Nedjnet.
  • Source: British Museum

    Archaeology Briefs


    There's been an attack by gunmen near a prominent religious tourism site in southern Sinai but Egyptian authorities say no tourists were involved. One security officer was killed and four others injured.

    Egypt's interior ministry says a group of gunmen had been hiding in nearby mountains and opened fire on a checkpoint on the road near St. Catherine's Monastery.

    The ancient monastery is built on the site where the Bible says Moses was given a sign from God in the form of a burning bush. It's one of Egypt's most important tourist sites and about 130 miles from the popular Red Sea resort of Sharm al-Sheikh.

    The Islamic State group has issued a statement claiming responsibility for the attack. Egypt has been fighting the group in north Sinai province for several years but attacks in south Sinai are rare.


    Iranian archaeologists have reportedly discovered the remains of an ancient underground city, close to the town of Samen, Hamadan province, some 400 kms from the capital, Tehran.

    The excavation unearthed underground tunnels connecting at least 25 rooms where archaeologists found the remains of 60 people in nine rooms, and are still excavating in the rest of the site.

    Ali Khaksar, head of Iran's Organization of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism in Hamadan province, told local Khabar News Agency that the underground settlement is believed to be around 2,000 years old.

    The amazing discovery is one of several exciting findings by Iranian archaeologists in recent months. In March, they found underground living quarters carved into a mountain in central Iran dating back to the 12th century.

    In February, an excavation in southern Iran led to the discovery of an ancient observatory which is believed to date back to the reign of the Sassanian dynasty from 224 to 651 AD.


    One of the world’s first nature pictures was a wild cow. A team of archaeologists found the earliest known depiction of an animal on a slab of rock in Southwestern France. According to a research paper published in the journal, Quaternary International, in January, the artifact was created by the Aurignacians, the first humans to migrate from Africa to Western Eurasia between 40,000 and 50,000 years ago. This piece of ancient art, found at a rock shelter in the Vézère Valley, tells us that some of the earliest people on earth made time in their busy schedules to create art and incorporated it into their daily lives.

    The engraving is of an aurochs, a wild cow that is the ancestor of all domestic cattle but is now extinct, according to livestock reporter and author Hannah Velten. New York University professor of anthropology Randall White, who led the expedition, says its hind and front legs were carved around lines of dots that were probably used to guide the artist or represent something abstract like the animal’s spirit.

    The archaeologists confirmed that the well-preserved artifact is 38,000 years old—around 1,000 years older than any other known animal engravings. Unlike most Aurignacian art, which was created in a religious sanctuary set apart from living spaces, this artifact was found next to tools involved in making knives, butchering animals and drying skins. “It shows that art was a part of their daily life,” says Clark. “Not something restricted to one segment of the population or one group, but everyone had access to it.”

    While the archaeologists are excited about the discovery, there is still much to learn about the Aurignacians. At least 20,000 years before the first domesticated animals, the Aurignacians were hunter-gatherers who lived in ice age Europe, and eventually supplanted Neanderthals. “Little evidence exists for art or symbolic behavior from the Neanderthals,” White says. “Occasionally, you’ll find a site with a shell in it or some sort of curiosity, but they were not systematic [in creating art] like the Aurignacians.”

    While the Neanderthals were large human-like creatures with “craggy brow ridges” and a “stocky physique,” the Aurignacians were similar in appearance to the creatures you see lingering over their Facebook posts at Starbucks. “If one of them knocked on the door and came in and sat here you would not be at all shocked by their physique.” White says. “They’re us.”

    These early humans were cave-dwellers with a “complex and sophisticated control of fire” says White, and “the beginning of architectural features.” They put fireplaces in key parts of their caves to better retain heat, and they gouged holes in cave walls to hang “driplines” for skins to dry.

    The valleys and plateaus surrounding the Abri Blanchard excavation site made it an especially attractive site for Aurignacians. “They weren’t idiots,” says Sarah Ranlett, the associate director in charge of site logistics. “They picked a really good place to live, where they could have functional shelter with the least amount of effort.”

    The site also indicates that the Aurignacians also connected to a much larger community. The different kinds of flint found around the site indicate that they were involved in long-range trade. Raw materials found at Abri Blanchard had come from sites around 50 miles away—or a three-to-four-day walk. Beads from around 250 miles and seashells from more than 350 miles away were also found among the early human’s artifacts.

    James Clackson et al. (Greek in Italy)


    On Friday, I was very fortunate to be invited to a wonderful conference at the University of Verona (“Beyond Lexicon: Diachronic language contact on the structural and systemic level”), brilliantly organised by Paola Cotticelli and Federico Giusfredi. After a series of excellent papers and before a particularly pleasant evening dinner, I walked to the nearby Museo Archeologico al Teatro Romano, open till 7 pm most nights, to enjoy its spectacular views over the city. There is also a good selection of inscriptions, and this third century mosaic caught my eye.


    As you can see from the photo below of the museum label (I learned always to photograph the label from Katherine),  the text is said to read ROROPES ZETA meaning ‘Roropes lives’. This attracted my attention at first because I thought it seemed a nice parallel to the modern habit of pronouncing letter-names of abbreviations rather than spelling out the whole phrase: people now say ‘oh em gee’ for OMG, the abbreviation of ‘Oh my God/gosh!’, and ‘double u tee eff ‘ for WTF, even though the abbreviation is no shorter, indeed in the second case longer than what is being shortened. In the Museum’s reading, ZETA would stand her for Z, the abbreviation for Greek ζήσῃς, which is not uncommon in the formula pie z (also written out in full pie zeses) ‘drink and may you live’ found on a number of Latin drinking cups from the later Roman Empire. There are other examples of Romans using the letter name to stand for a Greek word: a fragment of Varro’s Menippea has labda as a cover term for the obscene verb λαικάζειν (probably following Aristophanes who has the same euphemism).


    But a bit of further reflection made me think that there was a better explanation for this text. After all, ‘may you live’ would be a typical sentiment on a goblet, but less usual on a private mosaic. Furthermore, the name Roropes is, as far as I can tell, unparalleled anywhere in Greek and Roman texts, and isn’t built out of any recognizable elements. I would read RODOPES (note that the right hand leg of the second R of the mosaic is entirely drawn in), genitive singular of the well-attested Greek name Rhodope (34 examples from Rome alone according to Solin Die griechischen Personennamen in Rom). ZETA has nothing to do with the Greek letter, but is a later Latin way of writing the Greek loanword diaeta, which means not only ‘way of life’ (hence our modern diet) but also ‘room’. So the text just means ‘Rhodope’s Room’—incidentally, a nice example of a Latin text containing only Greek words and Greek morphology.

    I should say that this was the only slip I found in the museum labels, and I hugely enjoyed the wonderful displays and stunning layout of the Museo. Highly recommended as a prelude to dinner for anyone visiting the beautiful town of Verona.

    ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

    Beekes’ (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek

    I recently got an e-mail notification that Robert Beekes’* (2010)  Etymological Dictionary of Greek has received quite a dramatic price drop on its prepublication page (link).

    Going from over $500 downs down to a much more comfortable $105. This price change on the part of moves their pricing from that of the hardcover edition’s $550 (Amzon for reference) to just under the softcover pricing of $120 (Amzon for reference).

    Beekes Logos

    That puts the price on par with most other Greek lexicons. And it’s a lexicon that is definitely worth the time of anyone studying Ancient Greek. Those us of who study the Greek of the Hellenistic and koine period of the language need to stop pretending that diachronic linguistics doesn’t apply to them.

    Syncronic analysis is essential and important, but language does not exist in a vaccuum. Syncronic language systems do not just ex nihilo. They came from somewhere. Of course, Saussure’s chess metaphor tells us that we do not need to know the history to analyze the current state of the game. That is still true. In choosing chess, Saussure certainly knew that the paths a game can take are regular and even predictable. We may not need to know the history, but the history has much to offer in terms of insight into why the syncronic system is what it is. Moreover, when it comes to language, there is no true syncronic system. At any given point, there is a multiplicity of them, from person to person, from speech community to speech community, and from region to region. Each is affected by the language’s history in ever so slightly different ways.

    In light of that, Beekes’ dictionary is probably the most important Greek reference work in the past ten years. LSJ etymologies are, at best, many decades old without correction. At their worst, they literally centuries old, and pre-laryngeal theory** (Brief overview here: The Laryngeal Theory***, or see Wikipedia).

    Coming back to the price change, this is an excellent move. In print, both the hardcover and paperback editions are massive, but only the the hardcover has a binding designed to handle the weight of the text block. The paperback is effectively a throwaway print-on-demand copy. That’s frustrating given its high price. The new pricing of the digital edition solves that problem while also providing a lot more functionality at the same time.

    *for reference to my non-Dutch readers (probably the majority), the correct pronuncation of Beekes in IPA is: [ˈbeːkəs]

    **fun fact: While NT scholars love proclaiming the rise of syncronic language study by pointing to Saussure, most of them do not realize that Saussure is of the great giants of Proto-Indo-European studies and the laryngeal theory is predicated on his groundbreaking work.

    ***it’s probably worth a moment, additionally, to give a shout out to the excellent library of online editions of Winfred P. Lehmann’s books on Indo-European linguistics and language typology, provide by the University of Texas at Austin’s Linguistics Research Center: Indo-European Languages and Historical Linguistics.

    Filed under: Books, Greek, Historical Linguistics, Lexicography, Linguistics, Logos Bible Software, Typology

    An Auditory Reconstruction of the 6,000 Year Old Proto-Indo-European Language

    Have you ever wondered what language sounded like in the past?

    In the mid-19th century, actually 1868, German linguist,  August Schleicher, published his Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages. Schleicher attempted to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language, or PIE, in the form of a fable, an auditory experiment, called “The Sheep and the Horses,” or simply Schleicher’s Fable.

    PIE is a suspected language thought to have originated somewhere in Eastern Europe, due the observation that Sanskrit and ancient European languages like Greek and Latin. It was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written texts.

    Since there is considerable disagreement among scholars about PIE, no single version can be considered definitive. In the 1990s, historical linguists created another short parable in reconstructed PIE. It is loosely based on a passage from the Rigveda, an ancient collection of Sanskrit hymns, in which a king beseeches the god Varuna to grant him a son. This refinement is based on work by UCLA professor H. Craig Melchert and read by linguist Andrew Byrd, who recites the story called “The King and the God,” below, using pronunciation informed by the latest insights into reconstructed PIE.

    Filed under: Asides, Blog, Linguistic Anthropology Tagged: language, Linguistic Anthropology, linguistics, pie, Proto-Indo-European

    The Hobbit: A Homo habilis Lineage?

    When the 3 and 1/2 foot Homo floresiensis was discovered and the age of the new species correlated with the the same time Neanderthals were dying in Europe and humans colonized Asia a lot of arms and voices were thrown in the air. People questioned the validity a new species, so different, so small… A “Hobbit.”

    A lot of people speculated them simply a modern human subjected to dwarfism. Founder effects. Others looked at the characteristics in its skeleton and questioned it a Homo erectus relative. Some of those theories literally fall short as Homo erectus made it to Java, but not the island of Flores.


    A new paper in the Journal of Human Evolution which came out a couple days ago suggests it may have branched off from the human lineage even earlier than that. The new paper widens the range of physical traits to include the crania, mandibles, dentition, and postcrania of Homo and Australopithecus. If you look at their data set, the authors impressively measure, collect and compare over 130 skeletal characteristics. It is dizzying to even keep track on their comparative anatomy. Their conclusion is that H. floresiensis is an early Homo lineage; either a sister to H. habilis alone or to a clade consisting of at least H. habilis, H. erectus, Homo ergaster, and H. sapiens.

    Figure 1 & Figure 2

    Figure 1. Affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of dataset A (intraspecific variability coded as new state; see main text). Homo rudolfensis is excluded. Note that while support for many nodes is not strong, most alternative hypotheses for the position of H. floresiensis can be rejected (see Table 3A). (A) Parsimony: majority-rule consensus of bootstrap trees. Numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap frequency. (B) Parsimony: shortest tree, length ¼ 584. Numbers at nodes refer to branch (Bremer) support. (C) Bayesian: majority-rule consensus of sampled post-burnin trees. Numbers at nodes refer to posterior probability
    Figure 2. Affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of Dataset B (intraspecific variability coded as polymorphism, i.e., multiple states; see main text). Homo rudolfensis is excluded. Note that while support for many nodes is not strong, most alternative hypotheses for the position of H. floresiensis can be rejected (see Table 3B). (A) Parsimony: majority-rule consensus of bootstrap trees. Numbers at nodes refer to bootstrap frequency. (B) Parsimony: strict consensus of three shortest trees, length ¼ 274. Numbers at nodes refer to branch (Bremer) support. (C) Bayesian: majority-rule consensus of sampled post-burnin trees. Numbers at nodes refer to posterior probability

    These results raise up three outstanding issues. Firstly, H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage. Which means, secondly, there is an earlier unknown migration out of Africa, way earlier than we expected.

    Lastly, we currently do not known if Homo habilis was an early human or a late Australopithecus relative.  Homo ergaster, an older species than habilis and erectus may instead be the first “human” species, meaning that, if you’re of the school of thought that habilis is too primitive to be considered human, the Hobbit likely was, too. Either way, the Hobbit’s primitive features make it in-line with a  habilis relative rather than a descendant, much in the same way that humans and Neanderthals were closely related but descended from a shared ancestor. But who that ancestor was, is currently not known.

    Filed under: Blog, Physical Anthropology Tagged: flores, hobbit, Homo floresiensis, human evolution, paleoanthropology, Physical Anthropology

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Thomas Paraphrased

    Chris Tilling shared his own translation of John 20:25: And Thomas said unto them, “Pics or it didn’t happen.” What do you think? Does this preserve the gist of the text while expressing it in a modern idiom? See my earlier post on this common expression for more on this topic.

    Jim Davila (

    Did Jesus use weed?

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    Where did boy Jesus hang out with the sages?

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    Wilke, Farewell to Shulamit

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    Compitum - publications

    Pline le Jeune, Lettres. Livre X


    Pline le Jeune, Lettres. Livre X. Texte établi et traduit par Hubert Zehnacker et Nicole Méthy, Paris, 2017.

    Éditeur : Les Belles Lettres
    Collection : Collection des universités de France
    XXXII + 224 pages
    ISBN : 978-2-251-01474-6
    45 €

    Le Livre X des Lettres de Pline regroupe 124 lettres, parmi lesquelles 51 sont des réponses de l'empereur Trajan, les autres étant de Pline lui-même. Sans pouvoir être rapproché du discours d'apparat qu'est le Panégyrique de Trajan, ce livre ne se confond pas non plus avec les neuf premiers livres des lettres, dont il se distingue par son éminent destinataire et par les sujets abordés.
    Plus énigmatique, il a suscité des interprétations différentes sinon contradictoires. Ainsi, cet échange entre le maître du monde romain et un des hommes de lettres les plus célèbres de son temps fait de ce livre, unique dans toute la littérature latine conservée, un de ses textes les plus complexes.

    Lire la suite...

    Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

    Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: April 23

    Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

    HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem nonum Kalendas Maias.

    MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Aeneas and Dido, and there are more images here.


    TINY PROVERBS: Today's tiny proverb is: Incitas crabrones (English: You're stirring up hornets).

    PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Amori finem tempus, non animus facit (English: It is time that puts an end to love, not the mind).

    PROPER NAME PROVERBS: Today's proper name proverb from Erasmus is Ad Graecas calendas (English: On the Greek calends; from Adagia 1.5.84 ... which is to say, "never" because the Greek calendars did not have calend days).

    ELIZABETHAN PROVERBS: Here is today's proverb commentary, this time by Taverner: Omnia idem pulvis: Al is one self dust or asshes. From earth wee came, and to earth wee shall. Yea the scripture saith that asshes wee be, and to asshes we shall reverte. Nowe amongest asshes or dust I pray you, what greate difference is ther? How will ye discerne the asshes of a Kinge, or an Emperour, of a Duke, of a great Bishop, from the asshes of a cobler, yea of a begger..

    BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Deum Nihil Latet. Click here for a full-sized view.

    And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:

    Optimum medicamentum quies.
    Rest is the best medicine.

    Res immoderata cupido.
    Desire is a limitless thing.


    FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Struthiocamelus Perfidus , the story of a hypocritical ostrich (this fable has a vocabulary list).

    MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Divitiae et Simulacrum Sacrum, a paradoxical fable.

    Homo et Statua

    Words from Mythology. For more about HYPNOS and HYPNOTIC, see this blog post.

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    More on the Fate of US Collector Jonathan Bourne

    Jonathan Cornelius Bourne
    I have discussed the case of Jonathan Bourne on this blog before ('Amateur Collector loses Artefacts'. PACHI Saturday, 12 September 2015;  'California doctor pleads guilty to looting Native American artifacts from public lands' PACHI Saturday, 20 August 2016).* There is a longish piece in the 'Adventure' section of something called Men's Journal discussing the case (Kathleen Sharp, 'How a California Anesthesiologist Became One of America’s Largest Antiquities Looters' Men's Journal  n.d.).

    The article was written, one suspects by somebody who was less well-informed than she should be about the reason why these laws exist. The manner in which it is written suggests that she thinks (as most Americans do) that, rather than protecting archaeological sites, the issue is solely one of 'ownership' and therefore 'repatriation' (that name itself when applied to returning objects to other US citizens living in the same country speaks volumes for insulting US attitudes to their native communities). Placing the text in the section on 'adventure' suggests the attitude of the commissioning editor. WE therefore are treated to stuff like....
    Jonathan Cornelius Bourne — even his name evokes a 19th-century explorer. Wiry, with sandy hair and a craggy, weatherworn face, he was born in Australia but grew up in Upstate New York...
    Bourne was a wealthy Mammoth Lakes anesthesiologist who had filled his large house with Native American items he'd collected over the years. In 2014 he was investigated for artefact on federal land and his house was searched.
    Within months, the respected anesthesiologist would find himself facing 21 felony counts and at the center of a criminal investigation that became one of the largest stolen-goods cases in the history of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). But to hear Bourne tell it, he's just a passionate collector who took a few items to ensure they weren't lost to time. [...] His defense was simply that he had not done this for himself but to preserve the objects. "He has never sought financial gain from his collection," Penny says. Rather, he had long flirted with the idea of donating his collection to a museum — although few, if any, museums accept artifacts of unknown or illegal provenance. "I did hope to donate my collection ultimately," Bourne says. 
    These are all typical collector's mantras. Artefact hunters and collectors represent themselves as acquiring objects not for greed and the desire to seek self-aggrandizing trophies, but because of a 'passion', an interest in 'history' (or other cultures). Objects which have survived relatively intact (because collectable) are represented as somehow mysteriously threatened ('by time') if they are left in the ground in the intact burial context that has preserved them, collectors represent themselves as 'rescuing' the objects from this fate. While commercial collection-driven exploitation (CDE) of the archaeological record is recognized as reprehensible, somehow we are asked to believe that not-for-gain trashing archaeological sites is in some way a better form of trashing. Giving the 'Jonathan Bourne collection' a home in perpetuity in a public institution to be admired by an impressed public is represented as an act of beneficence, but is in fact yet another form of self-aggrandization and one-upmanship.  The amount of trashing involved is deplorable:
    when investigators showed up at Bourne's home, they were stunned at what they found: some 30,000 relics displayed artfully in room after room. Half of them, Bourne admitted, had been taken from federal lands or Native reservations. Others had been purchased at antique stores or from other collectors. "It was top-notch stuff," says one expert. [...] The agents soon realized that they had stumbled onto one of the country's largest caches of stolen antiquities.[...] Bourne had stolen pieces from thousands of sites in four Western states: California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. 
    The collector kept journals detailing his exploitative trips, many of them to national parks, they not only involved several family members and friends, 'there were other doctors, nurses, several business owners, and a prominent developer. Even a former police officer and a high school teacher had apparently been with Bourne when he broke the law'.
    After a yearlong investigation, a federal grand jury indicted Bourne on 21 felony counts, including looting, possessing, and transporting stolen government property and artifacts from national parks, national forests, the BLM, and several tribal lands. He faced a maximum of 98 years in prison and a $2 million fine. [...] Bourne also stood to lose his medical license. And because his journals named his two grown children, now physicians, they could possibly lose theirs, too. [...] In August 2016, after months of negotiating, Bourne struck a deal with the federal attorney overseeing the case: He pleaded guilty to two of the 21 counts and faced a maximum of two years in prison. [...] In the end, however, Bourne received only two years of probation and was ordered to pay $249,372 in restitution and a $40,000 fine. [His medical license is up for review this month.] When the court adjourned, he wrote a check for the full amount. To preservationists and Native American leaders, Bourne's court-approved plea deal was a slap in the face. [...] It will take years for the pieces, now at California State University in Sacramento, to be repatriated properly. Bourne was not happy with the judgment, either. "It's not a good deal," he told me. "I escaped prison, but I still think that the scope of the problem and the things I had done are not commensurate with the punishment. I have to pay a lot of money!"
    He need not worry, the full cost of matching the artefacts to the sites they came from will cost more than the nine dollars he paid for each of them, and the tax-payer of California will be paying the rest of the sum required to attempt to in some small part rectify the effects of his misdeeds.

    * This is not to be confused with the issue of the John Bourne collection (here, here and here)

    Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

    Sun dogs? Adam's reticence in Paradiso 26

    . . . out of Norse mythology and archaic names (Danish: solhunde (sun dog), Norwegian: solhund (sun dog), Swedish: solvarg (sun wolf)), . . . constellations of two wolves hunting the Sun and the Moon, one after and one before, may be a possible origin for the term. Sun Dog

    As soon as Adam begins to speak in Paradiso 26, he wields a very fancy, learned Greek term, twice: parhelion -- image, copy, equal -- of the sun:
    Indi spirò: Sanz' essermi proferta da te,
    la voglia tua discerno meglio
    che tu qualunque cosa t'è più certa;
    perch' io la veggio nel verace speglio
    che fa di sé pareglio a l'altre cose,
    e nulla face lui di sé pareglio."
    Then breathed: "Without thy uttering it to me,
    Thine inclination better I discern
    Than thou whatever thing is surest to thee; 
    For I behold it in the truthful mirror,
    That of Himself all things parhelion makes,
    And none makes Him parhelion of itself.  (Par. 26: 103-108)
    His claim to knowledge is exactly like that of Cacciaguida, Beatrice and others in Paradise - "I know your thoughts better than you do," because the interlocutor is looking directly into the mind of God - the mirror that cannot be mirrored.

    Photo of an actual parhelion - or "sundog"

    The use of parhelion -- such a showy word -- is arresting. First, it's Greek, and might remind us that Adam's doppelganger, Ulysses, would not even respond to someone who spoke to him in a tongue other than his own. The question of language is already in play before Adam addresses it in his answers to Dante's four questions.

    There is nothing hackneyed in Dante's presentation of the first Man. No one else would have approached Adam in this way. First, the insistent recurrence of "firstness" - primaia - marks this passage as concerned with the question of what it means to be "number one" - how to us humans, it is simply unacceptable to be number two. At the root of Adams trapassar, there is this moment of negation - YOU are not number one, I AM. Milton runs endless variants upon Satan's negation, and Adam's.

    Dante quietly raises the issue within an allusive passage that begins with the sun and parahelions. Whatever else one might make of this word here, two things are true - this is a hapax legomenon, except it isn't, because the rare word is used twice in two lines. Its eye-catching uniqueness is immediately undercut by the duplicity of its doubling repetition.

    Dante is mimicking the sad lack of language -- the power of ontological origination does not lie within it or us. In the text of medieval astrology, the parhelion was equated with mock suns, also known as sun dogs. These mirrors of the sun were bright, but nothing in comparison with the real deal. We and our words are paltry doppelgangers, mockeries of a Maker whose variety infinitely exceeds our imagination.

    If one asks where this deflation of duality occurs in Paradiso 26, the best reply might be, "once Adam opens his mouth -- everywhere." He's a dud. Far from the rhetorical power of Ulysses of Inferno 26, who with a very brief speech ignited an exhausted team to the ends of the Earth (devil take the hindmost), Adam sorts out the difference between gustar del legno and trapassar del segno, echoing his Greek descendant's decision to go beyond the segno of Hercules.

    To trapassar il segno is to enter a world of conventional, un-Adamic language:
    ché l'uso d'i mortali è come fronda
     in ramo, che sen va e altra vene.
    Echoing our ineluctable mortality from the greatest poets -- Homer, Virgil, Horace -- links language not to Prometheus's stolen fire, but to the negation of it. To be human is not to be like Adam's words -- but to be true children of an ephemerality indistinguishable from them.

    The shortcoming of the father of our species is as clear, and as powerful, as the structural ironies visited upon Francesca, Ugolino and other denizens of hell. Adam's transgression brought him the gift of counting. The proportions of Edenic bliss to earthly existence to time in Limbo are not only curiously precise, but tacitly comical. Mosquitoes live longer than Adam in Paradise. "Congratulations on toting that up -- you traded immortality for that?" Something of this grimaces over the scene.

    In view of this, the reader needs ask: where is the recuperation of Adam? Where is the theology of the fortunate fall?

    Here's one suggestion. With the number play in this canto, Adam is always clear about his, and language's, non-primacy. He might be an animal coverto, but he's hiding nothing.
    "Nel monte che si leva più da l'onda,
     fu'io, con vita pura e disonesta,
     da la prim' ora a quella che seconda,
    come 'l sol muta quadra, l'ora sesta.”

    "Upon the mount that highest o'er the wave
      Rises was I, in life or pure or sinful,
      From the first hour to that which is the second,
    As the sun changes quadrant, to the sixth."
    Adam's loss of immortal bliss occurred shortly after the sixth hour of his Day 1, at the moment the second quadrant of the sun's journey begins. His exile occurs at the first hour of the second quadrant -- the one that followed  -- "seconda" -- the prim'ora of his bright nativity.

    That this echoes the hour of the sun's journey in which the crucial Good Friday act of his (and Dante's) redemption began remains unspoken. Adam omits the inexplicable act of caritas that took him and us beyond the segno of mortality. The father of language has no words for that. One can charitably ask whether any Ulyssean encomium could more adequately convey the primal power of the Word than Adam's reticence.

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    What the No-Questions-Asked Commerce in Portable Antiquities Does to the Archaeological Record

    All over the classical world, sites like Caere (Modern day Cerveteri) are looted repeatedly to supply dealers with portable antiquities to profit from by selling them to collectors. In the no-questions-asked trade in artefacts there is no distinction between dodgy dealers and the others. They are all mixed up in the 'dirty art' trade. Those that oppose heritage protection measures should be ashamed of themselves. (photo  Redazione, 'Tombaroli ancora in azione a Cerveteri' OrticaWeb, 6 April 2017).

    Hat tip Lynda Albertson

    'Orphaned' Roman Coins Given to Italy

    Tampering with identities...
    In a press article (Gintautas Dumcius Boston Public Library takes part in returning nearly 200 ancient Roman coins and other artifacts to government of Italy April 19, 2017) we learn that after the 'intended recipient abandoned the claim to the coins' and determining that the sender was not going to tell where they actually came from (let alone be able to provide documentation), US homeland security officials and Boston Mayor Marty Walsh handed over to the government of Italy for safekeeping in a Wednesday afternoon ceremony. The objects are those that were discussed here earlier: 'HSI Press Release Stupidity in Ohio', PACHI Friday, 31 July 2015. Looking at these coins and guessing the mintmarks from the fuzzy photo supplied, I wonder just what the likihood is that some of them were ever in Italy before. Still, since they have officially been denied entry across US borders, they cannot stay in the UK (still less go to their hapless buyer who did not assure himself before purchase of the dealer's ability to document licit provenance), nor can they be assigned to their country of origin, so passing the problem of what to do with them to Italy is as good a solution as any other.

    These are the consequences of buying artefacts which a dealer has divorced from any paper trail of how they arrived on his stockroom. It's like buying a car where the chassis number has been filed off. Buyer, beware such dealers, they are nothing but trouble.


    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Trust Data

    A clever punny Star Trek sign from the March for Science in Seattle.

    Shawn Graham (Electric Archaeology)

    Bots of Conviction for Archaeologists and Historians

    I was re-reading Mark Sample’s call for bots of conviction, for protest bots, for bots so topical and on-point that they can’t be mistaken for bullshit. Per Sample, such bots should be

    • topical – “They are about the morning news — and the daily horrors that fail to make it into the news.”
    • data-based – “They draw from research, statistics, spreadsheets, databases. Bots have no subconscious, so any imagery they use should be taken literally”
    • cumulative – “The repetition builds on itself, the bot relentlessly riffing on its theme, unyielding and overwhelming, a pile-up of wreckage on our screens.”
    • oppositional – “protest bots take a stand. Society being what it is, this stance will likely be unpopular, perhaps even unnerving”
    • uncanny – “The appearance of that which we had sought to keep hidden.”

    The only bot I know of by a historian that meets these criterion is Caleb McDaniel’s Every3Minutes. Lord knows my drawer full of bots does not meet any of those criteria, save perhaps for the ‘uncanny’ in Sample’s sense for @tinyarchae in that it takes the awful social dynamics present on many (most?) archaeological fieldwork and pushes the needed all the way beyond 11.

    But my bots are not bots of conviction. They are not very good, truth be told. So I wondered aloud on twitter yesterday what would make for good archaeological or historical bots? I thought maybe

    • a bot tweeting datasets lost to ideological cleansing?
    • A bot pointing out the unprovenanced antiques in museums?

    Others chimed in. I’ve gathered their suggestions here in case anyone was looking for inspiration.

    So… maybe you might come and make simple bots with me in May, and we can revisit this question:

    April 22, 2017

    eClassics Everyone's Blog Posts - eLatin eGreek eLearn

    Latinum is now on Patreon

    The internet keeps mutating, and Classical life online needs to change as well. Latinum is now on Patreon.

    The Latinum Podcast, which used to be hosted on, has been offline for a few years,since that company ceased trading.

    I have found a solution to having a stable home for the many hundreds of hours of Latin audio, including the mammoth Adler Audio Course; the crowdfunding platform, Patreon. 

    Unlike Kickstarter, Patreon is suited for ongoing projects, and is particularly well suited to a niche project such as Latinum, with its focus on extended Latin audio in restored classical pronunciation.

    I have hosted the entire catalogue of existing material here, and am currently once again regularly producing new audio resources. 

    Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

    The capture of the Westmorland


    One of the pleasures of going to work in a less familiar place (for me currently Yale) is that you find new books. They are often books that are available in your own usual habitat, but for some reason you just don’t notice them. (The cheap comparison is with going to a new supermarket, where the layout of shelves and aisles simply makes you notice stuff that was probably in your trusty local Sainsbury/Tesco/Waitrose all along… but never sprang to the eye.)

    Anyway thanks to the Yale Center for Britsh Art, I have had my nose rubbed in a book I should have been using for ages. In fact, it is the catalogue of an exhibition that was for a while at the Ashmolean in 2012, and I never noticed. So doubly remiss.

    It is The English Prize, which documents the contents of a ship that sailed from Livorno in 1778 and was soon captured by the French and taken to Malaga, where the contents were inventoried — and most ended up being bought by the King of Spain (and still in Spanish collections).

    And what were these contents? Well, a good number were crates being sent home to England by men on the Grand Tour, and give us a good sense of what they were actually buying in Italy (and, yes, there is one Roman emperor’s head…).

    There’s been a lot of good work recently on this kind of material, trying to get a bit beneath the over glamorizing (or over critical) version of this whole cultural phenomenon. They were not only bringing back vast quantities of ancient sculpture. A lot more people were involved than just the really upper-crust (servants, companions, tutors, and a range of travellers who were just a bit (not much, but a bit) more ordinary than we take them to be. And they were certainly not all as easy dupes of smart Italian dealers as they are often painted — the dumb English mi’lord syndrome.

    What is wonderful about this book (and presumably about the exhibition that it records) is that it gives you a real-life glimpse into what a group of them (how random, we don’t know) were actually sending back.

    Some of it is high art, in oil paint and sculpture. But it’s the variety that is striking. So the crates dispatched by Frances Basset (above) not only contained the portraits of Basset done by Batoni, but some rather less expensive souvenirs, such as a nice painted copy of the ‘Aldobrandini Wedding‘ and some Piranesi prints (not to mention his copy of Tristram Shandy, which he was presumably sending back home, well read). Penn Assheton Curzon meanwhile had picked up a nice print of Raphael’s School of Athens, and some mineral samples which he had picked up in Naples; and Frederick Ponsonby was consigning back home a small collection of fans, some elegant architectural prints, plus a variety of musical scores (probably taken with him for music making on the Tour). There’s a kind of feeling of taking a peek into someone’s 250 year old luggage.

    It’s a tremendous catalogue, and not of the slightly dumbed down modern version, with nice pictures, some essays but no proper entry for each object. A ‘book of the exhibition’ as the husband puts it, rather than a ‘catalogue’. This has all the nice pictures and essay, but a chunky discussion of each piece. Go get!

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Annual: Les Actes de la Société française d'étude de la céramique antique en Gaule

    Les Actes de la Société française d'étude de la céramique antique en Gaule

    Chaque année, la Sfécag organise un congrès sur la céramique antique dans une région de France ou dans un pays limitrophe : cette réunion rassemble des chercheurs d'une dizaine de pays et permet d'élargir les contacts de chacun. Le prochain congrès se tiendra à Narbonne (Aude) du 25 au 28 mai 2017. Vous trouverez dans ces pages le programme de la manifestation ainsi que les informations nécessaires concernant l'organisation pratique.

    Ancient Peoples

    Bronze Wine StrainerEtruscan 500BC-400BC (probably) Bronze...

    Bronze Wine Strainer


    500BC-400BC (probably)

    Bronze strainer with a sinuous wire handle, used to keep back the sediment when serving wine.

    Source: British Museum

    Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

    Archeologia, architettura e restauro: problemi di conservazione e presentazione

    Mercoledì 26 aprile 2017 alle ore 17,00 avrà luogo, presso Palazzo Clementi, la Conferenza del Prof. Giovanni Carbonara "Archeologia, architettura e restauro: problemi di conservazione e presentazione".

    Matthew Law (Adventures in archaeology, human palaeoecology and the internet...)

    History, as seen in Men’s Health magazine

    Arran Stibbe at Bath Spa

    Arran Stibbe at Bath Spa

    Earlier this month, I had the fortune to attend a lecture organised by Bath Spa University’s Environmental Humanities Research Group. Dr Arran Stibbe, Reader in Ecological Linguistics at the University of Gloucestershire was talking about his research ahead of the launch next month of a free online course in ecological linguistics.

    Part of his broader linguistic research involved looking at the way masculinity is constructed in Men’s Health magazine (see this paper for examples – in short it seems men should be extremely muscular, drink beer, eat beef and have amazing sex). As an archaeologist, I was intrigued by the slide he showed of Men’s Health stories which draw on historical topics, and felt like breaking my blog silence to share (this is pictured, badly, above). These included

    ‘Boost endurance like an Aztec warrior’
    ‘Build bulk like a Roman gladiator’
    ‘Stay fit like a Viking raider’
    ‘Build stamina like a Mongol marauder’

    I’d be intrigued to know what textual or archaeological evidence lies behind these pieces.

    Compitum - événements (tous types)

    Héraclite, entre hérissons et renards

    Titre: Héraclite, entre hérissons et renards
    Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 12.05.2017
    Heure: 10.00 h - 12.00 h

    Information signalée par Pascale Paré-Rey


    Glen W. Most

    Vendredi 12 mai 2017, 10h-12h, salle des Actes – ENS (45 rue d’Ulm)

    Héraclite, entre hérissons et renards

    À l'occasion de la parution de la nouvelle édition des présocratiques, qu'il a publiée avec André Laks, Glenn W. Most, professeur de philologie grecque à la Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, est invité à l’École normale supérieure par le Labex TransferS, du 15 avril au 15 mai 2017. Il donnera dans le cadre de cette invitation quatre séminaires (le 18/04, le 28/04, le 5/05 avec A. Laks, le 12/05) autour du thème « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui ». Le programme détaillé de ces séminaires est consultable sur le site du Labex TransferS à l'adresse :

    La phrase d’Anaximandre

    Titre: La phrase d’Anaximandre
    Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 05.05.2017
    Heure: 10.00 h - 12.00 h

    Information signalée par Pascale Paré-Rey


    Glen W. Most

    Vendredi 5 mai 2017, 10h-12h, salle 235A – ENS (29 rue d’Ulm)

    Séminaire animé avec André Laks

    La phrase d’Anaximandre

    À l'occasion de la parution de la nouvelle édition des présocratiques, qu'il a publiée avec André Laks, Glenn W. Most, professeur de philologie grecque à la Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, est invité à l’École normale supérieure par le Labex TransferS, du 15 avril au 15 mai 2017. Il donnera dans le cadre de cette invitation quatre séminaires (le 18/04, le 28/04, le 5/05 avec A. Laks, le 12/05) autour du thème « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui ». Le programme détaillé de ces séminaires est consultable sur le site du Labex TransferS à l'adresse :

    Thalès et le « début » de la philosophie

    Titre: Thalès et le « début » de la philosophie
    Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 28.04.2017
    Heure: 10.00 h - 12.00 h

    Information signalée par Pascale Paré-Rey


    Glen W. Most

    Vendredi 28 avril 2017, 10h-12h, salle Dussane – ENS (45 rue d’Ulm)

    Thalès et le « début » de la philosophie

    À l'occasion de la parution de la nouvelle édition des présocratiques, qu'il a publiée avec André Laks, Glenn W. Most, professeur de philologie grecque à la Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, est invité à l’École normale supérieure par le Labex TransferS, du 15 avril au 15 mai 2017. Il donnera dans le cadre de cette invitation quatre séminaires (le 18/04, le 28/04, le 5/05 avec A. Laks, le 12/05) autour du thème « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui ». Le programme détaillé de ces séminaires est consultable sur le site du Labex TransferS à l'adresse :

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Call Yourselves Archaeologists

    A FLO is 'all set for local heritage roadshow' (in West Berkshire Museum) and invites people to 'pop by and say hello! – ' and admire the display. It seems 'members of the public' today are mainly capable of noticing metal objects, while in the past, as our HERs, journals, museums and local society records show that in the past they were capable of finding much more finds of pottery, stone, bones, oystershells and other stuff. Look at the 'what we are interested in' field of another FLOs poster, but note the general preponderance of metal objects shown on the whole:


    Are the public being adequately informed about what 'archaeological evidence' is, or are they being shown mere Treasure Hunting? Archaeology, what is it, FLOs? Do any of your public displays include a proper definition of the term

    Carl Sagan on Knowledge

    Today on March for Science Day the words of Carl Sagan on public attitudes to knowledge seem  apposite to the progress of dumbdown, karaoke science and expert-dismissal we see al aound us, but also reflected in archaeology through the appearance of the PAS and its own particular promulgation of what constitutes 'citizen archaeology'. This should be challenged and resisted, but Britain's jobsworth archies have yet to find a stomach for it. 

    Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

    Replica Brain Reveals Advanced Communication In Fossil Human Ancestor

    Two new papers suggest fossil hominin Homo naledi might have been able to talk and may have been right-handed.

    BiblePlaces Blog

    Weekend Roundup

    “An Egyptian archaeological mission in Luxor has announced the discovery of a major tomb in the city’s west bank area dating back to the 18th Dynasty and containing priceless artefacts.”

    Israeli archaeologists have begun to study an ancient Jewish pyramid near Khirbet Midras in the Shephelah.

    Archaeologists have discovered an estate of Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the mountains of southwestern Turkey.

    Symbols found on the the Vulture Stone at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey has led researchers to propose the earth was struck by a devastating comet around 11,000 BC.

    Shots were fired near St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mount Sinai, but there are different explanations of what happened.

    The Qumran and Bible Exhibition is now online with an audioguide and with a video introduction.

    The latest edition of The Holy Land Magazine is online and includes tourist articles on Nazareth Village, Yad VaShem, Neot Kedumim, and more.

    Tom Powers considers David Bivin’s recent post on the deteriorating road to Emmaus and adds some observations of his own.

    Elizabeth Sloane, writing in Haaretz, asks, “Did the Egyptian goddess Hathor originate with Semitic miners from Canaan?”

    The Temple Mount Sifting Project must meet its fundraising goal or it will receive none of the pledged funds.

    The Amarna Letters are the topic of the week on The Book and the Spade with guest Alice Mandell.

    The Khirbet el-Maqatir exhibit in Pikeville, Kentucky is drawing visitors.

    Eisenbrauns is offering the Victor Avigdor Hurowitz memorial volume at a savings of 40% for a few more days: Marbeh Ḥokmah: Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East (2 vols). List $139.50; sale: $83.70.

    HT: Charles Savelle, Ted Weis, Joseph Lauer, Agade

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Jamestown Unearthed: Archaeologists begin conservation of knight’s tombstone

    Archaeologists at Historic Jamestown are digging into one of the greatest mysteries of the first...

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Larry Hurtado’s Lanier Lecture

    Larry Hurtado shared the above lecture on his blog.

    DigiPal Blog

    manuSciences 2017

    The deadline is fast approaching to register for manuSciences 2017. This is a Franco-German summer school organised jointly by the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), the Hamburg Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMS), and the École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE) Paris Sciences et Lettres Research University (PSL). It comprises a series of lectures and courses which 'will focus on a multi-facetted investigation of manuscripts adding new chemical and physical analyses, imaging methods and techniques from computer sciences to classical philology, paleography, codicology, linguistics and history.' Quoting/paraphrasing further from the EPHE version of the website:

    What: A week-long programme on physical sciences and digital methods in manuscript studies and philology. Active participation is expected. The lectures and courses will be in English.
    Where: Villa Clythia, Frejus, France
    When: 10–15 September 2017
    Who (participants): Up to 40 (max.) young researchers, from master and Ph.D. students to researchers and university lecturers.
    Who (lecturers): Roger Easton, Leif Glaser, Oliver Hahn (organiser), Keith Knox, Marcus Liwicki, Eve Menei, Ira Rabin (organiser), Hasia Rimon, Uzi Smilansky, Marc Smith, Peter Stokes, Daniel Stökl Ben Ezra (organiser), Dominique Stutzmann

    For more details, including how to register, see

    [This article has been cross-posted on the Models of Authority and Conqueror's Commissioners websites.]


    Jim Davila (

    Was Jesus a real person?

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    False messiahs

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Review of Amihai, Theory and Practice in Essene Law

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Unicorns in the Bible

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    More on that ancient Jewish pyramid

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Bryn Mawr Classical Review

    2017.04.29: The First Urban Churches 1: Methodological Foundations. Writings from the Greco-Roman world Supplement series, 7

    Review of James R. Harrison, L. L. Welborn, The First Urban Churches 1: Methodological Foundations. Writings from the Greco-Roman world Supplement series, 7. Atlanta: 2015. Pp. xiii, 345. $34.95 (pb). ISBN 9781628371024.

    2017.04.28: The Figure of Nature: On Greek Origins. Studies in Continental thought

    Review of John Sallis, The Figure of Nature: On Greek Origins. Studies in Continental thought. Bloomington; Indianapolis: 2016. Pp. ix, 254. $85.00. ISBN 9780253023124.

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Tale of Two Hoards

    Heritage Action once again put facts into context - an activity the many (hundreds of?) supporters of private collecting of archaeological artefactsin Britain are all to obviously incapable of: 'PAS performs another round of the Darwinian quango survival dance!' 22/04/2017 ). They juxtapose the way the public are ionformed about two similar hoards of gold sovereigns: the 'piano hoard' and the 'Twinstead hoard' ( “Metal detector enthusiasts on a charity day ended up in a brawl after 300 sovereigns worth £75,000 were found in a field. They then ran off with the loot”).
    Strange, isn’t it? In Bonkers Britain PAS garners oodles of news coverage from one hoard yet they (and the police) downplay mass theft of an extremely similar one. Such is the consequence of setting up a quango whose sole survival chances depend on pretending that buying a £10 ticket to a detecting rally transforms totally random people into “citizen archaeologists” with immaculate morals.
    It is not so much strange - the PAS has always done precisely this sort of thing where their 'partners' are concerned - it is however a very serious scandal that the public are not being properly informed about portable antiquity issues by the 'scheme' set up to do precisely that and for twenty years have consistently been utterly failing to do so. The schemers are busily colluding to avoid informing their public properly and objectively about the downside of private collecting of historical artefacts.

    Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

    Famille et société dans le monde grec et en Italie du Ve siècle av. J.-C. au IIe siècle av. J.-C. 3

    Ce troisième post est plutôt centré sur l’oikos. La mer Noire, comme les périphéries occidentales du monde grec, rassemblent une grande partie des lettres sur plomb ou sur céramique, qui témoignent du quotidien de la vie de l’oikos. Une lettre de … Lire la suite

    Compitum - publications

    M. Hebblewhite, The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395


    Mark Hebblewhite, The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395, Londres, 2017.

    Éditeur : Routledge
    240 pages
    ISBN : 9781472457592
    105 £


    With The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395 Mark Hebblewhite offers the first study solely dedicated to examining the nature of the relationship between the emperor and his army in the politically and militarily volatile later Roman Empire. Bringing together a wide range of available literary, epigraphic and numismatic evidence he demonstrates that emperors of the period considered the army to be the key institution they had to mollify in order to retain power and consequently employed a range of strategies to keep the troops loyal to their cause. Key to these efforts were imperial attempts to project the emperor as a worthy general (imperator) and a generous provider of military pay and benefits. Also important were the honorific and symbolic gestures each emperor made to the army in order to convince them that they and the empire could only prosper under his rule.

    Lire la suite...

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Why Were Roman Coins Seized in Cincinnati ?

    Dealers playing the victim are still moaning about a 2014 ICE seizure of 190 coins:. These brain-rot sufferers really do not understand anything, poor souls. Here's the original announcement which got them going:
    One hundred and ninety ancient Roman coins that were illegally imported into the United States from the United Arab Emirates were seized by officials from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). The ancient coins were originally detained in March 2014 during a routine inspection at the Port of Cincinnati cargo facility by CBP officers before the investigation was turned over to HSI. The intended recipient told investigators the coins were of Middle Eastern origin based on information received from an overseas seller. CBP officers contacted a coin expert to authenticate the coin’s origins and learned they were late 2nd or 3rd century Roman coins. Authorities subsequently issued a seizure notice to the intended recipient alleging entry of goods by means of false statements. The intended recipient abandoned the claim to the coins, which will now be repatriated to the appropriate country of origin at a later date. The coins have an estimated value of approximately $1,000.
    Well, of course determining a 'country of origin' for goods where the paper trails have been deliberately obscured by the sellers is pretty well impossible (barring US waterboarding of a dealer or two, which I would not support). The legible mintmarks on the coins point to some being minted in Antioch (in Roman Syria), but as dealers insistently point out, 'coins circulated widely' and these artefacts could have been dug up on almost any site in the eastern parts of the ancient ('classical') world and items from different sites (note the variation in corrosion products) from different sites amalgamated in a job lot of artefacts orphaned from their paperwork and any context. It is the evil no-questions-asked antiquities trade and dodgy dealers involved in it that have destroyed the context and destroyed the evidence of origins. It seems disingenuous of spokesmen for the same industry now to be creating a fuss about the measures adopted to respond.

    Could the coins have been exported to the US by an unnamed seller based, perhaps, in Dubai? How many dealers in dugup antiquities gathered from several regions of the ancient world are there in the UAE, and Dubai in particular? It seems that 'Nafertiti Eastern Sculptures Trading in Dubai' has gone out of business (or underground) since the fuss around Salem Alshdaifat. Who else is active in Dubai and are they ACCG members?

    The point is of course that dealer "Dubai Dakhil" (let's call him) exporting antiquities as coming from the UAE as the country of origin when they did not in fact come from there is trying to 'launder' the artefacts that in all likelihood came from one or more other country (for example Syria) - for the export of which he is unable to supply the proper documentation. If he cannot show that the coins arrived  in UAE legally, then he cannot show that he has title to them and therefore cannot show that he is exporting them himself legally. In that case then having been stopped for examination at the US border, they cannot then be allowed to pass onto the US market.

    What then to do with them? They cannot be sent back to the dealer who claims 'ownership' but cannot show legal title, they cannot be sent back to the country of origin as that dealer destroyed all evidence of where they came from and how they arrived in the UAE. They cannot stay in the US. Perhaps they should just be destroyed as decontextualised bits of old metal which have no known owner? Perhaps they should be sent to another country to sort out what to do with them after the antiquities trade rendered them orphans? This, in fact is what the US authorities in this case decided to do.

    Sacred Sculptures treated as Props in NY Gallery

    There are some deeply disturbing photographs on the Facebook page of Kapoor Galleries, New York City. They show people holding a drink or two in front of some bronze idols of Hindu gods and goddesses which should be in the sanctum sanctorum of temples in south India. Then there is this Buddha statue made to wear a Santa Claus cap. Not funny. In fact, it is quite painful for any devout or just anyone who loves and respects antiques. For the uninitiated, Kapoor Galleries belong to Ramesh Kapoor, the brother of Subhash Kapoor, who is cooling his heels in Puzhal Central Prison.
    ([ Anon TNN], 'For God’s sake, save our idols from New York parties' Times of India: Apr 20, 2017).

    The author not only argues that American dealers and collectors are treating sacred images with no respect at all, but for shifting the onus of proving the veracity to the seller and not the source country.

    Vignette: Buddha Christmasised

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    New book looks at Ayutthaya from its economy

    Bangkok Post, 16 April 2017: Silpaokorn University’s Prof Warangkana Nibhatsukit’s new book, “Ayutthaya History: Questions and Answers”. The book is in Thai. Most people think of the Ayutthaya period in terms of its cultural heritage, but Warangkana Nibhatsukit’s latest book highlights the economic aspect of the ancient capital. Source: The truth about Ayutthaya | Bangkok … Continue reading "New book looks at Ayutthaya from its economy"

    Archaeology Magazine

    The Knight’s Tombstone Conserved in Jamestown

    Jamestown Knights TombJAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA—The Williamsburg Yorktown Daily reports that Preservation Virginia conservators are working with large-stone specialist Jonathan Appell to preserve the so-called Knight’s Tombstone, which has lain on the floor of the church at Historic Jamestowne for some 400 years. The stone is carved with an image of a knight and was once adorned with monumental brasses. Nearly half of the 1,200 pound stone is in one piece; the lower section has cracked into several large pieces. “Each of the pieces were light enough for one or two people to lift it onto the cart, except that last part took about five,” said field supervisor Mary Anna Hartley. The largest piece was propped against the church wall, and then lowered onto a wooden platform that had been built beneath it. The platform was then moved up a wooden ramp to a work station on a cart. The team is now carefully removing concrete applied to the stone in the early twentieth century. “It’s very hard to reverse,” Appell said. The pieces will eventually be reassembled with a softer, pigmented mortar. Researchers will try to identify the grave’s occupant. For more, go to “Jamestown’s VIPs.”

    Peru’s Logosyllabic Khipus Record 3-D Texts

    Peru logosyllabic khipusFIFE, SCOTLAND—According to a report in The Courier, Sabine Hyland of the University of St. Andrews has deciphered two lineage names from two eighteenth-century logosyllabic khipus found in the village of San Juan de Collata in the Peruvian Andes. Khipus, made by the Inca from cotton or fibers obtained from alpacas, llamas, or deer, were used to record and transport information. It was previously understood that the Incas used khipus to record numbers, but evidence that they were used to record narratives has only come to light recently, Hyland noted. Her analysis of the special khipus held at San Juan de Collata revealed 95 different symbols of a writing system in which each pendant cord represents a phonetic syllable. At the end of each khipu, three-cord sequences used colors, types of fibers, and the direction of the ply to represent lineage names, she explained, noting that it is often necessary to feel the cords in order to determine what sort of fiber the texts were made with. For more, go to “Reading an Inca Archive.”

    April 21, 2017

    Archaeology Magazine

    New Thoughts on the Origin of “The Hobbits”

    Homo floresiensis bonesCANBERRA, AUSTRALIA—The Guardian reports that researchers led by Debbie Argue of Australian National University compared the bones of Homo floresiensis, also known as “The Hobbit,” to cranial, postcranial, mandibular, and dental samples of early hominids from several countries. It had been suggested that hobbits evolved from the much larger Homo erectus, which lived in the region, while isolated on the Indonesian island of Flores. But statistical analysis of the remains concluded that Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis had completely different bone structures. The new findings support the idea that the hobbits may have shared a common ancestor in Africa with Homo habilis. If this is the case, then perhaps Homo floresiensis evolved in Africa and then migrated, or perhaps the common ancestor migrated and evolved elsewhere. “Homo floresiensis occupied a very primitive position on the human evolutionary tree,” explained Mike Lee of Flinders University and the South Australian Museum. “We can be ninety-nine percent sure it’s not related to Homo erectus and nearly one-hundred percent it isn’t a malformed Homo sapiens.” For more, go to “A New Human Relative.”


    Modelli di telaio scoperti in Cina in una tomba di 2100 anni

    Piccole figurine in legno sono state rinvenute ai piedi di altrettanto piccoli telai in una tomba cinese di 2100 anni fa contenente i resti di una donna di mezza età.

    La scoperta della scena in miniatura ha stupito gli archeologi che stavano esplorando un’area destinata alla costruzione di metropolitana a Chengdu, una città della provincia di Sichuan, nel sud-ovest della Cina. I telai sono molto piccoli – il maggiore è grande circa quanto un pianoforte giocattolo per bambini – ma sono le prime testimonianze di telai utilizzati per tessere modelli complessi.



    L'articolo Modelli di telaio scoperti in Cina in una tomba di 2100 anni sembra essere il primo su ArcheoBlog.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Suppléments à Syria, IV: Le fleuve rebelle: Géographie historique du moyen Oronte d'Ebla à l'époque médiévale

    Le fleuve rebelle: Géographie historique du moyen Oronte d'Ebla à l'époque médiévale
    Sous la direction de Dominique Parayre
    Suppléments à Syria, IV | 2016
    Couverture Syria Supplément IV
    Informations sur cette image
    Crédits : © Ifpo
    220*280 mm
    ISBN 978-2-35159-725-1
    Notes de la rédaction
    Actes du colloque international tenu les 13 et 14 décembre 2012 à Nanterre (Maison Archéologie & Ethnologie René-Ginouvès) et à Paris (Institut national d'Histoire de l'art)
    Avec la collaboration de Martin Sauvage pour la cartographie (CNRS, USR 3225, Maison archéologie & Ethnologie René-Ginouvès, Nanterre)

    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

    Sacher Named Next Editor of Hesperia

    The ASCSA has chosen Jennifer Sacher to be the next editor of its journal, Hesperia.

    Société Internationale des Amis de Cicéron (Tulliana News)

    SIAC Newsletter 131 (8/2017)

    Les noms des membres de la SIAC sont en gras. – I nomi dei membri della SIAC sono in grassetto. – Names of SIAC members are written with bold characters.



    – Çevik, C. Cengiz, Kronolojik Olarak Türkçede Cicero Bibliyografyası [Turkish bibliography on Cicero in chronological order], “Kutadgubilig”, 32, December 2016. LINK

    – Çevik, C. Cengiz (ed.), Cicero, Yaşlı Cato veya Yaşlılık Üzerine [Cato maior de senectute], İstanbul, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2017. LINK

    – Çevik, C. Cengiz, Cicero’nun Devleti: De Re Publica Yazıları [Cicero’s Republic: Writings on De Re Publica], İstanbul, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2017. LINK

    – Deligiannis, Ioannis (ed.), Μ. Τύλλιου Κικέρωνα Περί Νόμων Βιβλία Τρία, Αθήνα, Kardamitsa, 2017. LINK

    – Denery, Dallas G., John of Salisbury, Academic Scepticism, and Ciceronian Rhetoric, in Rita Copeland (ed.), The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature, vol. 1, 800-1558, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016. LINK

    – Internullo, D., P.Vindob. L 17 identificato: Cicero, In Catilinam I, 14–15 + 27, “Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik”, 199, 2016. LINK

    Martinho, Marcos, rev. of Jacques-Emmanuel Bernard, La sociabilité épistolaire chez Cicéron, Paris, Honoré Champion, 2013, “Rhetorica”, 35, 1, 2017, 112-116. LINK

    – Schofield, Malcolm, rev. of W.H.F. Altman, The Revival of Platonism in Cicero’s Late Philosophy.  Platonis aemulus and the Invention of Cicero, Lanham & Boulder & New York & London, Lexington Books, 2016, “The Classical Review”, Published online: 15 March 2017. LINK

    – Słapek, Darius & Łuć, Ireneusz (eds.), Marcus Antonius: history and tradition, Lublin, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Press, 2016: Dariusz Słapek, Lucius Antonius – gladiator Asiaticus. Gladiatorial Episode Seen Through the Eyes of M. Tullius Cicero; Agnieszka Dziuba, “The Effeminate Spartacus”. The Rhetoric Description of Marc Antony in Cicero’s Philippics; Paweł Madejski, Marcus Tullius Cicero, the avenger of his father. LINK

    – Vieira, Brunno, Cícero e seu projeto tradutório, “Calíope”, 15, 2006, 23-35. LINK

    –  Volk, Katharina, rev. of D. Pellacani (ed., trans.), Cicerone, Aratea e Prognostica, Pisa, Edizioni ETS, 2015, D. Pellacani (ed.), Cicerone, Aratea. Parte I: Proemio e Catalogo delle costellazioni, Bologna, Pàtron Editore, 2015, “The Classical Review”, 67, 1, 2017, 71-72. LINK

    – Xinyue, Bobby, Imperatrix and bellatrix: Cicero’s Clodia and Vergil’s Camilla, in Domitilla Campanile, Filippo Carlà-Uhink, Margherita Facella (eds.), TransAntiquity. Cross-Dressing and Transgender Dynamics in the Ancient World, London & New York, Routledge, 2017. LINK


    –  La storia a teatro, Roma, 30 aprile 2017. Il corrotto. Processo a Verre con Massimo Popolizio, adattamento da Il corrotto. Un’inchiesta di Marco Tullio Cicerone di Luca Fezzi. LINK

    – The Association of Ancient Historians Annual Meeting 2017, Providence, May 4-6, 2017. Tristan Husby, Manumission and Fraternal Rivalry: Cicero and Tiro, Quintus and Statius. LINK

    –  Symposium on Philosophy in Cicero’s Speeches, Durham, 13th May 2017. Matthias Haake (University of Münster), A Greek Gift for Rome? Philosophy and the Roman Republic from Cato the Elder to Cicero. Commentary by J.T. Wolfenden (Durham University). Catherine Steel (University of Glasgow), Philosophy in Cicero’s speeches prior to his exile. Commentary by Jakob Wisse (University of Newcastle). Raphael Woolf (King’s College London), Dogmatic philosophy in the speeches. Commentary by Simon Nørgaard Iversen (Aarhus University). Nathan Gilbert (Durham University), Philosophy in the speeches and the speeches in philosophy. Commentary by Ben Harriman (Durham University). LINK

    –  Convegno Internazionale Was ist ein amicus? Überlegungen zu Konzept und Praxis der amicitia bei Cicero – Che cosa è un amico? Riflessioni sugli aspetti teorici e pratici dell’amicitia in Cicerone, Marburg, 18-19 maggio 2017. Meinolf Vielberg, Alte Freunde im Gespräch. Anspruch und Wirklichkeit der amicitia bei Cicero; Angela Ganter, Patronus und amicus. Cicero über persönliche Beziehungen als Grundlage sozialer Integration; Raphael Schwitter, Der tröstende Freund – Epistolare Praxis und literarische Konzeption in Ciceros Epistulae ad familiares; Maria Luigia Dambrosio, Su Cicerone, Mazio e Cesare o su un singolare triangolo amicale: note a fam. 11, 27 e 28; Sandra Citroni Marchetti, Cicerone alla ricerca dell’amicizia: dalla domus alla res publica; Gernot Michael Müller, Ciceros Kritik am epikureischen Freundschaftsbegriff in De finibus bonorum et malorum; Christian Rollinger, Amicitia sanctissime colenda. The orthopraxy of friendship in late republican Rome; Sergey Vorontsov, Amicitia and caritas in 7th century: Isidore of Seville and his sources; David Konstan, Cicero’s Two Loves. LINK



    Gazzarri, Tommaso, rev. of A. Sjöblad, Metaphorical Coherence. Studies in Seneca’s Epistulae Morales, Lund, Lund University, 2015, “The Classical Review”, 67, 1, 2017, 109-111. LINK


    – Colloque international Epitome. Abréger les textes antiques, Lyon, 3-5 mai 2017. Andrea Balbo, Loredana Boero (Turin), Abbreviare per la scuola: gli excerpta di Seneca Retore; Amedeo A. Raschieri (Milan), Epitomare nella scuola di retorica: Giulio Paride e Ianuario Nepoziano; Alice Borgna (Vercelli), Tagliare cosa, come, per chi. Giustino, l’Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi e il suo pubblico. LIEN

    – Workshop Intertextuality in Seneca’s Philosophical Writings, Athens, 5-6 May 2017. Francesca Romana Berno, The Importance of collecting Shells: Intertextuality in Seneca’s Epistle 49; Tommaso Gazzarri, Sub auro servitus habitat: Seneca’s moralizing of architecture and the anti-Neronian querellae; Jula Wildberger, Seneca and the doxography of ethics. LINK

    [Last updated on April 21th, 2016.]

    Filed under: Newsletter

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Digital Corpus of Literary Papyri: DCLP

    Digital Corpus of Literary Papyri: DCLP
    DCLP offers information about and transcriptions of Greek and Latin literary and subliterary papyri preserved on papyri, ceramic sherds (ostraka), wooden tablets, and other portable media. It is built on the model of, relying on its own versions of the Papyrological Navigator (PN) for searching and browsing and Papyrological Editor (PE) for peer-reviewed curation of texts. The site aims to do for ancient literature preserved on papyri what does for Greek and Latin documents. An ultimate goal is also to provide search and browse functionality across the entire corpus of Greek and Latin papyri--documentary, literary, and subliterary alike.
    DCLP aggregates material from the Leuven Database of Ancient Documents (LDAB), Bibliographie Papyrologique (BP), Thesaurus Herculanensium Voluminum, and the Parma Medical Project, and depends on close collaboration with the Department of Classics at the University of Würzburg and the Duke Collaborative for Classics Computing (DC3). more.

    Archaeology of Pre-Modern Economies Databases

    Archaeology of Pre-Modern Economies Databases

    Craft production sites of pre-modern economies

    To the data base on craft production sites of pre-modern economies
    To the data base on craft production sites of pre-modern economies
    Craft production was a key element of pre-modern economies, the workshop acting as an important point of intersection between exploitation and daily use of resources (e.g. clay/pottery, stone/architectural elements, iron ore/tools). Within the framework of the Research Training Group 1878 »Archaeology of pre-modern economies« funded by the DFG, it is aimed to compile craft production sites attested by archaeological material as exhaustively as possible. This data base is accessible for free all over the world, thus providing an important foundation for further scientific questions and projects as well as an overview on essential aspects of the economic and daily life in pre-modern societies for the broader public.

    Database of coinfinds with pamphylian coins

    The following database was created as a part of an unfinished dissertation of Fabian Richter with the topic ‘Pamphylian Coin Hoards as Indicators of Economic Interrelations during the Hellenistic Period’. It raises no claim to completeness. The work served as basis for an article published in the journal KUBA: F. Richter, Zur Prägung von Alexander-Tetradrachmen in Pamphylien und der Datierung des Gegenstempels „Anker“ auf pamphylischen Münzen, KuBA 6, 216, im Druck.
    Downloadlink of the Database ->

    Ancient Peoples

    AmphoraAttica, Greece 570BC-550BC (circa) Pottery:...


    Attica, Greece

    570BC-550BC (circa)

    Pottery: black-figured amphora showing the sacrifice of the Trojan princess Polyxene.


    Dienekes' Anthropology Blog

    Younger Dryas comet impact encoded in Göbekli Tepe?

    Fascinating if true.

    Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 17, No 1, (2017), pp. 233-250


    Martin B. Sweatman* and Dimitrios Tsikritsis

    We have interpreted much of the symbolism of Göbekli Tepe in terms of astronomical events. By matching low-relief carvings on some of the pillars at Göbekli Tepe to star asterisms we find compelling evidence that the famous ‘Vulture Stone’ is a date stamp for 10950 BC ± 250 yrs, which corresponds closely to the proposed Younger Dryas event, estimated at 10890 BC. We also find evidence that a key function of Göbekli Tepe was to observe meteor showers and record cometary encounters. Indeed, the people of Göbekli Tepe appear to have had a special interest in the Taurid meteor stream, the same meteor stream that is proposed as responsible for the Younger-Dryas event. Is Göbekli Tepe the ‘smoking gun’ for the Younger-Dryas cometary encounter, and hence for coherent catastrophism?

    Link (pdf)

    Faculty of Classics, Cambridge

    Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowships

    Information on the next round of Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowships is now available online.


    Gerunds and Gerundives in the Wild

    Aside from the state motto of New Mexico, crescit eundo, there is the motto of Millfield School in Somerset: molire molendo '(Loosely translated as "to succeed by grinding")'. 'Loosely', of course, because since molior is a deponent verb, molire is a second-person singular indicative or, better for this context, an imperative. The infinitive, as implied by the loose translation, is moliri.

    As for the gerundive, and real Latin, there is the formula found in Pompeian electoral dipinti:

    aed(ilem/iles) [or duovirum]v(iis) a(edibus) sacr(is) p(ublicis)procurandis oro vos faciatis.
    See, for examples, I 1. nos. 11 and 18 in R. Wallace's An Introduction to Wall Inscriptions from Pompeii and Herculaneum (Wauconda, Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci, 2005).

    Pedar W. Foss (quem dixere chaos)

    ROMARCH: Lydia Symposium Program, May 17-18, Izmir, Turkey

    The Lydia Symposium will take place on May 17-18, in Izmir, Turkey with two excursions to Chios, Greece and Sardis, Turkey. Below you will find the program of our symposium. Please note that all the symposium documents have been made available online on Academia and ResearchGate. Here are our websites where you can find all documents which are being updated every day:


    You can also put our program as well as abstracts booklet on your
    websites, such as Facebook or Twitter. It is still possible to apply to the symposium with a paper or as an observer. Deadline for abstract submissions is April 30, 2017.

    Izmire hosgeldiniz ! / A warm welcome to Izmir,

    Ergun Lafli

    Archaeology and history of Lydia from the early Lydian period to late
    antiquity (8th century B.C.-6th century A.D.). An international symposium

    May 17-18, 2017 / Izmir, Turkey


    May 17

    9 h 15 – 10 h 30: Session 1 – Chairman Guy Labarre (Universite de
    Franche-Comte, Besancon, France)
    Introduction – Opening speeches.

    9 h 15 Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Introduction: Practical information about the symposium.
    9 h 30 Nicholas D. Cahill (University of Wisconsin-Madison / Harvard
    University, Cambridge, MA, both U.S.A.)
    New work on the Palace of Croesus at Sardis.
    10 h 15  Concession of the 2017 EKVAM Annual Rewards of the Ancient
    Anatolian Studies.

    10 h 30 – 10 h 45: Break.

    10 h 45 – 11 h 35: Session 2 – Chairman Veli Sevin (Odemis, Turkey)
    Prehistorical and protohistorical Lydia.

    10 h 45  Kadriye Ozcelik (University of Ankara, Turkey), Gizem Kartal
    (University of Ankara, Turkey), Hande Bulut (University of Duzce, Turkey) Paleolithic evidences in Lydia.
    11 h  Nihal Akıllı (Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey)
    Protohistorical excavations at Hastane Hoyuk in Akhisar.
    11 h 15  Harun Oy (University of Ordu, Turkey)
    Three new sites in southeastern Lydia: Kapancik, Gerdekkayasi and Oren.
    11 h 30 Discussion.

    11 h 35 – 11 h 45: Break.

    11 h 45 – 13 h 30: Session 3 – Chairman Michel Mazoyer (Universite
    Paris-I-Pantheon-Sorbonne, France)
    Lydian period and early Lydians – Historical and linguistic aspects.

    11 h 45  Antonio Corso (Scuola archeologica italiana di Atene)
    Theory on the origins of Lydians as Etruscans.
    12 h 00 Michele R. Cataudella (Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Italy)
    Assuwa, Asia and the land of Lydians.
    12 h 15 Rostislav Oreshko (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland / Centre for
    Hellenic Studies, Washington, DC, U.S.A.)
    Lydian personal names and the question of Lydian ethno-linguistic identity.
    12 h 30 Liviu Mihail Iancu (Universitatea din Bucuresti, Romania)
    Who is Gyges?: Assessing the Carian connections of the first Mermnad king of Lydia once again.
    12 h 45 Alienor Rufin Solas (Universite Paris-Sorbonne IV, France)
    The Lydian kingdom before Croesus: An anthropological perspective.
    13 h 00 Alexander Portalsky (South-West University Neofit Rilski,
    Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria)
    Lydian dynasties: Genealogy and chronology.
    13 h 15 Discussion.

    13 h 30 – 14 h 30: Lunch.

    14 h 30 – 16 h 45: Session 4 – Chairman George Kakavas (Epigraphic and
    Numismatic Museum, Athens, Greece)
    Lydian period and early Lydians – Textual, cultic, epigraphical and
    numismatical aspects.

    14 h 30 Annick Payne (Universitaet Bern, Switzerland), David Sasseville
    (Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Germany)
    A new Lydian goddess: Malis (Athena).
    14 h 45 Diether Schurr (Hanau, Germany / Kas, Turkey)
    Lefs: a Greek god in Lydian disguise – Zeusis: a Lydian god in Greek
    15 h 00 Yanis Pikoulas (University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece)
    Some remarks on Royal Road (Hdt. 5.52-54).
    15 h 15 Annalisa Paradiso (Universita degli Studi della Basilicata,
    Matera, Italy)
    History of Lydia by Ephorus of Cyme.
    15 h 30 William Pillot (Universite d Angers, France)
    Strabo’s description of the relations between Troad and Lydia
    under the Mermnad dynasty.
    15 h 45 James Roy (University of Nottingham, Great Britain)
    The poet Pindar and Lydian Pelops.
    16 h 00 Aysen Sina (University of Ankara, Turkey)
    Cult of Artemis in Lydia and choir of Lydian girls: A political evaluation.
    16 h 15 Diether Schurr (Hanau, Germany / Kas, Turkey), Oguz Tekin (Koc University, Istanbul / Antalya, Turkey)
    A new coin with a Lydian legend.
    16 h 30 Discussion.

    16 h 30 – 16 h 45: Break.

    16 h 45 – 18 h 15: Session 5 – Chairman Nicholas D. Cahill (University of
    Wisconsin-Madison/Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.)
    Archaeology of Lydian period and early Lydians.

    16 h 45 Guzin Eren (Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Becoming extreme: Monumental architecture in the Lydian heartland from the eighth to the mid sixth centuries B.C.
    17 h 00 Veli Sevin (Odemis, Turkey)
    Birgi in Lydian period.
    17 h 15 Geoffrey D. Summers (Mahebourg, Mauritius / The Oriental
    Institute, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.)
    Eastern and northeastern borders of Lydia. A view from the Kızılırmak.
    17 h 30 Sedef Cokay Kepce (University of Istanbul, Turkey), Kaan İren
    (Sıtkı Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey)
    A Lydian kitchen in Dascylium?
    17 h 45 Tamas Peter Kisbali (Moscow, Russia)
    Influencing Lydia: The Cybele shrine from Sardis and its Near Eastern
    18 h 00 Discussion.

    18 h 15  Closing.
    18 h 25 Shooting a group photo in front of the Rectorate building of DEU.
    18 h 30 Walking back to the hotels in groups.

    May 18

    9 h 15 – 10 h 45: Session 6 – Chairman Yanis Pikoulas (University of
    Thessaly, Volos, Greece)
    Lydians and Persians.

    9 h 15 Cinzia Susanna Bearzot (Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Pissuthnes, the satrap of Lydia.
    9 h 30 Figen Cevirici Coskun (Dumlupınar University, Kutahya, Turkey)
    Remarks on Persian sepulchral iconography in Lydia.
    9 h 45 Sedat Akkurnaz (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    New examples of Archaic architectural terracottas from Lydia.
    10 h 00  Fabienne Colas-Rannou (Universite Clermont-Auvergne,
    Clermont-Ferrand, France)
    Lydian and Lycian arts in the context of Achaemenid Anatolia: A
    comparative approach.
    10 h 15 Askold Ivantchik (Institute of World History, Moscow, Russia /
    Universite Bordeaux Montaigne, France)
    New evidence on Lydians in southern Phrygia in Pre-Achaemenid and
    Achaemenid periods.
    10 h 30 Discussion.

    10 h 45 – 11 h 00: Break.

    11 h 00 – 12 h 45: Session 7 – Chairman Marijana Ricl (Univerzitet u
    Beogradu, Serbia)
    Historical aspects on Hellenistic and Roman Lydia.

    11 h 00  Franca Landucci (Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy) Lydia in the age of successors.
    11 h 15 Elif Alten (Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey)
    Revolt of Achaeus against Antiochus III the Great and the siege of Sardis,
    based on classical textual, epigraphic and numismatic evidence.
    11 h 30  Fabrice Delrieux (Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambery, France)
    Lydian cities during the First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.).
    11 h 45  Fatih Yılmaz (Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey)
    Jezebel: An early Christian false prophetess from Lydia.
    12 h 00 Huseyin Koker (Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey)
    Parthian campaigns of Septimius Severus and Caracalla and coinage of Bageis.
    12 h 15 Hacer Sancaktar (Bozok University, Yozgat, Turkey)
    Thyateria’s creation as the capital of convensus.
    12 h 30 Discussion.

    12 h 45 – 13 h 30: Lunch.

    13 h 30 – 14 h 30: Session 8 – Chairman Charles Guittard (Universite
    Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La-Defense, France)
    Archaeology of Hellenistic and Roman Lydia.

    13 h 30 Bahadır Duman (Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey)
    Preliminary remarks on archaeological evidence on ancient trade in Lydian Tripolis.
    13 h 45  Enes Hancer (Manisa, Turkey)
    14 h 00 Julia Martin (Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany)
    The use of fired Roman bricks in Lydia and neighbouring regions.
    14 h 15 Discussion.

    14 h 30 – 14 h 45: Break.

    14 h 45 – 16 h 30: Session 9 – Chairman María-Paz de Hoz (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain)
    Hellenistic and Roman Lydia – Textual, epigraphical, numismatical and cultic aspects I.

    14 h 45 Pierre-Oliver Hochard (Universite Francois-Rabelais, Tours, France)
    Historical geography of Lydia during Hellenistic and imperial periods:
    Literary and numismatics evidences.
    15 h 00 Ilias N. Arnaoutoglou (Academy of Athens, Greece)
    Koinon, sumbiosis: Associations in Hellenistic and Roman Lydia.
    15 h 15  Maria Kantirea (University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus)
    Building inscriptions from Roman Lydia.
    15 h 30 Marijana Ricl (Univerzitet u Beogradu, Serbia)
    Family structure in Roman Lydia.
    15 h 45 Dincer Savas Lenger (Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey)
    Coinage of Thyessus in Lydia.
    16 h 00 Huseyin Ureten, Omer Gungormus (both at Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Remarks on imperial cult of Lydian Philadelphia based on classical textual sources.
    16 h 15 Discussion.

    16 h 30 – 16 h 45: Break.

    16 h 45 – 18 h 00: Session 10 – Chairman Huseyin Ureten (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Hellenistic and Roman Lydia – Textual, epigraphical, numismatical and cultic aspects II.

    16 h 45 María-Paz de Hoz (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain)
    Greek literacy and literary tradition in Hellenistic and Roman Lydia.
    17 h 00 Etienne Wolff (Universite Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La-Defense, France)
    Lydia in proverbs and idiomatic expressions of Latin language.
    17 h 15 Marius Cristian Streinu (Institutul National al Patrimoniului,
    Bucharest, Romania)
    Lydians and gladiators.
    17 h 30 Katarzyna Maksymiuk (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach, Poland)
    The relation of Priscian of Lydia to Byzantium during the wars of
    Justinian I with the Sasanians.
    17 h 45 Discussion.
    18 h 00 Closing and walking back to the hotels in groups.

    May 17

    Conferences in DESEM – Burgundy Hall (Bordo Salon)
    / Conferences en DESEM – Salle de bourgogne (Bordo Salon)

    10 h 45 – 11 h 30: Session 11 – Chairman Geoffrey D. Summers (Mahebourg,
    Mauritius / The Oriental Institute, Chicago, IL, U.S.A.)
    Paleogeographical studies in Lydia.

    10 h 45 Ertug Oner (Ege University, Izmir, Turkey), Serdar Vardar (Katip
    Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey), Rifat İlhan (Ege University, Izmir,
    Geomorphological effects of Kayacık in Gordes to the surrounding
    archaeological sites in northern Lydia.
    11 h 00 Serdar Vardar (Katip Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Geoarchaeological-paleogeographical observations on Hypaepa and its
    surroundings in southwestern Lydia.
    11 h 15 Discussion.

    11 h 30 – 11 h 45: Break.

    11 h 45 – 12 h 45: Session 12 – Chairman Dincer Savas Lenger (Akdeniz
    University, Antalya, Turkey)
    Various aspects of Lydia during the Byzantine period.

    11 h 45 Nilgun Elam (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey)
    Unknown archbishops of Lydia: A contribution by sigillographic evidence.
    12 h 00  Tomasz Polański (Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego Kielce / Polska Akademia Nauk, Crakow, both Poland)
    John of Sardis’ commentary to Aphthonius’ description of the
    Alexandrian Serapeum. Graeco-Oriental art in rhetorical ecphrasis.
    12 h 15 Jasmina S. Ciric (Univerzitet u Beogradu, Serbia)
    Brickwork patterns of E Church in Sardis: Structure and meaning.
    12 h 30 Discussion.

    12 h 45 – 14 h 30: Lunch.

    14 h 30 – 15 h 45: Session 13 – Chairman Harun Oy (University of Ordu,
    Lydia and rest of the ancient world.

    14 h 30  Marina Y. Lapteva (Tyumen State University, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Russia)
    Lydian factor in the history of the Ionian tyranny.
    14 h 45 Fani K. Seroglou (Ephorate of Antiquities of the Dodecanese,
    Rhodes, Greece)
    Greeks and Lydians: Unraveling the tale of two cultures.
    15 h 00 Tamar Cheishvili, Ketevan Gardapkhadze (both Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia)
    Some aspects of the historical relationships between Lydia and Caucasus.
    15 h 15  Exhlale Dobruna-Salihu (Instituti Albanologjik i Prishtinës, Kosovo)
    Relationships of Dardania with Lydia in the regards of trade, mythology
    and sculpture during the classical antiquity.
    15 h 30 Discussion.

    15 h 45 – 16 h 00: Break.

    16 h 00 – 17 h 00: Session 14 – Chairman Serdar Vardar (Katip Celebi
    University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Archaeology and historical geography of third, second and first millenia B.C. in other parts of western Anatolia.

    16 h 00  Aysegul Aykurt (Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Minoan presence in western Anatolia.
    16 h 15 Frederik Christiaan Woudhuizen (Dutch Archaeological and
    Historical Society, Heiloo, The Netherlands), Eberhard Zangger (Luwian
    Studies, Zurich, Switzerland)
    A glimpse at the so-called Beykoy Text and an assessment of its validity.
    16 h 30  Gulem Gogebakan Demir (Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey)
    Borukcu: A site of Geometric period in Caria.
    16 h 45 Discussion.

    17 h 00 – 17 h 15: Break.

    17 h 15 – 18 h 15: Session 15 – Chairman Bahadır Duman (Pamukkale
    University, Denizli, Turkey)
    Archaeology of Hellenistic and Roman northeastern Caria.

    17 h 15  Aslı Saracoglu, Arzu Ozver (both Adnan Menderes University,
    Aydın, Turkey)
    Bath-gymnasium building of Tralles.
    17 h 30  Arzu Ozver (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Evaluation of burial customs in Lydia in the light of the finds from the
    necropolis of Tralles.
    17 h 45  Oguz Kocyigit (Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey)
    A preliminary report on the Roman pottery from Tabae.
    18 h 00 Discussion.

    18 h 15 – 18 h 25: Break.
    18 h 25 Shooting a group photo in front of the Rectorate building of DEU.
    18 h 30 Walking back to the hotels in groups.

    May 18

    9 h 15 – 10 h 15: Session 16 – Chairman Professor Fabrice Delrieux
    (Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambery)
    Archaeology of Hellenistic and Roman Smyrna.

    9 h 15  Santo Salvatore Distefano (Catania, Italy)
    Smyrna during the early Roman empire.
    9 h 30 Pierre O. Juhel (Universite Paris-Sorbonne, France)
    Stone carved shields in Smyrna.
    9 h 45 Discussion.

    10 h 00 – 10 h 15: Break.

    10 h 15 – 11 h 30: Session 17 – Chairman Aysen Sina (University of Ankara, Turkey)
    Ancient Greek cults and burial customs in western Anatolia.

    10 h 15 Michel Mazoyer (Universite Paris-I-Pantheon-Sorbonne, France)
    The impact of the Hittite god on the myth of Dionysus from Magnesia on the Maeander in an evolutive process.
    10 h 30  Charles Guittard (Universite Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La-Defense,
    An oracle of Apollo Clarius and the question of the supreme god
    (Macrobius, Saturnalia 1, 18, 20): Zeus, Hades, Helios, Dionysos and Iao.
    10 h 45  Erik Hrnciarik, Lucia Novakova (both Trnavska univerzita v
    Trnave, Slovakia)
    Anatolian koine of burial practices: Transformation of elite burials.
    11 h 00 Discussion.
    11 h 15  Murat Cekilmez (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Terracotta figurines from the south necropolis of Tralles.

    11 h 30 – 11 h 45: Break.

    11 h 45 – 13 h 00: Session 18 – Chairman Murat Cekilmez (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Trade goods from western Anatolia in the rest of the ancient world.

    11 h 45 Giorgio Rizzo (Rome, Italy)
    Ephesian amphorae in Rome in the imperial period.
    12 h 00 Natalia S. Astashova (State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia)
    Anatolian pottery from Panticapaeum.
    12 h 15  Verena Perko (Univerze v Ljubljani Kranj, Slovenia), Tina
    Žerjal (Zavod za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije,
    Ljubljana, Slovenia)
    Anatolian imports in Slovenia.
    12 h 30 Daniele Tinterri (Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales,
    Paris, France / Universita di Torino / Genoa, both Italy)
    Aegean trade goods from Chios and Phocaea (4th-7th century A.D.) to
    western Mediterranean based on textual and archaeological evidence.
    12 h 45 Discussion.

    13 h 00 – 14 h 15: Lunch.

    14 h 15 – 15 h 15: Session 19 – Chairman Fethiye Erbay (University of
    Istanbul, Turkey)
    Miscellanea: Papers on Roman and Byzantine Balkans and the Near East.

    14 h 15  Zaraza Friedman (Haifa, Israel)
    Nabataean trade routes through Asia Minor and the depiction of dolphin in Nabataean tradition.
    14 h 30 Bogdan Ciupercă (Muzeul Judeţean de Istorie si
    Arheologie Prahova, Ploiești, Romania), Andrei Măgureanu
    (Institutul de Arheologie Vasile Parvan, Bucharest, Romania)
    Costume of deads or costume of livings?
    14 h 45  Filipova Snezhana (Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Macedonia)
    Female donors of church mosaics in Macedonia.
    15 h 00 Discussion.

    15 h 15 – 15 h 30: Break.

    15 h 30 – 16 h 45: Session 20 – Chairman Nihal Akıllı (Adnan Menderes
    University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Skype session: Historical studies on Roman and early Byzantine Lydia and Ephesus.

    15 h 30 Gaetano Arena (Universita degli Studi di Catania, Italy)
    Heleis: A chief doctor in Roman Lydia.
    15 h 45  Margherita G. Cassia (Universita degli Studi di Catania, Italy)
    Servilius Damocrates and Roman Lydia: A close connection.
    16 h 00  Dimitris P. Drakoulis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
    A contribution to the study of Lydia in the early Byzantine period.
    16 h 15  Eirini Artemi (Hellenic Open University, Patra / Athens)
    The role of Ephesus in the late antiquity from the period of Diocletian to
    A.D. 449, the Robber Synod.
    16 h 30 Discussion.

    16 h 45 – 17 h 00: Break.

    17 h 00 – 18 h 50: Session 21 – Chairman Etienne Wolff (Universite
    Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La-Defense, Greece)
    Closing session: Archaeology and cults of Lydia and Ionia.

    17 h 00 Gulsah Eser (Harran University, Sanlıurfa, Turkey)
    Reports about the Lydian hoard in Turkish newspaper Cumhuriyet.
    17 h 15  Evrim Guven (Katip Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Remarks on Lydia in classical mythological sources.
    17 h 30 Gulseren Alkis Yazici (Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey)
    Some remarks on the ancient religions of Lydia.
    17 h 45  Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Evaluation of published evidence on the archaeology of Turgutlu in western Lydia.
    17 h 55 Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey), Gulseren Kan Sahin (University of Sinop, Turkey)
    A Roman marble altar from Kula.
    18 h 05  Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Roman bronze figurines from the Museum of Odemis in southwestern Lydia.
    18 h 15 Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey), Gulseren Kan Sahin (University of Sinop, Turkey)
    Four Roman ceramic vessels from Selendi.
    18 h 25 Ergun Lafli (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey)
    Roman and Byzantine spolia at mausoleum of Tabduk Emre in Kula.
    18 h 35 Discussion.
    18 h 50  Closing of the symposium and walking back to the hotels in groups.

    Post-Symposium excursions

    May 19-20: Excursion 1 – Visit to Chios, Greece.

    May 21: Excursion 2 – Visit to Sardis.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Online Supplements to Palilia

    Palilia Project
    The volumes of the series called "Palilia" existing since 1997 by the Rome Department of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) are not only impressive on account of their excellent readability but also their handy size. In order to guarantee this continuously and to allow the publication of works based on extensive documentation of archaeological material at the same time, CoDArchLab and the DAI Rome are treading a new path of archaeological publication: Supplementation of printed works by digital provision of additional materials using the adapted book structure. The volumes of the Palilia-serie themselves are independent and completely comprehensible in their reasoning. At the same time they are also readable and manageable. Readers who want to see details of the material are invited to take a look at the catalogues of each volume available in Arachne. On this page you get to the individual supplements of the Palilia-volumes. If you are interested in the volumes themselves, please contact the Reichert Verlag (link:

    To the catalogues available in Arachne:
    Palilia 20: Alexandra W. Busch, Military in Rome. Military and paramilitary units in the imperial cityscape
    Palilia 24: Johannes Lipps, The Basilica Aemilia on the Forum Romanum. The building and its ornamentation in imperial times (Dissertation, Cologne 2008)
    Palilia 25: Martin Tombrägel, The Republican otium-villas at Tivoli (Dissertation, Marburg 2005)
    Palilia 26: Wolfgang Ehrhardt, Decorative and residential context. Removal, restoration and preservation of wall paintings in the Campanian antique sites.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Indonesian ‘hobbits’ not related to Homo erectus

    The most comprehensive study on the bones of Homo floresiensis, a species of tiny human discovered on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003, has found that they most likely evolved from an ancestor in Africa and not from Homo erectus as has been widely believed. Artist's impression of Homo floresiensis [Credit: Katrina Kenny, SA Museum]The study by The Australian National University (ANU) found Homo floresiensis, dubbed "the...

    [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

    Brice C. Jones

    Two New Greek New Testament  Papyri from Oxyrhynchus

    Two new Greek NT papyrus fragments from Oxyrhynchus have been identified: one of Ephesians and one of 1 Timothy. These fragments, already assigned Gregory-Aland numbers, were just published in the latest volume of the Oyrhynchus Papyri--P.Oxy. 81. Dr. Geoff Smith, the author of the Ephesians fragment, has uploaded the editions of both fragments on his site. (Side note: Geoff and I were both featured in a New York Times piece in 2015.)
    1. P.Oxy. 81.5258: Ephesians 3:21–4:2, 14-16 / GA P132
    Editor: Dr. Geoff Smith
    ​A small codex fragment of Ephesians dated to the third/fourth century—the first fragment of this work to surface from Oxyrhynchus. Nomina sacra are present. Written in an informal hand on both sides of the papyrus. There is only one variant in 3:21 (omission of καί). Here is the editor's transcription of both recto and verso.
    2. P.Oxy. 81.5259: 1 Timothy 3:13–4:8 / GA P133
    Editor: Jessica Shao
    ​A small codex fragment of 1 Timothy dated to the third century written on both sides of the papyrus in a fairly large Biblical majuscule hand. The most significant fact is that 5259 is the earliest witness of 1 Timothy to ever be publishedNomina sacra are present. There are only two variants in 3:13 (τὴν vs. τῇ) and 4:2 (συνίδησιν vs. συνείδησιν. The text also exhibits a previously unattested form of a nomen sacrum​ in 4:1 (πνσι for πνεῦμασιν). Here is the editor's transcription of both recto and verso.
    In the same volume, there is another interesting Christian papyrus—"5260: Hymn of the Cross: Amulet?"—that I am probably going to come back to in a later post. 

    The Heroic Age

    CFP: Women's Strategies of Memory: Representations in Literature and Art

    by Emma O'Loughlin Bérat
    Women's Strategies of Memory: Representations in Literature and Art
    Call for Papers for panel(s) proposal at Leeds IMC 2018, 2-5 July
    Memory, in the middle ages as now, was widely accessible to women as means of personal and political influence. Scholarship on the strategic and technical employment of memory in the middle ages has principally explored men’s practices. This panel focuses on representations of medieval women’s deliberate and strategic uses of memory in literature, art, and historical narrative.
    We invite papers from any discipline, region and medieval period, which consider any aspect of the representation of women’s memory. We are particularly interested in women who perform remembering, forgetting, or recounting past events as a means of public or political power; and who manipulate histories or identities to construct or reconstruct the past, or to influence the memories of other characters. We also hope to explore women’s less conscious strategies of memory, such as forgetting as a way of compartmentalising traumatic emotions. Reexaminations of women who are accused (by other characters or the narrator) of errors of memory, such as forgetting, deliberate ignorance or manipulation of record, are also welcome.

    Please contact Lucy Allen ( and Emma Bérat ( with an abstract of approximately 100 words and a brief biography by 30 July 2017.
    Committee for the Study of Late Antiquity
    Seeger Center for Hellenic Studies

    Work in Progress
    Remaking the Saint:
    Antonius’ Life of Symeon the Elder
    and the Cult of Symeon the Younger

    Dina Boero
    Hellenic Studies Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Supported by Committee for the Study of Late Antiquity
    Respondent: John Haldon, History and Hellenic Studies

    The cults of Symeon the Elder (d. 459 CE) and Symeon the Younger (d. 592) were linked in the minds of many late antique Christians. People, objects, and stories moved fluidly between the two communities. This presentation explores connections between Antonius’ Life of Symeon the Stylite the Elder and the anonymous Life of Symeon the Stylite the Younger. It argues that Antonius made use of the Life of the younger stylite as well as other textual and archaeological material pertaining to Symeon the Younger’s cult. Whereas previous studies of Symeon the Younger have examined the influence of the elder stylite on the younger, this presentation shows that influence was not unidirectional. Symeon the Elders’s cult-keepers reshaped the saint and devotion to him in light of growing veneration to his successor. By examining these two cults from the perspective of collaboration rather than competition, this paper illuminates the multifaceted symbolic world of devotion to saints.

    Dina Boero holds a B.A. in Religion from the University of California: San Diego and a M.A. and Ph.D. in Classics from the University of Southern California. Her current book project, The Anatomy of a Cult, traces the history of Symeon the Stylite the Elder’s (d. 459) cult in the fifth and sixth centuries. In fall of 2017, she will take up the post of Assistant Professor of History at The College of New Jersey.

    Thursday, April 27, 2017
    4:30 p.m.
    Scheide Caldwell House, Room 103

    For questions about accessibility or to request accommodations, please contact the department hosting the event. Two weeks advanced notice will allow us to provide seamless access. If you would like to be removed from this list, please email The request must be sent from the email account you wish to have removed from the listserv. Thank you. If you would like to be removed from this list, please email Thank you.

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Origins of Indonesian hobbits finally revealed

    The most comprehensive study on the bones of Homo floresiensis, a species of tiny human discovered...

    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Friday Varia and Quick Hits

    It’s a sunny Friday here in North Dakotaland as the semester winds to a close. I’ve begun to slowly transition my thoughts from the academic year to my summer research carefully compartmentalizing the avalanche of grading over the next few weeks and the bevy of projects that demand to pushed across the finish line (not to mention the gaggle of end of semester meetings that will fill up my time as well as fine weather and social temptations!).

    Before you check out the quick hits and varia, do go and read my earlier post today on the third anniversary of Joel Jonientz’s passing and the newest book from The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota, Haunted by Waters: the Future of Memory and the Red River Flood of 1997.

    So as I brace for end of semester chaos, enjoy some quick hits and varia:

    IMG 0586
    We store our dogs this way.

    Pedar W. Foss (quem dixere chaos)

    ROMARCH: Oxford CARC workshop: ‘Ancient Coins and Gandhara’

    Apollo and Daphne: Gandharan schist dish from the Met

    Dr Shailendra Bhandare will be conducting a special workshop for the Gandhara Connections project in the Ashmolean Museum, 2-3.30 pm on Friday 2nd June, 2017: ‘Ancient Coins and Gandhara‘. The workshop is intended to offer a hands-on introduction to Kushan coinage and other coin traditions important for understanding the art and history of Gandhara.  All are welcome, but for practical reasons places are very limited, so please book a place by emailing us:

    Priority in booking may be given to students or those with less easy access to the material. Note that those attending in person may be filmed: in order to bring the workshop in some form to the wider global audience that cannot attend in person, we are currently hoping to webcast and record the event using Facebook Live. Details of the webcast will follow in due course.

    With best wishes,

    Classical Art Research Centre

    University of Oxford
    Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies
    66 St Giles’, Oxford, OX1 3LU
    Tel: +44 (0)1865 278082
    Fax: +44 (0)1865 610237

    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Joel Jonientz and the Digital Press at the University of North Dakota

    I’ve been thinking a good bit about by late friend Joel Jonientz this week. He died three years ago yesterday. One of the projects we were working on when he died was Punk Archaeology and it was to be the first book from The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota.

    Untitled 318

    It was fitting then that I spent part of the evening at a book release event promoting and celebrating the appearance of the seventh book from The Digital Press: Haunted by Waters: the Future of Memory and the Red River Flood of 1997 edited by David Haeselin and students from his writing, editing, and publishing class in the Department of English. The event featured a filmed roundtable hosted by the City of Grand Forks including a little Facebook Live segment which received over 1000 views since last night! We also received some nice local media coverage on the event.

    This stuff got me thinking of Joel’s work with the Working Group in Digital and New Media, and, in particular, his efforts to develop a video game called Rhythm Planet in collaboration with students. He eventually launched a (unsuccessful) Kickstarter campaign for the project, and in an effort to promote that, we discussed the game and his method in a two part interview in 2013. Read it here and here (and even if you don’t feel like reading it, do go and check out the art or, better still, check out the video here). I paid pretty close attention to what he was doing in this class and how he motivated students to go beyond a contractual understanding of education and to put their heart and mind into the project. Some of it was probably his infectious enthusiasm and his own willingness to put in time and energy into a project. Some of it was probably his willingness to give students access to the tools to succeed or fail and then the space to allow them to do it. Some of it was probably that he attracted motivated and ambitious students. I muse about his collaborative spirit in a post here and was pretty proud to help keep some of it alive last night.

    The biggest thing with Joel is that he embraced an expansive vision of what was possible. In fact, his encouragement and conversations helped me realize that The Digital Press was possible. So last night, I tried to communicate that spirit to the students who worked hard to make Haunted by Waters happen. I pointed out that Joel and I didn’t really have any experience as publishers, but we figured out how the make The Digital Press happen. And if we could do it, they could, and they should embrace the potential of digital media and do their own thing!

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

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    Ramses II colossus restored and re-rected at Luxor Temple

    Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities re-erected on Tuesday a colossus of King Ramses II that once...

    AIA Fieldnotes

    A Guide to Archaeological and Historical Sites on Achill, Achillbeg and the Corraun Peninsula

    Author Theresa McDonald, PhD.,

    Detailed Guide to 85 sites of archaeological and historic interest, including photographs and figures plus a fold-out map showing the locations of each site. Over 100 pages in total.

    Table of Contents:

    Introduction to Achill, Achillbeg and the Corraun Peninsula (Co.Mayo, Ireland).

    Neolithic Achill

    Sites of Unknown Date

    Bronze Age Achill

    Iron Age Achill

    Medieval Achill

    Post Medieval and Early Modern Achill

    Publisher IAS Publications, Tullamore, Co. Offaly, Ireland
    Date PublishedNovember, 2016

    Jim Davila (

    Interview with Jutta Jokiranta

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    The Birth of Monotheism

    Lecture by Mark Smith, via Biblical Studies Online. See also William Hart Brown’s post on the same topic.

    Jim Davila (

    CFP: The Impact of Learning Greek, Hebrew, and 'Oriental' Languages ...

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Potsherds and the Bible

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Social banditry

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

    Meet a Member: Carissa Nicholson

    Meet Carissa Nicholson, an Associate Member at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens working on a dissertation in Art History at the University of Florida.

    Jim Davila (

    Adler on the origins of ritual immersion

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>


    Notes on Ionic verse inscriptions

    BMI 952 (= Schwyzer 430, IG IX,1 649, and CEG I 391: LSAG) features:
    (1) a masc. a-stem, without final sigma, of a unique personal name: Ἐξοίδα (IG l.c. has Εὐσ-); (2) the genitive singular Διϝὸς; and, (3) the spelling of the dual ϙόˉροιν.

    The Poinikastas description amuses me: 'Bronze disk dedicated to the Kioskouroi by Exoides, probably from Kephallenia'.

    Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

    Images in the Making: Art-Process-Archaeology

    Here is a session we filmed at the TAG conference:

    Session Information

    Archaeological approaches to visual images have tended to present images as flat, static and lacking in dynamism; as evidence of this, semiotic or symbolic approaches still remain the prevailing approach to imagery in archaeology. This is a shame as research in a host of other fields including anthropology, history, art history and art practice approach images very differently (e.g. Anderson et. al. 2014; Barrett and Bolt 201; Bynum 2015; Ingold 2013). What happens to our understanding of art and imagery if we begin to approach images as things that are made, rather than things that simply signify?

    Archaeologists have recently realized that a consideration of process is critical to our understanding of past human-material interactions (Jones 2012; Lucas 2012, Alberti et. al. 2013, Gosden and Malafouris 2015). These authors argue for the critical importance of thinking in terms of ‘modes of becoming rather than modes of being’ (Gosden and Malafouris 2015), exploring the open-endedness of human interactions with the material world. The aim of this session is to explore the implication of process thinking for our understanding of art and imagery. Once we think of images-in-the-making we begin to realize that images might be involved in complex and extended processes. How might this alter our accounts of art and imagery?

    Andrew Meirion Jones, University of Southampton and Ing-Marie Back Danielsson, Uppsala University
    Alberti, B., Jones, A.M. and Pollard, J. 2013 Archaeology after Interpretation. Returning materials to archaeological theory. Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek, CA.
    Anderson, C., Dunlop, A. and Smith, P.H. 2014 The matter of art. Materials, practices, cultural logics c. 1250-1750. Manchester University Press: Manchester.
    Barrett, E. and Bolt, B. 2013 Carnal Knowledge. Towards a ‘New materialism’ through the arts. I.B. Tauris: London.
    Bynum, C. 2011 Christian Materiality. Zone Books: New York.
    Gosden, C. and Malafouris, L. 2015 Process Archaeology (P-Arch). World Archaeology 47(5): 701-717
    Ingold, T. 2013 Making. Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture. Routledge: London.
    Jones, A. M. 2012 Prehistoric Materialities. Becoming material in prehistoric Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
    Lucas, G. 2012 Understanding the archaeological record. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

    An Archaeology of Anthropomorphism: upping the ontological ante of Alfred Gell’s anthropological theory of art Ben Alberti, Framingham State University

    The question that drives this paper is how to understand anthropomorphism in archaeological material, particularly in three-dimensional artefactual forms. Typically, anthropomorphism – in artworks, ceramics, architecture, and so on – is understood as a form of scheme transfer in which meanings associated with the human body are transferred to other materials. Alternately, it is understood as a representational practice in which cultural narratives are played out in material form. More recently, cognitive approaches have stressed the connection between body metaphor and practice.
    The underlying premise I begin with is that of ontological pluralism, by which I mean that peoples’ truths and experiences of reality are varied. What anthropomorphism means in a given context depends upon the nature of underlying ontological commitments. Drawing from Amazonian ethnographies that show making and image to be ontologically of the same order, I develop an alternative theory of anthropomorphism in relation to a series of anthropomorphic pots from first millennium AD northwest Argentina. In doing so, I turn to Alfred Gell’s writings on style as an interpretive guide.

    Dirty RTI Ian Dawson, Winchester School of Art

    ‘Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato’s cave, still reveling, its age-old habit, in mere images of the truth.’ Sontag (1977) On Photography

    In RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging) a shadow thrown a multitude of times is used to generate complex narratives of sequencing and duration, tracing ghosts unseen by the human eye. The RTI image is an algorithmic synthetic construction, creating a portal to the past. RTI of the Folkton drums (Jones 2015), for example, revealed reworking; a surface arrived at through both carving and erasure, hinting at an open process of drawing.
    With fellow artist Louisa Minkin (University of the Arts) and in further collaborations with Jones and Diaz-Guardamino (University of Southampton) RTI was used a part of an experimental art process. Spaces and surfaces within a derelict modernist tower block awaiting gentrification were recorded to discuss a politic of software and space. Objects were built specifically for the RTI process and the spatial and temporal environment of a workshop have been captured.
    ‘Technology is where we in the west preserve our ancestor’s’ writes Sean Cubitt in the Practice of Light (2015), and this paper will consider earlier vision technologies – such as lenticular, integral and metric photography alongside these experimental ‘dirty’ RTI’s.
    “Our eyes are armed, but we are strangers to the stars” writes Emerson in his poem Blight (1847) in which he perceives of a debilitating gap caused by a growing instrumentalization towards the natural world and this paper will consider the complex and changing position between techne (knowing how to make things) and poiesis (the production and poetry of things)

    Beyond form: Iberian Late Bronze Age stelae in-the-making Marta Diaz-Guardamino, Southampton University/Cardiff University

    Late Bronze Age stelae (c. 1400/1250-750 BC), found mainly across western and southwestern Iberia, are formally diverse. Most of these carefully carved stones were found in the landscape, as un-stratified remains, and mainstream archaeology has consistently focused on the formal analysis of the images engraved on them. As a result, these large stones and the carvings they bear have been categorised into groups, types, and subtypes which are then read as expressions of a variety of symbolic frameworks (e.g. ethnic identities, ideologies). There are problems with this kind of approach, being one of them the lack of critical reflection on the very concept of similarity and, more fundamentally, on how form came about.
    This paper focuses on the process of stelae-making. It aims to draw attention to the limitations of formal approaches to the analysis of prehistoric imagery and highlight the potential of adopting a bottom-up approach, that is, of looking at the interaction between people and the stones when the latter were shaped, carved, re-carved, and so on. I will draw on the recent analysis of the surface texture of a sample of stelae by means of digital imaging methods (i.e. RTI) and the results of a replication experiment to reflect on the many factors (e.g. properties of stones, knowledge, skills) and interventions that have been involved in the making of Late Bronze Age stelae as we know them today.

    Connectivity and the making of Atlantic rock art Joana Valdez-Tullett, University of Southampton/FCT/CEAACP

    Atlantic rock art is a specific type of prehistoric tradition. Characterised by carved, or pecked, motifs, the tradition is found across a variety of countries along the Atlantic façade. Its widespread geographical distribution means that it is also known by a number of regional designations that, in some cases, reflect the scales of analysis that have been carried out until now (i.e. British rock art, Galician group of rock art).
    The main characteristic of Atlantic Art, is the homogeneity of the motifs, whose morphology is very similar in all the countries where it can be found. Cup-marks, single and concentric circles, penannular rings, spirals are some of the geometric designs typically included in this group, carved on the wider landscape of the British Isles and Iberia. To a certain extent, similar shapes can also be found in the great monuments of western France and Ireland, stressing a global use of the iconography that has been considered a unified phenomenon. We should, however, question whether a simple non-figurative image, such as a circle or a cup-mark, can be used to verify the universal character of Atlantic Art, particularly during prehistory.
    The present study set out to investigate the differences and similarities of Atlantic Art in the aforementioned regions, assessing the unity of the practice through a 4 scale methodology. The detailed scrutiny of the motifs, their shapes, morphological characteristics, techniques used in their execution and making were some of the aspects investigated which yielded interesting results and a deep knowledge of their structure and conception. These enabled inferences about the expansion of a style that encompasses more than morphological resemblances, and the inter-regional connections.

    The act of creation – tangible engagements in the making and ‘re-making’ of prehistoric rock art Lara Bacelar Alves, University of Coimbra, Portugal
    The long-term tradition of rock art investigation in Iberia relied, to a large extent, on the use of recording techniques that imply a close interaction between subject and object. However, until the last decade of the 20th century, studies concentrated on classifying what was inscribed on rocks – the motifs – and were particularly interested on their shapes, sizes, types and execution techniques. Yet, as the paradigm shifted into a major focus on the placement of rock art in the wider landscape, a new generation of students kept using traditional recording techniques in research grounded on entirely new perspectives, in which rock art was perceived as a dialogue involving the imagery, the natural backdrop and particular features in the landscape. Recording rock art by direct tracing, for instance, implies spending time on site, replicating the original gestures of who created the imagery in the past. Hence, it enable us to unveil subtle details of his or her skills and behaviour as well as the techniques and implements employed in the process of painting or carving signs on rocks.
    This paper discusses how rock art research, as praxis, may allow us to capture a glimpse of how mind, body and matter come together in the primordial act of creation, drawing on recent investigation at two Portuguese sites belonging to different prehistoric art traditions: the Schematic Art painted rock shelter of Lapas Cabreiras, in Côa Valley, and the Atlantic Art carvings at Monte Faro. It goes further to examine how the processes involved in the making of rock art ultimately assists us to thinking about how matter was collected, manipulated and used to create the settings in which visual images played a major role in the life of prehistoric communities in the Neolithic.

    A fresh slate: image, practice and multiplicity in the Manx Late Neolithic Andrew Meirion Jones, Southampton University

    Situated in the middle of the Irish Sea the Late Neolithic of the Isle of Man differs markedly from neighbouring regions of mainland Britain and Ireland. One of the features that marks out the Manx Late Neolithic is the production of miniature plaques of slate decorated with finely incised designs upon their surfaces. A recent programme of digital imaging has revealed extensive evidence of reworking and revision of designs on these slate plaques. How are we to understand these practices of revision and reworking?
    In this paper I argue that the practices of making, working and revising designs on these small plaques must be understood relationally, evincing a series of connections to landscape, other artefacts, monuments and places. The making of both plaques and designs therefore raise questions regarding their ontology, as the practices of making and decorating draw together and bring into being a series of connections. This act of connecting by making, decorating and revising designs enacts a distinctively Manx Late Neolithic ontology of simultaneous difference/distinctiveness and connectedness. The Manx plaques are therefore best understood as ontologically multiple, or as ‘multiple objects’.

    Neolithic stamps in the Balkans: the enigma of vibrant tools and their missing imprints Agni Prijatelj, Durham University

    Stamps, stamp-seals or pintaderas are some of the most visually striking yet enigmatic tools found at Neolithic settlements across the Balkans: while many of these objects have been preserved across different sites in SE Europe, their imprints remain absent from archaeological records. Previous studies have focused on the typological classification and stylistic comparison of the stamps’ geometric motifs, while at the same time speculating on their functional significance, origins and chronologies. As a critical response to these studies, and in the light of new research on “thing-power” and “image making” (Bennett 2010; Conneller 2011; Ingold 2013; Jones 2012; Jones & Alberti 2013), this paper shifts the focus onto the vibrancy and animacy that stem from these objects’ material properties, and from human entanglements with them. In doing so, it demonstrates a symmetrical relationship between tools and humans, and shows that the meaning of stamps and their imprints may be found in the constant flux of becoming, changing and negotiating, through distinct performative processes in which people and tools are engaged as equals.

    The Nile in the hippopotamus: Being and becoming in faience figurines of Middle Kingdom ancient Egypt Rune Nyord, Cambridge University

    Ancient Egyptian grave goods are traditionally understood as relatively straightforward evidence of the material needs of a human being in the afterlife, either literally (e.g. food and drink) or in various symbolic ways. A good example where such symbolic readings have dominated modern understandings is the well-known category of faience figurines of hippopotamuses from Middle Kingdom (Middle Bronze Age, early 2nd millennium BCE) Egypt. Drawing on the materiality of the object and the transformations it undergoes during fabrication, it is argued that the production technique based on chemical efflorescence offers a powerful conceptual model for the ontology 63 TAG 2 0 1 6
    of the image. The mode of fabrication where an internal potential emerges from the material by drying and heating on the one hand, and the surface decoration representing the lush aquatic environment of the river Nile on the other, both serve to add elements of flow and continuous becoming to the otherwise fixed and stable form of the glazed figurine, a tension which can be further influenced by the deliberate breaking of the finished figurine before deposition. This tension is mirrored in the ancient Egyptian ontological concept at, ‘moment, impulse’ which is written in the period under discussion precisely using a sign depicting the head of a hippopotamus, indicating a connection between the ‘conceptual affordances’ offered by the object and broader Egyptian ontological frameworks.

    Bryn Mawr Classical Review

    2017.04.27: Objects as Actors: Props and the Poetics of Performance in Greek Tragedy

    Review of Melissa Mueller, Objects as Actors: Props and the Poetics of Performance in Greek Tragedy. Chicago; London: 2016. Pp. x, 272. $55.00. ISBN 9780226312958.

    2017.04.26: A Cloud of Dust: 'Mimesis' and Mystification in Aeschylus' 'Seven against Thebes'. Hellenica, 59

    Review of Letizia Poli Palladini, A Cloud of Dust: 'Mimesis' and Mystification in Aeschylus' 'Seven against Thebes'. Hellenica, 59. Alessandria: 2016. Pp. xi, 347. €40.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862746656.

    Compitum - publications

    J.-B. Renault (éd.), Originaux et cartulaires dans la Lorraine médiévale


    Jean-Baptiste Renault (éd.), Originaux et cartulaires dans la Lorraine médiévale (XIIe - XVIe siècles). Recueil d'études, Turnhout, 2016.

    Éditeur : Brepols
    Collection : Atelier de recherche sur les textes médiévaux (ARTEM 24)
    245 pages
    ISBN : 978-2-503-56756-3
    75 €

    Entourés des attentions des médiévistes, les cartulaires sont devenus un objet d'histoire. Ces recueils, résultant de la compilation d'actes par une institution ou une personne juridique, entretiennent des relations complexes avec les originaux, sources directes ou indirectes mises en œuvre par les cartularistes. Qu'il s'agisse de la sélection des matériaux ou du transfert d'informations du modèle à la cible, le travail accompli est affaire de choix, divers et multiples, dont il faut retrouver les logiques pour espérer comprendre les objectifs des hommes qui ont commandités et réalisés ces manuscrits. Même soumis à des contingences matérielles, les copistes conservent une certaine marge de manœuvre dans le traitement de leur documentation. Ils trient, classent ou reclassent les documents qu'ils accueillent et enfin transcrivent les actes en adoptant certains principes. Ce recueil d'études a pour but de renouveler la confrontation originaux-cartulaires, à travers l'analyse d'un recueil et de son chartrier ou grâce à l'exploration d'une question liée à la transcription, à travers plusieurs cartulaires.
    La question est ici approchée dans un cadre régional, en l'occurrence la Lorraine médiévale, principalement constituée des diocèses de Metz, Toul et Verdun – et occasionnellement étendue à l'ancienne Lotharingie. La chronologie est délibérément large (XIIe - XVIe siècle), donnant toute leur place aux expériences, parfois négligées, de la fin du Moyen Âge. À défaut d'aborder systématiquement le phénomène de la « mise en cartulaire », les dossiers ici réunis voudraient en enrichir les données et questionnements.

    Lire la suite...

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    Construction around historical Spanish bridges halted

    Philippine Inquirer, 17 April 2017 The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) has stopped the controversial road construction project around Puente de Gibanga and Puente de Princesa in Tayabas, Quezon, pending submission of its plans to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) on how best to conserve the Spanish-era bridges. Both bridges, … Continue reading "Construction around historical Spanish bridges halted"

    ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

    Blogging the Tyndale House Edition of the Greek New Testament

    Dirk Jongkind has announced on the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog that Tyndale House has initiated a blog dedicated to the new Tyndale house Edition of the Greek New Testament.

    The first post is live now!

    Introduction: The Greek New Testament Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge

    I’m subscribed to it on now, but if you’re already a subscriber to ETC, then do not worry. Every post will also appear there. If you’re not a subscriber to either, I would greatly encourage you to add one or both to your RSS feed reader or whatever means you use to read website, news, and blogs.

    The Tyndale House Greek New Testament is an exciting project and it is definitely worth following their efforts, methods, and analysis of textual criticism of the Greek New Testament.


    Filed under: Greek

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    Conserving the Old Capital

    Bangkok Post, 13 April 2017 Tucked away between two rivers and only 76km north of Bangkok, Ayutthaya remains a popular destination for Thai and foreign tourists to learn about the history, art and culture of Thailand. Nonetheless, frequent visitors may want a new theme to explore Ayutthaya. The best yet lesser-known icon is the late … Continue reading "Conserving the Old Capital"

    The Lost City That’s Not Lost, Not a City, and Doesn’t Need to Be Discovered

    Sapiens, 13 April 2017: This article talks about ‘lost’ temples in Honduras, but the example can apply just as easily in Southeast Asia (credit to Alison Carter for the link) Modern explorers can “discover” an ancient site, but the people living in the area already have extensive knowledge about their region’s history. Source: The Lost … Continue reading "The Lost City That’s Not Lost, Not a City, and Doesn’t Need to Be Discovered"

    Brice C. Jones

    New Book on Christian Amulets

    I am excited to announce a forthcoming book on Christian amulets: Theodore de Bruyn, Making Amulets Christian: Artefacts, Scribes, and Contexts (Oxford: OUP, 2017). The book is scheduled for release in late August.  

    As readers of this blog probably know, I have a keen interest in amulets. My first major monograph analyzed New Testament citations in Greek amulets and Prof. Theodore de Bruyn's work is cited many, many times. His scholarship speaks for itself. Prof. de Bruyn was kind enough to read several portions of my doctoral dissertation and to answer many questions along the way. 

    Needless to say, this is a book that has been needed for a long time. Amulets have popped up in early Christian studies here and there, but they have largely been ignored, in my opinion. There are so many interesting questions related to the production of amulets, including scribal activities, ritual and social practices, transmission of scripture, Christian symbols, adaptations, "magic," liturgical influences, "syncretism," use by women, etc. I am currently beginning to write an article on the reception of Jesus and Jesus traditions in Christian amulets, an avenue that has not been explored at all. So, I'm very glad to see that amulets are beginning to draw more and more attention by early Christian scholars. I think part of the reason for this is that more and more amulets continue to be identified and published. (I am working together with a colleague on a very interesting papyrus amulet that should be published within a year so stay tuned!) A broad historical study of Christian amulets has been needed, and now that need has been met with the publication of this monograph. 

    Note: The papyrus on the cover is P.Oslo 1.5, a fourth/fifth century Greek amulet against scorpions, snakes, demons, witchcraft, and every kind of evil in a house, with "magical" and Christian characters. I briefly describe it on p. 31 of my book. 

    [The following is taken from Oxford University Press' website]

    Making Amulets Christian: Artefacts, Scribes, and Contexts examines Greek amulets with Christian elements from late antique Egypt in order to discern the processes whereby a customary practice--the writing of incantations on amulets--changed in an increasingly Christian context. It considers how the formulation of incantations and amulets changed as the Christian church became the prevailing religious institution in Egypt in the last centuries of the Roman empire. Theodore de Bruyn investigates what we can learn from incantations and amulets containing Christian elements about the cultural and social location of the people who wrote them. He shows how incantations and amulets were indebted to rituals or ritualizing behavior of Christians.

    This study analyzes different types of amulets and the ways in which they incorporate Christian elements. By comparing the formulation and writing of individual amulets that are similar to one another, one can observe differences in the culture of the scribes of these materials. It argues for 'conditioned individuality' in the production of amulets. On the one hand, amulets manifest qualities that reflect the training and culture of the individual writer. On the other hand, amulets reveal that individual writers were shaped, whether consciously or inadvertently, by the resources they drew upon-by what is called 'tradition' in the field of religious studies.

    List of Abbreviations
    A Note on References
    1. Normative Christian Discourse
    2. Materials, Format, and Writing
    3. Manuals of Procedures and Incantations
    4. Scribal Features of Customary Amulets
    5. Scribal Features of Scriptural Amulets
    6. Christian Ritual Contexts

    Archaeology Magazine

    1,100-Year-Old Inscription Found in India

    India Arunachaleswarar inscriptionTAMIL NADU, INDIA—The Times of India reports that a 1,125-year-old inscription has been discovered on the floor of the Arunachaleswarar Temple, one of the largest temple complexes in India. This inscription is thought to be just a few years younger than one discovered in the nineteenth century. “The inscription strengthens the theory that the temple was renovated a few centuries ago,” said Raj Panneerselvam of the Tiruvannamalai Heritage Foundation. This is because inscriptions are usually found on the walls of the temple, placed in chronological order. “The inscription was dismantled and discarded due to poor renovation work,” he explained. The seven-line inscription mentions “Tiruvanna Naattu,” the name of the city at the time, and states that 20 gold coins had been given for the maintenance of a water body. The name of the donor has been lost. For more, go to “Letter from India: Living Heritage at Risk.”

    Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

    Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: April 20

    Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. Don't forget about the Latin LOLCat Randomizer, and there's also a LatinLOLCat Board at Pinterest.

    HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem duodecimum Kalendas Maias.

    MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows The Sabine Women Making Peace, and there are more images here.


    3-WORD MOTTOES: Today's 3-word motto is Meo contentus sum (English: I am content with what I have).

    3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word proverb is Litteris absentes videmus (English: We see people who are absent through letters).

    RHYMING PROVERBS: Today's proverb with rhyme is: Pomum compunctum cito corrumpit sibi iunctum (English: A bruised fruit quickly spoils the fruit next to it).

    VULGATE VERSES: Today's verse is Aquae furtivae dulciores sunt, et panis absconditus suavior (Proverbs 9:17). For a translation, check out the polyglot Bible, in English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek, at the Sacred Texts Archive online.

    BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Iustum Petito. Click here for a full-sized view.

    And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:

    Ito bonis avibus.
    Go with good omens.

    O fallax rerum copia!
    O the deceitful abundance of things!


    FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Iuppiter et Apollo , a fable about the Olympian gods (this fable has a vocabulary list).

    MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Ursae Catuli et Leaena, a fable about bear cubs being "licked into shape."

    Freebookapalooza: Classics. Here is today's free book online: Old Greek Nature Stories by F. A. Farrar.

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    Even With the Khmer Rouge Gone, Cambodian Antiquities Are Still Looted

    The Observer, 12 April 2017: “I went into it because I thought I might be able to afford to buy what I thought was a copy of a Cambodian statue in the window. Then the man named a price which was absolutely incredible. I said, ‘Do you mean that this piece is authentic?’ He said, … Continue reading "Even With the Khmer Rouge Gone, Cambodian Antiquities Are Still Looted"

    Archaeology Magazine

    16th-Century English Garrison Walls Traced in Irish Town

    Ireland Portlaoise garrisonPORTLAOISE, IRELAND—A survey of Portlaoise, the capital of County Laois, has identified English sixteenth-century garrison walls in many of the town’s buildings, according to a report in the Leinster Express. “It’s surprisingly intact,” said Laois Heritage Officer Catherine Casey. “Seventy-five percent of the walls are still there. They form the front of the vocational school, they run down the back of Main Street, as some backyard walls, and some are inside O’Loughlin’s Hotel.” A school sits on top of the original main garrison building. The team of researchers is laser scanning the garrison’s stone walls and taking high-resolution photographs of them in order to create a digital model for the new Portlaoise library. To read about a surprising discovery in Ireland, go to “Irish Roots.”

    Ramesses II Colossus Restored to Luxor Temple

    Luxor Ramses colossusLUXOR, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that a colossal black granite statue of King Ramesses II has been restored and re-erected at Luxor Temple’s first pylon. The statue, damaged in an earthquake in the fourth century A.D., was discovered in 57 pieces in 1958. “These blocks were removed and placed [in the interim period] in wooden shelters on the first pylon’s western side,” said Mostafa Waziri, head of Luxor Antiquities. The restored sculpture stands 36 feet tall, and shows Ramesses II wearing a double crown and standing with his left leg slightly forward. For more, go to “Egypt’s Immigrant Elite.”

    April 20, 2017

    Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

    ICE Sends Roman Coins From Middle East To Italy Because Roman Means Italian?

    While Customs rightly repatriated manuscripts back to Italy in a ceremony today in Boston, as CPO pointed out back in 2015, Roman coins from Middle Eastern mints are an entirely different matter.  Hopefully, someone in the Trump Administration will catch onto this example of ICE overreach. This is yet another situation where the importer appears to have had a viable defense to forfeiture, but the cost of legal services greatly exceeds the value of the subject coins.

    ArcheoNet BE

    Onze tips voor Erfgoeddag

    Nu zondag, op 23 april, vindt de 17de editie van de Erfgoeddag plaats, met dit jaar als centraal thema ‘Zorg’. 500 erfgoedorganisaties in Vlaanderen en Brussel nemen deel, goed voor zowat 800 activiteiten waarbij roerend en/of immaterieel erfgoed centraal staat. Musea, archieven en heemkringen zetten hun deuren open om de bevolking met erfgoed te laten kennismaken. Te veel activiteiten om op te noemen, en daarom zetten we hier enkele aanraders op een rijtje…


    In Grobbendonk krijg je de kans om aan te schuiven aan de werktafels van de archeologen. Aansluitend kan je een bezoek brengen aan de tentoonstelling die het verhaal vertelt van de Romeinse periode in Grobbendonk en omgeving. In Antwerpen zet het Felixatelier zijn deuren open. Je komt er alles te weten over de verwerking van archeologische vondsten uit de stad.


    In Museum De Kolonie in Lommel opent een tentoonstelling over middeleeuwse metaaldetectievondsten, en JCW organiseert er verschillende activiteiten voor jongeren vanaf 6 jaar.


    Archeologen van Erfpunt brengen je in de archeologische depots in Sint-Niklaas de vuistregels bij van het zorgzaam in- en uitpakken van archeologische stukken. Het pam Velzeke maakt zijn archeologisch erfgoed toegankelijk voor mensen met een specifieke zorgbehoefte. Er zijn rondleidingen en een bezoek achter de schermen. In Ename is er onder meer een lezing over de kromstaf, een van de topstukken van pam Ename. Figuren uit het Enaamse verleden vertellen over hun favoriete archeologische vondst, en je kunt de abdij virtueel ontdekken. In Aalter kun je naar een lezing over de opgraving van een unieke baanpost uit de late 2de eeuw n. Chr.


    Het MEDEA-project strijkt op Erfgoeddag neer in Oudenburg. Metaaldetectoristen en andere geïnteresseerden krijgen onder meer een introductielezing over dit project en een rondleiding op de tentoonstelling over metaaldetectievondsten uit de periode 600-1100 in het kustgebied. In Brugge leiden de archeologen van Raakvlak je rond in het depot De Pakhuizen, en ook in Waarmaarde kan je een kijkje nemen achter de schermen van het archeologisch depot onder het Regionaal Archeologisch Museum aan de Schelde. In Raversijde kom je alles te weten over de lopende restauratie van de Duitse batterij uit WO I. In Abdijmuseum Ten Duinen in Koksijde wacht de gemeentearcheoloog je op met het betere graafwerk door de geschiedenis van de site. In Roeselare focust een tentoonstelling op de creatieve herbestemming van historische balken die eind 2013 werden opgegraven.

    Meer info: deze lijst is uiteraard slechts een (subjectieve) selectie uit de honderden activiteiten tijdens de Erfgoeddag op 23 april. Veel meer activiteiten en alle praktische informatie vind je op

    Calenda: Histoire grecque

    Artémidore et l'interprétation des rêves

    Le seul traité antique d’onirocritique préservé dans sa totalité est celui d’Artémidore de Daldis, auteur grec de la fin du IIe siècle de notre ère. Depuis septembre 2007, le groupe Artémidore en a entrepris une nouvelle édition et traduction annotée. En mars 2009, il a organisé une première journée d’études autour de cette oeuvre et de l’interprétation des rêves en général. Celle-ci sera la septième.

    AIA Fieldnotes

    Archaeology site tour

    Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
    Sponsored by Oneida Community Mansion House
    Event Type (you may select more than one): 
    Start Date: 
    Saturday, October 21, 2017 - 12:00pm

    Tour the standing structures and landscape of the 19th century utopian Oneida Community, starting from the Oneida Community Mansion House, Oneida NY. This walking tour with OCMH archaeologists and historians will explore the site of the original Burt homestead; the OC mill site; remnants of the Midland & Oswego railroad; the first 'children's house' and the site of the 1848 Mansion House. 


    Molly Jessup PhD
    Call for Papers: 

    Ancient Coins and Gandhara

    Event Type (you may select more than one): 
    Start Date: 
    Friday, June 2, 2017

    "Dr Shailendra Bhandare will be conducting a special workshop for Gandhara Connections in the Ashmolean Museum, 2-3.30 pm on Friday 2nd June, 2017: 'Ancient Coins and Gandhara'. The workshop is intended to offer a hands-on introduction to Kushan coinage and other coin traditions important for understanding the art and history of Gandhara.  All are welcome, but for practical reasons places are very limited, so please book a place by emailing us:


    Call for Papers: 
    Right Header: 
    Right Content: 

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Expedition

    [First posted in AWOL 29 September 2009. Updated 20 April 2017 (Expeditions is no longer accessible from the University of Pennsylvania Museum website. All links are now to the Internet Archive)]

    ISSN: 0014-4738
    The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology publishes Expedition (ISSN 0014-4738), a full-color peer-reviewed magazine that offers direct access to the latest findings of archaeologists and anthropologists around the world—many of them the Museum’s own scholars. Issues also focus on special themes such as recent excavations in Italy or Greece, and may include articles by curators of upcoming Penn Museum exhibitions. In this section you can find the current issue of Expedition magazine, or browse through the entire run of back issues.
    Expedition magazine is the official members' magazine of the Penn Museum. Members of the Museum receive three issues of Expedition per year mailed directly to their homes. Join the Penn Museum as a member today to enjoy Expedition magazine plus a host of additional exciting and exclusive benefits.

    New from California Classical Studies: Joey Williams: The Archaeology of Roman Surveillance in the Central Alentejo, Portugal, 2017

    New from California Classical Studies

    Abstract: During the first century B.C.E. a complex system of surveillance towers was established during Rome’s colonization of the central Alentejo region of Portugal. These towers provided visual control over the landscape, routes through it, and hidden or isolated places as part of the Roman colonization of the region. As part of an archaeological analysis of the changing landscape of Alentejo, Joey Williams offers here a theory of surveillance in Roman colonial encounters drawn from a catalog of watchtowers in the Alentejo, the artifacts and architecture from the tower known as Caladinho, and the geographic information systems analysis of each tower’s vision. Through the consideration of these and other pieces of evidence, Williams places surveillance at the center of the colonial negotiation over territory, resources, and power in the westernmost province of the Roman Empire.

    Publication Date:
    February 16, 2017
    California Classical Studies
    archaeology, surveillance, watchtower, Portugal, Roman archaeology, Roman Portugal, Portuguese archaeology, landscape archaeology, colonization, geographic information systems, viewshed, viewshed analysis, Alentejo
    Data Availability Statement:
    The data associated with this publication are in the supplemental files.

    ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

    GitHub for Academic Research

    There was an article on Slate this morning that made the argument:

    We need a GitHub for academic research.

    It is an interesting idea. GitHub is a repository site for software projects and their source code (see Wikipedia: GitHub). At this point, we are now going on a solid three decades of the internet. Academic listservs are more or less gone (granted, Linguistlist is still going strong, albeit in a less e-mail-oriented form. The golden age of academic blogging is mostly over. Many of us are still writing, of course. But our readers do not really socialize and interact here anymore. They’ve moved elsewhere. When I publish a post, discussion rarely appears in the comments section these days. That happens on Facebook or on Twitter now, which is fine. Some of the best academic discussion, today, now happens on’s sessions feature, where papers can be discussed in real time, usually in draft form and invitation only—you can

    But none of these are what GitHub is. GitHub is a repository for code, not academic argument or discussion. GitHub is for data, not for prose.

    The thrust of the argument is this:

    The academic paper has some inherent limitations—chief among them that it can provide only a summary of a given research project. Even an outstanding paper cannot provide direct access to all of the research data collected or to the record of discussions among scientists that is reflected in lab notes. These windows into the messy and halting process of science, which can be extremely valuable learning objects, are not yet part of the official record of a research study.

    But it doesn’t have to be this way. If we take advantage of the unique capabilities of the web to tell the full story of a research project—rather than merely using it as a faster printing press as we do today—we can build greater transparency into our approach to reporting science. Besides improving information-sharing among scientists, a push toward transparency could improve public trust in science and scientists. Now, when the very concepts of fact and truth under assault and many scientists feel compelled to march in response, is the perfect time to rethink our approach to scientific communication altogether.

    A striking proposal indeed.

    Now the author here, Marcus Banks, is talking about science, specifically. Most readers here likely view themselves as being more within humanities. But linguistics, even (or perhaps especially?) linguistics for an ancient language like Greek, is a data-driven discipline. Our theses and dissertations tend to be of one of two types. They are either a summary of research with an argument for a view that provides a snapshot of the data. Con Campbell’s (2007) Verbal Aspect in the Indicative Mood and Narrative is an example of this. Or they simply are data in its entirety with commentary. Douglas Huffman’s (2014) Verbal Aspect Theory and the Prohibitions in the Greek New Testament.

    The data and its analysis is at least as important as the argument.

    I choose these two particularly as examples for a reason. Both represents some form of the tenseless view of Greek that I find highly unconvincing. So which is more useful for me, as a researcher? Which one would I be more likely recommend to others, despite my disagreement? Is it the one that merely provides a snapshot of the data or the one that provides a comprehensive database of his analysis (albeit in print form)? Quite obviously, it is the latter.

    Huffman’s monograph is of far greater value to me.[1] I can disagreement him on any number of points: his view of the status of tense in Greek, his interpretation of individual instances of prohibitions, or his categories for analyzing prohibitions. But despite that, I can always come back to the volume to see what his opinion is on whatever prohibition I’m looking at. You cannot do that with the other approach, the summary approach. Books that simply make an argument based on a summary/snapshot of the data tend to get read once. I read book of this type and I either agree with it or disagree with it. If I disagree with the argument or conclusion, then the book has little use to me afterward. We are doing language work. The data and its analysis is at least as important as the argument.

    But Huffman’s data is still merely a print source. It is not searchable, it can’t be manipulated to be visualized in different ways. It exists merely as a list. This has historically be the challenge for biblical studies. The print concordance is the original database for our work.

    We need to be digitizing our research, especially if it’s already published somewhere. Some of us already are. A few of my research projects are published with Logos Bible software, such as my semantic role/argument structure analysis of New Testament verbs. But I need to be better at this, too, especially for my non-commissioned/contracted  (i.e. personal) projects. Creating consistently annotated data is time consuming. Often it is easier in the moment to do the analysis token by token in my head without actually writing it down. When you are looking at 10,000 instances of something, the extra 20 second it takes to type the analysis adds a lot of time to project that probably already feel like they are moving too slowly.

    Documentation is just as important as the final project. Long term, It is probably more important.

    The annotated database of Greek perfects for my thesis is sadly probably only 2/3’s filled in, even though I checked everything. And now the thought of going back now feels worse.

    I should probably be putting my personal projects upon GitHub, though (until there’s an academic alternative). Even in partially completed form, documentation is just as important as the final project. Long term, It is probably more important. If I want to take my grammar project seriously, it needs to be more than just prose. It needs to be data, too. And that data needs to be accessible. Otherwise, it’s useless.

    [1] I should emphasize at this point that I still value Campbell’s work. Even with my disagreements, he has made some excellent contributions also. It is simply that on the practical level of usefulness, having the complete and fully annotated data creates value in a way that summary and prose to do not. In fact, in the reverse, data without a prose summary would be nearly as useless.

    Works cite:

    Campbell, Constantine. 2007. Verbal Aspect in the Indicative Mood and Narrative. New York: Peter Lang.

    Huffman, Douglas. 2014. Verbal Aspect Theory and the Prohibitions in the Greek New Testament. New York: Peter Lang

    Filed under: Greek

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    The Cleveland Drusus Debacle

    The Cleveland Museum of Art admits that it has bought another object which turns out to have been stolen (Steve Litt, 'Cleveland Museum of Art returns ancient Roman portrait of Drusus after learning it was stolen from Italy in WWII (photos)' The Plain Dealer April 18, 2017). This one, the head of Drusus broken off from a larger marble statue, was bought from the New York based Phoenix Ancient Art (Ali and Hicham Aboutaam), The museum and Italian police have discovered that the piece, bought by the museum in good faith for an undisclosed sum in 2012, was stolen in 1944 from a provincial museum in Sessa Aurunca near Naples. The museum has agreed to return the work to Italy. When it bought the piece from Phoenix Ancient Art,
    the museum believed it had clear title, and that the work had been in an Algerian collection as far back as the late 19th century. The museum and its Italian counterparts now believe that Italian archaeologists excavated the Drusus head in 1925 or 1926 in Sessa Aurunca, in the Caserta Province of Campania, Italy, about an hour's drive north of Naples. The archaeologists had the Drusus photographed at the time, along with other discoveries including a marble portrait head of the Roman Emperor Tiberius, father of Drusus Minor.
    The marble heads were all placed in the archaeological museum at Sessa Aurunca, where they remained until they were removed in 1944. It seems that the Drusus and Tiberius heads were stolen and sold off by French occupation troops in 1944 while they were billeted at the museum in Sessa Aurunca, or the works might have fallen into the hands of North African troops active in the area at the time, perhaps explaining the later appearance of the Drusus in Algeria as claimed in the collecting history supplied to the museum at the time of the sale.
    The museum believed at the time that the portrait had been the property of the Bacri family (later known as the Sintes family) of Algiers, Algeria, as far back as the late 19th century. The museum said in 2012 that Fernand Sintes and his wife, then of Marseilles, France, inherited the work while living in Algiers. They subsequently moved it with them to Marseilles in 1960. Fernand Sintes subsequently sold the Drusus at an auction at the Hotel Drouot in Paris in 2004 to an unnamed buyer. A day later, Parisian art dealer Jean-Philippe Mariaud de Serres, who advised Sintes on the auction, provided a "certificate of origin" for the work that included the Bacri-Sintes history. That document and independent research carried out by the museum later buttressed its faith in its 2012 purchase. [...] because Algeria was a French possession in 1960, no export documentation was required for the Drusus. As a result, no record of the transfer from Algeria to France exists. [....]  The museum also didn't know who owned the work between 2004 and 2012.
    In light of some concerns that were being raised about the object, the Cleveland museum posted a description of the Drusus on the "Object Registry" of the Association of Art Museum Directors, a global online clearinghouse for objects whose provenance is not entirely known (this page has now mysteriously disappeared).

    Once again, we see the consequences for a person's health of getting involved in supplying collecting histories for objects sold by Phoenix, Informants quite often tend to die before the object comes to sale or shortly after. This is rather inconvenient if one might want to ask further questions of them. Anyway, due diligence must be seen to have been done:
    According to the AAMD write-up, the Cleveland museum contacted Fernand Sintes who reconfirmed everything stated in the 2004 certificate of origin authored by de Serres. 
    But there were uncomfortable questions to be answered:
    Articles published in Italian archaeological magazines in 2011 and 2013 by scholars Giuseppe Scarpati and Sergio Cascella, respectively, reproduced the previously unpublished 1926 photographs taken when the Drusus and Tiberius heads were first unearthed. Those articles suggested that both pieces had been stolen from the local museum in 1944. A third article by Scarpati in 2014, in the Bolletino D'Arte, or Art Bulletin, mentioned the Cleveland museum's purchase of the work, and urged that it be returned to Italy. [....] The museum's purchase of the Drusus portrait in 2012 earned instant criticism from experts including archaeology Professor David Gill at the University of Suffolk in Ipswich, England. He and others complained of gaps in the provenance, or ownership history, of the object.
    Note that one of the articles was already published before the 2012 sale. Why did the Museum not spot it?  It was only last year that the Cleveland museum contacted Italy's Ministry of Fine Arts in late 2016 and proposed collaborating on further research on the Drusus sculpture that also involved the Carabinieri. It was established that the Drusus head was the same as the one shown in the 1926 photograph, which means it had been removed from the museum at Sessa Aurunca.
    William Griswold, the museum's director said that the museum isn't pointing fingers at Fernand Sintes or at Phoenix Ancient Art. "There's a gap [in the Drusus provenance] from 1944 until the 1960s, when the object was in France," Griswold said. "We have every reason to believe it was in Algeria through the '50s, but that's not fully documented." Griswold declined to comment on whether the museum would be reimbursed by Phoenix. 
    It should be noted that the same Italian author (Scarpatti) has  spotted what looks very much like the missing Tiberius head at another gallery, and also sold in 2004 with a '1960s Algerian collection' provenance backstory'.

    This bust has been discussed by me on this blog three times previously. In my first post (busy with other things as I recall), I took the published collecting history at face value [Monday, 13 August 2012, 'Cleveland Museum of Art buys Roman Bust', but on reading what colleagues were writing decided to take a closer look: Monday, 13 August 2012 'Cleveland Bust: "That World" Already asking Questions, Museum on the Defensive'. David Gill was looking into this object as was the cultural property lawyer Rick St Hilaire ("Unable to Obtain Documentary Confirmation" - Due Diligence and Questions Posed by the Collecting History of The Cleveland Museum of Art's Drusus Minor Head CHL Wednesday, August 15, 2012).  My third text referred to this and discussed that collecting history: Thursday, 16 August 2012, '"That World" Getting Closer, That "Due Diligence" Looking Still More Skimpy'.

    **A 1926 photo taken after the excavation in Sessa Aurunca, Italy, documenting the discovery of the head of Drusus, lower right, (Ministero dei Beni e Delle Attivita Culturali del Turismo)

    Centre for the Study of Christian Origins

    Jesus: A Very Brief History (Book Notice)

    What do you put into a short book on the life and legacy of Jesus of Nazareth? And, perhaps more importantly, what do you leave out?

    Around 18 months ago I was approached by SPCK publishers to write Jesus: A Very Brief History. My book would be one of the first of a new series of short guides to historical subjects (each around 20,000 words). Other books were signed up at the same time, including one on Thomas Moore (by John Guy), Julian of Norwich (by Janina Ramirez), and St Paul (by John Barclay).

    Writing the first part – What do we know about Jesus? – was easy enough, though the lack of space meant that I constantly felt I was skating over important points. And the lack of footnotes meant that I couldn’t engage in discussion with others as much as I’d have liked. Rather than start with ‘sources,’ I decided to start with the more controversial question of whether Jesus existed. Scholars tend to be rather sniffy about this very basic question, and to assume to mythicist views are only held by a handful of internet conspiracy theorists. But recent polls have suggested that many people have their doubts about the existence of Jesus (up to 40% of young people, according to one poll), so it seemed good to start here. And a discussion of our earliest evidence – Josephus, Tacitus, St Paul – provides a good way in to the first century context that’s so crucial for understanding Jesus and his message.

    Writing the second part – Jesus’ legacy – was much more difficult. I wanted it to focus on Jesus and how he has been understood by different times and cultures rather than simply to give a history of the Church. I decided to put the resurrection into this half, as the seismic event which created Jesus’ enduring legacy and which differentiated Jesus from other contemporary figures such as John the Baptist. This naturally led on to a consideration of the earliest Christian documents and how they imagined the figure at the centre of their faith, the formation of the NT, and the factors at play in the various creeds. I included a section on Jesus in art: the gospels of course say nothing about what Jesus looked like, but followers quite quickly began to present images of him at Dura Europos, on sarcophagi and in the catacombs. It was also interesting to plot the emergence of the crucifixion scene as it became the dominant representation of Jesus. Mediaeval times presented many rich resources for Jesus-devotion in the form of passion plays and holy relics – not only the Turin shroud, but articles associated with the crucifixion (the cross, crown of thorns, and holy spear), and most bizarrely of all the foreskin of Jesus (around 18 seem to have been in existence at one point!).

    The more you think about it, the more it becomes almost impossible to avoid the legacy of Jesus, at least in the western world. Hymns, stories, basic plot devices (even in secular culture) all reflect the Christian story, and of course time itself has been divided in two (BC/AD) by the life of Jesus. My final chapter considered not only the Christian church and ‘cultural Christianity’ but also the figure of Jesus as he is seen by other faiths, specifically Jews and Muslims. Whatever we make of the historical figure of Jesus, it’s clear that without him modern life would be very different.


    Purchase: Jesus: A Very Brief History


    Written by Helen Bond

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    The date of Hero of Alexandria, and another translation of some extracts of the “Mechanics”

    When did Hero of Alexandria live?  The truth is that we know little other than what can be inferred from his works.

    Karin Tybjerg[1] tells us that Hero quotes Archimedes, who lived ca. 287-211 or 212 BC, and is quoted by Pappus who flourished around 320 AD.  But it seems that in his Dioptra Hero refers to a lunar eclipse visible at Alexandria and Rome.  The only one that fits these criteria happened in 62 AD, around the time that St. Paul was released from house arrest in Rome, and also around the time that Mark’s gospel was being written.  Ptolemy (fl. ca. 127-158 AD) does not make use of Hero, which is perhaps an upper limit.

    It has been speculated that a new model of water-organ, demonstrated to Nero in 68 AD, was probably Hero’s invention; which means that he might even have been in Rome at the same time as the apostles.  At his lavish new palace, the Domus Aurea, a new and ingenious technology entertains an emperor and his court.  Meanwhile, across the city the apostle Peter is addressing a humble congregation.  It is a reminder that the most important events of an era are not always the most heralded.

    Hero’s Mechanics is about how to lift heavy weights.  The first two books go through a number of principles for doing so with limited power, while the third book describes designs for weights and presses.

    I’ve come across another handbook which contains an English translation of some extracts.  This is G. Irby-Massie & P.T. Keyser, Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era : A Sourcebook, 2002, starting on p.168.  They are taken from Drachmann’s handbook which I have yet to see.[2]  Here they are:

    6.11. Heron of Alexandria

    Mechanics 1.20–21: weights; 2.1.1: simple machines; 2.3: the pulley; 3.2.1–2: the crane

    There are many who think that weights lying on the ground are only moved by an equal force [contrast Aristotle, Physics 7.5 (250a11–19)], wherein they hold wrong opinions. So let us prove that weights placed in the way described are moved by an arbitrarily small force, and let us make clear the reason why this is not evident in fact. Let us imagine a weight lying on the ground, and let it be regular, smooth and with its parts coherent with each other. And let the surface on which the weight lies be flat, smooth and completely joined, and able to be inclined to both sides, i.e., to the right and the left. And let it be inclined first towards the right. It is then evident to us that the given weight must incline towards the right side, because the nature of weights is to move downwards, if nothing holds them and hinders them from movement; and again if the inclined side is lifted to a horizontal position and will be level [i.e., in equilibrium], the weight will come to rest in this position. And if it is inclined to the other side, i.e., to the left side, the weight will again sink towards the inclined side, even if the inclination is very small, and so the weight will need no force to move it, but will need a force to hold it so that it does not move. And if the weight again becomes level without inclination to either side, then it will stay there without a force holding it, and it will not cease being at rest until the surface inclines to one side or another, and then it will incline towards that side. Thus the weight that is ready to incline to whichever side, does it not require only a small force to move it, namely as much force as causes the inclination? And so isn’t the weight moved by any small force?

    21.  Now, water on a surface that is not inclined will not flow, but remains without inclining to either side. But if the slightest inclination occurs, then all of it will flow towards that side, till not the smallest part of the water remains thereon, unless there are hollows in the surface, and small amounts stay in the bottom of the hollows, as happens often in vessels. Now water inclines like this because its parts lack cohesion and are very soluble.
    As for the bodies that are coherent, since by their nature they are not smooth on their surfaces and not easily made smooth, it happens through the roughness of the bodies that they strengthen each other, and it happens that they lean upon each other like teeth, and they are strengthened thus, for if the teeth are numerous and closely joined, they require a strong and coherent force [to separate them]. And so from experiment people gained understanding: under tortoises [war machines: see Athenaios above, Section 6.9] they placed pieces of wood whose surfaces were cylindrical and so did not touch more than a small part of the surface, and so only very little rubbing occurred. And they use poles to move the weight on them easily, even though the weight is increased by the weight of the tools. And some people put on the ground cut boards (because of their smoothness) and smear them with grease, because thus their surface roughness is made smooth, and so they move the weight with smaller force. As for the cylinders, if they are heavy and lie on the ground, so that the ground does not touch more than one line of them, then they are moved easily, and so also balls; and we have already talked about that [1.2–7].

    2.1.1 [simple machines (surviving in Greek)]

    Since the powers by which a given weight is moved by a given force are five, it is necessary to present their form and their use and their names, because these powers are all derived from one natural principle, though they are very different in form. Their names are as follows: the axle-in-wheel [windlass], the lever [mochlos], the pulley [trochilos], the wedge [sphên], and what is called the “endless” screw [kochlia].

    [construction of the axle-in-wheel]

    [2.2 the lever]

    2.3 [pulley (surviving in Greek)]

    The third power [pulley] is also called the ‘‘multi-lifter” [poluspaston].

    Whenever we want to move some weight, if we tie a rope to this weight we pull with as much force as is equal to the burden. But if we untie the rope from the weight, and tie one of its ends to a stationary point and pass its other end over a pulley fastened to the burden and draw on the rope, we will more easily move the weight. And again if we fasten on the stationary point another pulley and run the end of the rope through that and pull it, we will still more easily move the weight. And again if we fasten on this weight another pulley and run the end of the cord over it, we will much more easily move the weight. And in this way, each time we add pulleys to the stationary point and to the burden, and run one end of the rope through the pulleys in turn, we will more easily move the weight. And every time the number of pulleys through which the rope runs is increased, it will be easier to lift that weight. The more “limbs” [kôla] the rope is bent into, the easier the weight will be moved.

    And one end of the rope must be securely tied to the stationary point, and the rope must go from there to the weight (Figure 6.8). As for the pulleys that are on the stationary point they must be fastened to one piece of wood, turning on an axle, and this axle is called manganon; and it is tied to the stationary point with another rope. And as for the pulleys that are fastened to the burden, they are on another manganon like the first, tied to the burden. The pulleys should be so arranged on the axles that the “limbs” do not get entangled and unwieldy. And why the ease of lifting follows from the number of “limbs,” and why the end of the rope is tied to the stationary point, we shall explain in the following.

    3.2.1–2 [the crane (surviving in Greek): compare Vitruvius 10.2.8]

    1. For the lifting of burdens upwards there are certain machines: some have one mast, and some have two masts, and some have three, and some have four masts. As for the one that has a single mast it is made in this way. We take a long piece of wood, longer than the distance to which we want to raise the burden, and even if this pole is strong in itself, we take a rope and coil it round, winding it equally spaced, and draw it tight. The space between the single windings should not be greater than four palms [ca. 30 cm], and the windings of the rope are like steps for the workers and they are useful for anyone wanting to work on the upper section. And if the pole is not elastic, we must estimate the burdens to be lifted, lest the mast be too weak.

    2 This mast is erected upright on a piece of wood, and three or four ropes are  fastened to its top, stretched and tied to fixed points, so that the beam, however it is forced, will not give way (being held by the ropes). Then they attach to its top pulleys tied to the burden. Then they pull on the rope either by hand or with another engine, until the burden is raised [Figure 6.9].

    [3.3–5: two-, three-, and four-mast cranes]


    1. [1]Karin Tybjerg, “Hero of Alexandria’s Mechanical Treatises”, in: Astrid Schurmann (ed), Physik / Mechanik, Stuttgart (2005), 204-226.  Preview here.
    2. [2]Drachmann [1963] 46–47, 50, 53–55, 98–99; Drachmann, A.G. (1963) Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, Copenhagen: Munskgaard.

    Ancient Peoples

    Necklace1470BC-1350BC (circa) (18th Dynasty)EgyptNecklace of...


    1470BC-1350BC (circa) (18th Dynasty)


    Necklace of lizard amulets, pendants and beads: the nineteen hollow gold lizards were formed in a mould with added back plate. The hollow gold drop shaped pendants, possibly meant to be dates, were made in the same way but have a loop soldered at top and bottom so were originally strung between two rows of beads, not as now. The central drop is inlaid with lapis lazuli. The barrel beads are made from cornelian, as is the single poppy seed pod pendant at one end of the string.


    ArcheoNet BE

    Restanten van de oudste constructies op de Burg in Brugge gevonden

    Op de Burg in Brugge zijn in één week tijd sporen aan het licht gekomen van zowel het klooster van Sint-Donaas als van de grafelijke burcht. Bij verbouwingswerken van een neoclassicistisch pand werd door de Brugse dienst voor Monumentenzorg een wand in veldsteen ontdekt. Samen met Raakvlak werd een bovengrondse muur van 3,6 m hoog en ca. 6 lang vrijgelegd. De muur maakte waarschijnlijk deel uit van het kapittelklooster uit de 10de-11de eeuw. Amper een week later deed de dienst een nieuwe vondst: in de kelders van een horecazaak werd een aanzienlijke wand in veldsteen vastgesteld. De muur heeft bovendien een fries in visgraatverband. Wellicht gaat het om een deel van de vroegere grafelijke burcht of het Steen.

    Lees meer op

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    Angkor ticket sales will go online

    TTR Weekly, 12 April 2017 Two Cambodian ministries approved measures, last week, that will allow tourists to pay by credit card and obtain entrance tickets to Angkor Wat online. Agence Kampuchea Presse reported that approval was granted during a Board Meeting of Angkor Enterprise chaired by Aun Porn Moniroth, senior minister and Minister of Economy … Continue reading "Angkor ticket sales will go online"

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Heritage for Peace: Damage Newsletter

    Heritage for Peace: Damage Newsletter
    Heritage for Peace is a non-profit organization whose mission is to support all Syrians in their efforts to protect and safeguard Syria’s cultural heritage during the armed conflict.
    As an international group of heritage workers we believe that cultural heritage, and the protection thereof, can be used as a common ground for dialogue and therefore as a tool to enhance peace. We call on all Syrians of any religion or ethnicity to enter into a dialogue and work together to safeguard their mutual heritage.

      Pompeii - resources and links related to the study of Pompeii...

      [First posted in AWOL 12 November 2012, updates 20 April 2017]

      Perdar W. Foss
        This page collects the following materials, resources and links related to the study of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the other settlements buried by the eruption of Mt Vesuvius in AD 79.
        Here is the link to the translation blog posts for Pliny the Younger’s Vesuvian letters, in ascending order: PLINY TRANSLATION BLOG
        The items below particularly, but not exclusively, relate to The World of Pompeii, a comprehensive handbook edited by John J. Dobbins, Professor of Classical Art and Archaeology in the McIntire Department of Art at the University of Virginia, and director of the Pompeii Forum Project, and Pedar W. Foss, Professor in the Department of Classical Studies at DePauw University.
        1. E-book: A. Mau, Pompeii: its life and art, F.W. Kelsey, trans., London, rev. ed. 1907 (in the public domain)
        2. Marginalia, meant to enhance the utility of The World of Pompeii for teaching, research and reference.
        3. Index/Concordance of individual houses and shops at Pompeii and Herculaneum for The World of Pompeii
        4. A Master Bibliography compiled from all the chapters of The World of Pompeii
        5. A short list of essential links to other online resources on Pompeii
        6. The Table of Contents for The World of Pompeii
        7. Publication information for The World of Pompeii
        8. Reviews of The World of Pompeii
        9. E-version of a Ph.D. dissertation on Pompeii: Pedar W. Foss, Kitchens and dining rooms at Pompeii:  the spatial and social relationship of cooking to eating in the Roman household, University of Michigan, 1994.
        10. Pompeii dissertation excerpt: “Age, gender, and status divisions at mealtime in the Roman house:  a synopsis of the literary evidence” (1995)
        11. The category of ‘Pompeii’-related posts on the blog

        1. MAU and KELSEY’S POMPEII: ITS LIFE AND ART (2nd edn, 1907): e-book
        This book has been the standard handbook on Pompeii for the last century, and was the inspiration for The World of Pompeii. Now out of copyright and in the public domain, we reproduce it here as an additional resource for students and scholars of Pompeii. Individual chapters are provided as PDF files, from a grayscale scan of the original. 
        2. MARGINALIA (supplementary teaching and reference material) for The World of Pompeii
        On this page can be found a series of links to web-pages or references to additional resources that elaborate or illustrate points in the text, organized by chapter and page number. This is a large and detailed page, which we hope provides added value to the book. It is in the process of being updated and expanded.
        A complete list of every house and shop mentioned in The World of Pompeii was too large and unwieldy to include in the printed index. This electronic version also has the advantage of being easily searchable by name or address.
        A compilation of all the sources cited in The World of Pompeii, in one easily-searchable list, with their short titles. Forthcoming.
        This is a short list of links to official, reliable and/or useful sites concerning the ancient cities buried by Vesuvius.
        I. Beginnings
        Ch. 1: An orientation to the cities and countryside P. G. Guzzo
        Ch. 2: History and historical sources J.-P. Descoeudres
        Ch. 3: Rediscovery and resurrection P. W. Foss
        Ch. 4: The environmental and geomorphological context H. Sigurdsson
        Ch. 5: Recent work on early Pompeii P. Carafa
        Ch. 6: The first sanctuaries S. De Caro
        Ch. 7: The urban development of the pre-Roman city H. Geertman
        Ch. 8: Building materials, construction methods, and chronologies J.-P. Adam
        Ch. 8 Appendix: A note on Roman concrete (opus caementicium)
        and other wall construction J. J. Dobbins

        II. The Community
        Ch. 9: Development of Pompeii’s public landscape in the Roman period R. Ling
        Ch. 10: Urban planning, roads, streets and neighborhoods C. W. Westfall
        Ch. 11: The walls and gates C. Chiaramonte Trerè
        Ch. 12: The forum and its dependencies J. J. Dobbins
        Ch. 13: Urban, suburban and rural religion in the Roman period A. M. Small
        Ch. 14: Amphitheatre, palaestra, and entertainment complexes C. Parslow
        Ch. 15: The city baths A. O. Koloski-Ostrow
        Ch. 16: The water system: supply and drainage G. Jansen

        III. Housing
        Ch. 17: Domestic spaces and activities P. M. Allison
        Ch. 18: The development of the Campanian house A. Wallace-Hadrill
        Ch. 19: Instrumentum domesticum – a case study J. Berry
        Ch. 20: Domestic decoration: paintings and the “Four Styles” V. M. Strocka
        Ch. 21: Domestic decoration: mosaics and stucco J. R. Clarke
        Ch. 22: Real and painted (imitation) marble at Pompeii J. C. Fant
        Ch. 23: Houses of Regions I and II S. Ciro Nappo
        Ch. 24: Regions V and IX: early anonymous domestic architecture K. Peterse
        Ch. 25: Intensification, heterogeneity and power in the development of insual VI.1 R. Jones and D. Robinson
        Ch. 26: Rooms with a view: residences built on terraces (Regions VI-VIII) R. A. Tybout
        Ch. 27: Residences in Herculaneum J.-A. Dickmann
        Ch. 28: Villas surrounding Pompeii and Herculaneum E. M. Moormann

        IV. Society and economy
        Ch. 29: Shops and industries F. Pirson
        Ch. 30: Inns and taverns J. DeFelice
        Ch. 31: Gardens W. F. Jashemski
        Ch. 32: The loss of innocence: Pompeian economy and society W. M. Jongman
        Ch. 33: Epigraphy and society J. Franklin
        Ch. 34: Pompeian women F. Bernstein
        Ch. 35: The lives of slaves M. George
        Ch. 36: Pompeian men and women in portrait sculpture K. E. Welch
        Ch. 37: The tombs at Pompeii S. Cormack
        Ch. 38: Victims of the cataclysm E. Lazer
        Ch. 39: Early published sources for Pompeii A. Laidlaw
        Routledge has published the book. It can be ordered at the Routledge website here:
        The book, originally printed on 4 July 2007, had a second hardback printing (still available); a paperback was printed on 26 June 2008, available at Amazon, listed at $49.95 and £28.50:

        The book format is a decent size, at 174mm x 246 mm, about 10″ x 7″. In addition, the book includes a CD insert, and a detailed glossary. It has 662 + xlii pages, 234 illustrations, 4 maps and 3 tables for its 39 chapters.
        The CD contains the full-size, full-color versions of the maps for the book, at various sizes, and in various (non-editable raster) formats (e.g., TIF, JPG, PDF, BMP), based on a CAD plan provided graciously by the Pompeii Soprintendenza, but with many additions and several corrections. The maps are the most complete available, with all street entrances, gates, towers, and most streets labeled. At the level of individual structures, however, the maps are not precise because of errors in the CAD-digitization process (not under our control) from the original RICA (CTP, Corpus Topographicum Pompeianum) paper basemaps. Users should always consult and compare the RICA, Eschebach, PPM (Caratelli and Baldassarre, eds, Pompeii, Pitture e Mosaici) and other published maps for any particular structure. An accompanying ‘ReadMe’ file contains coordinates for georeferencing the large Pompeii plan for those who wish to use it for making a GIS (Geographic Information System). We think the plans will be a major research and teaching tool.
        8. REVIEWS OF THE WORLD OF POMPEII. We thank these authors for their careful reading, their corrections and criticisms, their insightful comments, and their kind words.

          Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

          [Paper] What plants might potentially have been used in the forests of prehistoric Southeast Asia?

          A new paper by Xhauflair et al. examines plant exploitation in Palawan, Philippins today and its potential for understanding plant exploitation in prehistory. Pleistocene and Holocene lithic assemblages found in Southeast Asia are characterised by simple production techniques and a paucity of formal stone tools. This situation led some scholars to hypothesise that this situation … Continue reading "[Paper] What plants might potentially have been used in the forests of prehistoric Southeast Asia?"

          Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

          Rilascio mondiale sugli app store del videogame gratuito Father and Son del museo MANN

          Finalmente scaricabile da Apple Store e Google Play il primo videogioco al mondo prodotto da un museo archeologico, il MANN di Napoli. Dal 19 aprile 2017 basta collegarsi su Apple Store o Google Play e in pochi minuti sarà possibile scaricare Father and Son, il primo videogioco interamente prodotto dal Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli.

          Pedar W. Foss (quem dixere chaos)

          ROMARCH: Call for Papers, The Connected Past 2017: the Future of Past Networks

          Call for papers The Connected Past 2017, August 24-25th 2017, Bournemouth University (UK)
          The Connected Past 2017: The Future of Past Networks?
          August 24-25th 2017 
          Bournemouth University (UK)
          August 22-23rd 2017 Practical Networks Workshop
          The Connected Past 2017 is a multi-disciplinary, international two-day conference that aims to provide a friendly and informal platform for exploring the use of network research in the study of the human past. 
          It will be preceded by a two-day practical workshop offering hands-on experience with a range of network science methods.
          Deadline call for papers: May 21, 2017
          Notification of acceptance: May 29, 2017
          Conference registration (includes coffee breaks and lunch): £35
          Workshop registration (includes coffee breaks): £20
          Keynotes: Eleftheria Paliou and discussant Chris Tilley (tbc)
          Organisers: Fiona Coward, Anna Collar & Tom Brughmans
          Call for Papers
          Five years have passed since the first Connected Past conference (Southampton 2012) brought together scholars working in archaeology, history, physics, mathematics and computer science to discuss how network methods, models and thinking might be used to enhance our understanding of the human past. Much has happened in these intervening years: applications of network analysis have expanded rapidly; a number of collected volumes dealing explicitly with network analysis of the past have been published (e.g. The Connected Past, OUP 2016; Special Issue of the Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2015; Network Analysis in Archaeology, OUP 2013); and several dedicated groups of scholars are thriving, including the Connected Past itself which hosted conferences in Paris and London, but also the Historical Network Research group, Res-Hist and others. The Connected Past 2017 will provide an opportunity to take stock of the developments of the past five years and to discuss the future of network research in archaeology and history. How will new network models, methods and thinking shape the ways we study the past? 
          We welcome submissions of abstracts that address the challenges posed by the use of or apply network approaches in historical/archaeological research contexts, welcoming case studies drawn from all periods and places. Topics might include, but are not limited to: 
                  Missing and incomplete data in archaeological and historical networks
                  Networks, space and place
                  Network change over time
                  What kinds of data can archaeologists and historians use to reconstruct past networks and what kinds of issues ensue?
                  Categories in the past vs categories in our analysis: etic or emic, pre-determined or emergent?
                  Formal network analysis vs qualitative network approaches: pros, cons, potential, limitations
          Please submit your abstract limited to 250 words before midnight (GMT) of May 21st 2017 to  
          NB. If there is sufficient demand, we will endeavour to organise a crêche for delegates’ children (under 3). An extra fee may be payable for this, although fee-waivers may be available in certain circumstances. Further details would be provided in due course. In order to allow us to assess demand, please let us know in advance if this would be useful for you.  

          Posted by: Tom Brughmans <>

          Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

          Convegno H-GIS

          Il 19 maggio 2017 presso il Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere – Università di Pisa – aula CAR1 si svolgerà il convegno HGIS Pratiche e metodi nell'uso dei Sistemi Informativi Territoriali tra gli storici e i geografi. Organizzato da Enrica Salvatori e Massimiliano Grava del LabCD Laboratorio di Cultura Digitale e coordinato da Paolo Macchia e Cristiana Torti.

          AIA Fieldnotes

          The Battle of Baton Rouge

          Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
          Sponsored by Audubon State Historic Site
          Event Type (you may select more than one): 
          Start Date: 
          Friday, October 6, 2017 to Sunday, October 8, 2017

          A Civil War School Day

          Friday October 6th 9AM –Noon

          Preregistered students will learn about the Civil War in the Felicianas. There will be Black powder weapon demonstrations, cannon demonstrations, drilling, life of a soldier, medical and food demonstrations.  Preregistration is required. Open to Home School and Public and Private schools. For more information please contact Audubon State Historic Site in St. Francisville, La. at 1-225-635-3739.


          Fury in the Streets-The Battle of Baton Rouge

          Saturday and Sunday, Oct. 7th and 8th.


          Daniel Wilcox
          Call for Papers: 

          Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

          Angkor sees revenue boost due to price hike

          TTR Weekly, 11 April 2017: Revenue has risen, as expected, but also, the number of visitors has risen as well. Ticket sales revenue earned from foreigners visiting Angkor Wat archaeological park reached USD30.85 million during January to March, this year, up 51.6% compared with the same period last year. Khmer Times quoted figures released by … Continue reading "Angkor sees revenue boost due to price hike"

          Martin Rundkvist (Aardvarchaeology)

          April Pieces Of My Mind #2

          • There is no year zero in the common era. 1 BC is followed by AD 1. This is because Dionysius Exiguus worked around AD 500, long before the Indian concept of mathematical zero reached European scholars via the Arabs.
          • I don’t quite understand why the guy in Springsteen’s “The River” is so super sad. It’s not in the lyrics.
          • I love Turkish fast food and “Here Comes The Rain Again”.
          • Thorn-stabbed left eye acting up again nine months after that brush-clearing session at Skällvik Castle. Right-hand one showing its sympathy by clouding up too, leaving me unable to read or write much. Annoying. But eye specialist is not worried, so nor am I.
          • I want music discovery algorithms to distinguish between songs I dislike and songs I love but don’t want to hear all the time.
          • Movie: Your Name. Anime feature with beautiful scenery, conventional humans and a confused supernatural time-travel body-exchange motif. Grade: OK.
          • Today’s my 18th anniversary of editing Fornvännen.
          • -thwaite in English place names is cognate with Sw. Tveta, originally having to do with the wood chips produced when felling trees to clear land.
          • DNA has identified a bunch of strangers as my 3rd or 4th cousins. I’ve contacted them and started to work with the interested ones to identify our link. In one case we know which Bohuslän hamlet the couple lived in. In another case we know in which two Värmland parishes they lived. Fun puzzle-solving exercise.
          • Reading Becky Chambers’s Hugo Award finalist novel A Closed And Common Orbit with two parallel narratives. One is about a whiny adolescent android who does nothing much, and it does not interest me. The other is about a 10-y-o Robinson Crusoe scavenging in a huge tech dump. That keeps me reading.
          • It’s kind of hard to play games with secret traitors when Cousin E is involved. He thinks it’s super fun to be allowed to betray the team, so he does it as fast as he can regardless of whether he’s a traitor or not, all while giggling hysterically. This tends to make life easy for the actual traitors.
          • Xlnt weird, dark, druggy song: Timber Timbre’s “Black Water”. Turn up the bass!
          • ResearchGate and LinkedIn do a spectacularly bad job of identifying academic jobs I’m qualified for.
          • Movie: Topsy Turvy. Gilbert & Sullivan and the original production of The Mikado. Grade: Great!
          • Danish encouragement: “Men du er jo selvskrevet til jobbet!! SØG DET, DU VIL VÆRE ET KÆMPE FJOLS HVIS IKKE DU GØR DET!!” Honestly, who wants to be a kæmpe fjols?
          • Saturn’s ocean moon Enceladus has recently been discovered to have environments that would be habitable to Earth’s methanogenic bacteria. If it turns out that there is not in fact indigenous life there, then I think we should seed the place!
          • Dear UK: get a permanent citizen registry and scrap the notion of “registering to vote”. In Sweden I just bring my ID to the polling station.
          • The concepts of “man cold” and “man flu” suggest a traditional masculinity where men shouldn’t show weakness. Very 1950s.
          • Woo-hoo! I lost my cherry on this day in 1987! 30 years a lover!
          • Advice for you ladies: take nerds to bed. As someone so wisely put it — nerds read up, and unlike the jocks they always do their best since they can barely believe that they’re actually getting laid. Nerds like to figure out how stuff works and optimise.
          • Frustrating. In live debates, people often show signs of not listening to what I say, but to their expectations about what someone with my demeanour would say. It’s not that I make long speeches or use unfamiliar words or aggressive ones. I always make an effort to speak briefly, simply, to the point. But time and time again I realise that people I agree with believe that I don’t. I have a vague perception that they may see me as too bossy and confident to really be on their side.
          • The buzz word “digitisation” is used commonly and extremely vaguely in Swedish politics. It seems to mean “Internet and automatisation and scifi stuff”. It is at the same time something good and modern, and something scary that deletes jobs. It is at the same time inevitable and something that deserves political support to happen.

          Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

          Il contributo dell'archeometria per lo studio della Deposizione di Isnello

          Nell'ambito dell'evento “La Deposizione di Isnello: un dipinto del Seicento siciliano?” che si svolgerà nei giorni 26 e 27 aprile, saranno presentati i risultati delle indagini scientifiche eseguite su un’opera pittorica conservata nella cappella Coccia della Chiesa di San Nicolò di Bari di Isnello (Palermo).

          Archaeological News on Tumblr

          Centuries Old Pemmican-Making Camp Uncovered in Montana

          In a landscape known for its history of prodigious bison hunting, researchers have uncovered traces...

          Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

          Corso GIS Open Source Avanzato (QGIS) - TerreLogiche

          "GIS Open Source Avanzato (QGIS)" di TerreLogiche è un corso di formazione di 18 ore con approccio essenzialmente pratico all'utilizzo dei Sistemi Informativi Geografici.

          The Archaeology News Network

          Genetic evidence suggests early mammals were nocturnal

          Our earliest mammalian ancestors likely skulked through the dark, using their powerful night-time vision to find food and avoid reptilian predators that hunted by day. This conclusion, published by Stanford researchers in Scientific Reports, used genetic data to support existing fossil evidence suggesting that our distant relatives may have adapted to life in the dark. Many modern mammals, like this wood rat, are nocturnal, thanks to...

          [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

          Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

          Bando Smart Basilicata - 53 borse di studio per laureati

          Sono complessivamente 53 le borse di studio a disposizione di laureati, disoccupati, inoccupati o in attesa di prima occupazione, nell'ambito del Progetto di Formazione “Smart Basilicata”, organizzato dall'Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Consorzio Tern, Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi Ambientale (Imaa) del Cnr ed Enea.

          American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

          The Archaic Athenian Coin Project: Historical Implications

          May 15, 2017 - 1:49 PM - LECTURE Dr. Gil Davis (Director- Program for Ancient Mediterranean Studies Macquarie University)

          Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

          Book Day: Haunted by Waters

          Please do join me in congratulating David Haeselin and his students in the Writing, Editing, and Publishing program at the University of North Dakota for their first collaboration with The Digital Press: Haunted By Waters: The Future of Memory and the Red River Flood of 1997.

          The book is now available for FREE download from The Digital Press’s page. Originally we had decided to release a teaser for the book during “flood week,” but for some crazy reason, David Haeselin and I decided to accelerate production to get the digital version of the book out this week. So it is READY.

          The project is a great example of a kind of local, civic-minded, public, digital humanities project. The students, who had no memories of the flood, explored the archives, the earlier literature on the flood, and constructed a book that spoke to the social memories of the flood that they encountered through their time at UND and in Grand Forks. So the book is both a reflection of their experiences and a contribution to the mediated memory of the flood.

          Download it today! 

          HbW Caraher CoverPostcard 01

          Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

          Unesco Status Sought for Kampot, Kratie and Battambang

          Cambodia Daily, 7 April 2017 A bid to gain Unesco heritage status for three Cambodian cities is set to progress as the government prepares to make a formal request for Battambang City, Kratie City and Kampot City in June to be considered for preservation. Work on plans to win recognition for the cities—“rich in ancient … Continue reading "Unesco Status Sought for Kampot, Kratie and Battambang"

          James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

          Targum Jonathan and Mythicism

          I have explained before on numerous occasions the problems which the proclamation of Jesus as a crucified messiah present for mythicism.  Let me try to restate the point again briefly, as I sought to do in a comment on another post: The claim of Christians is that Jesus was the anointed one descended from David. [Read More...]

          Jim Davila (

          Renovation of Caesarea Harbor

          <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

          Hurtado on "the form of God" in Philo and Paul

          <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

          ISIS attack near Saint Catherine's Monastery?

          <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

          Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

          Free viewing from Bagan Nan Myint tower

          Myanmar Times, 10 April 2017 Until June 21, visitors in Bagan can view the heritage pagodas and surrounding scenery for free from the third floor of the Bagan Nan Myint viewing tower. Source: Free viewing from Bagan Nan Myint tower

          Jim Davila (

          Economic unreality in a parable of Jesus

          <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

          Compitum - publications

          F. Garambois et D. Vallat (éd.), Varium et Mutabile. ...


          F. Garambois et D. Vallat (éd.), Varium et Mutabile. Mémoires et métamorphoses du centon dans l'Antiquité, Saint-Etienne, 2017.

          Éditeur : Publications de l'université de Saint-Etienne
          Collection : Mémoires Jean Palerne
          216 pages
          ISBN : 9782862726908
          22 €

          À l'origine le centon est un morceau de tissu grossier cousu de pans d'étoffes différentes et de couleurs variées. Par assimilation, il désigne une pièce généralement en vers et s'affirme donc comme une forme littéraire dont l'existence même est fondée sur la notion d'intertextualité. Mais si le centon est fait de morceaux d'un modèle, il a un sens et une portée tout à fait différents de ceux de l'original.
          Dans le sillage du renouveau des études sur ce genre littéraire si particulier, le présent ouvrage se présente comme un itinéraire et une redécouverte de cette production. Il questionne le problème de l'intertextualité et s'attache à situer le centon dans le cadre culturel de l'Antiquité et à analyser les conditions littéraires prédisposant à l'émergence du genre, ainsi que les points de convergence avec les centons « modernes », dont la vivacité ne s'est jamais réellement démentie.

          Lire la suite...

          Jim Davila (

          Digital biblical studies

          <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

          Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

          [Talk] Seeing Through the Forest: Lost Cities, Remote Sensing and LiDAR Applications in Archaeology

          If anyone is in Singapore tomorrow, catch Dr Kyle Latinis’ talk at ISEAS LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is one of the newest remote sensing technologies to be used for archaeology and related sciences. Results are revolutionizing the field, especially among researchers studying ancient urban landscapes in Southeast Asia (The Guardian, 11 June 2016). LiDAR … Continue reading "[Talk] Seeing Through the Forest: Lost Cities, Remote Sensing and LiDAR Applications in Archaeology"

          Bangkok’s historic Portuguese enclave

          Nikkei Asian Review, 09 April 2017 BANGKOK — King Taksin had a problem shortly after he assumed the throne of Siam in 1767. He had driven out the Burmese invaders after they sacked the Source: Bangkok enclave celebrates its Portuguese past- Nikkei Asian Review