Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

http://planet.atlantides.org/maia

Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

This feed aggregator is part of the Planet Atlantides constellation. Its current content is available in multiple webfeed formats, including Atom, RSS/RDF and RSS 1.0. The subscription list is also available in OPML and as a FOAF Roll. All content is assumed to be the intellectual property of the originators unless they indicate otherwise.

May 29, 2016

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Plymouth Herald and the Pig


Jason Baker from Eggbuckland (Plymouth Herald)

As if the story about the lead pig could not get worse, the Plymouth Herald decided to do its best to try just that (Herald NTapp, 'Plymouth detectorist causes a "frenzy" with rare Roman find', May 25, 2016). The photos of the self-employed brickie finder who apparently managed to "research" the identity of the emperor mentioned was are one thing, the video (volume right up please) is... something else.
The pig-run, 141 km from Plymouth to Wells
Supporters of artefact hunting often suggest that the hobby is an expression aodf the desire of people to find out about the history of their neighbourhood. Mr Baker was not searching in his neighbourhood, and I bet most of the other "frenzied finders" were not either.

Ancient Peoples

Silver Ribbon Torque (neck ring)Celtic, made in Ireland, 500...





Silver Ribbon Torque (neck ring)

Celtic, made in Ireland, 500 B.C.– A.D. 400

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

ArcheoNet BE

RAAP België zoekt archeoloog

raap_logoRAAP België is onlangs gestart in haar nieuwe kantoor in Nazareth (Oost-Vlaanderen). RAAP streeft ernaar om uit te groeien tot een kwaliteitsvolle archeologische uitvoerder en biedt daarnaast een breed aanbod aan erfgoeddiensten aan, zoals ontsluiting, beheer en beleidsondersteuning. Om de diensten mee te helpen uitbouwen is RAAP België nu op zoek naar een enthousiaste collega (m/v).

Bij voorkeur heeft de kandidaat minstens enkele jaren ervaring als archeoloog. Interesse en kennis over landschappelijk onderzoek is een voordeel, maar geen must. Meer nog dan de specifieke ervaring zoeken we vooral een collega die gedreven en leergierig is. Deze kandidaat zal zowel ingezet worden voor het uitvoeren van veldwerk als verwerking en rapportage. Kennis van GIS en een vlotte pen worden sterk gewaardeerd. RAAP biedt de kandidaat een omgeving aan waarin ruimte is voor persoonlijk initiatief en groei.

Aanbod:
– een marktconform loon aangevuld met maaltijdcheques             
– minimaal 4 opleidingsdagen per jaar en een onkostenvergoeding voor studiedagen die in eigen tijd worden bijgewoond.
– flexibele werktijden en mogelijkheid tot thuiswerk
– een correcte vergoeding voor woon-werkverkeer en tussenkomst in de aanschaf van werkkledij
– een prettige werkomgeving

Geïnteresseerden kunnen hun cv en motivatiebrief zenden naar Caroline Ryssaert via c.ryssaert@raap.be of telefonisch contact opnemen op 0498/44.16.99. Solliciteren kan tot 8 juni 2016.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Paul’s Letters to the Digital Humanists in Corinth

The Corinthian Matters blog has had a whole series of fascinating posts lately, related to Paul’s correspondence with the church in Corinth. Here’s a link to one such post, involving crowdsourcing, but when you click through, take the time to poke around and explore! http://corinthianmatters.com/2016/03/23/crowdsourcing-pauls-letters-to-corinth/

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

The Reasons for the "Need" to Acquire an Object Without Inhibition


I had a brief twittersation with a collector a few hours ago and stumbled across this in the 'unposted texts' section of my blog's dashboard and decided to post it after all, as it may be of interest.

Shirley M. Mueller, author of “The Neuropsychology of the Collector” (in  Steven Satchell (ed.), Collectible Investments for the High Net Worth Investor. Editor Academic Press, 2009) has contributed a short text to Physician's Money Digest (May 05, 2016) on ' This goes some way to explaining perhaps why it seems collectors are unable to profit from our attempts at reasoning and explanation of the issues concerning the no-questions-asked market. This is not an issue of rationality:
The modulator, the prefrontal cortex or executive brain, is no longer able to navigate between conflicting primitive emotions. It cannot draw a suitable conclusion. This is either because the prefrontal cortex itself is damaged or the drive to collect is so strong that it overpowers the expected function of the prefrontal cortex. Then, poor collecting decisions are made, and a whole new set of emotions erupt. These new feelings may or may not be on the part of the collector because his deficits may not allow him to understand his situation. [...] The need to acquire an object with little if any inhibition is considered by Donald W. Black, MD, and his colleagues from the University of Iowa to be an impulse control disorder. It is classified as one of the symptoms of a broader psychiatric abnormality, obsessive compulsive disorder. Compulsive shoppers fit in this category. Collectors who are unable to resist buying objects they covet seem also to be of the same variety
So there you have it, collecting can be considered a mental disorder.  In fact most people do not collect, or if they do it's something innocuous and obvious like state quarters. Beyond that, it is an obsession.

Hat tip for this one: Donna Yates spotted it

ArcheoNet BE

Watering ‘De Holen’ in Neerpelt beschermd

Vlaams minister Geert Bourgeois heeft de voormalige watering ‘De Holen’ in Neerpelt voorlopig beschermd als cultuurhistorisch landschap. De Holen, een gebied van ruim 55 hectare in de Limburgse Kempen, bestaat voornamelijk uit bos, afgewisseld met open percelen. In het bos is een uitgebreid netwerk bewaard van aan- en afvoersloten, een restant van de 19de-eeuwse watering.

In het midden van de 19de eeuw transformeerden veel gemeenten in de Kempen hun uitgestrekte heide, in een poging de rendabiliteit ervan te verhogen. Door de aanleg van vloeiweiden of wateringen hoopte men de bodem te verbeteren en een hoge grasproductie te bekomen. Langs het Kempens Kanaal voerde men mineraalrijk Maaswater aan en via een netwerk van bevloeiings- en afvoerkanaaltjes verspreidde men dit over de kunstmatig aangelegde bedden. Veel van deze kleine 19de-eeuwse wateringen werden daarom vrij snel weer opgegeven en omgevormd, zodat hier nu nog weinig relicten van bestaan.

In Neerpelt startte de gemeente vanaf 1846 met de verkaveling en verkoop van de gemeenteheide in functie van de aanleg van vloeiweiden. Tien jaar later was het vloeiweidencomplex van De Holen volop in gebruik. De watering bleef actief tot omstreeks 1950 waarna werd overgeschakeld naar intensieve populierenteelt en een systeem van bevloeiing door infiltratie.

Ondanks de latere bosaanplanting is het netwerk van sloten en grachten uit de 19de eeuw in De Holen nog duidelijk herkenbaar en een deel van de infrastructuur wordt nog actief gebruikt voor bevloeiing. Het slotennetwerk en de perceelstructuur illustreren de systematische aanleg van het vloeiweidencomplex en zijn opvallende ruimtelijk structurerende elementen. De jarenlange bevloeiing met het kalkrijke Maaswater zorgde voor een grote diversiteit aan plantensoorten die van nature niet tot ontwikkeling zouden komen in de Kempense zandgrond, zodat dit gebied ook een belangrijke natuurwaarde heeft.

De Holen is historisch waardevol omdat het gebied nog sprekend getuigt van dit ontginningssysteem. Het is bovendien een van de weinige voorbeelden van lokale projecten, geïnitieerd door de gemeenten, dat nagenoeg intact is overgeleverd. De impact van deze ingrepen op het landschap en de leefwijze van de bevolking was enorm, zodat het principe van het wateren nu nog steeds deel uitmaakt van het collectief geheugen in de Limburgse Kempen. Het actief gebruik van De Holen houdt deze herinnering in stand.

Foto: © Onroerend Erfgoed

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

EU licences plan ‘could hit London art market’


Britain's Portable Antiquities heritage in all its crass antipreservationist glory (Nicholas Cecil, 'EU licences plan ‘could hit London art market’...', Evening Standard Friday 27 May 2016)
Arts chiefs today raised fears that London’s market in high-value works could be hit by a “damaging” new EU import licence system. Their concerns were sparked by a survey ordered by the European Commission as part of efforts to fight the illicit trafficking of stolen antiquities and masterpieces, originating from war-torn countries such as Syria and Iraq. It asked for views on “mechanisms” to tackle this including an “import licence system on the demand side (ie EU-side).”
Jolly good job too. Let's have some initiatives getting some mechanisms to keep stolen and looted blood antiquities off the EU market. Not everybody is happy about the prospect of a market free of such dirty art. Anthony Browne, chairman of the British Art Market Federation, told the Standard
“Our big concern is that an import licence system applying to everything covered by the EU existing cultural regulations would impose a new and very damaging burden on the British art market which is heavily dependent on cross-border trading. London’s principal art market competitors are outside the EU - New York, Switzerland and Hong Kong - and would not of course be affected by this initiative from the European Commission.”
He also stressed that gangs dealing in stolen cultural works were unlikely to apply for an import licence. Wow, there's a sharp intellect at work there. An art market so very dependent at the moment on no-questions-asked cross-border trading is just ripe for exploitation by those very same gangs. Alleging that those "market competitors" are not affected by measures to clean up the market (really? and the CCPIA of the US?)  is simply a two wrongs argument. In any case buying EU, if the material on the market is properly vetted and policed is a way of ensuring kosher artefacts, who is going to buy from those competing markets with the Dirty Art, Mr Browne? Are they clients of yours?

Daniel Hannan
Conservative MEP Daniel Hannan accused Brussels chiefs of holding back the proposed licensing regime, together with “so many other nasties”, until after the EU referendum on June 23. He added: “London is the only international arts centre in the EU. People come here from all over the world to buy and sell, from Russia, China, India, South America. If they have to start messing around with import licences, with all the associated costs and time-wasting, they’ll take their business elsewhere, to New York or Geneva.”

Where they can buy Dirty Art, which is then freely exported from this hub to Russia, China, India and South America?
The UK, mainly London, accounts for two thirds of the EU’s entire art market by value, Mr Browne said. He added that the UK was already acting to stop national treasures in conflict zones being stolen and destroyed, including with the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003 and the Cultural Property (Armed Conflicts) Bill going through Parliament. A Culture Department spokesman said the UK “has effective laws in place to prevent the illicit trade of cultural goods and antiquities”  
1954, Roger Bannister runs
the first sub-four minute
mile in Oxford, England.

That's a joke, isn't it? But not a very funny one. The "Cultural Property (Armed Conflicts) Bill going through Parliament" is the one that puts into action the Hague Convention, you know the May NINETEEN FIFTY-FOUR Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, . How many of my readers even remember 1954? And all this time Britain has NOT been acting to stop national treasures in conflict zones being stolen and destroyed under it for the simple reason that the UK has not yet signed the thing. Pull the other one Mr Browne.

As for the claim that a law passed in THIRTEEN YEARS AGO was "already acting to stop national treasures in conflict zones being stolen and destroyed", that is just a lie since we are told that the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003 was used for the first time ever just a few weeks ago to prosecute the church thief in R v Christopher Cooper (g in Tainted Cultural Objects (Jeanette Oldham 'Crooked amateur antiques dealer who stole 'priceless' religious relics from churches across UK jailed' 6 May 2016). That is thirteen years when the UK antiquities market has been chugging along regardless and nothing at all has been stopped. Nothing Mr Browne. Yet this blog  has reported among others of numerous sightings of dodgy artefacts on the London market from conflict regions (including Syria), as have others. So what good to any of us is this pathetically inadequate legislation a Culture Department spokesman too ashamed to give his name said comprises “effective laws in place to prevent the illicit trade of cultural goods and antiquities”. In fact, is it not the case that (as is implied by the concerns of the people represented by Browne and Hannan) the fact that the laws are so useless at actually stopping anything at all going on, that the UK market is as big as it is?   


ArcheoNet BE

Historisch kaartmateriaal: bron voor gelaagd lokaal historisch onderzoek

Op zaterdag 4 juni vindt in Leuven een studiedag over cartografische bronnen plaats. Historische kaarten ontgroeien stilaan het statuut van illustratiemateriaal: ze vormen zelf het onderwerp van studie of een onmisbare bron in studies naar ontwikkeling van steden en landschappen, huizenreconstructie, grondbezit en -gebruik… Hun verhoogde toegankelijkheid en bruikbaarheid door digitalisering biedt bovendien nieuwe mogelijkheden voor publiekswerking en erfgoededucatie. Meer info over deze studiedag, een organisatie van het Documentatiecentrum Vlaams-Brabant en Rijksarchief Leuven, vind je op www.vlaamsbrabant.be.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Israel Antiquities Authority Plan To Excavate Judean Desert Caves




The Israel Antiquities Authority, in cooperation with the Heritage Project in the Ministry of Jerusalem Affairs, and together with the Minister of Culture and Sport Miri Regev, is promoting a national plan for comprehensive archaeological excavations in the Judean Desert caves, to recover some 'Dead Sea Scrolls' before the looters do ('Israel Antiquities Authority Plan To Excavate Judean Desert Caves To Save Scrolls Being Robbed' Yeshiva World Wednesday, May 25th, 2016). 
According to Israel Hasson, director-general of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “For years now our most important heritage and cultural assets have been excavated illicitly and plundered in the Judean Desert caves for reasons of greed. The goal of the national plan that we are advancing is to excavate and find all of the scrolls that remain in the caves, once and for all, so that they will be rescued and preserved by the state”. [...]   For many years, IAA inspectors have been proactively enforcing the law in the desert, during the course of which they have made a number of seizures and foiled bands of antiquities robbers that sought to become rich through the detrimental exposure of items of great historical importance. However, these actions are a mere drop in the ocean and the Israel Antiquities Authority stresses that only by excavating all of the scrolls in the ground and transferring them to the state, will it be possible to ensure their well-being and preservation for future generations. [...] According to Amir Ganor, director of the IAA’s Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery, “ [...] Despite the rigorous enforcement actions taken against the antiquities robbers, we still witness acts of severe plundering that unfortunately are possible in such large desert expanses. There are hundreds of caves in cliffs in the area, access to which is both dangerous and challenging. In almost every cave that we examined we found evidence of illicit intervention and it is simply heart-breaking. The loss of the finds is irreversible damage that cannot be tolerated”.
 The first excavation in the programme is taking place in the Cave of the Skulls in Nachal Tze’elim. Here in November 2014, inspectors of the IAA’s Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery apprehended a band of robbers, residents of the village Sa‘ir near Hebron, plundering the cave.
The suspects were caught “red-handed”, were arrested on the spot, have been investigated, sentenced and served a prison sentence, and are required to pay the State of Israel a fine of 100,000 NIS. At the time of their arrest they were in possession of important archaeological [material]. In 2009 an ancient papyrus was seized that was written in Hebrew and dates to the Year Four of the Destruction of the House of Israel (139 CE). The papyrus was confiscated in a joint operation by the IAA’s Unit for the Prevention of Antiquities Robbery and the Israel Police during a meeting with antiquities dealers in which the papyrus was offered for sale for the amount of 2 million dollars. The investigation of the robbers involved in the affair showed that this papyrus was apparently also discovered in Nachal Tze’elim. The contents of it, which mentions the towns and settlements in the area of the Hebron hill-country, suggests that the papyrus was part of an archive of documents belonging to Jews who fled to the desert from the Hebron area after the Bar Kochba uprising. Now, the Israel Antiquities Authority hopes to find such documents. 
(the 2014 bust was reported in this blog: Sunday, 7 December 2014, 'Cliff-Hanging Antiquities Bust in Israel'). The current excavation is difficult due to the position of the cave, about 80 meters from the top of the cliff, and c. 250 m above the base of the wadi, requiring special equipment for the team to reach the site. More than 500 volunteers and field personnel from Israel and abroad were required for the undertaking, and they are sleeping and living in a camp in desert field conditions.

Collectors' Colonialist and Supremacist Ideology


Cultural Property Obfuscator and Issue Dodger, Peter Tompa attorney at the Washington legal firm Bailey and Ehrenberg said on his little-read blog... " I wasn't aware Greeks were "brown skinned folks" as Barford calls them" and then with a singular lack of logic calls me a "Communist" and "Racist" for questioning IAPN and PNG recommendations. I guess he's not done much travelling and has no real idea of the effects of the Mediterranean sun on most people's skin, and why many people go south to lie on the beaches there. It is not to buy coins.

The Greek National Football Team

Mr Tompa would presumably side with the view that the creators of European civilization cannot have been brown skinned, but very, very white, like this White Supremacist website.

The genetics according to one source

My point is that it is not a little racist of the IAPN and PNG to suggest in their statement to the CPAC that in the case of the artefact hunters of the United Kingdom and the United States, it would be enough to be nice to them, reason with and educate them and ask them not to, but to deal with the people from source countries, they insist that these folk will have to be "watched over" and paid off not to loot. The racism is not mine but that of collectors and dealers of the IAPN and PNG, compounded by their hateful and dismissive supremacist and colonialist attitudes towards the natives.

it is the time for all right thinking people to stand up to the hateful ideologies that lie behind the current activities of the IAPN and PNG. Culture can be used to unite but the IAPN and PNG are persisting in using it to sow division and hatred and attempting to use it as a tool of colonial domination - I bet they support that Trump fellow.

How to Spot a Looter in Utah


In Utah citizens can win a reward for reporting illegal artefact hunting (some of us do it for free). Here's how to spot one (Jim Mimiaga, 'Artifact looting, vandalism surge in southeastern Utah:Public, private partnership aims to foil thieves' Durango Herald, The Journal Wednesday, May 18, 2016):

Looting of antiquities is as much a problem in US as it is overseas


Looting of antiquities is as much a problem in some areas of the US as it is overseas (Jim Mimiaga, 'Artifact looting, vandalism surge in southeastern Utah:Public, private partnership aims to foil thieves' The Journal Wednesday, May 18, 2016).
The Bureau of Land Management and Friends of Cedar Mesa, a nonprofit, formed an unusual public-private partnership this month to prosecute looters and vandals of southeastern Utah’s Native American treasures. Under the agreement, Friends of Cedar Mesa will offer a standing reward of up to $2,500 for information that leads to convictions in cases in San Juan County, Utah.  “Most people are unaware of the alarming and ongoing problem of looting and vandalism, including disturbing human remains, in the greater Cedar Mesa area,” said Josh Ewing, executive director of the conservation-minded Friends of Cedar Mesa. “Violators are hard to catch, so we partnered with the BLM to create a fund that hopefully encourages the public to report illegal activity.” '...] “The American public is betrayed by these crimes,” Eaton said. “When visiting our public lands, report suspicious activity. Protecting our archaeological resources is so important because it’s the heritage of all Americans.” 
In Utah, violations of the laws include theft or intentional damage of cliff dwellings, shrines, pottery, stone tools, rock-art panels, burials and historic structures. In the past five years, it is reported that the BLM has reported a surge of disturbing archaeological crimes in this region.
Between October 2011 and April 2016, the BLM’s field office in Monticello said it investigated 25 cases of looting, vandalism and disturbance of human remains in San Juan County. In 2012, a historic Navajo hogan was torn down by campers.In 2013, a burial site in Butler Wash was desecrated by looters.In 2014, a 2,000-year-old pictograph site in Grand Gulch was vandalized.In 2015, three remote sites on Cedar Mesa were dug up by pot hunters, and a burial alcove was dug up in Beef Basin. A prehistoric wall was pulled down at Monarch Cave on Comb Ridge and, in the same area, a wall at Double Stack ruin was knocked down.Vandalism has continued in the past four months, the BLM said. In January, a petroglyph was partially removed from a wall with a rock saw and chisel near Bluff, badly marring the ancient rock art. In March, campers on Muley Point built a fire ring out of building blocks from a 2,000- to 3,000-year-old site, and vandals scratched their names in a rock-art cave. In April, ATV riders drove through archaeological sites in the Lower Fish Creek Wilderness Study Area. Looting and vandalism is also a concern on Canyons of the Ancient National Monument in Southwest Colorado, says monument manager Marietta Eaton. A recent incident is under investigation.
I am sure the coin dealers will say it is the "fault" or archaeologists who are failing to pay potential looters a living wage to keep them on the straight and narrow.

Read the Comments to CPACommittee on the proposed Greece Cultural Property MOU Extension


Have you read the ? They certainly give an insight into the mindset of the average US collector of portable antiquities. Can these people be any form of 'partners' in protecting the archaeological heritage, or are their mentalities and ingrained attitudes a stumbling block to such initiatives? 
 

"Finds Frenzy", Money to be Made


Somerset pig
BBC 'Roman lead pig unearthed on Somerset farm in 'find frenzy'...' 27 May 2016
An ingot of Roman lead weighing six stone (38kg) has been unearthed on a farm in Somerset. Jason Baker discovered the "very rare" find - known as a pig - on an organised rally near Wells at the weekend [...] Mr Baker said therchanged my life," he said. "There's been one sold - a smaller one - for £36,000 and I've heard a few reports of [some fetching] £250,000."
e had been a "frenzy of finds" so when his detector sounded he "knew it was something good". The 31-year-old, from Plymouth, has only been metal detecting for 18 months and had signed up for the weekly event, organised by the Southern Detectorists Club. "Normally I find just a couple of Roman coins and that's normally a good day, so to find something like this has just
Jus' intresteid in th' 'istry you understand. Not th' munny. There is more:
Sean McDonald, from the club, said the last Roman pig found was in the 18th century.
"It is such a rare find it's hard to put a price on it. A minimum would be £60,000 but it could go over that fivefold," he said. "It doesn't come under the Treasure Act [...]  so Jason doesn't have to split it 50:50 with the farmer. "But he is, because he is such a nice bloke."
No, the object belongs to the landowner on whose property Mr "Nice Bloke" was a guest. The landowner has every right to take the artefact and throw the lot of these Entitlement-mistaken clowns off his land (I know I would) with a flea in their thick ears.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Looters hit civil war battle site in Virginia

Looters ripped up parts of Virginia’s Petersburg National Battlefield in an apparent search...

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Adjust Your Priorities

If you’ve got more of a problem with the citizenry of this nation pooling their resources together to buy bread than you do with them buying bombs, your priorities are in need of adjustment. – Daniel Skillman (in a post on Facebook) The quote addresses a surprising and deeply disturbing phenomenon among large numbers of people [Read More...]

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

US Civil War battlefield looted,


Metal detectorists "researching the site" (ie identifying potential "productive areas") is producing the loot for them to pocket, but is eroding the historical record (Andreas Preuss, 'Civil War battlefield looted, described as 'crime scene'CNN May 28, 2016):
The National Park Service is calling part of a Civil War battlefield "an active crime scene" following a series of excavations. Authorities are investigating looting at the Petersburg National Battlefield, just south of Richmond, Virginia. The battlefield describes itself as the site of the war's longest siege, lasting nine months between 1864-1865, and claiming 70,000 casualties. "Earlier this week, one of the park employees was out doing landscape work and noticed some things were out of place," NPS spokesman Chris Bryce said. The looting happened in the eastern part of the park, the National Park Service said, citing a large number of excavated pits. Marked graves were not disturbed. Park officials have not described what type of items or relics were stolen in the theft. "They are probably doing their homework of the area, probably did research on Civil War ...They were in the ground, they likely would have used a metal detector and a digging tool," Bryce said. Civil War relics, like uniform buttons, rifle parts and other metallic battlefield items regularly show up on internet auction sites. The Park Service says looting a National Battlefield is a federal crime, carrying up to a $20,000 fine and two years in prison for a conviction. 
Setting up a Portable Antiquities Scheme here would solve nothing. Destruction is destruction.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Beautiful Josephus

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/QPJpHyljmwE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Hurtado on Stuckenbruck on 1 Enoch

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/wzoI3vUMXE4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

New spells from Oxyrhynchus

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/Z8d94Yp2X-Y" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Greedy Collectors and their Cultural Victims


A thing of beauty, or something else?
With regard to the fuss the US is kicking up about a coming sale of Native American artefacts in France, and given their own attitudes to appropriating as 'global heritage' the artefacts of other communities, it would be interesting to hear a US collector's reaction to what Bambi Kraus, president of the National Association for Tribal Historic Preservation Officers in Washington, a Tlinget Indian from south-east Alaska has to say (Paris auction house turns deaf ear to Native American appeals PRI's The World May 27, 2016).
The sale of these important cultural objects goes against our entire way of life, and way of thinking about being native and today's global world view. They are not just art pieces rather they are cultural objects.
So, a bit like a Greek temple antefix or Egyptian mummy case. She goes on:
They were made for a specific culture and were not to be shared with the outside world. “Many were stolen from Native communities. Many were sold out of duress because there was a lot of fighting over resources when Western expansion was coming up against Native people in the world. I know from my own personal history as a that they were being forced to change their way of life and they were being starved to death, and there was very little they could actually do to preserve their culture," she says. 
Discussion then turns to a specific item, an  Acoma Pueblo ceremonial shield Ms Kraus [as an aside: some lady says the shield was stolen from her home, but provides only an affidavit, not police report]:
It was important to them as a ceremonial piece, and was for their community only. It was made for their use and it should have no value outside of that community. And that's one of the questions that I have been trying to answer, what makes these items valuable?
So what does make these items worth stealing from the communities? I think the answer is pretty obvious:
So, if that is just rawhide and paint, why is that so valuable to someone who wants to collect it for its beauty rather than its value to that community?
Collectors' greed. Collectors' greed and desire to posess this as a trophy as a symbol of their domination of that community of 'Others' is what lies behind communities losing historical items which form the basis of their culture and identity. It is the same with rawhide shields as Greek pots, Egyptian tomb figurines, mummy beads, Roman coins and a host of other collectables. It would be interesting to hear an articulate collector's view, though hopefully one who'd go deeper than adopting a trite self-justificatory American Exceptionalist position. But, I suggest none of us need hold our breath waiting.
 

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Melah

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/bumfO-xZLQo" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Ritmyer on the Jerusalem tunnels

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/D9lZU5Oc_lk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

More American Moaning about Artefact Sales


Paris auction house turns deaf ear to Native American appeals PRI May 27, 2016
The EVE auction house in Paris is getting ready to sell off a collection of historical and highly controversial objects.  The collection notably includes a ceremonial war shield, masks, a shrunken head, a warrior jacket adorned with human scalps, ancient jewelry, and ceremonial stones. Most of the collection can be traced back to Native American Indian tribes including the Acoma Pueblo and the Hopi. US laws prohibit the sale of Native American ceremonial items, but those don’t apply in France. Native American tribal leaders are trying to stop the auction and start a dialogue to reclaim the ceremonial objects that were taken from native peoples more than a century ago. They held an emergency meeting at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington earlier this week to condemn the auction as a violation of international human rights. 
If these objects were taken from their communities more than a century ago, they have been in somebody's collection since then. If they were out of the USA when NAGPRA was passed (this is where collecting history comes in), their retention and sale was perfectly legal. If however they were still in US collections when NAGPRA was passed (the US federal law, 'The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act', Pub. L. 101-601, 25 U.S.C. 3001 et seq., 104 Stat. 3048, enacted on 16 November 1990.), then their retention and sale comes under that law - but also US law enforcement. The trouble is that the law is rather vague when it comes to non-institutional collections and private property, and cases have rarely been prosecuted. If the objects now in France were exported from the USA after that date NAGPRA came into force, then the same applies. There is of course a 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property but that implies the US implementing the relevant articles (here Art.  6). The USA has refused to do this, so even if teh French wanted to help, there are no legal grounds for confiscating the seller's property once it is in France, and (despite what some Americans are suggesting) that is not because the French are lax in their lawmaking, but because the US has not created the laws and procedures which would enable them to act. It is teh USA which is at fault here, not the French.

So all the emotional stuff about this issue coming from the US is quite out of place, unless it is directed to those that can rectify the gap min US legislation.
So far the appeals from tribal leaders and diplomats, and those on social media, appear to have fallen on deaf ears. EVE has given no indication of backing down on its Memorial Day auction. EVE director Alain Leroy told the AP that “all the items proposed are of legal trade” and that “the public auction process allows the different tribes to acquire their past, and that is exactly what some tribes prefer to do, seeking efficiency and discretion.” These auctions have been an ongoing source of friction between the US and France for several years. But pressure may be mounting. This week, US Interior Secretary Sally Jewell called on the French government to help repatriate the items. “Auctioning off tribal sacred objects is extremely troubling not only because tribal law precludes the sale of these objects by individuals, but because items held by a dealer or collector are likely the results of wrongful transfer and may be for sale illegally,” she said.
Well, let us see US Interior Secretary Sally Jewell stopping all and any auction of Greek, Roman, Bactrian, Persiabn, Egyptian, Coptic, Celtic, Viking, Islamic, Chinese etc etc etc antiquyities currently on sale by hundreds of US dealers with not a word of where they actually came from, because a lot of us think that these sales are indeed extremely troubling not only because source country law precludes the sale of these objects by individuals, but because items held by a dealer or collector are likely the results of wrongful transfer and may be for sale illegally. Sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander - even in the USA, surely?

The Taunton "Northwest Frontier" Wreath


The controversial artefact

When I discussed in an earlier blog post the Mail story of the wreath which  a Somerset pensioner claims he was 'left by his grandfather who'd been travelling in the Northwest Frontier area' I was more interested in the provenance and the odd photo of the cardboard box than the object itself. I was prompted to look again the next day:
Dorothy King ‏@DorothyKing 10 godz.10 godzin temu
Looks modern to me ...
Retweet Quellenforschung du jour: The Daily Mail on a Hellenistic Wreath
Now I look with the benefit of David Meadows' comments I think he has made the case that there is a good chance this object is a modern pastiche and should be being sold as such in the absence of any firm supporting evidence that it is not.

By the way there seems to be a lack of clarity about what the original article claimed might have been the origin of the piece - a story now looking even more to be in tatters:
The current owner's grandfather was a great collector who was fascinated by archaeology and the ancient world. Although his family do not know how he acquired it, it is likely he bought it sometime in the 1940s when he travelled extensively. The man said: 'I knew my grandfather travelled extensively in the 1940s and 50s and he spent time in the north west frontier area, where Alexander the Great was, so it's possible he got it while he was there.
Most commentators took this to mean the region 'Macedonia' on the northwest side of modern Greece. Is this in fact what Grandson Anonymous was implying? The Northwest Frontier is also the name of a former province, part of the Pashtun region of British India and now part of Pakistan  (see here too). Grandson Anonymous could have been fantasising on the basis of Kipling's novella 'The man Who Would be King' (or more likely the 1975 John Huston film) in which something vaguely like this wreath (a crown) appears handed down from "Iskander" (Alexander).

The wreath could be a piece of modern costume jewellery, or have been made to deceive collectors (and over-enthusiastic Mail-reading auctioneers). What else is Duke's selling from this collection similarly authenticated by appraiser Guy Schwinge?

Mali jihadi Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi to plead guilty


Destruction of heritage in Mali
was not the work of ONE man
A Malian jihadi Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi will plead guilty to being among those attacking the world heritage site of Timbuktu before the international criminal court (ICC) based in The Hague at a joint hearing and sentencing due to be held in the coming months.
He stands accused of jointly ordering or carrying out the destruction of nine mausoleums and a section of Timbuktu’s famous Sidi Yahia mosque, a Unesco world heritage site dating back to the 15th and 16th centuries. [...] Mahdi will admit a single charge of “the war crime of attacking buildings dedicated to religion and historic monuments” in 2012, when many of the ancient shrines were destroyed. [...] ICC prosecutors say Mahdi was a leader of Ansar Dine, a mainly Tuareg group that controlled areas of Mali’s northern desert together with al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (Aqim) and a third local group in early 2012.
Reports make no mention of anybody else being charged for similar deeds in the same conflict. Will al-Faqi al-Mahdia be left to carry the can for all the others still in hiding?

US (Yawn) "Meeting Regarding Sale of Human Remains and Sacred Objects at Paris Auction"


US Hypocrisy exposed
Native Americans are protesting upcoming Paris auction. Press event: @SmithsonianNMAI 24 May http://nmai.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/press_releases/Media-Advisory-Paris-Auction-2016.pdf

Instead of "contesting the sale" why are these people NOT protesting that the USA does not simply make items like this subject to export licensing procedure? It is bonkers to place others in the wrong when it your own lack of coherent policy which is to blame. There is a UNESCO 1970 Convention to stop this kind of thing, why are the US trying to sidetrack it?



Tears Shed, Remedy Simple



This is just weird: 

48 min.48 minut temu
Now several of us are crying. Riley begs France to honor their humanity and discusses pain of seeing sacred items for sale
Just institute export licensing for such items, no tears, clear cut legal options. What is so difficult for the US to understand?

The True Face of Treasure Hunting


Cash handouts for not breaking the law?
19.05 See some of the recent treasure cases and what people's [sic] feel about the UK Treasure process on this great FB group:
but ...
unfortunately the time scale and process for valuation will eventually stop people doing the right thing.
What he means of course is abiding by the law. So what is he saying, if the public does not cough up the munny kwik 'nuff, they'll take their hoiked stuff elsewhere? Scandalous attitude.
18.05    so many people are disgruntled with the way the treasure process is currently run & so many treasures prob go unreported
Who's "them" then?

Money for Carrier bag Full of Lenborough Coins


Lenborough hoard - news - TVC to recommend value of £1,350.000 to be divided - finder, Mr C, £675,000.00; landowner, Mr B, £675,000.00.

Retentionism in UK National Art 'policy'


Michael Savage has some interesting points about the issues surrounding 'saving Treasures for the nation' which could equally well apply to an incessant series of rewards for the constant flow of metal-detector hoiked Treasures often containing a repetitive series of objects. To what extent is the public expenditure justified and why? (Grumpy Art Historian, 'Let her go' Curmudgeonly criticism, mostly about art. Monday, 23 May 2016).

Gotta Hellenistic Wreath to Sell Anonymously? Take it to Duke's



Provenance: Acquired by the Grandfather of
the vendor is [sic] the 1930's [sic] and thence by
descent Private Collection, Somerset

Duke's Fine Art Auctioner

Euan McLelland, 'Incredibly rare 2,300-year-old Ancient Greek gold crown worth £100,000 was kept for decades in a tatty box of old newspapers under bed by owner who had no idea what it was ', MailOnline   26 May 2016

A Hellenistic gold wreath has "surfaced', reportedly kept in an old cardboard box under a bed by an anonymous elderly man in Taunton.
Valuers from Duke's of Dorchester in Dorset attended the pensioner's home to look at some items he had inherited from his grandfather [...] Bits of dirt embedded on the wreath suggest this one was buried at some point [...] The current owner's grandfather was a great collector who was fascinated by archaeology and the ancient world [...] his family do not know how he acquired it [...] The man said: '[...] I inherited quite a lot of things from him and I just put this to one side for almost a decade and didn't really think anything of it. 'Recently I decided I needed to sort through things and called in Duke's to have look at some of the items he'd passed on to me' [...] The antiquity will be sold on June 9. 
Despite having zero provenance. What kind of a collector was Grandfather Anonymous? Where did he get it and when precisely? The newspapers it was wrapped in are not detailed - it could have been acquired just before Grandson Anonymous inherited the estate "ten years ago". This is "can't touch you for it" licitness and no responsible collector should want to add such an item to their collection. Duke's currently has some other "interesting" objects on sale - including a 'Syro-Palestinian' icon with no real provenance.


The Family Box: What an interesting photo the auctioneer took.
Why? What date are those newspapers? 
The "Dead Grandfather Provenance" is used quite a lot in dealing in antiquities. In some cases it covers an object where the actual message is "I don't want to tell you where this is really from" as in the matter of the sarcophagi reportedly offered by Morris Khouli to  collector Joseph Lewis II as well, perhaps the infamous Leutwitz Apollo. (see here too). In my experience dead grandfathers with a poorly sorted collection are used to launder some pretty obvious fakes in auctions by people who claim to "know nothing about what this is so I am setting the minimum starting price". There is always one greedy fool who thinks he knows more than the self-proclaimed ignorant seller and competes with a shill bidder (most likely) to push the price of worthless lumps of metal up a sizeable sum under the impression that it is a valuable authentic artefact. Grandfathers should document their collections better or they just become a red flag after their death.

UPDATE 28th May 2016
David Meadows, Rogue Classicist, is sceptical about even more of this story. he points out why the object seen in the photos is quite unlike the body of properly-excavated comparanda:
Taken together, there is much to be suspicious about this one. The disconnect between the accounts in the Daily Mail and the Duke’s of Dorchester official description are concerning at least from a collection history point of view. The huge difference in valuation also suggests the auction house might not be as enthusiastic about this as the Daily Mail would have us believe. Outside of that, the wreath itself has several features which just don’t ‘seem right’ from a Hellenistic gold wreath point of view. We’ll continue to watch how this one develops …
I think looking at the points he made, his suspicions could be right (noting too the scare quotes in te auctioneer's description) and this is an example of a fake-dodgy artefact being laundered by the Dead Grandfather ploy rather than a looted-and-smuggled-dodgy one. On which case who is the scammer? The anonymous pensioner who called in Duke's (why this auction house and not Christie's?) with some vague story about where it had come from, or was it the person who ten, twenty, years ago or more fooled Grandpa Anonymous into buying this, with the latter only realising he'd been duped later (when in shame and disgust he hid the damn thing away in a box and did not admit to anyone he'd been caught out)?

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Virtual Magic Bowl Archive

 [First posted in AWOL 17 May 2011. Updated 28 May 2016]

Virtual Magic Bowl Archive
http://humanities.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/collegeofhumanities/theology/ourresearch/righthand218xanyheight/M16.jpg
The Virtual Magic Bowl Archive (VMBA) is a collaborative project involving scholars from Israel and the United Kingdom.
The VMBA was initially established by Dr Dan Levene and hosted by the University of Southampton from 2009. In 2014, it was transferred to the University of Exeter, to be continued under the supervision of Dr Siam Bhayro.
The aim of the VMBA is to provide online resources for those engaged in the study of Aramaic incantation bowls from Sasanian Mesopotamia, perhaps the most important primary source we have for studying the everyday beliefs and practices of the Jewish, Christian, Mandaean, Manichaean, Zoroastrian and Pagan communities on the eve of the Islamic conquests.
While we envisage more features being added over time, the initial resources will focus on some 650 texts that comprise part of the Schøyen Collection, which are currently being prepared for publication by an international team of scholars under the supervision of Professor Shaul Shaked.
The first published volume of incantation bowls from the Schøyen Collection is:
S. Shaked, J.N. Ford and S. Bhayro, Aramaic Bowl Spells: Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Bowls Volume One (Magical and Religious Literature of Late Antiquity 1; Leiden: Brill, 2013)
For those interested in learning more about the Aramaic incantation bowls, Dr Levene's booklet Curse or Blessing: What's in the Magic Bowl?‌ can be downloaded as a PDF.
Browse the VMBA photographic archive.
See also Pre-Islamic Incantation Bowls for details of our research on the Schøyen Collection’s Aramaic incantation bowls.

Open Access Bibiography: Zenon at the DAI

[First posted in AWOL 12 July 2009. Updated 28 May 2016]

ZENON DAI  [Zentraler Online Katalog]
http://opac.dainst.org/exlibris/aleph/u18_2/alephe/www_f_eng/icon/zenon.gif
The DAI compiles some of the most important bibliographies on archaeology:

Archaeological Bibliography

Bibliography of the Archaeology of the Iberian Peninsula

Subject catalogue of the Roman-German Commission

Bibliography of the Archaeology of Eurasia (completed bibliography)

You are now able to search through the Archaeological Bibliography free of charge at the website of the DAI.
Please take a look at our central online catalogue ZENON DAI: opac.dainst.org!

The Archaeological Bibliography is expanded daily by the departments in Rome, Athens, Istanbul and the head office in Berlin, and it comprises titles collected since 1956 (approx. 400,000 titles).

As a result of the involvement of the Athens and Istanbul departments in compiling the bibliography (since spring 2006), considerably more Greek and Turkish journals and monographs have been described and made available for research, in view of the holdings of those libraries. The Archaeological Bibliography is being expanded additionally in the following areas: prehistory/Anatolia and among the oriental cultures: Hittites and Urartu.

In the Archaeological Bibliography you can search for monographs and articles from approx. 2,700 journals and articles from congress reports and festschrifts, etc. The bibliography contains the literature on Graeco-Roman culture and its peripheral cultural and also literature on Etruscan, Minoan and Mycenaean culture, the Anatolian cultures, prehistory and ancient history including epigraphy and numismatics.

Congress reports are now archived more consistently than before, arranged as a whole and described according to content.

Festschrifts and publications by several authors are described according to content if they have a unifying theme.

Reviews are currently not admitted.

See also [March 17, 2010] the DAI's call for feedback on the project.

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Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts

 [First posted in AWOL 28 March 2011, updated 28 May 2016]

אוצר כתבי יד תלמודיים - Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts
Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts
The Jewish National and University Library, David and Fela Shapell Family Digitization Project and the Hebrew University Department of Talmud are happy to present to the public the Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts. This project brings together images of major Talmudic manuscripts from libraries throughout the world.
The manuscripts are indexed to enable access by standard citation (tractate, daf and amud for the Talmud Bavli, and tractate, chapter and mishna for the Mishna).
As the manuscripts are entirely in Hebrew and Aramaic, the navigation tools of this site are in Hebrew
It is best viewed under Microsoft Windows with Microsoft Explorer version 5 or higher.

The Heroic Age

CFP for special issue of Medieval Feminist Forum: Women’s Arts of the Body
 
Edited by Irina Dumitrescu (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn)
 
Email: irinaalexandradumitrescu (at) gmail.com
 
At the beginning of Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy, Philosophy arrives to drive out the Muses from Boethius’ cell. It is often said that the Philosophy is female because Latin philosophia is a feminine noun, and, indeed, the dialogue that follows continues a masculine tradition of inquiry and authorship. And yet, woven into this scene are not only female figures, but traces of women’s craft. Philosophy is a cloth-maker, having woven her own clothes, the Muses are described as actresses and whores, and both Muses and Philosophy aim to cure the sick Boethius with their healing arts. Although the dialogue that follows aims to teach the ailing man how to distance himself from worldly things, it begins with feminine craft and arts of the body.
 
For a special issue of Medieval Feminist Forum, contributions are invited that reflect on arts of the body associated in with women at any given point or place in the Middle Ages (with some flexibility towards the Renaissance). Such “arts of the body” might include: spinning and weaving; needlework, knitting, sewing, quiltingcooking, baking, confectionerybrewing, distillingpotterycosmetics, hair-dressingdancing, singing, actingmedicine, home-remedies, first aidmaking perfumes and poisonsbirth control, abortion, midwiferysex-work.
 
Some questions you might consider include:
 
          Which arts of the body are associated with women or men, and when?
-           In what cases do arts or crafts that had belonged to women become the purview of men, or vice versa?
          How do women’s arts of the body intersect with race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability?
-           How are women’s arts of the body appropriated as metaphors for men’s work?
-           When does women’s work count as work? When does women’s art count as art?  
-           What biases do we find against feminine arts of the body, and how are they expressed in texts?
-           Under what historical circumstances do feminine “arts of the body” make it onto the books? When are they institutionally recognized, inscribed, recorded, or even just mentioned?
-           What effects do we notice due to the lack of a historical record? What kind of reconstruction or myth-making fills the archival gap?
-           How have women’s arts of the body been taught or passed down? What can be recovered about women’s teaching practices?
          What kinds of gendered spaces are created or used for women’s arts of the body?
-           What interpretative or historical tools can be used to recover and/or reconstruct lost arts of the body?
 
 
Format:
 
Full-length scholarly essays are welcomed from any discipline, and will undergo peer review. Also welcome for this issue are shorter creative or experimental pieces addressing the issue topic. Please submit an abstract or proposal (250 words maximum) for either kind of work by August 1, 2016 to irinaalexandradumitrescu (at) gmail.com .
 
Please feel free to get in touch via email if you have any questions about the topic or the feasibility of a particular approach or format.
 
Working timeline:
 
August 1, 2016 – Abstract deadline
 
September 1, 2016 – Essay solicited
 
January 1, 2017 – Drafts of solicited essays due
 
May 1, 2017 – Final drafts of accepted essays due
 
Fall 2017 – Projected publication date

May 28, 2016

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Islamophobin

This spoof product has its own commercial: I’m not sure that anyone who is going on the trip I’m leading to Israel and the West Bank starting on this coming Monday suffers from Islamophobia. But sometimes prejudices and assumptions run deep even in those who may seem like they lack them and know better. I suspect that having [Read More...]

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

No Tense Outside the Indicative Mood: Origin?

One claim that you’ll regularly encounter once you start reading various contemporary works on the Greek Verb from NT scholars is the idea that Georg Curtius (1873 [English: 1883]) was the originator of the idea that Greek does not grammaticalize tense outside the indicative mood.

Con Campbell’s recent book, Advances in the Study of Greek, is a representative source of the claim, though it isn’t limited to him and I’m certainly not criticizing him for making it–I think he might be taking it from Fanning (1990, 9-10):

The chief significance of Curtius’s scholarship was as the father of Greek verbal aspect studies. He was the first to argue that the Greek verbal system differs from Latin, and that temporal reference is limited to the indicative mood and is not a feature of the other moods (a fact taken for granted today) (Campbell 2015, 31).

The thing is, I have no idea whether the claim is right or wrong. On the one hand, I’ve never seen in the grammars that I’ve searched anyone make the outright statement of the belief that temporal reference is possible outside the indicative. On the other hand, I certainly haven’t read everything…particular the substantial amount of 19th c. German scholarship.

Fanning cites: Georg Curtius (Die Bildung der Tempora und Modi im Griechischen und Lateinischen sprachvergleichend dargestellt [Berlin: Wilhelm Besser, 1846], 148-52) as the source of the attribution of the idea to Curtius, when he writes:

The breakthrough to a different approach under the influence of comparative philology began with the work of Curtius, who was perhaps the first to attempt a union between the new comparative linguistics and Greek philology as it was more traditionally conceived. In an early book (1846), Curtius argued that, in contrast to Latin, temporal meaning is limited in Greek to the indicative mood and a different type of meaning is expressed by the present and aorist verbal stems: that of durative vs. ‘quickly-passing’ action (Fanning 1990, 10).

Fanning then goes on to cite Curtius’ observed distinction between: ἐγίγνετο from γίγνομαι, ἐγεγόνει from γέγονα.

It’s just that already in 1835 Raphael Kuhner effectively made the same distinction (1835, 62, my translation below):

Kuhner 1835

Present. Past. Future.
I. Absolute γράφω ἔγραψα. γράψω.
II. Relative
a. Simultaneous Duration
γράφω. ἔγραφον. γράψω.
b. Finished Γέγραφα ἐγεγράφειν γεγραφὼς ἔσομαι.
c. Upcoming
Events
Μέλλω γράφειν. ἔμελλον γράφειν. μελλήσω γράφειν.

Now Kuhner’s approach to the verb isn’t exactly standard compared to what we have today, but it is certainly clear that he recognizes that past tense is predicated on the augment. Moreover, he goes on to explicitly state that for the infinitives and participles, temporal reference is only available with reference to either the speech time of the speaker or some other action. And when we move to the moods, we find no reference to temporal reference at all!

So maybe, at best, Curtius is the first one who explicitly stated the fact that tense is contained to the indicative mood, but I’m inclined to think that he isn’t the origin of the idea. It seems to have already been well established.


Filed under: Greek, Historical Linguistics, History of Linguistics, Language, Linguistics, Morphology, Semantics

Shawn Graham (Electric Archaeology)

My Research Plan. I Think. For Now.

At dawn Rob Anybody, watched with awe by his many brothers, wrote the word: PLN  on a scrap of paper bag. Then he held it up. ‘Plan, ye ken,’ he said to the assembled Feegles. ‘Now we have a Plan, all we got tae do is work out what tae do.”

-Terry Pratchett, A Hat Full of Sky

I’m reminded of this as I see retweeted a slidedeck by George Veletsianos from this year’s Congress of the Humanities, ‘Crafting a Research Agenda (in memes)’.

So I’ll share an edited version of something I wrote earlier this month (removing some names and details). Sharing. It’s like eating your greens. You know you should do it, everyone tells you to do it when you’re young, you forget about doing it until much later, and then you do it out of a kind of duty to your (intellectual) digestive system. I like mine, though. I think it might actually work. If I share it, then I have to accomplish it, right?

The PLN

My research plan for the next five years circles around four separate projects, each of which explores novel forms of evidence and the humanistic consequences of ‘big data’ approaches. The central question that unites the projects is the one posed by Laura Madsen in a recent Los Angeles Review of Books interview: ‘how must humanities disciplines change if we are no longer working in a print world’? That is perhaps the fundamental question underpinning all work in the digital humanities.

  • Near term (1-2 yrs): Archaeogaming & Deep Play
  • Mid term (2-3 yrs): The Visual Grammar of the Bone Trade
  • Long term (3-5 yrs): Humanities Hallucinations
  • Continuous (1-5 yrs): Digital Pedagogy & Teaching Inside Out

The connective methodological tissue between these three projects emerges from the intersection of my initial academic training in archaeology, with my teaching and research in digital public history. They involve various kinds of data mining and data modeling, combined with forms of visualization that move beyond so-called ‘screen essentialism’. Indeed, they depend upon taking seriously Drucker’s famous notion of ‘capta’ rather than ‘data’ (that is, acknowledging that data are created, captured, from the questions asked and methods used rather than being things ‘out there’ with an independent non-subjective existence), and so the processes of data capture and modelling, the building, are foregrounded in these projects.

The fourth pillar of my research plan is to build or enhance a collaborative ‘space’ (whether administrative or physical) for undergraduate and graduate students, scholars, and the public to work together. Inspired both by the Maker movement and the ‘Fab Lab’ approach of scholars like Jentery Sayers and Bill Turkel (where humanities questions are addressed through the process of making or fabricating physical models), I see it as a space for scholarship regardless of an individual’s local affiliation. The space would be anchored by a cohort of graduate students from across the university and it would encourage research that looked outwards tying humanities research to the wider world. Obviously, Scholarslab is a beacon.

Below I describe how my research plan will come together. It begins with my teaching (as praxis, separate from my content areas of teaching interest), and then moves through my near, mid, and long-term research interests.

Continuing Research on Digital Pedagogy & Teaching Inside Out

When I build, I build with my students, and I build in public. These are critical components to my research. My philosophy of teaching revolves around the idea that teaching needs to be done in the clear light of day. That is, I try to turn the classroom inside out. When the classroom is inside out, this necessarily transforms the relationship of teacher to student, learning and knowledge, received notions of ‘appropriate’ forms, and notions of ‘failure’ and ‘success’.

‘Teaching inside out’ emerges out a sustained research engagement with Open Access as praxis, and making as knowing. I am interested in exploring with my students questions such as, how do we widen the perception of what academic work can be in the humanities? What is the role of the digital in all of this? There is a small-c conservatism in History, for instance, that makes it difficult to move beyond the essay and the monograph as the ‘required figures’, as students resist when things ‘don’t look like history’ (Graham 2013). But, as Mark Sample argued in a 2009 post,

Why must writing, especially writing that captures critical thinking, be composed of words? Why not images? Why not sound? Why not objects? The word text, after all, derives from the Latin textus, meaning “that which is woven,” strands of different material intertwined together. Let the warp be words and the weft be something else entirely.

This is a risky strategy. It necessarily involves making everyone (myself included) uncomfortable. It also interferes with the very well-established game of being a student, and the instrumentalization of the university degree (as something with given inputs that must necessarily lead to a desired output, a well-defined job). However, the rewards for my students who embrace this approach are vast. My research to date has been more focussed on questions of digital and hybrid pedagogies, dealing with these exact issues. To that end, I have recently published an introductory textbook (‘Exploring Big Historical Data: The Historian’s Macroscope’) for doing digital history with Ian Milligan (Waterloo) and Scott Weingart (Carnegie Mellon). (There is a workbook I devised that both supports and extends the Macroscope, and can be freely copied from http://workbook.craftingdigitalhistory.ca). The teaching part of my research plan for the next five years involves writing and publishing (in whatever appropriate format) works that elaborate on The Macroscope in order to push into scholarly forms beyond the textual.

Teaching and research cannot be separated cleanly in the digital humanities. Thus, woven through these three projects is a continuously evolving project on digital and hybrid pedagogies:

  1. Some kind of makerspace-cum-scholarslab. Where can I build this? With whom? Cost? Administrative issues?
  2. Apply to Connections, Partnership Grant programmes, and find similar funding through collaborations with NSERC-eligible scholars. I currently have submitted a Connections Grant on the ‘Grand Challenges for Digital Archaeology’, to take place if funded in November 2016. In terms of a Partnership Grant, I have begun extending feelers to various appropriate companies in Ottawa (if you’re a company in Ottawa that sees itself in any of this, do get in touch!)
  3. There is a performative element to DH work (see ‘Humanities Hallucinations’, below). Perhaps there are artists interested in Big Data type things, with whom I could apply to various Canada Council programmes
  4. I’ve got some other ideas, but I’ll just round this section out with thinking about the feasibility of ‘block scheduling’ the DH courses (we have a minor in DH), where the course hours are not spread over a term but rather take place over 2 weeks (4 hrs a day x 10 continuous days; see for instance this article in The Globe & Mail http://j.mp/globe-block-article).  I would like to integrate the students not by year of study, but by research interests. This is probably not feasible in the short term, of course, but something to circle around.

Archaeogaming and Deep Play

In recent years, computing power has become such that procedurally generated games bear more in common with complex emergent simulation engines than the arcade-cabinets of yore. This project is an umbrella for a number of interests in the way these computationally powerful games engage with the past. We call this ‘archaeogaming’ because it shifts the contextual interrelationships that archaeologists typically look for ‘in the real world’ to the game world.

I am interested in

  • the entangled networks of power and materials that enable games as recreation
  • the power of computation to simulate important aspects of the human past in ways that allow us to test our ‘just-so’ stories about the past: computational historiography.

Beginning in the summer of 2016 I am participating in the “No Man’s Sky Archaeological Survey”, led by Andrew Reinhard. Reinhard’s project is described here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0qn_O39OBdmV21ZQm9YQlh0N00/view . My particular interest in this project is in disentangling the networks of power and resource extraction that enable such a project to take place. This involves looking at the social and physical networks and supply chains for game hardware, for instance. With regard to the emergent properties of No Man’s Sky (a video game that will be released in June 2016 on multiple platforms), I am drawing on my work on agent based simulation (which can be framed as ‘games that play themselves’) to understand the role of humans in the computation that makes these games work. A ‘computer’ was once a female human doing computational work; now we have (typically) men designing (gendered-female) AI and worlds for (often) men’s amusement. How does gender play out at the level of computation in a procedurally generated world?

In terms of outputs, I envision a series of articles detailing the rationale and methodology for the project, the findings of the project, and the wider implications. An article on the intersection of agent based modelling methodologies and the analysis of procedurally generated worlds is already in the works for the conference proceedings of this spring’s ‘Interactive Pasts’ conference at Leiden. Tangential to this project is an agent based simulation project with Tom Brughmans.  We are collaborating on agent-based simulations of the Roman economy, testing various theories about the social aspects of Roman economic practice. We are looking at ways of communicating this research through resource-management type games (‘SimCity’- like games). The SSHRC Connections Grant application concerning digital archaeology is built around Dr. Brughmans visit.

Visual Grammar of the Bone Trade

This project emerges from a serendipitous encounter at the Society for American Archaeology conference in 2015 in San Francisco. Damien Huffer, an osteologist, has been exploring, one click at a time, the trade in human remains facilitated by such websites as eBay and Instagram. I have introduced various data mining techniques to automate and speed up this research, such that we now have a dataset of several thousand images. Damien is the PI. We are employing various computer vision and machine learning techniques to classify, cluster, and determine ‘visual grammars’ for signalling online when grey-market materials like human remains are available for sale. Variations on the theme of ‘hiding in plain site’ are visible to the eye in these images, but are often hard for the computer to detect. The research also involves text analysis such as topic modelling and word vectors to understand the oblique vocabularies used to support this trade (most posts scraped do not have text, but over thousands of images word patterns do build up).

This research has wider implications for other illegal or quasi-legal trades facilitated online, including illicit and looted antiquities, drugs, weapons. I have currently an outstanding access to information request from Canada Heritage concerning Canada’s role in the antiquities trade. When these documents are made available to me, I will be incorporating the computational analysis of those materials into this project as well.

Humanities Hallucinations

There is an effect, whilst listening to music, called the ‘auditory hallucination’. It is the hearing of patterns (words, etc) that are not, strictly speaking, in the music. Generally, what this effect shows is that we fill the holes in representations of data with our own expectations. My long-term research programme for the next five years builds on this observation, as well as on my own teaching practice (which has always been intertwined with my research). My ‘Humanities Hallucinations’ project aims to

  • expand the range of possible ‘forms’ of scholarship for the humanities
  • expand the range of who it is that ‘does’ humanities scholarship
  • critically reflect on what new forms, formalisms, mechanisms, platforms, and technologies do to ‘the humanities’
  • ‘hallucinations’ imply something false, something not real. Where’s the reality here?
  • take Stephen Ramsay’s ‘screwmeneutical imperative’ seriously as both a research and teaching approach (Ramsay, S. 20  “The Hermeneutics of Screwing Around: or What You Do with a Million Books” in K. Kee, (ed) PastPlay: Teaching and Learning History with Technology . University of Michigan Press, 2014. http://j.mp/ramsay-pastplay)

In this past year, I have built exploratory models of ancient Greek tragedies using markov chains, and recurrent neural networks. I’ve used bone trade image data to make sonifications, while at the same time 3d printing that data to make haptic representation of digital data. I am thinking of these ‘toys’ and ‘models’ as ‘hermeneutica’ in the sense argued for by Geoffrey Rockwell and Stefan Sinclair in their recent hybrid publication, Hermeneutica. That is to say, they are tools to think with that embody their own arguments. As Voyant-Tools is to text (a series of reconfigurable text analysis visualizations that may be embedded in other forms of publication), I want to develop similar tools and toys surrounding these humanities hallucinations. I would use the data from my other projects to build these hermeneutica and work through their potentials; I would publish this work via a web platform to allow others to repurpose my methods and code to their own work with accompanying monograph, a kind of ‘Voyant Tools’ for sound and haptics. 

Maybe.

~o0o~

‘Nae trouble at all, right, lads?’ said Rob, happy now. For he had his PLN. ‘Let’s offski’.

– Terry Pratchett, The Shepherd’s Crown


Ancient Peoples

Gold torque (neck ring)Celtic, made in Southern Russia or Black...





Gold torque (neck ring)

Celtic, made in Southern Russia or Black Sea Region (?), 6th–4th century B.C.

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

Tomb Of Aristotle? Not So Fast, Say Classics Scholars

A Greek archaeologist claims to have found the tomb of Aristotle. But classical scholars are raising important questions about this identification.

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

Quellenforschung du jour: The Daily Mail on a Hellenistic Wreath

From time to time I am asked why I link to the Daily Mail in my Explorator newsletter. As most folks are aware, the Daily Mail is a flashy, pop-culture-gossip-oriented  British newspaper which generally is looked askance upon by folks who are fans of serious journalism. Indeed, when it comes to news about archaeology and/or the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, almost without exception something found in the Daily Mail will be a rewrite culled from other sources, but lavishly illustrated with tons of photos and usually a sidebar or two with useful background information. It is a guilty pleasure of sorts to regularly read it (for which I blame Dorothy King for removing the ‘stigma’ (if that’s right word)), but I do link to it precisely for the photos and sidebars. For the most part, the rewrites add nothing of value other than a bit of hype and a headline which may or may not fit comfortably into a tweet — which results in numerous rewrites of the headline over the course of the week. Whatever the case, the point of this long-winded introduction is to emphasize that when it comes to ‘breaking’ a news story about the ancient world, the Daily Mail generally isn’t the one to do it and their coverage of anything of the sort usually only pops in my mailbox after the story has appeared elsewhere.

Screen Shot 2016-05-28 at 10.56.22 AMWith that in mind, it was a very curious thing last Thursday, when — while the waves of coverage about that purported Aristotle tomb find were flooding my box —  the Daily Mail seemed to be first off the mark with the story of a pensioner who had what was apparently a 2300 years bp Macedonian-style gold wreath in a box under his bed. I waited for the story to show up in a ‘more reputable’ source, but things didn’t unfold quite according to the established pattern. Indeed, it appears that all subsequent coverage was pretty much a rewrite of the Daily Mail (there’s one for you irony fans) … in order of appearance in my mailbox:

The Daily Mail includes a pile of photos from the Duke’s of Dorchester auction house (more on that later) and most of the subsequent coverage picks one or more of those photos up as well. Here are the salient points from the Daily Mail and its derivatives:

  • the pensioner from Somerset had the wreath in a box under his bed in Somerset (there’s a photo of the wreath in the box)
  • he had inherited the piece from his grandfather, who had apparently travelled extensively in Northern Greece in the 1940s and 1950s (Paul Barford rightly draws our attention to the ubiquity of the ‘dead grandfather’ in questionably-sourced antiquities claims)
  • Duke’s of Dorchester were called in to evaluate this (and other) items which were inherited
  • According to the Daily Mail, the pensioner was told the item dated to about 300 BCE and was valued at £100 000.
  • Here’s the important quote:

‘It is notoriously difficult to date gold wreaths of this type. Stylistically it belongs to a rarefied group of wreaths dateable to the Hellenistic period and the form may indicate that it was made in Northern Greece.

‘It is eight inches across and weighs about 100 grams. It’s pure gold and handmade, it would have been hammered out by a goldsmith.

  • the wreath is said to be similar to one auctioned in 2012 for almost £200 000 and will be coming to auction June 9.

For my part, outside of the vagueness attached to the collecting history, I was skeptical in general of the authenticity of the piece (and was muttering about it on twitter with @CarolineLawrenc and @kyrikmk.  Before I could look deeper into that, however, I came across the page at Duke’s for the auction. It was rather interesting how the story at the auction house was rather significantly different that what was in the Daily Mail and its derivatives:

  • the piece is officially described as A ‘Hellenistic’ Gold Wreath (with the scare quotes; in the body of the text description, Hellenistic has regular quotation marks)
  • the estimated price has dropped markedly: £10000-20000
  • the collecting history has changed somewhat as well: “Acquired by the Grandfather of the vendor is the 1930’s and thence by descent Private Collection, Somerset”

Perhaps there is a policy at the Daily Mail to boost numbers whenever possible by a factor of ten (as seen in the price and the find date)? Whatever the case, the auction house does not seem to be on the same page as the Daily Mail at all.

As mentioned above, I had my own questions about the authenticity of the piece. I’ll preface this section by acknowledging that I am hardly an expert in Hellenistic gold wreaths, but I have seen my fair share of them. This one just didn’t ‘look right’ … here’s the photo from Duke’s which is in most of the press coverage. Obviously the pink circles were added by me:

34A1D17600000578-3610916-An_incredibly_rare_gold_crown_believed_to_be_more_than_2_000_yea-m-46_1464273115483.jpg

  1. The first thing that made me do a Marge Simpson hmmmm are the two eyelets. They looked awfully modern and it was difficult to find an ancient example of a wreath with similar items. In fact, the only one which seemed ‘reliable’ was a piece at the Boston MFA and the ‘loops’ still look markedly different.
  2. All the leaves have a border/outline around the outside edge; I looked in vain for an ancient example of this and most other examples (including the Boston item) seem to be ‘scissor cut’ from a sheet of gold; these seem stamped or even cast. I would be happy if someone can point me to similar style leaves from the Hellenistic (or other) period.
  3. The flowers (which we are told are myrtles) have too many petals (six as opposed to five). Similarly, they seem to be stamped out as opposed to cut and soldered — most examples one can find on the web have individual leaves which seem to be attached to the center thing.

Taken together, there is much to be suspicious about this one. The disconnect between the accounts in the Daily Mail and the Duke’s of Dorchester official description are concerning at least from a collection history point of view. The huge difference in valuation also suggests the auction house might not be as enthusiastic about this as the Daily Mail would have us believe.  Outside of that, the wreath itself has several features which just don’t ‘seem right’ from a Hellenistic gold wreath point of view. We’ll continue to watch how this one develops …


James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

The Scepter and the Star

I am grateful to Eerdmans for having sent me a free review copy of the second edition of John J. Collins’ book The Scepter and the Star: Messianism in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Anyone familiar with the first edition will already know that the book at the very least retains its value even [Read More...]

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

Always the bridesmaid..?

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I had really good news this week. I was in my Faculty office on Tuesday at about 6.15 pm packing up to bike home, when the phone rang from (as the display flashed up) for a Spanish number. It turned out to be an extremely nice man from the Princess of Asturias Foundation to alert me that the jury had just decided to award me the 2016 Princess of Asturias Foundation Award for Social Sciences. It was to be announced the next day at 12.00 and I was to keep mum until then. 

I knew something about these prizes before and was obviously extremely chuffed (you dont get phonecalls like that very often -- and I cancelled my decision to make it an alcohol-free day). But I hadn't quite realised how very grand it was until I looked at the previous laureates in my own and other categories, from David Attenborough, Tzvetan Todorov and Mary Robinson in my own category to Margaret Atwood, Leonard Cohen and Leonardo Padura in literature (that's Padura arriving above), Michael Schumacher in Sport and J K Rowling in Concord. That was all a bit humbling.

The award comes with a nice cash prize, but that wasn't what mattered most this week (I know people always say that, but it is true). It was the fact that people, not on your back door step, have recognised what you do. If I have had a 'project' over the last few years it has been to continue doing top flight specialist academic work, while also sharing the fruits of that with a wider public. I hate with a vengeance the kind of popularising history (or popularising anything) that assumes that that wider public can be fobbed off with some over-simplified, dumbed-down version of what academics really talk about. It has always seemed to me that you can remove some ofthe jargon, talk clearly and capture precisely the issues that are those under debate. So I was particularly pleased when I saw these words of the jury, referring to my 'talent for making specialized knowledge both accessible and relevant to the general public'. That's exactly what I have wanted to do.

It was also nice (an unworthy confession is coming up!) actually to win something. Now, I have been absolutely delighted with how SPQR has gone down with critics, and with the buying punters. I cant really imagine how it could have done better, thanks in part to the big efforts of others (it's a good book, I immodestly say, but lots of good books dont get attention or find buyers). And I have also been delighted that it has been shortlisted for all sorts of literary prizes. To me, shortlisting matters the most. It's a real vote of confidence in the product, after which the final winning choice must always be a bit random and depend on the unpredictable personal preferences of the judges (to put it another way, you could almost guarantee that a different group of judges would choose a different winner -- and that's certainly been the case on the panels I've been on). That said, I was beginning to get a bit of an 'always the bridesmaid' feeling and to wonder if, bauble as it was, it wouldn't be nice actually to win something one day.

And indeed, as I have discovered this week, it is nice. I am so very grateful to the judges for picking me, and really looking forward to going to Oviedo in October to receive the award. The aim for this summer has to be to get some conversational Spanish under my belt. I can just about read the language (especially when it is about Roman history), but I need to do a bit better than that in the autumn.

 

 

 

 

Scott Moore (Ancient History Ramblings)

Saturday in Polis

P1040262Things are a bit slow at Polis, I am heading to Larnaka tomorrow so there wasn’t a lot to do today. So Brandon, Dave, and I used the day as a chance to go to Paphos and visit some of the sites- I haven’t been to some of them in a few years. It turned out to be a great idea. We arrived at Paphos to see the mosaics at 8:21. The guards had to unlock the gate for us because nobody had been in yet. We were the only ones at the site for an hour and a half – it was fantastic, we had the place to ourselves. It was also overcast so it wasn’t as hot as it usually is when I visit Paphos, and it had just rained so the mosaics were very bright and really stood out. After visiting the mosaics and the castle, we stopped at Paul’s Pillar and it was amazing how much this site has changed over the years – you used to be able to wander all over the site, but now there are elevated walkways you are required to stay on as you walk around the site.

P1040479

IMG_0508Last night on our way home from dinner we stopped at this small ice cream shop at the edge of the plateia. It was a very interesting experience, to say the least. The shop was a small room with one freezer by the door, with the words “Homemade Ice Cream” marked on it by hand. The old man running the place had been watching TV, which he left on and at a very high volume. He then proceeded to tell us about his life (for quite a while) and how he had been making the best ice cream on Cyprus for 36 IMG_0512years. He then insisted that we have a cone with all eight of his flavors on it (strawberry, caramel, chocolate, vanilla, almond, banana, rose, and mandarin). I have to admit to not being a fan of many of those flavors. He then took a spatula and proceeded to put a little of this flavor and a little of that flavor on the cone, thoroughly mixing the flavors. I have to admit, it was actually good with all the flavors mixing together. We had a hard time leaving because he wanted to keep talking and followed us out into the street talking, and even started repeating his stories.

RSM


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Mystery of Mongol Retreat from Hungary Solved

In 1241, the Mongol army marched into Hungary, defeating the Polish and Hungarian armies and forcing...

Compitum - publications

W. Fitzgerald, Variety. The Life of a Roman Concept

9780226299495.jpg

William Fitzgerald, Variety. The Life of a Roman Concept, Chicago, 2016.

Éditeur : University of Chicago Press
272 pages
ISBN : 9780226299495
55 $

The idea of variety may seem too diffuse, obvious, or nebulous to be worth scrutinizing, but modern usage masks the rich history of the term. This book examines the meaning, value, and practice of variety from the vantage point of Latin literature and its reception and reveals the enduring importance of the concept up to the present day.
William Fitzgerald looks at the definition and use of the Latin term varietas and how it has played out in different works and with different authors. He shows that, starting with the Romans, variety has played a key role in our thinking about nature, rhetoric, creativity, pleasure, aesthetics, and empire. From the lyric to elegy and satire, the concept of variety has helped to characterize and distinguish different genres. Arguing that the ancient Roman ideas and controversies about the value of variety have had a significant afterlife up to our own time, Fitzgerald reveals how modern understandings of diversity and choice derive from what is ultimately an ancient concept.


Source : University of Chicago Press

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Jesus Crosses the Line

A while back, Morgan Guyton wrote: If I am following the lead of Paul the apostle of grace who championed the Gentiles, then I’m going to read the Bible with a slant to justify whichever outsider the insiders are defining themselves against in order to legitimate their privilege and power. Paul would have miserably failed [Read More...]

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

More on the Cave of Skulls excavation

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Magic bowls of antiquity

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Brik the Golem

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Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2016.05.42: Word Order and Expressiveness in the Aeneid. Translated from Italian by Ailsa Campbell

Review of Paolo Dainotti, Word Order and Expressiveness in the Aeneid. Translated from Italian by Ailsa Campbell. Berlin; Boston: 2015. Pp. xi, 294. $182.00. ISBN 9783110384222.

2016.05.41: Women and War in Antiquity

Review of Jacqueline Fabre-Serris, Alison Keith, Women and War in Antiquity. Baltimore: 2015. Pp. ix, 341. $55.00. ISBN 9781421417622.

2016.05.40: The Milesians: Thales. Translation and additional material by Richard McKirahan. Traditio Praesocratica, 1

Review of Georg Wöhrle, Richard McKirahan, The Milesians: Thales. Translation and additional material by Richard McKirahan. Traditio Praesocratica, 1. Berlin; Boston: 2014. Pp. vi, 710. €169.95. ISBN 9783110315103.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Lag B'Omer celebrated safely at Djerba

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Biblica 97 (2016)

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Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East

Flight 20160526 - East into the Badia

The second flight of the 2016 season saw Becc and I heading east to the Azraq area, taking in Qasr Aseikhim, a wonderful and significant multi period hilltop site but which is suffering badly from the bulldozer as access roads make it more accessible.

Qasr Aseikhim showing signs of damage from bulldozing. Photographer: Rebecca Banks. APAAME_20160526_REB-0132.
We then headed to assess the impact of the construction of the Azraq by-pass on the stone built structures on the Harrat al-‘Uwaynid. It was truly depressing seeing what had been destroyed without thorough investigations (a presentation at ICHAJ13 by Romel Garib said a survey had been conducted with the help of Prof. Gary Rollefson, but no excavation); truly a missed opportunity as the area is rich in kite-sites, wheels, and pendants (one of which we have been monitoring and has had its tail smashed through – seemingly unnecessarily). These sites are representative of this part of the basalt plateau, and we know so little about them.

A pendant showing damage from tracks associated with the building of the Azraq by-pass over the Harrat al-'Uwaynid. Photographer: Rebecca Banks. APAAME_20160526_REB-0176.
There are archaeological teams from America, Britain, France, Germany, Holland, Jordan and Italy working in the basalt region in cooperation with the Department of Antiquities. These numerous teams are giving us a better insight into the date and function of many of the sites, and the migrating patterns of important species such as the gazelle. Results from all of these were being presented and discussed at the ICHAJ13, some of which we had to miss because of the flying. It is a pity more were not approached for a one-off collective “rescue archaeology” project, but unfortunately it sounds like the Department of Antiquities were brought into survey the site after the ink had dried on the plans. Better integration between infrastructure development planning and archaeological survey and the respective responsible departments is a must if this is not to be repeated in the future, which is something we are trying to achieve with the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa Project.

However our reconnaissance is part of the investigations. We assist a number of projects and it is only by the use of the helicopter that we can cover so much ground – from Azraq to Ruweishid and then back to the Wisad and Qattafi areas. Fortunately we have surveyed Harrat al-Uwaynid in the past and those photographs of sites provide somewhat of a legacy for future knowledge.

One of the excavated sites of the Jebel Qurma Project. Photographer: Rebecca Banks. APAAME_20160526_REB-0301.
From Harrat al-Uwaynid we progressed to the Jebel Qurma where Professor Akkermans’ team have been investigating the numerous sites, then onto the main section of the Harret al-Shaam where two projects, the Northern Badia Project under Bernd Müller-Neuhof and the Eastern Badia Project with Prof. Gary Rollefson are working. It was a long day, and much warmer than the first flight, with many targets close together and much orbiting – which all contributed to the demise of the “crew man” who was not well, on three separate occasions during the flight. I wondered about curtailing the mission but every time we landed and re-fuelled he seemed fine and happy to continue.

The green bed of a wadi system near the Bakhita area. Photograph: Rebecca Banks. APAAME_20160526_REB-0584.
The black basalt desert is one of the most striking and unique landscapes anywhere in the world and never ceases to impress; this year it was the light greenery in the some of the wadis providing a context for the archaeological sites and a welcome relief from the blackness.

Bakhita enclosures site around a water catchment area. Photographer: Robert Bewley. APAAME_20160526_RHB-0635. 
Highlights included dense structure activity grouped around water catchment areas – still holding water with the late Spring weather Jordan has been experiencing. One such area we had named as “Bakhita enclosures” – a natural depression (still with some water in it) surrounded by a variety of stone enclosures –of an unusual form, and with stone walls leading into the pool, perhaps part of a water catchment system? The enclosures may be remains of settlements or occupation evidence of the people, many thousands of years ago, who had found a perfect location for seasonal living.

Chain Wall site. Photographer: Robert Bewley. APAAME_20160526_RHB-0479.
Not all the sites are untouched and we saw many instances of the random use of the bulldozer, dissecting sites for no apparent reason, as not all the bulldozed tracks become roads. We did see good examples of the “chain-walls”, small stone built structures all linked together and forming an enclosed area, but for what purpose and by whom we have, as yet no idea.

Stein's site 'al-Qseir Ghadir'. Photographer: Rebecca Banks. APAAME_20160526_REB-0485.
One of the places we flew was originally photographed by Sir Aurel Stein in his reconnaissance of Transjordan in 1939. Becc has digitized these images (in cooperation with the British Academy) and this site, Al Qseir Ghadir, she was able to locate and schedule into our reconnaissance. Stein had visited on the ground but found no surface material to date it, likewise a more recent visit by colleague Bernd Müller-Neuhof, who considers it could be Early Bronze Age. It is interesting to see the change – some 77 years later. Becc presented the site along with other ‘forgotten’ sites from Stein’s aerial survey at the ICHAJ conference. It is evident stone robbing has occurred to build a corral nearby, and the built structures seem to have been damaged and reduced to incoherent rubble, but the outline of the water catchment area is still intact.

Rebecca Banks in action in the Eurocopter. Photographer: Robert Bewley. APAAME_20160526_RHB-0543.
It is always fun to take a “few “action shots” showing what it is like undertaking the photography and we were able to do so, too on this flight. We certainly had put the pilots through their paces (and the poor crew man), and after almost 6 hours we were ready for a break, so we finished the day with a quick final re-fuel at Azraq before the final leg to Marka in the relative comfort of a seat in the Eurocopter.

- Rebecca Banks and Robert Bewley.

Martin Rundkvist (Aardvarchaeology)

Tuna and Nävragöl — New Light On An Old Find

In April of 2007 I directed a week of metal detecting at sites in Östergötland where there was a potential for an elite presence in the period AD 400-1000. These investigations were part of a project that I published in my 2011 book Mead-halls of the Eastern Geats.

One site that proved a dud for the project’s exact purposes was Tuna in Östra Husby parish. But my friend and long-time collaborator (and these days, colleague) Dr. Tim Schröder found something pretty damn cool anyway: a gold finger ring from AD 310–375, the last phase of the Roman Iron Age. It had been twisted up and thrown into a long narrow inlet of the Baltic, apparently as a sacrifice. The find got us all energised and we put extra time into the site, hoping to find more from this era. But in the end the second-oldest datable finds were mounts for 15/16th century table knives. Tim and I published a paper on the ring and the site’s wider significance in 2008.

There was one intriguing object though from Tuna that I could neither classify nor date: a gilded oval mount for a strap or a wooden object. The gilding and the bevelled edge might place it in the 6/7th centuries. But it might also be from a piece of 18/19th century furniture or horse harness. In the journal paper and the book we illustrated the find and admitted defeat as to its classification. And nobody has contacted me about it since.

Finds from Nävragöl in Fridlevstad, May 2016

Finds from Nävragöl in Fridlevstad, Blekinge, May 2016

But now there’s been a development. As so often with these enigmatic metal detector finds, it’s the amateurs who have, if not the classification, then at least the parallels. My friend and collaborator Tobias Bondesson (a detectorist and banker who deserves an honorary doctorate for his encyclopaedic knowledge about small finds, his academic publications and his services to archaeology) pointed me to a group of finds made this week by Thomas Hasselberg at Nävragöl in Fridlevstad parish, Blekinge. This all looks like 18/19th century to me: note the 1801 coin. And in the middle of the collection sits another one of those oval mounts.

Mount from Nävragöl in Fridlevstad, Blekinge, reverse

Mount from Nävragöl in Fridlevstad, Blekinge, reverse

Nävragöl’s front is an exact match for Tuna, and the back side has had fastening rivets in the same places as Tuna though Nävragöl has had loose rivets, not tangs cast with the mount. Thomas has wisely been careful with the cleaning, but he reports that his piece is also gilded. Tuna measures 33 x 22 mm. Nävragöl measures 35 x 28 mm. I’m convinced that both mounts have served the same purpose and are of a very similar age.

But what age? Well, neither find is from a closed context. And at Tuna there are ample cemeteries and finds that prove intensive settlement at least from AD 1 onward. But Nävragöl is a very different deal. Thomas tells me the land he’s been detecting is the site of a farmstead established in about 1800. It’s on the edge of the parish, in the woods near the Småland border, an area that has never been densely settled and probably had very few inhabitants before AD 1100. Fridlevstad parish itself isn’t even documented in writing before 1349, though the church dates from c. 1200. And finally, due to our unfortunate legislation, Swedish daylight detectorists like Thomas only get permits for land judged to have a very low archaeological potential. The Nävragöl find has convinced me that the Tuna mount is Late Modern, not Late Iron Age.

In 2007 I asked around a little with people who know about antique furniture, to no avail. I’m trying again now. Stay tuned!

Big thanks to Thomas Hasselberg for information and permission to publish his photographs. A similar case of eventual find identification was the one with the bodice-lacing pin from Skamby in Kuddby.

Archaeology Magazine

Germany women mobilityGOTHENBURG, SWEDEN—Karl-Göran Sjögren of Gothenburg University and his colleagues examined bones and teeth excavated from seven Corded Ware Culture sites, including two large cemeteries, in southern Germany. The Corded Ware Culture, found throughout Europe between 2800 and 2200 B.C., is noted for its burial of the dead in large burial mounds and pottery ornamented with corded textures. According to a UPI report, carbon dating and isotopic analysis of the remains in the study revealed that Corded Ware people subsisted in a variety of ways within isolated locations. At one cemetery, more than 40 percent of the remains were identified as non-local. Sjögren thinks that women in particular may have moved away from their birth villages to marry, taking their food preferences with them. “We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies, and suggesting a complex pattern of social exchange and economic diversity in Late Neolithic Europe,” he said. For more on archaeology in Germany, go to "The Neolithic Toolkit."

Hungary Mongol climateZÜRICH, SWITZERLAND—Spring flooding may have pushed the invading Mongols out of Hungary in 1242, according to a study of Eastern European climate history conducted by Nicola Di Cosmo of Princeton University and Ulf Büntgen of the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL. Tree-ring data from northern Scandinavia, the Polar Ural, the Romanian Carpathians, the Austrian Alps, and the Russian Altai suggests that in 1242, southern Poland, the Czech Republic, western Slovakia, northwestern Hungary, and eastern Austria experienced a cold and snowy winter that was followed by an exceptionally wet spring. Di Cosmo told Live Science that the Mongol commanders, who had brought at least 130,000 troops and perhaps 65,000 horses into the region, might have been bogged down in pastures that had turned into muddy marshes. That could account for their sudden retreat through the Carpathian foothills and other elevated areas. “This is one of the very few cases in which we can identify a minor climatic change on just one winter and link it to a particularly important historical event,” Di Cosmo explained. For more, go to "Mongol Fashion Statement."

Dienekes' Anthropology Blog

British Celts have more steppe ancestry than British English

An interesting tidbit in a preprint about blood pressure genes:
We consistently obtained significantly positive f4 statistics, implying that both the modern Celtic samples and the ancient Saxon samples have more Steppe ancestry than the modern Anglo-Saxon samples from southern and eastern England. This indicates that southern and eastern England is not exclusively a genetic mix of Celts and Saxons.
Southeastern England is genetically very homogeneous. If the people there were a mix of ancient Celts and Saxons you'd expect them to be intermediate between modern Celts (who should have more Celtic ancestry than the modern English) and ancient Saxons (who should have more Saxon ancestry than the modern English).

But, it seems that the English have less steppe ancestry than both modern Celts and ancient Saxons, so they're not really intermediate. My guess is that the English have Norman ancestry that the Celts don't. While the original Normans were Scandinavians with presumably lots of steppe ancestry, I'd be surprised if the post-1066 Normans that settled England were not already heavily admixed with the "French" and so had less steppe ancestry than the modern British Celts from Wales and Scotland.

bioRxiv http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/055855

Population structure of UK Biobank and ancient Eurasians reveals adaptation at genes influencing blood pressure

Kevin Galinsky et al.

Analyzing genetic differences between closely related populations can be a powerful way to detect recent adaptation. The very large sample size of the UK Biobank is ideal for detecting selection using population differentiation, and enables an analysis of UK population structure at fine resolution. In analyses of 113,851 UK Biobank samples, population structure in the UK is dominated by 5 principal components (PCs) spanning 6 clusters: Northern Ireland, Scotland, northern England, southern England, and two Welsh clusters. Analyses with ancient Eurasians show that populations in the northern UK have higher levels of Steppe ancestry, and that UK population structure cannot be explained as a simple mixture of Celts and Saxons. A scan for unusual population differentiation along top PCs identified a genome-wide significant signal of selection at the coding variant rs601338 in FUT2 (p=9.16×10-9). In addition, by combining evidence of unusual differentiation within the UK with evidence from ancient Eurasians, we identified new genome-wide significant (p less than 5×10-8) signals of recent selection at two additional loci: CYP1A2/CSK and F12. We detected strong associations to diastolic blood pressure in the UK Biobank for the variants with new selection signals at CYP1A2/CSK (p=1.10×10-19)) and for variants with ancient Eurasian selection signals in the ATXN2/SH2B3 locus (p=8.00×10-33), implicating recent adaptation related to blood pressure.

Link

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Thinking of Buying from Timeline? Read their Terms and Conditions


Timeline Auctions is one of the leading middle-range British dealers in portable antiquities, they offer a whole load of metal detected stuff as well as loads of non-native antiquities, some of which I have had a few words on in this blog. Its CEO Brett Hammond  was on the Treasure Valuation Committee. This makes it all the more awkward that there are comments from readers to an earlier post of mine about authenticity issues which remain unanswered by Mr Hammond's setup.

If you are thinking of buying from this dealer (and I would in general suggest that nobody buys anything from any dealer who does not offer upfront full verifiable documentation of  legal origins and authenticity as part of the sales offer), I'd advise reading the small print of the 'terms and conditions' and thinking about why it is there.

May 27, 2016

Benjamin Girard-Millereau et al. (PRISME: pratiques rituelles et symboliques en Méditerranée nord-occidentale protohistorique)

Conférence « Lieux de cultes d’époque romaine : textes, images et données archéologiques » (09/06/2016, Loupian)

Conférence Lieux de cultes d’époque romaine : textes, images et données archéologiques
par Sandrine Agusta-Boularot, Professeur d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de l’Art des mondes romains, Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier III

Renseignements pratiques :

Date : Jeudi 9 juin 2016
Heure : 18h30
Lieu : Musée de site gallo-romain Villa-Loupian
RD 158 E4
34140 Loupian
Tél : 04 67 18 68 18
Fax : 04 67 18 68 19
Mail : villaloupian@ccnbt.fr

Conférences du Musée Villa-Loupian

Le cycle de conférences du Musée Villa-Loupian parle cette année de l’archéologie des croyances et des lieux de culte, des statues-menhirs aux clochers des églises.
Ce cycle de conférences se propose d’aborder selon un ample arc chronologique, et grâce à des recherches pluridisciplinaires, la question des pratiques religieuses et des lieux de culte, depuis le Néolithique (le temps des statues-menhirs qui devaient marquer les premiers espaces cultivés par l’homme) jusqu’au début du Moyen Âge (avec la mise en place du « blanc manteau des églises » qui marque encore nos paysages contemporains). Grâces aux sources textuelles comme iconographiques qui nous renseignent sur les rites, aux découvertes archéologiques d’objets ou d’édifices, il est possible de prendre la mesure des croyances du passé, d’envisager la place et l’évolution du sacré dans les sociétés méditerranéennes depuis la Préhistoire.
L’entrée est gratuite (dans la limite des places disponibles).

Sources : http://www.thau-info.fr/index.php/culture/conferences/17484-conferences-du-musee-villa-loupian-r

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Mus%C3%A9e-de-site-Villa-Loupian/215866045164617

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

William Ross’ Initial Impressions

William Ross has posted his initial thoughts on Muraoka’s LXX Grammar (Amazon). He’s pretty thoroughgoing in the issues discussed. It’s a worthwhile read if you’re tempted by this volume.

Initial Impressions of Muraoka’s Syntax of the Septuagint

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Filed under: Greek

AIA Fieldnotes

International Archaeology Day

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Museum of Art and Archaeology
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
nad
Start Date: 
Saturday, October 15, 2016 - 1:00pm

Location

AIA Society: 
Name: 
Cathy L Callaway
Telephone: 
5738825076
Call for Papers: 
no
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Right Content: 

Andrew West (Babelstone)

Tangut Manuscript Miscellanea 2: Grains of Gold

Newly Collected Grains of Gold Placed in the Palm siw sho ki dy pa ti wyr* (Chinese 新集碎金置掌文) is one of a relatively small number of secular Tangut texts that have survived to the present day. It is a non-rhyming poem comprising one hundred pentasyllabic couplets, in total one thousand Tangut characters, each used only a single time, intended for use as a primer for teaching Tangut characters,

Zenobia: Empress of the East (Judith Weingarten)

Writing Tablets from Ancient Palmyra (Part II): "The Forgotten Island"

Part I of this post, click here

Where in the world is Socotra?

Desert rose (adenium obesium)
Situated smack in the middle of nowhere, in the Indian Ocean 250 km/155 miles east of Somalia and 340 km/210 miles from the coast of Yemen (to which it now belongs).  Socotra is a weirdly wonderful  island, with wide sandy beaches, karst limestone  plateaus full of caves (some as long as 7 km/4.3 miles) and mist-shrouded mountains rising to 1525m/5000' high. 

The climate is ghastly: hot, harsh, and
windswept at the best of times.  The summer monsoon is far from the best  of times: from June to September, the island is so battered by fierce winds that, even today,  maritime traffic comes to a dead halt. Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Portuguese, and British mariners all tried to establish a permanent base on the island -- and all gave up because it was just too horrible. A place so utterly isolated makes it, though, a happy home for a great number of strange plants and animals, many of them endemic to the island (i.e., found only here). 
Dragon blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari)
Over a third of the species of flowering plant on the island are endemic. Not only are they unique to Socotra, but devilishly bizarre to boot.  What is one to make of such botanical oddities such as these?

Cucumber tree (Dendrosicyos socotranus)
Take the fat Desert Rose (adenium obesium), pictured at the top of the post -- if that isn't the original Triffid, I don't know what is! 

Or the cucumber tree (Dendrosicyos socotranus, left) -- and yes, it is related to the creeping vines of the cucumber and pickles family).

Or
'Kartab' (Dorstenia gigas)
the dragon blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari, above centre); a tree that has no wood in it but its trunk and branches are made of a strange spongey substance so, when the tree dies, it falls to dust. 

Or the Dorstenia gigas, left, otherwise known only by the Socotran name of 'Kartab', meaning 'dried out, withered; stunted' (and I can see why) -- a plant that apparently doesn't require any soil and sinks roots straight into the bare rock.

But I don't really want to talk about Socotra's botany, fascinating though it is, but rather about one of its caves:   

The al-Hoq cave, on the side of a cliff about 300 m above the sea on the northeast coast of the island.  Its entrance is impressive.

  

The cave was first explored by Belgian speleologists less than 15 years ago.  The spelunkers found plenty of ancient pottery in the two long galleries inside (1200m/1300 yards; 800m/900 yards long), mostly containers used to collect water that dripped from the ceiling into natural basins. Much more remarkable were the grafitti found scratched into the walls of the shorter gallery by sailors and merchants who took refuge on the island when the monsoon winds unexpectedly turned against them.  As far as they can be read, some 250 inscriptions record men's names scrawled in the scripts of ancient India (Brāhmī), Ethiopia (Guèze), Yemen (S. Arabian), and Bactria -- all written between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.*  

Pieces of at least 20 incense burners were found nearby, which means that the names were not meant simply to record their presence ('Kilroy Was Here') but to call out to, or remember themselves to their gods.  One of the few longer texts makes this clear.  Written in  ancient S. Arabian, it reads: 'Abdsiyà came here and you [the god] remained hidden from him'.  I think what poor 'Abdsiyà is saying is: 'This is a god-forsaken place'.  Literally.

But that's not all, folks. 

There were two wooden tablets and one at least is written in clear Palmyrene.


As noted in Part I of this post, the only surviving wooden tablets from Palmyra itself are those seven written by a schoolboy practicing his Greek.  And, now, we have a genuine tablet (below) written in the cursive Palmyrene script by a named adult man who had landed on Socotra and entered the Hoq cave.  The extra-large tablet (50 x 20 cm/20"x 8")  must have been made elsewhere for there is no wood on Socotra.  We can imagine that he came with a supply of tablets to use on his journey, making notes or contracts whenever and where they were needed. Socotra was probably the last thing on his mind when he set out from Palmyra on the long, long journey to India (see the map above right; click for a larger picture).  But this is where the monsoon took him, and he left the tablet carefully placed against a stalagmite (below). We don't know who wrote the second tablet, as it fell face down and no writing is preserved; but that, too, had been specially positioned, originally leaning against a small mound with an incense burner on top. Happily, the first tablet is legible ... 



... and this is what it says:

In the month of Tammuz, day 25 of the year 569, I, Abgar, son of Abbshamay, 'navigator' [or 'emissary'], have come here, to the country of Nysy; bless the god who has brought us here, and you, the man who reads this tablet, bless me [us] as well and leave the tablet in this place [where you find it]. 

The date is exact: the 25th day of the Semitic month of Tammuz in the year 569 = July 258 CE.

Who is this Abgar?

Though the odds are hugely against it, there's a very good chance that we know something about Abgar's family.   His father's name Abbshamay means "servant of Heaven", so they were probably worshippers of the Palmyran god, Balshamin (whose small, perfect temple was blown up by ISIS last year).  The name is only known at Palmyra in two inscriptions, both from the tomb of Nasrallât in the southwest necropolis. The inscriptions are dated to 574 (262-263 CE) et 576 (264-265 CE), and both refer to a Julius Aurelius Yedibêl, son of 'Abdshamaya', son of Malkû.  Given the rarity of the family name as well as the closeness in dates, it seems more than likely that Abgar and Yedibêl are related, possibly even brothers.

Alas, it is unlikely that our Abgar made it back to Palmyra.  At least, he seems not to have been buried in the family tomb. Someone so literate that he asks for a blessing from his god on the forgotten island of Socotra, and writes it in a very nice hand, would surely have left a funerary inscription for us to read.  

Even if his god didn't save him, at least those who read his plea left his tablet where he had placed it, just as he had asked them to do. 

You can't ask for more than that on Socotra. 




* Now published in Ingo Strauch [ed.]: Foreign Sailors on Socotra : the Inscriptions and Drawings from the Cave Hoq, Bremen : Ute Hempen Verlag.


Sources and Illustrations

Ch. Robin, Maria Gorea, Les vestiges antiques de la grotte de Hôq (Suqutra, Yémen)
(note d'information).  In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 146e année, N. 2, 2002. pp. 409-445. The blogs The Dark Roasted Blend

Travel to Socotra , Socotra, Dream Island.

Archaeology Magazine

Spain Atxurra cavesATXURRA, SPAIN—The Local reports that archaeologist Diego Garate has found at least 70 paintings of bison, horses, and goats in Spain’s Atxurra caves at a depth of nearly 1,000 feet. Garate says the hunting scenes, spread over 14 panels, are between 12,000 and 14,000 years old. “I have been searching the caves of the Basque Country for ten years and have discovered lots of new caves but none as important as Atxurra,” he said. “It could very well be the cave with the most animal figures in the Basque Country.” One of the images is thought to depict a bison pierced by more than 20 spears. Charcoal and flint tools have also been found in the caves. For more, go to "The First Artists."

Stonehenge moving bluestonesLONDON, ENGLAND—University College London archaeology student Barney Harris and a team of volunteers attempted to drag a 1.1-ton bluestone, lashed to a sycamore sleigh, on a track made of silver birch logs. Their goal was to see how much effort might have been required for Neolithic Britons to move bluestones from the Preseli Mountains in Wales to Stonehenge. Harris thought it would take at least 15 people to transport the heavy load, but he found that ten people were able to pull the stone some ten feet every five seconds, or potentially faster than one mile per hour. The experiment suggests that a group of just 20 Neolithic Britons may have been able to convey a two-ton bluestone over the 140 mile trip. “It’s true that we did the experiment on flat ground, and there would have been steep slopes to navigate when going through the Preseli Mountains, but actually this kind of system works well on rough terrain,” Harris said in a report in The Telegraph. Harris and his team will take the data from the experiment and calculate how long it might have taken to move all of the bluestones to Stonehenge. For more, go to "Quarrying Stonehenge."

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Mapping the Jewish Communities of the Byzantine Empire

First posted in AWOL 24 April 2013, updated  27 May 2016]

Mapping the Jewish Communities of the Byzantine Empire
http://www.mjcb.eu/images/public/logo.jpg 
The project's Web-GIS is now live and accessible at http://www.byzantinejewry.net
The aim of the project is to map the Jewish presence in the Byzantine empire using GIS (Geographical Information Systems).
All information (published and unpublished) about the Jewish communities will be gathered and collated.
The data will be incorporated in a GIS which will be made freely available to the general public on the world-wide-web.
Researchers and members of the public will be able to create maps according to their own specifications.
Chronologically, the project will begin in 650. This is soon after the Arab conquest of Egypt, Palestine and Syria when these regions, with their substantial Jewish populations, were permanently separated from the Byzantine empire. The end-date is fixed by the arrival in the region of large numbers of Jewish immigrants from Spain in 1492.
Geographically, the core areas of Asia Minor, the southern Balkans and the adjacent islands including Crete and Cyprus will be included for the entirety of the period, Byzantine Italy however, will only be covered down to the Norman conquest. Some smaller territories that were only briefly under Byzantine rule may be excluded.

Open Access Journal: Climate of the Past

[First posted in AWOL 16 April 2014, updated  27 May 2016]

Climate of the Past: An Interactive Open Access Journal of the European Geosciences Union
ISSN 1814-9324
eISSN 1814-9332

Climate of the Past (CP) is an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and discussion of research articles, short communications and review papers on the climate history of the Earth. CP covers all temporal scales of climate change and variability, from geological time through to multidecadal studies of the last century. Studies focussing mainly on present and future climate are not within scope.
The main subject areas are:

  • reconstructions of past climate based on instrumental and historical data as well as proxy data from marine and terrestrial (including ice) archives;
  • development and validation of new proxies, improvements of the precision and accuracy of proxy data;
  • theoretical and empirical studies of processes in and feedback mechanisms between all climate system components in relation to past climate change on all space and time scales;
  • simulation of past climate and model-based interpretation of palaeo climate data for a better understanding of present and future climate variability and climate change.

Recent Papers

27 May 2016
Interannual and (multi-)decadal variability in the sedimentary BIT index of Lake Challa, East Africa, over the past 2200 years: assessment of the precipitation proxy
Laura K. Buckles, Dirk Verschuren, Johan W. H. Weijers, Christine Cocquyt, Maarten Blaauw, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Clim. Past, 12, 1243-1262, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1243-2016, 2016
26 May 2016
Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions triggered extreme hydrological events in Europe since AD 1850
Cristina Di Salvo and Gianluca Sottili
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-53, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 0 comments)
25 May 2016
The impact of the North American glacial topography on the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet over the last glacial cycle
Johan Liakka, Marcus Löfverström, and Florence Colleoni
Clim. Past, 12, 1225-1241, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1225-2016, 2016
24 May 2016
Technical note: Estimating unbiased transfer-function performances in spatially structured environments
Mathias Trachsel and Richard J. Telford
Clim. Past, 12, 1215-1223, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1215-2016, 2016
20 May 2016
Palaeoclimatic oscillations in the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) of the Asturian Basin (Northern Spain)
Juan J. Gómez, María J. Comas-Rengifo, and Antonio Goy
Clim. Past, 12, 1199-1214, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1199-2016, 2016
20 May 2016
Palaeogeographic controls on climate and proxy interpretation
Daniel J. Lunt, Alex Farnsworth, Claire Loptson, Gavin L. Foster, Paul Markwick, Charlotte L. O'Brien, Richard D. Pancost, Stuart A. Robinson, and Neil Wrobel
Clim. Past, 12, 1181-1198, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1181-2016, 2016
18 May 2016
Maastrichtian carbon isotope stratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy of the Newfoundland Margin (Site U1403, IODP Leg 342)
Oliver Friedrich, Sietske J. Batenburg, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Silke Voigt, Cécile Cournède, Iris Möbius, Peter Blum, André Bornemann, Jens Fiebig, Takashi Hasegawa, Pincelli M. Hull, Richard D. Norris, Ursula Röhl, Thomas Westerhold, Paul A. Wilson, and IODP Expedition
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-51, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 1 comment)
13 May 2016
Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming
Hemmo A. Abels, Vittoria Lauretano, Anna E. van Yperen, Tarek Hopman, James C. Zachos, Lucas J. Lourens, Philip D. Gingerich, and Gabriel J. Bowen
Clim. Past, 12, 1151-1163, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1151-2016, 2016
13 May 2016
A high-altitude peatland record of environmental changes in the NW Argentine Andes (24 ° S) over the last 2100 years
Karsten Schittek, Sebastian T. Kock, Andreas Lücke, Jonathan Hense, Christian Ohlendorf, Julio J. Kulemeyer, Liliana C. Lupo, and Frank Schäbitz
Clim. Past, 12, 1165-1180, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1165-2016, 2016
11 May 2016
Spatial climate dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula since 15 000 yr BP
Pedro Tarroso, José Carrión, Miriam Dorado-Valiño, Paula Queiroz, Luisa Santos, Ana Valdeolmillos-Rodríguez, Paulo Célio Alves, José Carlos Brito, and Rachid Cheddadi
Clim. Past, 12, 1137-1149, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1137-2016, 2016
10 May 2016
Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine
O. J. Maselli, N. J. Chellman, M. Grieman, L. Layman, J. R. McConnell, D. Pasteris, R. H. Rhodes, E. Saltzman, and M. Sigl
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-49, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 0 comments)
09 May 2016
Sensitivity of Pliocene climate simulations in MRI-CGCM2.3 to respective boundary conditions
Youichi Kamae, Kohei Yoshida, and Hiroaki Ueda
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-50, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 0 comments)
04 May 2016
Effects of melting ice sheets and orbital forcing on the early Holocene warming in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere
Yurui Zhang, Hans Renssen, and Heikki Seppä
Clim. Past, 12, 1119-1135, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1119-2016, 2016
03 May 2016
French summer droughts since 1326 CE: a reconstruction based on tree ring cellulose δ18O
Inga Labuhn, Valérie Daux, Olivier Girardclos, Michel Stievenard, Monique Pierre, and Valérie Masson-Delmotte
Clim. Past, 12, 1101-1117, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1101-2016, 2016
29 Apr 2016
Technical note: The Linked Paleo Data framework – a common tongue for paleoclimatology
Nicholas P. McKay and Julien Emile-Geay
Clim. Past, 12, 1093-1100, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1093-2016, 2016
27 Apr 2016
The effect of greenhouse gas concentrations and ice sheets on the glacial AMOC in a coupled climate model
Marlene Klockmann, Uwe Mikolajewicz, and Jochem Marotzke
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-46, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 1 comment)
26 Apr 2016
A Late Pleistocene sea level stack
Rachel M. Spratt and Lorraine E. Lisiecki
Clim. Past, 12, 1079-1092, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1079-2016, 2016
26 Apr 2016
Local artifacts in ice core methane records caused by layered bubble trapping and in situ production: a multi-site investigation
Rachael H. Rhodes, Xavier Faïn, Edward J. Brook, Joseph R. McConnell, Olivia J. Maselli, Michael Sigl, Jon Edwards, Christo Buizert, Thomas Blunier, Jérôme Chappellaz, and Johannes Freitag
Clim. Past, 12, 1061-1077, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1061-2016, 2016
26 Apr 2016
Greenland warming during the last interglacial: the relative importance of insolation and oceanic changes
Rasmus A. Pedersen, Peter L. Langen, and Bo M. Vinther
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-48, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 1 comment)
25 Apr 2016
Changes in Holocene meridional circulation and poleward Atlantic flow: the Bay of Biscay as a nodal point
Yannick Mary, Frédérique Eynaud, Christophe Colin, Linda Rossignol, Sandra Brocheray, Meryem Mojtahid, Jennifer Garcia, Marion Peral, Hélène Howa, Sébastien Zaragosi, and Michel Cremer
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-32, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 4 comments)
22 Apr 2016
A 413-year tree-ring based April-July minimum temperature reconstruction and its implications on the extreme climate events, northeast China
S. Lyu, Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and X. Wang
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-38, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 2 comments)
21 Apr 2016
Climate change and ecosystems dynamics over the last 6000 years in the Middle Atlas, Morocco
Majda Nourelbait, Ali Rhoujjati, Abdelfattah Benkaddour, Matthieu Carré, Frederique Eynaud, Philippe Martinez, and Rachid Cheddadi
Clim. Past, 12, 1029-1042, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1029-2016, 2016
21 Apr 2016
Climate variability and long-term expansion of peatlands in Arctic Norway during the late Pliocene (ODP Site 642, Norwegian Sea)
Sina Panitz, Ulrich Salzmann, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, and Matthew J. Pound
Clim. Past, 12, 1043-1060, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1043-2016, 2016
18 Apr 2016
Ocean carbon cycling during the past 130,000 years – a pilot study on inverse paleoclimate record modelling
Christoph Heinze, Babette Hoogakker, and Arne Winguth
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-35, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 1 comment)
15 Apr 2016
Major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and photosymbiont-bearing planktic foraminifera during the early Eocene
Valeria Luciani, Gerald R. Dickens, Jan Backman, Eliana Fornaciari, Luca Giusberti, Claudia Agnini, and Roberta D'Onofrio
Clim. Past, 12, 981-1007, doi:10.5194/cp-12-981-2016, 2016
15 Apr 2016
The influence of volcanic eruptions on the climate of tropical South America during the last millennium in an isotope-enabled general circulation model
Christopher M. Colose, Allegra N. LeGrande, and Mathias Vuille
Clim. Past, 12, 961-979, doi:10.5194/cp-12-961-2016, 2016
15 Apr 2016
The biogeophysical climatic impacts of anthropogenic land use change during the Holocene
M. Clare Smith, Joy S. Singarayer, Paul J. Valdes, Jed O. Kaplan, and Nicholas P. Branch
Clim. Past, 12, 923-941, doi:10.5194/cp-12-923-2016, 2016
15 Apr 2016
The link between marine sediment records and changes in Holocene Saharan landscape: simulating the dust cycle
Sabine Egerer, Martin Claussen, Christian Reick, and Tanja Stanelle
Clim. Past, 12, 1009-1027, doi:10.5194/cp-12-1009-2016, 2016
15 Apr 2016
The Last Glacial Maximum in the central North Island, New Zealand: palaeoclimate inferences from glacier modelling
Shaun R. Eaves, Andrew N. Mackintosh, Brian M. Anderson, Alice M. Doughty, Dougal B. Townsend, Chris E. Conway, Gisela Winckler, Joerg M. Schaefer, Graham S. Leonard, and Andrew T. Calvert
Clim. Past, 12, 943-960, doi:10.5194/cp-12-943-2016, 2016
15 Apr 2016
Sea ice led to poleward-shifted winds at the Last Glacial Maximum: the influence of state dependency on CMIP5 and PMIP3 models
Louise C. Sime, Dominic Hodgson, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Claire Allen, Bianca Perren, Stephen Roberts, and Agatha M. de Boer
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-43, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 2 comments)
11 Apr 2016
Palaeo-sea-level and palaeo-ice-sheet databases: problems, strategies, and perspectives
André Düsterhus, Alessio Rovere, Anders E. Carlson, Benjamin P. Horton, Volker Klemann, Lev Tarasov, Natasha L. M. Barlow, Tom Bradwell, Jorie Clark, Andrea Dutton, W. Roland Gehrels, Fiona D. Hibbert, Marc P. Hijma, Nicole Khan, Robert E. Kopp, Dorit Sivan, and Torbjörn E. Törnqvist
Clim. Past, 12, 911-921, doi:10.5194/cp-12-911-2016, 2016
11 Apr 2016
Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section)
Claudia Agnini, David J. A. Spofforth, Gerald R. Dickens, Domenico Rio, Heiko Pälike, Jan Backman, Giovanni Muttoni, and Edoardo Dallanave
Clim. Past, 12, 883-909, doi:10.5194/cp-12-883-2016, 2016
11 Apr 2016
Spring temperature variability over Turkey since 1800 CE reconstructed from a broad network of tree-ring data
Nesibe Köse, H. Tuncay Güner, Grant L. Harley, and Joel Guiot
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2015-195, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 3 comments)
08 Apr 2016
The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O
Qing Wang, Houyun Zhou, Ke Cheng, Hong Chi, Chuan-Chou Shen, Changshan Wang, and Qianqian Ma
Clim. Past, 12, 871-881, doi:10.5194/cp-12-871-2016, 2016
07 Apr 2016
Constraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopes
April N. Abbott, Brian A. Haley, Aradhna K. Tripati, and Martin Frank
Clim. Past, 12, 837-847, doi:10.5194/cp-12-837-2016, 2016
07 Apr 2016
Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach
Mercè Cisneros, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Miquel Canals, Pere Masqué, Belen Martrat, Marta Casado, Joan O. Grimalt, Leopoldo D. Pena, Giulia Margaritelli, and Fabrizio Lirer
Clim. Past, 12, 849-869, doi:10.5194/cp-12-849-2016, 2016
07 Apr 2016
Late Pleistocene to Holocene climate and limnological changes at Lake Karakul (Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan)
Liv Heinecke, Steffen Mischke, Karsten Adler, Anja Barth, Boris K. Biskaborn, Birgit Plessen, Ingmar Nitze, Gerhard Kuhn, Ilhomjon Rajabov, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-34, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 4 comments)
06 Apr 2016
Revisiting carbonate chemistry controls on planktic foraminifera Mg /  Ca: implications for sea surface temperature and hydrology shifts over the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum and Eocene–Oligocene transition
David Evans, Bridget S. Wade, Michael Henehan, Jonathan Erez, and Wolfgang Müller
Clim. Past, 12, 819-835, doi:10.5194/cp-12-819-2016, 2016
06 Apr 2016
Summer-temperature evolution on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Far East, during the past 20,000 years
Vera D. Meyer, Jens Hefter, Gerrit Lohmann, Ralf Tiedemann, and Gesine Mollenhauer
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-21, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 0 comments)
06 Apr 2016
Chemical composition of soluble and insoluble particles around the last termination preserved in the Dome C ice core, inland Antarctica
Ikumi Oyabu, Yoshinori Iizuka, Eric Wolff, and Margareta Hansson
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-42, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 2 comments)
06 Apr 2016
Wind regimes during the Last Glacial Maximum and early Holocene: evidence from Little Llangothlin Lagoon, New England Tableland, eastern Australia
James Shulmeister, Justine Kemp, Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons, and Allen Gontz
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-41, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 3 comments)
05 Apr 2016
Model simulations of early westward flow across the Tasman Gateway during the early Eocene
Willem P. Sijp, Anna S. von der Heydt, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 12, 807-817, doi:10.5194/cp-12-807-2016, 2016
01 Apr 2016
Solar modulation of flood frequency in central Europe during spring and summer on interannual to multi-centennial timescales
Markus Czymzik, Raimund Muscheler, and Achim Brauer
Clim. Past, 12, 799-805, doi:10.5194/cp-12-799-2016, 2016
31 Mar 2016
Terrigenous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco, 14° S) during the last 1000 years: paleoclimatic implications
Francisco Javier Briceño-Zuluaga, Abdelfettah Sifeddine, Sandrine Caquineau, Jorge Cardich, Renato Salvatteci, Dimitri Gutierrez, Luc Ortlieb, Federico Velazco, Hugues Boucher, and Carine Machado
Clim. Past, 12, 787-798, doi:10.5194/cp-12-787-2016, 2016
30 Mar 2016
The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0–31 ka BP)
Michael Sigl, Tyler J. Fudge, Mai Winstrup, Jihong Cole-Dai, David Ferris, Joseph R. McConnell, Ken C. Taylor, Kees C. Welten, Thomas E. Woodruff, Florian Adolphi, Marion Bisiaux, Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert, Marc W. Caffee, Nelia W. Dunbar, Ross Edwards, Lei Geng, Nels Iverson, Bess Koffman, Lawrence Layman, Olivia J. Maselli, Kenneth McGwire, Raimund Muscheler, Kunihiko Nishiizumi, Daniel R. Pasteris, Rachael H. Rhodes, and Todd A. Sowers
Clim. Past, 12, 769-786, doi:10.5194/cp-12-769-2016, 2016
30 Mar 2016
Extreme flood events reconstruction during the last century in the El Bibane lagoon (Southeast of Tunisia): A Multi-proxy Approach
A. Affouri, L. Dezileau, and N. Kallel
Clim. Past Discuss., doi:10.5194/cp-2016-40, 2016
Manuscript under review for CP (discussion: open, 1 comment)

Dienekes' Anthropology Blog

The great migration of African Americans

PLoS Genet 12(5): e1006059. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006059

The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity
Soheil Baharian et al.

We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

Link

Ancient Peoples

Tomb Guardian (Zhenmushou), one of a pair placed facing outward...







Tomb Guardian (Zhenmushou), one of a pair placed facing outward at the entrance to a coffin chamber (31 cm / 12 in high)  

China, mid-to-late 6th century

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

ArcheoNet BE

Europadag: Archeologie… in het labo!

Tijdens de Europadag, de opendeurdag van de Europese Commissie, vindt morgen zaterdag ook een interessante archeologische activiteit plaats, georganiseerd door de Archaeology, Conservation and Paleontology Interdisciplinary Group (ArCPIG). In het Berlaymont-gebouw ontdek je hoe archeologen en natuurwetenschappers samenwerken om ons verleden beter te begrijpen. Deze activiteit is in de eerste plaats gericht op kinderen en leken. Meer informatie op europeday.europa.eu.

Anthropology.net

Neanderthal, The Interior Cave Decorator

Bruniquel cave in southwestern France. (Etienne FABRE – SSAC)

Bruniquel cave in southwestern France. (Etienne FABRE – SSAC)

A pile of hundreds of broken stalagmite pieces found deep inside Bruniquel cave, France were made by humans from about 176,000 years ago. The ancient structures are actually made of more than 400 pieces of stalagmites, located about 300 meters from the cave’s entrance. All the stones are similarly sized, piled up, and arranged in two circles. The researchers also found signs of fire on the structures, as well as burned bone fragments. By analyzing the stalagmites as well as the calcite that grew on top of them, the researchers were able to date the site to about 176,500 years ago. At that time, only Neanderthals lived in Europe.

The findings were published earlier this week in Nature and indicate Neanderthals were creating complex structures way before modern humans arrived in Europe. The only other known remnants of Neanderthal constructions are disputed and they date no later than 50,000 years ago.

Xavier MUTH - Get in Situ, Archéotransfert, Archéovision – SHS-3D, base photographique Pascal Mora A 3D reconstruction of the structures.

Xavier MUTH – Get in Situ, Archéotransfert, Archéovision – SHS-3D, base photographique Pascal Mora A 3D reconstruction of the structures.

This week’s study, shows that Neanderthals built structures so complex that they resemble those made by modern humans. This evidence adds to the theory that Neanderthals were very intelligent and supplement that their behaviors weren’t that far off from modern modern humans. For example, we already knew before they performed symbolic burials, made beautiful cave art and made musical instruments. For individuals to create structures like the ones in the Bruniquel cave they had to have to have some sort of lighting apparatus inside a pitch dark cave, it also required forethought, it required planning and organization so that you can actually do that, like break the stalagmites and erect the structures.

These structures could represent some kind of symbolic or ritual behaviors, but we won’t really know, but what is interesting is that Neanderthals had enough social capacity to be making these amazing structures nearly 175,000 years ago. Isn’t that remarkable?


Filed under: Archaeology, Blog Tagged: Archaeology, france, Neanderthal

José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

Elementary OS mola mogollón...

…lo usan en la China, también en el Japón. Es una distribución Linux ideal para usuarios de Macintosh, que le hace a uno sentirse como en casa. Después de ocho años de uso intensivo, mi MacBook empieza a no poder abrir y manejar con soltura las actuales páginas web cargadas de código y scripts. Se ha hecho viejo. Y, sin embargo, chuta, así que antes que comprar uno nuevo, le he instalado Elemenatry OS, y estoy como un niño con zapatos nuevos. Y sin piratear, ni comprar nada.

Aunque viene niquelado de fábrica, lo he configurado a mi gusto: he activado el escritorio, que en origen es impracticable, he instalado LibreOffice 5, Firefox, Chromium, Entangle, Transmission, Filezilla, Videolan, Steam, y lo que te rondaré morena. No le he instalado antivirus, ni antispyware, ni congelador, porque ¿pa qué? ¡Ay, qué risa me da cuando me río!

Captura de pantalla de elementary OS

Aquí un pantallazo. Escribe en griego politónico, reproduce pelis… Insisto: gratis y molón. Lo usa mi mulata con las bragas en la mano.

Cruzo los dedos para desear larga vida a elementary, y yo que lo vea. Por lo pronto ya he publicado este artículo con él. Y entretanto, dicen los periódicos que los coordinadores TIC de Aragón semos piratas malos porque ya no tenemos dinero ni ganas de seguir dando de comer al chico ese de Windows.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Reenchantment after Skepticism

Richard Beck has been blogging about the process of daring to doubt, question, and bring one’s facile assumptions crashing down to the ground. And he is blogging about what happens after that. There are alternatives to merely living amid the rubble. If doubt can play a crucial role in relation to faith, it is too [Read More...]

Scott Moore (Ancient History Ramblings)

Last Friday in Polis

IMG_0503Things are winding down in Polis for 2016 for me – we leave Sunday for a week of work at PKAP in Larnaka. I finished looking at pottery yesterday, both pieces in the museum and what we had stored at the apotheke. I spent some time today tidying up my work area, which is something I always need to do since I am not by nature a tidy person. This involved making sure that all the trays of pottery I had pulled to look at were put back….and in the right space. I always find trays I pulled so that I could look at the tray behind them sort of scattered around the apotheke. So, there were more trays than I expected that needed to be put back, and the trays that had been put up earlier were sort of out of order and needed to be rearranged. And most of these trays had to be put back on the top racks, which meant using the ladder. Then I gathered up all the pottery I pulled for drawing and illustrating next year and collected them into two trays which I labeled and stored near my work area. Finally, I created a box of materials to be stored here until next year. This is not much stuff (extra graph paper, power cord, extra calipers), but I wish it could be – then I could carry less stuff around with me. Not much else to report other than it looked like rain for a while with really dark clouds passing over. Since I wanted to include a second picture in the post, this is the restaurant we ate at last night – the Polis Herb Garden Restaurant. It has a nice area filled with herbs that they light up at night with a fountain and a stream that has lights floating in it – very picturesque.

IMG_0498

RSM


Archaeological Institute of America blogs

AIA Tours’ “Israel: Treasures of the Holy Land” program, May 2016

Description: 
W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem.

One of the highlights of our archaeological tour of Israel was a visit to the W. F.

AMIR: Access to Mideast and Islamic Resources

History of Serial Novels in Turkish Literature (1831-1928)


http://tefrikaroman.ozyegin.edu.tr/proje-hakkinda


History of Serial Novels in Turkish Literature (1831-1928)

"The main aim of our Project which is supported by TÜBİTAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) is to examine at least 150 newspaper and magazines that were published in Arabic based alphabet in the period 1831-1928, in order to find out and record the serial novels published in these periodicals. By the data that will be collected through the examination and scanning of the periodicals a database is going to be generated. Researchers can access this database from eResearch@ozyegin repository that is located under Ozyegin University Library from 1 January 2017 onwards. Database will provide opportunity to achieve information about the uploaded works on the basis of chronology, author, and periodical.

Another aim of the project is discovering novels and novelists that are not mentioned in literary histories or gone into oblivion in the pages of newspapers, and adding their names to the literary history. Discovery of new names and novels on the one hand enriches Turkish literature; on the other hand it also makes re-evaluation of Turkish novel history indispensible. Therefore when the project is finalized the history of Turkish literature up to 1928 would have the chance to be assessed with a new perspective including the sociological and political analysis."
The database will be available on 1 January 2017. eresearch.ozyegin.edu.tr/xmlui/

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

'Bones' Season 11, Episode 17 Review: The Secret In The Service

A biological anthropologist reviews Season 11, Episode 17 (The Secret in the Service) of FOX's 'Bones,' summarizing the episode and looking for errors.

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Assisi: in 10 lingue l'app per visitare la Basilica Papale e il Sacro Convento di San Francesco

Anche la Basilica di San Francesco ad Assisi ha la sua app multimediale per smartphone dedicata alla visita dell'intero complesso della Basilica: la Chiesa Inferiore, la Cappella di San Martino, la Cappella della Maddalena e la Chiesa Superiore. L'applicazione è stata realizzata dalla società D'Uva in collaborazione con i frati del Sacro Convento di Assisi per fornire a pellegrini e turisti uno strumento di visita ricco di contenuti.

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

Aristotelian Skepticism: Is It Really His Tomb?

One of the things you get used to when you’re blogging things about the ancient world is that whenever there is some significant date for some significant ancient figure coming up, you can pretty much be sure that there will be some major — and usually ill-supported — discovery tied somehow to that event. Most commonly, e.g., the Easter season will bring claims about the discovery of ossuaries with Jesus or Mary’s name on them, or nails from the crucifixion being found, or the Shroud of Turin being proven authentic, yadda yadda yadda. In this case, 2016 marks the 2400th anniversary of the birth of Aristotle and there currently is the annual Aristotle World Congress going on at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. So if there’s going to be a major discovery announced about Aristotle, the smart money would suggest this year at this conference would be the best bet.

And so it was only moderately surprising when yesterday afternoon, my Greek press newsfeed started a trickle of news about the purported discovery of Aristotle’s tomb at Stagira. The first Greek coverage that popped in my box actually was pretty informative:

Culling (via google Translate) the information, we were told:

  • a Hellenistic structure was found in Stagira back in 1996 which had been incorporated into a later Byzantine structure
  • archaeologist Kostas Sismanidis presented a paper at the above-mentioned conference, citing a ‘convergence’ of archaeological and literary evidence
  • then again, he’s quoted as saying “Δεν έχουμε αποδείξεις αλλά ισχυρότατες ενδείξεις – φθάνουν σχεδόν στη βεβαιότητα.” (no definite proof … hmmm)
  • coins dating from the time of Alexander helped to date the structure
  • there is also mention of ‘royal pottery’ roof tiles
  • literary sources include “manuscript 257 of the Bibliotheca Marciana and an Arabic biography of Aristotle”
  • according to the literary sources:
    • after his death at Chalcis (322), the people of Stagira brought his ashes back in a bronze urn
    • they were placed in an above-ground tomb in the city, and an altar was placed next to it
    • the place was called the Aristoteleion
    • an annual festival/competition was established called Aristoteleia

Interestingly, subsequent Greek press coverage scaled back the coverage markedly, but did repeat the mention of the lack of convincing evidence. See, e.g., the Skai coverage, which includes:

Αν και δεν υπάρχουν αδιάσειστες αποδείξεις ότι πρόκειται για τον τάφο του Αριστοτέλη, πολυετείς έρευνες έχουν δώσει πληθώρα ισχυρών ενδείξεων ότι το μνημείο ταυτίζεται πλέον με τον σταγειρίτη φιλόσοφο.

AP was first with the English coverage and clearly they didn’t think much of the story. They came out with a very brief item with very sparse information about the actual find. As seen in the Stamford Advocate, there were only two paragraphs of interest, really:

Konstantinos Sismanidis concedes that he has “no proof but just strong indications” to back up his theory, presented Thursday at a conference marking the 2,400th anniversary of the philosopher’s birth.

[…] Sismanidis said the structure unearthed in the ruins of Stageira, 70 kilometers (43 miles) east of Thessaloniki, was once a public monument where Aristotle was honored after his death. No human remains were found there.

… there was also mention of “medieval references” about Aristotle’s remains being transferred to Stagira.

Then Greek Reporter was on the case, and their written report includes this useful video with a reconstruction of the ‘tomb’, which looks nothing at all like a tomb and for most of us I suspect the initial reaction is that is a Byzantine structure:

More photos can be found in the accompanying news article:

As coverage continued to pour in over the course of the day yesterday, I found it very interesting that nothing had appeared on the Greek Ministry of Culture site yet. All of the press coverage included the line about Sismanidis saying he had ‘no definite proof’ but the story was spreading. The Guardian’s coverage added a titillating bit of detail:

The claim was welcomed by Greece’s culture ministry; a senior aide to the minister, Aristides Baltas, said the academic community was awaiting further details.

“A team of independent archaeologists with no connection to a particular school or department have been working at the site,” the official told the Guardian. “What we know is that their excavation has been meticulous and we await further details with great anticipation.”

So Sismanidis is not actually affiliated with a university. That’s usually an alarm bell for me but it does appear he is somehow associated with the 16th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, so maybe that alarm bell should be silenced.

At this point, I was wondering about the tales of the people of Stagira bringing Aristotle’s remains back after his death. This clearly came from some literary source and I was — and continue to be — unclear about the ‘medieval biography’. Some discussion on the Classics International facebook group didn’t really clear it up for me and my brain continued to have issues trying to process the archaeologist’s claims of no certain proof along with claims that the people of Stagira not only brought Aristotle’s ashes back, but established a festival (which festival I couldn’t find any record of). But the coverage continued to build, and some of the more reputable press outlets were adding credibility to the claim:

And so it was with great interest that this morning’s feed from the Greek press brought a very interesting article from To Bema (To Vima?):

Paraphrasing via Google translate again:

  • the item (which seems to be an oped piece on the politics page) shows how the find has already been politicized (and in competition somehow with Amphipolis)
    • perhaps connected with gold mining activities nearby (maybe not)
    • probably connected with competition between Macedonian archaeologists
    • announcement made at a conference where it could not be really questioned as it would if published in a journal (I think that’s the gist)
  • in regards to the interpretation, it all hinges on the claim that the people of Stagira brought Aristotle’s ashes back
  • other archaeologists are looking for a dedicatory inscription of some sort

So … if we’re hanging the identification on claims of a return of ashes, one thing I’d really like to know when this return of ashes is supposed to have happened. I tried to track down assorted biographies of Aristotle and came up empty (which means they’re not readily available on the web, near as I can tell). What also bothers me is the actual claim that he was cremated, which doesn’t strike me as being what he expected to happen after his death. In his will, e.g., which is in Diogenes Laertius, we read provisions for the remains of his wife Pythias:

ὅπου δ᾽ἂν ποιῶνται τὴν ταφήν, ἐνταῦθα καὶ τὰ Πυθιάδος ὀστᾶ ἀνελόνταςθεῖναι, ὥσπερ αὐτὴ προσέταξεν: ἀναθεῖναι δὲ καὶ Νικάνορασωθέντα, ἣν εὐχὴν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ηὐξάμην, ζῷα λίθινα τετραπήχη Διὶσωτῆρι καὶ Ἀθηνᾷ σωτείρᾳ ἐν Σταγείροις.”

And wherever they bury me, there the bones of Pythias shall be laid, in accordance with her own instructions. And to commemorate Nicanor’s safe return, as I vowed on his behalf, they shall set up in Stagira stone statues of life size to Zeus and Athena the Saviours.

Not sure if ‘the bones of’ is just an expression, but this sounds more like he expected a an interment situation for Pythias (and by implication, perhaps for himself) rather than cremation — but I might be reading too much into that.

What also continues to bother me is an item in Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine from May-October of 1892, specifically an article by entitled The Finding of the Tomb of Aristotle by Charles Waldstein. It’s an incredibly chatty piece and will probably remind many of those grad student situations where you were invited to a prof’s house for dinner and he/she regaled you with long (but interesting) tales of their adventures digging somewhere.

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.23.18 AM

In any event, Waldstein has a good Classical academic pedigree (and, incidentally, was one of the early advocates for excavating Herculaneum) so his claims — which don’t appear to have been accepted — should be taken into account if nothing else. I’ll leave it to you to follow the link above to read the actual article, but just as a tease, here are a couple of the images included in the article:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.24.13 AM.png

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.25.02 AM

Also interesting, was this statue find — which Waldstein actually downplays in the piece:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.25.32 AM.png

Most interesting is mention of an inscription:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.44.11 AM

Of course, we do not know of any daughter of Aristotle named Biote, which is probably why this was not accepted as being his tomb. Even so, the final lines of the article are interesting from a nihil novum point of view:

Screen Shot 2016-05-27 at 10.30.53 AM

So whatever has been found at Stagira, there is a long tradition of claiming lack of definite proof, but still making the claim anyway. I suspect the claim made by Sismanidis will be similarly met with skepticism by the scholarly community, unless a rather more tangible connection to Aristotle can be made.


American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

«Έκφρασις πανεξαίρετος του κήπου». Κήποι στο βυζαντινό μυθιστόρημα

Σεμινάριο στο πλαίσιο της έκθεσης "Flora Graeca" πραγματοποιήθηκε την Πέμπτη26 Μαΐου στην αίθουσα Μανδύλα της Γενναδείου Βιβλιοθήκης.

Dorothy Burr Thompson: Landscape Photography, 1923-1939

Dorothy Burr Thompson. Φωτογραφίζοντας το τοπίο: Φωτογραφίες 1923-1939.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeologists and geographers team to predict locations of ancient Buddhist sites

For archaeologists and historians interested in the ancient politics, religion and language of the...

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Report on Dublin DSS workshop

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/Q5MgxwsZQgM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Carta Jerusalem Atlases

I am very grateful that Carta Jerusalem sent me several of their atlases to review: In The Master's Steps: The Gospels in the Land, Jerusalem: City of the Great King, and Understanding the Jewish World from Roman to Byzantine Times. I suspect that anyone who is interested in the Bible owns an atlas if not [Read More...]

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Vanderbilt Symposium

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/aQro0vrlwbk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Scuola di Computer Graphics per i Beni Culturali 2016

La dodicesima Scuola di Computer Graphics per i Beni Culturali si terrà presso la sede del CINECA a Bologna dal 10 al 14 ottobre 2016 sul tema "Cultural heritage, dalla modellazione allo Smart 3D web. Strumenti open tra ricerca e comunicazione".

ArcheoNet BE

Restauratie en herwaardering van het monumentale station van Leuven

In het recentste nummer van het tijdschrift ‘M&L – Monumenten, Landschappen & Archeologie’ (jaargang 35, nr. 2) – het tweede nummer uitgegeven door die Keure – is een interessante bijdrage opgenomen over de restauratie en herwaardering van het Leuvense treinstation. Om het station aan te passen aan de noden van het moderne reizigersvervoer, was meer nodig dan een facelift.

Dieter Nuytten en Ben Janssens tonen aan dat met veel creativiteit, historische kennis, materiaaltechnisch vooronderzoek en respect voor erfgoedwaarden een eeuwenoud stationsgebouw aan al deze noden kan voldoen en daarbij haar rol als markant perspectiefgebouw in het stadslandschap kan blijven spelen. De lang onder verlaagde plafonds verborgen interieuraankleding deed hierbij een verrassend wederoptreden. De oorspronkelijke inrichting vertelt overigens een stukje sociale geschiedenis uit de tijd dat er nog een eerste, tweede en derde klasse bestond, met eigen wachtzalen en loketten.

Dit nummer van ‘M&L’ biedt ook een bijdrage over Lode De Barsée, de grondlegger van de Antwerpse monumentenzorg in de decennia na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. De Barsée speelde een niet te onderschatten rol in de evolutie van het inzicht en de praktijk van de stedelijke monumentenzorg, in een periode waarin stadssanering bijna synoniem was voor slopen. Tijdens de jaren 1960 werd, mee door de niet aflatende inbreng van De Barsée, de basis gelegd voor een meer wetenschappelijke, interdisciplinaire en historisch onderbouwde erfgoedzorg. Julie Verhelst volgt De Barsée tijdens zijn lange loopbaan en beschrijft zijn verwezenlijkingen, zijn publicaties en zijn persoonlijke evolutie tot ‘moderne’ erfgoedzorger.

Een derde artikel is gewijd aan het naoorlogse restauratieproject van de glasramen van Michel Martens in de O.L.V.-kerk in Nieuwpoort. Kunstglazenier Martens is bekend voor zijn vooruitstrevende glasontwerpen. Na zijn figuratieve beginperiode evolueerde hij geleidelijk naar een totale abstractie. Minder bekend echter is zijn rol bij de restauratie van glasramen in de wederopbouwperiode na WO II. Zsuzsanna Böröcz belicht het naoorlogse restauratieproject van de glasramen van neogotieker Gust Ladon in de kerk van Nieuwpoort. Martens respecteerde de ontwerpen van zijn voorganger, maar voegde er zijn typische gekleurde vlakken aan toe.

Zoals steeds bevat het tijdschrift ook een interessante ‘M&L-krant’ met besprekingen van nieuwe publicaties, tentoonstellingen en studiedagen.

Praktisch: het tweemaandelijkse tijdschrift ‘M&L’ is een uitgave van die Keure. Een abonnement kost 45 euro en kan besteld worden via diekeure.be.

The Stoa Consortium

Book launch invitation: Teaching, Knowledge Exchange & Public Engagement

We would like to invite you to a launch event on June 10th, with the Institute of Classical Studies and Ubiquity Press, for the recently published volume:

Bodard G. & Romanello M. 2016. Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber: Teaching, Knowledge Exchange & Public Engagement. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/bat

A limited number of print copies of the book will be available to view and purchase, and several authors will be present to discuss their chapters and the work as a whole. Wine and refreshments will be provided.

18:00 Friday June 10, 2016
2nd floor lobby, south block, Senate House, Malet St, London WC1E 7HU
(Note this event follows the Digital Classicist seminar, 16:30 room 234, see digitalclassicist.org/wip/wip2016.html)

Please also feel free to display or circulate the attached poster.

We hope to see many of you there!

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Diarna and the Jobar Synagogue

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/EQoGrJxrqsU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Genetic analysis of an ancient Carthaginian

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/ssH668DlbJI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Il restauro italiano a Sofia: dalle superfici decorate agli edifici storici

A Sofia il 30 maggio al Museo Archeologico e il  31 maggio all’Accademia di Belle Arti è in programma seminario “Conservare e restaurare la materia: dalle superfici decorate agli edifici storici" durante il quale verrà presentata l'esperienza italiana nel restauro. Il seminario darà spazio alle prospettive di collaborazione tra l'Italia e la Bulgaria nel settore del restauro e della conservazione "per valorizzare il ricchissimo patrimonio archeologico e artistico bulgaro.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Translations of 1 Enoch

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/fFNA9agF5WA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2016.05.39: Cosmologies et cosmogonies dans la littérature antique: huit exposés suivis de discussions et d’un epilogue. Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique, 61

Review of Pascale Derron, Cosmologies et cosmogonies dans la littérature antique: huit exposés suivis de discussions et d’un epilogue. Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique, 61. Vandœuvres: 2015. Pp. x, 355. CHF 75.00. ISBN 9782600007610.

2016.05.38: L’éducation dans le monde romain: du début de la République à la mort de Commode. Antiquité synthèses, 16

Review of Catherine Wolff, L’éducation dans le monde romain: du début de la République à la mort de Commode. Antiquité synthèses, 16. Paris: 2015. Pp. 271. €39.00. ISBN 9782708409934.

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Scuola Nazionale Scienza e Beni Culturali dall'Analisi Non Invasiva alla Ricostruzione 3D

Aperte le iscrizioni alla Scuola Nazionale di "Scienza e Beni Culturali dall'Analisi Non Invasiva alla Ricostruzione 3D” che si svolgerà a Messina-Valle d’Agrò (sito archeologico Scifì) dal 19 al 23 Settembre 2016. La Scuola è promossa dal Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche e Informatiche, Scienze Fisiche e Scienze della Terra (MIFT) dell'Università degli Studi di Messina. È rivolta a fisici, chimici, geologi, geofisici, archeologi ed operatori nel campo della conservazione e del restauro dei beni culturali, in possesso almeno di laurea triennale.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

IAPN and PNG Protection Assistance Scheme (PAS)


Bemused IAPN President
Here is this morning's joint announcement by the International Association of Professional Numismatists and the Professional Numismatic Guild about the introduction of their Protection Assistance Scheme (PAS) for archaeological sites in source countries to which their lobbyist made reference at yesterday's CPAC meeting (IAPN and PNG Statement on Greek MOU).
IAPN and PNG join 88% of the public comments posted on the regulations.gov website that express concerns about the MOU’s restrictions on ancient coins exported.  Rather than overbroad restrictions on imports into the USA that adversely impact Americans interested in ancient culture, after much thought the IAPN and PNG propose modest steps that, as people interested in ancient culture, we all can take to preserve sites. What we propose is:
1) that vulnerable sites are monitored when they are not being excavated in the long off-season and 
2) ensuring local people around them are paid a fair living wage so they don’t have an incentive to loot to help make ends meet.
We hold that simple steps like these could do far more to help protect the World’s cultural patrimony than prohibitions on imports that only hurt legitimate collecting and people to people contacts and appreciation of ancient culture it engenders.
To that end we intend to start two pilot schemes as a catalyst to encourage others to follow our model. We propose in 2016-7 to issue 800 Site Protection Assistance Scheme (SPAS) grants to security firms and local families to show the effectiveness of our proposal. We hope that this will encourage other organizations to enter the scheme. Applications are invited from interested commercial security firms and local families local to prolific archaeological sites for IAPN and PNG's SPAS grants. Families must demonstrate that they fall below the Federal Poverty Threshold and state what they consider to be a fair living wage. The pilot scheme will be restricted to countries of the Old World which produced ancient coins and which have an GNP per capita below 40000 USD.
A letter of application should be submitted by Jun 30 2016 to the offices of the President of the IAPN: Arne Kirsch SINCONA AG, Limmatquai 112, CH-8001 Zürich or the offices of the Executive Director of the PNG: Robert Brueggeman Executive Director 28441 Rancho California Rd., Suite 106 Temecula, CA 92590

وبابوا نيو غينيا الانضمام التعليقات العامة على الموقع الشبكي اللوائح التي تعبر عن القلق بشأن القيود المفروضة على مذكرة التفاهم على العملات القديمة تصديرها ونبسب؛ بدلا من القيود الفضفاضة على الواردات في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية التي تؤثر سلبا على الأميركيين المهتمين في الثقافة القديمة، وبعد الكثير من التفكير ووبابوا نيو غينيا اقتراح الخطوات المتواضعة التي، كما المهتمين في الثقافة القديمة، ونحن جميعا يمكن أن تتخذ للحفاظ على المواقع. ما نقترحه هو:1) أن يتم رصد المواقع المعرضة للخطر عندما لا يتم حفرها هم في موسمها طويلة و2) ضمان تدفع السكان المحليين حولهم للأجور المعيشة عادلة بحيث لا يكون حافزا لنهب للمساعدة في تغطية نفقاتهم.
 
ونحن نرى أن خطوات بسيطة مثل هذه يمكن أن تفعل أكثر بكثير للمساعدة في حماية التراث العالمي الثقافي من الحظر على الواردات التي تؤذي فقط جمع الشرعي والناس للناس الاتصالات والتقدير من الثقافة القديمة التي تولدها.تحقيقا لهذه الغاية نحن عازمون على بدء المخططات الرائدة اثنين حافزا لتشجيع الآخرين على أن يحذوا نموذجنا. نقترح إصدار منح برنامج دعم حماية الموقع إلى شركات الأمن والأسر المحلية لإظهار فعالية اقتراحنا. نأمل أن يؤدي ذلك إلى تشجيع المنظمات الأخرى للدخول في المخطط. والدعوة موجهة إلى الطلبات المقدمة من شركات الامن التجارية المهتمة والأسر المحلية المحلية للمواقع الأثرية وافرة للحصول على منح بابوا غينيا الجديدة. يجب العائلات تثبت أنها تقع تحت عتبة الفقر الاتحادية. ويقتصر مخطط تجريبي لدول العالم القديم الذي أنتج العملات القديمة والتي لها نصيب الفرد أقل من دولار أمريكي. يجب تقديم خطاب الطلب إلى مكاتب رئيس:

Arne Kirsch SINCONA AG, Limmatquai 112, CH-8001 Zürich; Robert Brueggeman Executive Director 28441 Rancho California Rd., Suite 106 Temecula, CA 92590
Please reblog, let us get those applications coming in and give the IAPN and PNG a chance to show that the policies they recommend are at all feasible.

Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East

FL20160523 - Clouds in the North

The Aerial Archaeology in Jordan project has just begun its 20th season (after David’s flight in 1997) and it coincides with ICHAJ13- a conference to celebrate and be informed of recent archaeological work in Jordan. Balancing the commitments of the conference with trying to fly was always going to be tricky but the opportunity to undertake aerial surveys should never be missed, especially in this region.

Jordan Valley; Tabaqat Fahl
Jordan Valley near Pella. Low cloud made visibility and photography not ideal. Photographer: Robert Bewley. APAAME_20160523_RHB-0219.

Jordan never ceases to surprise, and this year has seen the demise of the Air Force’s Huey helicopters, which we had come to love – despite their the noise, and discomfort too, but also great space and views with the door open, and relatively slow speed. So, this first fight (Andrea Zerbini and I) was also experimental in learning the art of aerial photography in a new machine – the Eurocopter (or EC 635).

With 3 of its seats taken out the two of us were able to sit side-by-side at the open door, with similar panoramas as the Huey, but a quieter, smoother ride. Sadly the weather was not great; cloudy and cold and we were heading north, so less likely for a clearance in the weather. However we photographed most of the targets, only missing the last sector because of the cloud. We were with a new squadron, so the pilots were also new to our work, but they (as ever) provided us with top-notch flying. The internal communication system also is an improvement on the intermittent service we used to get; this makes the “strike rate” of targets photographed per hour much better as we can communicate the move to every new location clearly (and the EC is also faster, having two engines – so safer too).

The flight started in the region of Jarash photographing structures identified by PhD candidate Don Boyer for the Jarash Water Project, and also to catch a glimpse of the East Baths that are currently being excavated by a French-German Mission with the Department of Antiquities and recently yielded this magnificent statue. The flight then progressed over the Ajlun highlands to focus on wadi systems that empty west into the Jordan Valley. This fertile region saw settlement over millennia and the concentration of sites, such as tells and low level ruins, was vast. Many sites were previously unphotographed, while others we monitored to assess change over time, such as at Pella/Tabaqat Fahl. Unfortunately, a few sites showed evidence of looting.

Hammeh Cemetery
The looted cemetery at Hammeh. Photographer: Robert Bewley. APAAME_20160523_RHB-0216.
The discovery of sites which have not been previously recorded also gives us the desire to carry on; we spotted a site in passing and photographed it. Becc tells us it is not in MEGA-J, and a reasonably substantial site, rectilinear stone structures, in a prominent location. One for further investigation and adding to the EAMENA and MEGA-J databases.

Deir Abu Said Ruin 13
Unidentified site near Pella. Photographer: Andrea Zerbini. APAAME_20160523_AZ-0170.
We were in time to return to the conference, where the (royal) opening ceremony had just taken place and everyone was milling about having coffee. This gave the opportunity for many of the participants to thank us for the use of the aerial images from the APAAME website, and responding to their specific request for new imagery. Knowing the material is being used and is making a contribution to archaeological research gives us the stimulus and motivation to continue. One colleague said our images were able to “stop traffic”, a reference to people seeing an aerial photo on his screen as they were passing by his office, and would stop to ask what they were looking at.

Bob Bewley

You can find the images from Flight 1 on our Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/apaame/albums/72157668878686805

Compitum - événements (tous types)

« Mystères » et « hérésies »

Titre: « Mystères » et « hérésies »
Lieu: Université de Genève / Genève
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 14.06.2016
Heure: 15.30 h - 17.30 h
Description:

Information signalée par Massa, Francesco

« Mystères » et « hérésies » : polémiques, identités, interactions

 

9h15 : accueil
9h30-10h : Francesco MASSA, Introduction
Modérateur : Dominique JAILLARD (Université de Genève)
10h-10h30 : Eduard IRICINSCHI (Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen), Grief, Fear, and Confusion: Sophia's Passions as an Anti-Mysteries Motif in Irenaeus of Lyon's Heresiology
10h30-11h Pause
11h-11h30 : Claudio ZAMAGNI (Université de Lausanne), L'Elenchos et les «mystères»: construire l'identité hérétique dans le christianisme ancien
11h30-12h : discussion

14h-14h30 : Anna VAN DER KERCHOVE (Institut Protestant de Théologie, Paris), Le vocabulaire des mystères dans des écrits coptes manichéens et gnostiques
14h30-15h : Francesco MASSA (Université de Genève), Épiphane de Salamine et les «cultes à mystères» : stratégies polémiques et identitaires
15h-16h : discussion
16h-16h30 : pause
16h30-17h : Flavia RUANI (Université de Gand), Les syriarques, les mystères et les hérétiques : une triade féconde ?
17h-17h15 : discussion
17h15-18h : table ronde animée par Nicole BELAYCHE (EPHE, Paris), Philippe BORGEAUD (Université de Genève), Enrico NORELLI (Université de Genève)

Journée d'études organisée avec le financement du FNS/Projet «Ambizione»

Lieu de la manifestation : Genève, UniBastions, Salle B104
Organisation : Francesco Massa, Enrico Norelli
Contact : Francesco.Massa@unige.ch

Le latin à Byzance

Titre: Le latin à Byzance
Lieu: Université Paris IV-Sorbonne / Paris
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 28.06.2016 - 30.06.2016
Heure: 15.30 h - 17.30 h
Description:

Information signalée par Alessandro Garcea

Le latin à Byzance

 

Colloque international
organisé par Alessandro Garcea (Paris-Sorbonne), Michela Rosellini (Roma Sapienza) et Luigi Silvano (Torino)

28-30 juin 2016
Université de Paris-Sorbonne, Salle des Actes


28 juin 2016 - Salle des Actes
14h Alessandro Garcea (Paris-Sorbonne), Michela Rosellini (Roma Sapienza) et Luigi Silvano (Torino), Introduction au colloque et bienvenue
14h30 Peter Schreiner (Köln), Latinité cachée à Constantinople
15h15 Juan Signes Codoñer (Valladolid), Niveles y ámbitos de lengua en el aprendizaje del griego y del latín en la Antigüedad Tardía: el testimonio de los textos bilingüe
16h Pause café au Club des Enseignants
16h30 Frédérique Biville (Lyon 2), Le rituel des acclamations : de Rome à Byzance
17h15 Michela Rosellini, Elena Spangenberg Yanes (Roma Sapienza), Autori e testi latini di riferimento nei libri sintattici dell'Ars di Prisciano
18h30 Cocktail au Club des Enseignants

29 juin 2016 - Salle des Actes
9h30 Francisco J. Andrés Santos (Valladolid), Introduction au droit byzantin : le rôle des latinismes dans le langage juridique byzantin
10h15 Massimo Miglietta (Trento), La Paraphrase de Théophile et les libri Basilicorum
11h Pause café au Club des Enseignants
11h30 José-Domingo Rodríguez Martín (Madrid Complutense), Le livre De actionibus : terminologie technique latine dans le langage juridique grec
13h Déjeuner au Club des Enseignants
14h30 Vincent Zarini (Paris-Sorbonne), L'univers grec et latin d'un poète africain : Corippe et Byzance
15h15 Giuseppina Matino (Napoli Federico II), Roma e la sua lingua nella metafrasi di Peanio
16h Pause café au Club des Enseignants
16h30 Umberto Roberto (Roma Università Europea), La conoscenza del latino nell'Oriente romano da Maurizio a Eraclio
17h15 Laura Mecella (Roma Università Europea), Latinismi e cultura letteraria nei frammenti di Pietro Patrizio

30 juin 2016 - Salle des Actes
9h30 Claudia Rapp (Wien), L'emploi du latin dans le contexte large du multilinguisme dans les communautés monastiques de l'Orient grec (Égypte, Palestine, Constantinople)
10h15 Marc Baratin (Lille 3), Le latin de Jean le Lydien, langue vivante ou langue morte ?
11h Pause café au Club des Enseignants
11h30 Sylvain Janniard (Tours), Langue et littératures techniques latines dans les traités militaires protobyzantins (500-700 apr. J.-C.)
12h15 Johannes Niehoff-Panagiotidis (Berlin Freie Universität), Les latinismes dans la langue grecque moderne
13h Déjeuner au Club des Enseignants
14h30 Table ronde coordonnée par Luigi Silvano
avec la collaboration d'Alessandro Garcea (Paris-Sorbonne), Réka Forrai (Syddansk Universitet), Peter Schreiner (Köln), Francisco J. Andrés Santos (Valladolid)
et la participation de Gianfranco Agosti (Roma Sapienza), Anca Dan (CNRS - UMR 8546), Mario De Nonno (Roma 3), Jean-Luc Fournet (Collège de France), Andrea Pellizzari, (Torino), Tom E. van Bochove (Groningen Rijksuniversiteit)

Site web : http://latinbyzance.sciencesconf.org/
Contact : alessandro.garcea@paris-sorbonne.fr

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Université de Paris-Sorbonne, Salle des Actes
Organisation : Alessandro Garcea, Michela Rosellini, Luigi Silvano
Contact : alessandro.garcea@paris-sorbonne.fr

Tradizione classica e cultura contemporanea

Titre: Tradizione classica e cultura contemporanea
Lieu: Università degli Studi di Milano / Milan
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 09.06.2016 - 10.06.2016
Heure: 08.30 h - 16.00 h
Description:

Information signalée par Paolo De Paolis

Tradizione classica e cultura contemporanea. Idee per un confronto

 


I sessione (Milano, Università Statale, Sala Napoleonica, Palazzo Greppi, via S. Antonio 10
giovedì 9 giugno, ore 9,00)
La percezione e l'uso dell'antico nella società contemporanea

9,00 Saluti autorità accademiche

9,30 Ivano Dionigi (Università di Bologna)
Il latino al tempo di Twitter
10,00 Roberto Andreotti (giornalista, Il Manifesto)
Sopravvivere al Classico
10, 30 Bianca Pitzorno (scrittrice)
Un lungo filo che non si è mai spezzato

11,00 Pausa

Comunicazioni

11,30 Arianna Sacerdoti, Percorsi sui classici antichi nei romanzi di Bianca Pitzorno
11,45 Marco Malvestio, L'uso del mito nel romanzo contemporaneo
12,00 Pietro Verzina, Impiego del mito e paradigmi epici in Julio Cortázar: Circe (1951)
12,15 Alice Bonandini, Ubi solitudinem o ubi desertum? Quando il latino diventa slogan


II sessione (Milano, Università Cattolica, Aula Pio XI, L.go A. Gemelli 1
giovedì 9 giugno, ore 15,00)
Il ruolo dei classici in una società multiculturale

15,00 Saluti autorità accademiche

15,30 Giusto Picone (Università di Palermo)
Paradigmi. Esuli, profughi e migranti nelle rappresentazioni letterarie latine
16,00 Craig Williams (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Orpheus Crosses the Atlantic: Native Americans and Classical Studies
16,30 Maurizio Bettini (Università di Siena),
A che servono i Greci e i Romani?

17,00 Pausa
Comunicazioni

17,30 Cristiana Franco, Latino per mediatori culturali. Prove di didattica in contesti multiculturali
17,45 Giuseppe Galeani, In Giappone si parla latino. Sulla fortuna dell'antica Roma nel fumetto giapponese contemporaneo
18,00 Fausto Pagnotta, Il pensiero politico antico alla prova della società multiculturale: alcune riflessioni
18,15 Massimo Manca, Da Erodoto a Rat-Man: Classici come virus
18,30 Maria Chiara Scappaticcio, «Il sont fous, ces Romains ! »: Asterix, Le papyrus de César, e la trasmissione della conoscenza


III sessione (Pavia, Aula Volta – Sede centrale Università, C.so Strada Nuova 65
venerdì 10 giugno, ore 9,30)
Il latino nella scuola e nell'Università

9,30 Saluti autorità accademiche

10,00 Nuccio Ordine (Università della Calabria)
Elogio della lentezza. Le scuole e le università non sono aziende
10,30 Elio Franzini (Università Statale di Milano)
Il latino e il basso bretone
11,00 Carmela Palumbo (Direttore Generale Ordinamenti didattici - MIUR)
Gli studi classici nella scuola superiore - Situazione attuale

11,30 Pausa

Comunicazioni:
11,45 Alice Borgna, Il latino (digitale) all'Università: il progetto DigilibLT
12,00 Concetta Longobardi, Le nuove risorse della e-philology per l'edizione dei testi classici
12,15 Alessandra Rolle, Imparare la retorica con lo Pseudo-Quintiliano
12,30 Fabio Tutrone, Interdisciplinarità e autori classici: per un approccio storico-epistemologico all'enciclopedismo antico

12,45 Chiusura dei lavori
Marco Mancini (Capo Dipartimento Università - MIUR)

programma sul sito web www.cusl.eu

Lieu de la manifestation : Milano, Università Statale e Università Cattolica; Pavia, Università
Organisation : Consulta Universitaria di Studi Latini
Contact : Paolo De Paolis (depaolis@unicas.it)

Corinthian Matters

A Corinthia Visit

I am halfway through a brief visit to Greece and Cyprus. I spent several in Polis, Cyprus, having conversations with friends and colleagues from the Pyla-Koutsopetria Archaeological Project and the Princeton Polis Project (see Bill Caraher’s posts about those conversation here and here), and had the chance to visit friends in Myloi as the Western Argolid Regional Project gets underway. Here’s a beautiful view of the Argolic Gulf from the peak above Myloi.

ArgolicGulf

On to Corinth today. I will be in the Corinthia through Tuesday morning to visit old friends and think about a little gazetteer project. If you’re in the area and want to meet up, contact me here.


Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East

Kh. el-Musheirfeh and MEGA-Jordan

The Jordanian village of Kh. el-Musheirfeh lies about 4 km southwest of the major Nabataean/ Roman/ Early Islamic village/ fort/ town of Umm er-Resas. A further 4 km south is the major archaeological site of Lehun on the rim of the great trough of the Wadi Mujib.

The published literature on the site is limited and the two entries in JADIS and now in MEGA-Jordan are confused, confusing and incomplete.

‘MEGA-J 12338 Musheirifa (sic)’ locates a ‘site’ on the south side of the modern village but that turns out to be only the modern village itself.

‘MEGA-J 12349 Musheirfeh (sic)’ is located 2.5 km to the northeast of the village but in an open area with no traces of any archaeological features.

Surprisingly, therefore, the record reports material of several periods - Nabataean, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Modern, and lists eight ‘Site Elements’ including a village, cistern, a bas relief and sherd scatters of the periods noted. The source of the information is given in two published references from the 1930s (Glueck and Savignac, below). A brief glance at these two publications confirms the obvious – there is just one site and it lies under and around the modern village. The second MEGA-J entry (12349) should be deleted and the information there should be transferred to the first entry (12338) under that spelling (as on the 1:50,000 map).

Musheirfeh is in fact an important site as the two published reports show. Glueck was there on 2 June 1933; Savignac in late April 1935. The latter knows of Glueck’s first major report on his survey which included this site but – inexplicably, does not refer to what he had published. i.e. the two reports are effectively independent of one another. Putting the two reports together allows a composite picture which can be considerably enhanced and developed by analysis of the satellite imagery on Google Earth and Bing, by interpretation of the survey aerial photographs of 1953 and the recent low-level aerial photographs taken by the Aerial Archaeology in Jordan project, all of which are in the APAAME archive.

As may be seen on Google Earth (https://goo.gl/maps/EtATHBHTrdN2) and the superior imagery on Bing (http://binged.it/1DKqghT), amidst the houses the site consists of an area of high ground with traces of:
  • buried structures,
  • the openings of cisterns,
  • the foundations of a large masonry building extending eastwards
  • a further significant structure to the west.
The remains cover an area of about 10 ha though much of it was probably open ground between a scatter of structures and occupied by cisterns. Several recent cemeteries are scattered around the village. The major modern structure recorded by Glueck and Savignac is on the south side, marked as ‘Summit’ (Fig. 2).

This modern building (Summit) seen by Savignac and Glueck was built from re-used masonry and included a significant fragment of anthropomorphic sculpture and a substantial architectural piece (Fig. 1). As it was on a ‘sommet’, it may well be overlying an earlier structure (Fig. 3). More significant is the substantial building on the eastern end of the site (B) not reported by either early traveller (Figs 2 and 3). It is c. 25 x 15 m and oriented east-west. As seen from the air in 2010 and 2015, it has been robbed to a low level but the form is clear. There are at least two other places where traces of walls can be seen in this East Range (Fig. 7). West of the ‘Summit’ a further structure seems hinted at by a rectangular outline (C) (Fig. 6).

The sculpture was identified as Nabataean and there was Nabataean pottery on the site. Such an object implies a religious structure of some kind and more than a simple shrine. Glueck thought the architectural lintel he illustrated might be Byzantine – though he compared it to one he had seen at Umm el-Walid which is largely Umayyad.

Figure 1: Relief sculpture and lintel seen on the site in the 1930s by both Savignac and Glueck (1934: 38 Fig. 16)
The 1953 vertical survey aerial photographs show just one modern building there at that date and otherwise allow the broad outline of disturbance to be defined but without specific detail.

The satellite imagery indicates where structures lie but are recent (since the modern village expanded), are inadequate for detail but offer a useful photomap (cf. Fig.2).

Figure 2: Kh. el-Musheirfeh on Google Earth. Red outlines the overall area within which structures are located. Blue is a range of buildings, traces of building and probable cisterns. Other features noted are treated in subsequent figures (below) (Click to enlarge figure).

More importantly, there are 54 low-level oblique aerial photographs of the site in the APAAME collection from April 2010 and October 2015. Between them they reveal the presence of two substantial masonry buildings (A and C) which can be located and their form established, at least one more possible building (B), structures with re-used masonry (e.g. ‘Enclosure’) and the location of several cisterns (‘East Range’).

Summit’ and Enclosure (Fig. 3). This area of high ground is the probable location of what Savignac called the ‘sommet’ and where he and Glueck saw the architectural piece and the statue fragment. Today it is used as a small cemetery and the eastern half appears to have been quarried away. The enclosure on the west (bottom) seems to be formed from re-used masonry and arranged as a double face all of it surrounding a significant depression. The latter may be a dry reservoir, the ‘Bir Akial Awad’ recorded there on the 1:50,000 map.

Figure 3: Kh. el-Musheirfeh Summit and Enclosure (APAAME_20151005_REB-0008).
Building A (Fig. 4). A rectangular building located on the west side of the modern village. Approximate dimensions: 30 x 20 m. A square room is visible in the northeast corner (bottom left).

Figure 4: Kh. el-Musheirfeh Building A (APAAME_20151005_REB-0012(Cropped).
Building C (Fig. 5). Located at the eastern end of the East Range. It is the best-preserved of the various structures, with substantial walls with faced masonry inside and out and several rooms visible. The curving wall on the left may be part of an apse but the internal arrangements of the walls do not seem suited to a church. Overall dimensions are c. 35 x 20 m. Stones used in the modern graves are probably taken from this building.

Figure 5: Kh. el-Musheirfeh Building C (APAAME_20151005_MND-0031(Cropped).
Building B (Fig. 6). Located just west of Building C. It appears as an almost square structure incorporating a cavern on the right (north). It is c. 20 x 20 m.

Figure 6: Kh. el-Musheirfeh Building C (APAAME_20151005_REB-0014 (Cropped)).
East Range (Fig. 7). In addition to Buildings B (right) and C (centre), there are traces of other foundations including in the courtyards of the modern houses at the west end of the range. Depressions and caverns may be collapsed cisterns.

Figure 7: Kh. el-Musheirfeh East Range (APAAME_20151005_DLK-0013(Cropped)).

Conclusion
The MEGA-J entries for Musheirfeh are defective and limited in usefulness. At an elementary level – as with all MEGA-J entries, it would be immensely useful if references provided precise page numbers rather than just – for example, Savignac 1936. Many entries are taken over unchecked from JADIS and contain errors or errors are introduced in the transfer. Many entries would benefit from a reminder - and a specific link, that there may be aerial photographs available in the Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East (APAAME).

– David Kennedy

APAAME (https://www.flickr.com/photos/apaame/collections).
Glueck, N. (1934) Explorations in Eastern Palestine, I, New Haven (AASOR XIV [1933-1934]: 1-113 at 37-8 (Site 95) and Fig. 16.
Savignac, R. (1936) “Chronique: Sur les pistes de Transjordanie méridionale”, RB45: 235-263 + Plates VII –XII at 242-3 and Pl. VIII.1.

Insula: Le blog de la Bibliothèque des Sciences de l'Antiquité (Lille 3)

« Viens, si tu n’as pas d’invitation meilleure » : le guide des dîners romains selon Martial

« ‘If you have no better offer, do come’: Martial’s guide to Roman dinner parties » est un texte de Gideon Nisbet, publié en décembre 2015 sur le blog de l’éditeur Oxford university Press : « OUPblog ». La traduction française inédite publiée sur « Insula » est réalisée par Victor Gautschi, étudiant en Master « Traduction Spécialisée Multilingue » – TSM, de l’Université Lille 3.

Contrairement aux autres billets publiés par « Insula », les traductions issues de « OUPblog » ne sont pas publiées sous une licence en libre accès.

Martial, EpigramsMartial, Epigrams (trad. par Gideon Nisbet) – Oxford university press

« Viens, si tu n’as pas d’invitation meilleure. » L’épigramme 11.52 donne vie à la Rome de l’époque de Martial (« tu sais que je touche aux bains de Stephanus…  ») et présente le poète urbain sous un angle familier. C’est aussi un morceau choisi pour les amateurs de gastronomie d’aujourd’hui cherchant à se faire une idée des plats sans prétention de l’époque antique. La laitue de l’époque était amère ; le livre de recettes romain d’Apicius (3.18.1-3) la traite comme sa semblable, la chicorée. Elle était souvent servie après avoir été baignée dans une préparation à base de vinaigre, comme les confits d’oignons qu’on retrouve dans la cuisine indienne moderne. La laitue nettoyait le palais, qu’elle soit servie en début ou (comme par le passé) en fin de repas, « C’était par la laitue que nos aïeux terminaient leurs repas. Dis-moi, pourquoi est-ce par elle que nous ouvrons les nôtres  ? » (Présents de bienvenue 14).

Les Romains considéraient néanmoins que cet incontournable des diners rendait la digestion difficile (et les diététiciens d’aujourd’hui en conviennent) ; Apicius propose (3.18.3) une recette de purée de dattes au cumin âcre à consommer en fin de repas à des fins thérapeutiques, ne lactucae laedant, « pour prévenir les effets néfastes de la salade. »

Martial a manifestement beaucoup d’œufs à utiliser. Ils devaient être bon marché dans Suburre cette semaine là, car il est clair qu’ils ne venaient pas de sa petite demeure de campagne (7.31, 7.91, 11.18). En 9.2.2 de son livre, Apicius mélange les jaunes d’œufs et la rue dans une sauce pour raie bouillie ; la rue amère est un ingrédient étonnamment fréquent des recettes à base de poisson du grand gourmet, Martial n’essaye donc pas simplement de camoufler un morceau de poisson peu ragoutant, même si son thon a visiblement grise mine. Il compte le servir en suivant les recommandations d’Apicius pour le poisson-lézard, une espèce inconnue évoquée ici pour donner une idée de l’échelle : pocher et servir avec des herbes relevées (la livèche et la rue), des épices (du poivre et du cumin), du miel, du vinaigre et l’indispensable garum, épaissi avec un peu d’amidon. Des équivalents de ces deux derniers ingrédients dans nos cuisines modernes seraient sans hésiter la sauce de poisson thaïlandaise et la farine de maïs. Le mélange aigre-doux de miel et de vinaigre est très populaire auprès des convives de la Rome moderne, qui connaissent ce type de sauce aigre (faite de nos jours avec du sucre) sous le nom d’agrodolce, accompagnant en général de l’agneau onctueux ou des légumes cuits à feu doux.

Situé en contrebas, entre le Forum et le Forum Boarium, le Vélabre était l’endroit idéal pour qui souhaitait acheter des légumes frais, et accueille encore aujourd’hui régulièrement un marché fermier ; il était particulièrement réputé pour son fromage fumé, spécialité romaine (« ce fromage […] ne doit son bon goût qu’à la fumée du Vélabre dont il fut imbibé. », Xenia 32). Les olives du Picenum sur la côte nord-ouest de l’Italie étaient une bonne option à prix abordable, mais tout gourmet se devrait de refuser celles de Martial car elles provenaient des dernières pousses de la fin de la saison (cf. 7.53, dans lequel les olives de décembre sont présentées comme un cadeau inférieur des Saturnales) ; le froid abîme les fruits, et la date optimale de récolte est encore aujourd’hui un sujet de discorde entre agriculteurs.

Avant les Romains, les amateurs grecs de gastronomie privilégiaient le poisson et les fruits de mer car il était très difficile de les obtenir frais. CC0 via Pixabay.Avant les Romains, les amateurs grecs de gastronomie privilégiaient le poisson et les fruits de mer car il était très difficile de les obtenir frais. CC0 via Pixabay.

« Je mentirai, afin que vous veniez, » la liste imaginaire de Martial nous donne une idée des plaisirs raffinés de la gastronomie de l’époque. Avant les Romains, les amateurs grecs de gastronomie privilégiaient le poisson et les fruits de mer car il était très difficile de les obtenir frais ; Apicius leur consacre deux ouvrages entiers. Je pense qu’on pourrait utiliser « entrecôtes » pour coloephia, la pièce de viande de premier choix au nom grec engloutie par la culturiste lesbienne Philénis en 7.67. On pouvait blanchir et rôtir les tétines de truie, ou les fourrer avec des oursins (Apicius 7.2.1-2). Comme c’est encore le cas aujourd’hui, les Romains aimaient consommer des abats, alors que le poulet était une viande précieuse : ce n’est que depuis très récemment que les indécentes méthodes d’élevage industriel  l’on rendu abordable. Les gibiers à plumes étaient très prisés, attrapés par des chasseurs d’oiseaux professionnels (Apophoreta 217(216)) et élevés dans des volières. Les grives ont toujours du succès dans les dîners des zones rurales du Latium, grillées en rangs sur un fourneau.

La tentation ultime de Martial n’est pourtant pas la nourriture (du moins pas celle qu’il peut se permettre d’acheter) mais les Muses ; sa vision d’auteurs intelligents se détendant ensemble et partageant leur travail vient directement de Catulle (par ex. Carmen 50). Le fait qu’il promette de ne rien réciter lui-même n’est pas surprenant : Martial accorde peu de valeur aux épigrammes lues à voix haute devant un public, même les siennes (2.1), et il préfère plutôt qu’elles circulent dans des livres pour une lecture privée (1.117). On ne connaît rien de ce Cerialis de Martial en tant que poète, mais le thème de la Gigantomachie (la guerre contre les géants) suggère un récit épique, peut-être court et appris (un « épyllion ») à la manière hellénistique d’Apollonios de Rhodes par exemple ; les amis de Catulle écrivaient des micro-épopées de ce genre, ou du moins tentaient de le faire (Carmen 35). Les poèmes rustiques de Cerialis (rura) pouvaient suivre la construction des Églogues ou des Géorgiques de Virgile : j’ai choisi les premiers car leur taille réduite les rend plus propices à l’imitation (nous en avons de Calpurnius Siculus provenant de l’époque de Néron).

Traduction réalisée par Victor Gautschi,
étudiant du Master « Traduction Spécialisée Multilingue » – TSM, de l’Université Lille 3.

newlogoTSMPlus d’informations sur le Master TSM :
www.univ-lille3.fr/ufr-lea/formations/masters/tsm
Facebook : facebook.com/MasterTSMLille3
Twitter : @Master_TSM

Les traductions publiées par « Insula » le sont avec l’accord des auteurs ou du responsable éditorial du site ou du blog concerné. Nous les en remercions chaleureusement.

thanksgiving-970055_960_720-1

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

Spring 2016 Edition of ASCSA Newsletter

A special excavation issue covering activities at the Athenian Agora, Ancient Corinth, and School-affiliated excavations is now available for viewing online.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Material Text Culture Blog

[First posted in AWOL 8 March 213, updated 26 May 2016]

Material Text Culture Blog
ISSN: 2195-075X
http://www.materiale-textkulturen.de/bilder/logo_mtk.png
Die in "MTC Blog" veröffentlichten Texte unterliegen der Creative Commons-Lizenz "Namensnennung-NichtKommerziell-KeineBearbeitung 3.0 Deutschland (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)" (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/de/) zu den folgenden Bedingungen:
  1. Der Name des Autors/Rechteinhabers muss in der von ihm festgelegten Weise genannt werden.
  2. Dieses Werk bzw. dieser Inhalt darf nicht für kommerzielle Zwecke verwendet werden
  3. Dieses Werk bzw. dieser Inhalt darf nicht bearbeitet, abgewandelt oder in anderer Weise verändert werden.

   
   
   
   
   
   
The aesthetics of text. A personal note Christina Tsouparopoulou , 07.10.2013       
   
   
Tagungsbericht "Wissen in materialen Textkulturen" Annika Greuter , 18.07.2013       
   
   
On the journey to eternity: Memoirs of a cuneiform tablet and its tag Christina Tsouparopoulou , 18.03.2013       
   
   
   
Gedanken zu materialer Textkultur in der Street Art Annika Greuter , 17.11.2012       
   
   
   
   
Tagungsbericht Workshop "Paper Biography" Carla Meyer, Sandra Schultz , 26.09.2012       
   
   
Protokoll "Aktives Dösen" Annika Greuter , 05.08.2012       
   
Learning from the Past Markus Hilgert , 04.08.2012       
   
10 Thesen zu "Materialität" und "Präsenz" von Artefakten Markus Hilgert , 03.08.2012       
   
M(aterial) T(ext) C(ulture) Blog Markus Hilgert , 01.08.2012       
   

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: May 26

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem septimum Kalendas Iunias.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Polyxena at the Well; you can also see the legends for the current week listed together here.


TODAY'S MOTTOES and PROVERBS:

TINY MOTTOES: Today's tiny motto is: Conanti dabitur (English: To the one who strives, it will be given).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word verb-less proverb is In vino veritas (English: In wine, truth).

AUDIO PROVERBS: Today's audio Latin proverb is Athanasius contra mundum (English: Athanasius against the world). To read a brief essay about this proverb and to listen to the audio, visit the Latin Via Proverbs blog.

PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Heu, conscientia animi gravis est servitus (English: Oh, conscience is a painful enslavement of the soul).

ERASMUS' ANIMALS: Today's animal proverb from Erasmus is Habet et musca splenem (English: Even the fly has its spleen; from Adagia 3.5.7; anybody can get angry).

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Sui Cuique Mores Fingunt Fortunam. Click here for a full-sized view. I'm sharing these with English translations at Google+ now too.


And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:



Magna vis pecuniae.
Great is the power of money.

Legite et discite.
Read and learn.

TODAY'S FABLES:

FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Mustela et Lima, the story of a bloodthirsty weasel (this fable has a vocabulary list).

MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Vultures, Leo, et Aper, a story about making peace against a common enemy.

Leo, Aper, et Vultures

Latin Fables Read by Justin Slocum Bailey. Here is today's audio fable: Leo, Vulpes, et Asinus Venantes, with links to the audio and to the blog post.

Leo, Asinus et Vulpes, Socii - Osius

May 26, 2016

AIA Fieldnotes

Behind the Scenes Tour

Event Type (you may select more than one): 
other
Start Date: 
Thursday, September 15, 2016 - 2:00pm

Join collections staff for a “behind the scenes” tour of the museums’ collection. Take an intimate tour of the lab, storage, and archival areas not open to the public. See how museums process, organize, and care for their collections.  Space is limited, register online at pueblogrande.com to reserve your spot. Cost: $5, free for Museum Members

Location

Name: 
Renee Aguilar
Telephone: 
602-495-0901
Call for Papers: 
no
Right Header: 
Right Content: 

Smithsonian Museum Day at Pueblo Grande Museum

Event Type (you may select more than one): 
other
Start Date: 
Saturday, September 24, 2016

The Pueblo Grande Museum will be participating in the Smithsonian Magazine Museum Day Live! event on Saturday, September 24, 2016. Guests with the Smithsonian Magazine Museum Day Live! Ticket will receive free admission for two. The Museum will also be offering gallery tours and artifact interpretation throughout the day. For more information on the Smithsonian Magazine Museum Day Live! event visit their website at www.smithsonianmag.com/museumday.

Location

Name: 
Renee Aguilar
Telephone: 
602-495-0901
Call for Papers: 
no
Right Header: 
Right Content: 

Calenda: Histoire grecque

Atelier international de la Société d'études platoniciennes

Cette manifestation publique est dédiée à la présentation de travaux en cours, non encore publiés, sur Platon et la tradition platonicienne, devant les membres de la Société d'études platoniciennes. Une large place est donnée à la discussion des travaux présentés. Les ateliers sont ouverts aux chercheurs confirmés aussi bien qu'aux doctorants et aux contributions en langues française, italienne, espagnole, allemande et anglaise.

Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

Paradiso 16: Some help from John S. Carroll

The dense texture of Florentine family names in Paradiso 16 is truly a thick wood, yet there are traces in it of an argument developed by Cacciaguida that has larger implications. Here's one particularly thorny passage, followed by a comment found among the Dartmouth commentaries.
Had not the folk, which most of all the world
Degenerates, been a step-dame unto Caesar,
But as a mother to her son benignant,
 
Some who turn Florentines, and trade and discount,
Would have gone back again to Simifonte
There where their grandsires went about as beggars
 
At Montemurlo still would be the Counts,
The Cerchi in the parish of Acone,
Perhaps in Valdigrieve the Buondelmonti.
 
Ever the intermingling of the people
Has been the source of malady in cities,
As in the body food it surfeits on;
 
And a blind bull more headlong plunges down
Than a blind lamb; and very often cuts
Better and more a single sword than five. (16.58-72)


Robert Hollander helpfully points to the Expositions by John S. Carroll on this passage from Paradiso 16. Carroll adduces several other sources, including Villani, Villari, and John Richard Green:



58-66:

It is to this 'confusion of persons' – this contamination of a pure citizenship by the introduction of inferior blood from the surrounding country , . . .  that Cacciaguida traces the evil that had befallen the city, and the blame of this he lays upon the Church, 'the people that on earth degenerates most.' Had the Church acted the part of a mother instead of a stepmother to Caesar, there had been no need for the Cerchi, the Buondelmonti, and others to have been brought within the city walls [Par. xvi. 58-66]. 


It is not known who was the incomer from Simifonti, now a Florentine banker and merchant, but whose grandfather went round begging in his native village. Simifonti is in the Val d'Elsa. For the taking and destruction by the Florentines in 1202, see Villani, Chron. v. 30; Villari, Flor. History, 163-166

The Cerchi came from Acone, a village near Florence whose exact stituation is uncertain. They rapidly became one of the richest families, lived in grand style, yet remained rustic and uncultured in manners: Villani calls them 'luxurious, inoffensive, uncultured and ungracious, like folk come in a short time to great estate and power' (viii. 39). As the leaders of the White Guelphs, Dante calls that party la parte selvaggia (Inf. vi. 65), the savage, rustic, boorish party. For the futher reference to them in the present Canto (94-99) see note* [below]. 

The Montemurlo of l. 64 was a castle near Pistoja, which the Conti Guidi were forced to sell to Florence because they were not able to hold it against the Pistojans. See Villani, v. 31]. To understand this, we must remember that the strife in Florence sprang from the existence within her of two races. Villani and Dante alike trace the origin of this difference to the conquest of Fiesole by Florence, and the consequent mingling of the two peoples. According to Villani, 'the Florentines are to-day descended from two peoples so diverse in manners, and who ever of old had been enemies, as the Roman people and the people of Fiesole; and this we can see by true experience, and by the divers changes and parties and factions which, after the said two people had been united into one, came to pass in Florence from time to time' [Chronicle, iv. 7. See also i. 38]. In the denunciation of the Florentines which Dante puts into the mouth of Brunetto Latini, the same view is taken of the contrast between
'That ungrateful and malignant people
Which of old time from Fiesole descended,
And smacks still of the mountain and the granite,'
[Inf. xv. 61-78.]

and 'the holy seed of the Romans,' from which the poet undoubtedly believed himself descended. Even if we put aside much of this as legendary, it remains true, as Prof. Villari says, that 'the diversity between the Germanic strain in the nobility and the Latin blood of the people, really constituted a strong element of discord.... Its whole territory bristled with the castles of feudal barons of Germanic descent, all hostile to Florence, and many of whom, safely ensconced on the neighbouring hill of Fiesole, were always ready to swoop down on Florentine soil' [The First Two Centuries of Florentine History, p. 73 (Eng. transl.) – an invaluable book for the understanding of the ever-changing factions of early Florence]. 

As the commerce of the city grew, it became necessary to make the roads safe for traffic, and the only way of doing this seemed to be by compelling the robber-barons to come inside the city-walls. But, as Green says, 
'it was equally perilous for an Italian town to leave its nobles without the walls or to force them to reside within. In their own robber-holds or their own country estates they were a scourge to the trader whose wains rolled temptingly past their walls.  

Florence, like its fellow Italian States, was driven to the demolition of the feudal castles, and to enforcing the residence of their lords within its own civic bounds. But the danger was only brought nearer home. Excluded by civic jealousy, wise or unwise, from all share in municipal government, their huge palazzi rose like fortresses in every quarter of the city. Within them lay the noble, a wild beast all the fiercer for his confinement in so narrow a den, with the old tastes, hatreds, preferences utterly unchanged, at feud as of old with his fellow-nobles, knit to them only by a common scorn of the burghers and the burgher life around them, stung to madness by his exclusion from all rule in the commonwealth, bitter, revengeful, with the wilfulness of a child, shameless, false, unprincipled' [John Richard Green, Stray Studies from England and Italy, p. 162]. 

And this terrible state of things Dante traced to the Papacy. Had the Church given the temporal power to Caesar as it ought to have done, the Emperor, in Dante's belief, would have proved strong enough to have brought the territorial nobles under the restraint of law, and thus have obviated the necessity to which the cities were reduced of adding a new and dangerous element of discord to those already existing within their walls. (emphasis added)


*Note on the Cerchi: 

ll. 94-99 refer to the Cerchi (see note {in comm. to vv. 58- 66}). Their houses were above the Porta San Piero, and had been acquired by this wealthy family from the Conti Guidi, who sprang from the ancient house of the Ravignani, the head of which was the Bellincion Berti of Par. xv. 112. The fellonia or treason charged against the Cerchi seems to be their failure as leaders of the Whites to defend the city against the Blacks in Nov. 1301. Dino Compagni says 'their hearts failed them through cowardice': the Priors gave them orders to prepare for defence and urged them 'to play the man.' But 'from avarice' they refused to pay the hired troops, made practically no preparations, and so handed over the city to six terrible days of outrage and pillage. The exile of the Whites which followed is the 'lightening of the barque' to which Dante refers in l. 96. For a full account of this disastrous struggle between the Bianchi and the Neri, see Dino Compagni's Chronicle, Bk. II. and Villani's, viii. 38-49.


Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Festschriften and Gedenkschriften published by the Oriental Institute

Festschriften and Gedenkschriften published by the Oriental Institute

Baer, Klaus*For His Ka: Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer. D. P. Silverman, ed. 1994.

Biggs, Robert D.*: Studies Presented to Robert D. Biggs, June 4, 2004 From the Workshop of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, Volume 2 Martha T. Roth, Walter Farber, Matthew W. Stolper and Paula von Bechtolsheim, eds. 2007.

Braidwood, Robert J.*: The Hilly Flanks and Beyond: Essays on the Prehistory of Southwestern Asia Presented to Robert J. Braidwood, November 15, 1982. T. Cuyler Young, Jr., Philip E. L. Smith, and Peder Mortensen, editors. Originally published in 1983.

Esse, Douglas L.*: Studies in the Archaeology of Israel and Neighboring Lands in Memory of Douglas L. Esse. Samuel R. Wolff, ed. 2001.

Golb, Norman*: Pesher Nahum: Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature from Antiquity through the Middle Ages Presented to Norman (Nahum) Golb. Edited by Joel L. Kraemer and Michael G. Wechsler with the participation of Fred Donner, Joshua Holo, and Dennis Pardee. 2012

Gragg, Gene B.*: Studies in Semitic and Afroasiatic Linguistics Presented to Gene B. Gragg. Cynthia L. Miller, ed. 2007.

Güterbock, Hans Gustav*: Kanissuwar - A Tribute to Hans G. Güterbock on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday, May 27, 1983. H. A. Hoffner, Jr. and G. M. Beckman, eds. 1986.

Huehnergard, John*Language and Nature: Papers Presented to John Huehnergard on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Edited by Rebecca Hasselbach and Na’ama Pat-El. 2012.

Hughes, George R.*: Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes, January 12, 1977. J. H. Johnson and E. F. Wente, eds. 1976.

Jacobsen, Thorkild*: Sumerological Studies in Honor of Thorkild Jacobsen on His Seventieth Birthday June 7, 1974. S. J. Lieberman, ed. 1976.

Kantor, Helene J.*: Essays in Ancient Civilization Presented to Helene J. Kantor. A. Leonard, Jr. and B. B. Williams, eds. 1989.

Landsberger, Benno*: Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger on His Seventy-fifth Birthday, April 21, 1963. Edited by Hans G. Güterbock and Thorkild Jacobsen. Originally published in 1965.

Oppenheim, A. Leo.*Studies Presented to A. Leo Oppenheim, June 7, 1964. R. D. Biggs and J. A. Brinkman, editors. Originally published in 1964.

Stolper, Matthew W.*Extraction & Control: Studies in Honor of Matthew W. Stolper. Michael Kozuh, Wouter F. M. Henkelman, Charles E. Jones, and Christopher Woods, editors. Originally published in 2014.

Wente, Edward F.*: Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt in Honor of Edward F. Wente. E. Teeter and J. A. Larson, eds. 1999.

Wilson, John A.*: Studies in Honor of John A. Wilson. E. B. Hauser, ed. 1969.

For an up to date list of all Oriental Institute publications available online see

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

IAPN and PNG Statement on Greek MOU FAIL


IAPN and PNG solve lead theft conundrum?
I see Peter Tompa of Bailey and Ehrenberg PLLC still claims to speak for both the international Association of Professional Numismatists AND the Professional Numismatics Guild (IAPN and PNG Statement on Greek MOU). Collectors and dealers in both these groups should ask the boards of both why. They were discussing yesterday the US implementation of the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The IAPN AND the PNG claim that preventing illicitly exported coins from entering the US has somehow "already damaged private and institutional collecting". Does that mean that these rely on illicit antiquities to be sustainable activities in the US? If so, I would consider it very rash of collectors to go shouting their mouths off about it in Washington.

Tompa sees the problem of the the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property as being resolvable by being
either more careful in issuing [metal detecting] permits or adopting something akin to the PAS in the UK
This is weak logic. Firstly many of the designated antiquities covered by the existing US legislation are non metallic (statues, ceramics etc) and thus not acquired using metal detectors. Secondly, it remains to be seen how may times one has to explain to superficially-thinking US commentators that the PAS of England and, for the moment, Wales has absolutely no connection with import, export and transfer of ownership of any type of cultural property. Like his equally-ill-informed but mouthy compatriot Rabbi Zev Friedman (here and his students here) blaming the Holocaust on the people of Occupied Poland in their so-called "Polish Death Camps", Tompa places the blame for looting on archaeologists:
Rather than overbroad restrictions that adversely impact Americans interested in Greek culture, let’s consider modest steps archaeologists can take — like ensuring their sites are monitored in the long off-season and ensuring local people they employ are paid a fair living wage so they don’t have an incentive to loot to help make ends meet—instead.
That is like saying that preventing lead roofing theft from English churches should be countered by the "modest step" of creating a broad social programme by ensuring that vulnerable remote sites are guarded by a parishioner spending the night on the church roof and ensuring all local people "have employment with a fair living wage so they don’t have an incentive to loot to help make ends meet". Presumably he would advocate the same approach to preventing "nighthawks" too. I think the problem with this is that as a lawyer, Mr Tompa should be aware that crime is not caused exclusively by opportunists who "cannot make ends meet". The fact that lawyers can make money defending people accused of culture crime suggests that not all of them are without financial resources. Of course the way to stop rural crime like stealing building materials and scrap metal is to make it more difficult to monetise them by putting restrictions on transactions on the market and raising public awareness among buyers. It can be seen from their conrtribution to the public discussion here this is something the IAPN and PNG have totally failed to do.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: The Newsletter of the American Philological Association = SCS Newsletter

[First posted in AWOL 25 August 2009. Updated 26 May 2016]

The Newsletter of the American Philological Association = SCS Newsletter  
ISSN: 0569-6941
The American Philological Association Newsletter (ISSN 0569-6941) is published six times a year (February, April, June, August, October, December) by the American Philological Association. Send materials for publication; communications on Placement, membership, changes of address; and claims to: Executive Director, American Philological Association, 292 Claudia Cohen Hall, University of Pennsylvania, 249 S. 36th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6304. Telephone: 215-898-4975. FAX: 215-573-7874. E-mail: apaclassics@sas.upenn.edu. [Text from the old website]

      SCS Presidential Talks delivered at Annual Meetings

      SCS Presidential Talks delivered at Annual Meetings
      Home

      Archaeology Magazine

      Alpine Rock Art ScannedABRI FARAVEL, FRANCE—In a small rock shelter in the French Alps some 7,000 feet above sea level, archaeologists have used laser scans to create virtual models of the highest rock art depictions of animals ever discovered in Europe, reports the Yorkshire Post. The shelter was in regular use beginning in the Mesolithic period, about 10,000 years ago, and was at least occasionally occupied up to the medieval period. The team, led by University of York archaeologist Kevin Walsh, has found Mesolithic and Neolithic flint tools at the site, along with Iron Age pottery, a Roman-era brooch, and medieval metal objects. Nearby the cave they discovered Bronze Age stone dwellings and animal enclosures. While direct dating of the paintings themselves is impossible, they seem to be analogous to art made during the Neolithic at lower altitudes, and appear to depict a deer hunting scene. In addition to scanning the paintings, the team scanned the shelter itself and the surrounding landscape. “This is the only example of virtual models, including a scan of the art, done at high altitude in the Alps and probably the highest virtual model of an archaeological landscape in Europe,” said Walsh. To read more about scanning archaeological sites, go to "Lasers in the Jungle."

      Carthage DNA PhoenicianCARTHAGE, TUNISIA—Scientists have completely mapped the genome of the "Young Man of Byrsa,” a Phoenician who lived 2,500 years ago, and whose remains were discovered outside Carthage in 1994, reports the Independent. The Phoenicians were an influential seafaring people who originated in Lebanon around 1500 B.C. and then colonized much of the Mediterranean, including what is now Tunisia, where they founded Carthage. The team, co-led by University of Otago geneticist Lisa Matisoo-Smith, found that the man had a rare mitochondrial haplogroup that is thought to have originated 20,000 to 25,000 years ago among European hunter-gatherer populations. His DNA most closely matched that of a modern-day Portuguese person, and the researchers speculate that the Young Man of Byrsa's maternal ancestry lay somewhere on the Iberian Peninsula, not in North Africa or the Near East, as might have been expected. The team hopes further research on Phoenician DNA will reveal more about ancient migration and exchange patterns. To read more about Phoenicians, go to “History’s 10 Greatest Wrecks: Bajo de la Campagna.” 

      France neanderthal structureAVEYRON VALLEY, FRANCE—A number of semicircular walls built from stalagmites by Neanderthals deep in a cave in southwestern France have been dated to around 176,000 years old, making them among the world’s oldest constructions, according to a report in Nature News. The six structures, first discovered in Bruniquel Cave in the early 1990s, are made of around 400 large stalagmite pieces broken from the cave floor and arranged in semi-circles as large as 22 feet wide. They lie around a fifth of a mile from the cave’s entrance and getting to them requires navigating a narrow approach. Researchers believe that at one time the pieces were stacked up to create walls. “It’s obvious when you see it, that it’s not natural,” said Dominique Genty of the Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace. Analysis of calcite that has accumulated on the stalagmites since they were broken established that the structures date to between 174,400 and 178,600 years ago. No remains of early humans, stone tools, or signs of occupation have been found, but researchers have concluded that Neanderthals made the structures as no other hominins are known to have been present in the area at the time. For more, go to “Decoding Neanderthal Genetics.”

      Boston shipwreck hullBOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS—The remains of a ship were recently discovered underground at a construction site in Boston’s Seaport District. Over the past few days, Boston’s city archaeologist, Joe Bagley, and colleagues have scrambled to learn as much about it as possible before construction resumes. Based on the ship’s nails, they have determined that it dates to the mid-to-late nineteenth century. “It’s not terribly old,” Bagley told Boston.com, “but it’s part of the maritime history of Boston either way.” The area where the approximately 50-foot-long ship was found consisted of mudflats that were filled in 1880 to create more buildable land. It is unclear whether the ship was deliberately sunk or left in place after crashing or running aground. There is evidence of a fire on board, though it could have occurred while the ship sank or later, to reduce the size of the wreckage. Inside the ship, the archaeologists have found dozens of barrels of lime, which may have been transported from Maine for use in concrete or to make paper. To read in-depth about a ship found underground in Manhattan, go to “The Hidden History of New York's Harbor.”

      The Archaeology News Network

      Neanderthals were stocky from birth

      If a Neanderthal were to sit down next to us on the underground, we would probably first notice his receding forehead, prominent brow ridges and projecting, chinless face. Reconstruction of a Neanderthal child from the Musee National de Prehistoire  in Les Eyzies de Tayac, France [Credit: Don Hitchcock]Only on closer inspection would we notice his wider and thicker body. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary...

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      Ancient Peoples

      Female dancer (tomb figurine)China, 2nd century BC (Western Han...





      Female dancer (tomb figurine)

      China, 2nd century BC (Western Han dynasty)

      Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art

      The Archaeology News Network

      Archaeologists unearth 30 ancient Chinese Chess pieces in SW China

      Thirty pieces of Chinese Chess are recently unearthed from a tomb dating back to Northern Song Dynasty (960–1279) in Wang'an county, southwest China's Sichuan province. The chess pieces are made of bronze. "If they really are from the Northern Song Dynasty, the archaeological value of them is priceless," said one of the members of the archaeological team. Source: People's Daily Online [May 26, 2016]

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      Conor Whately (Byzantine OED)

      Roman Military Kaibos (i.e. loos)

      One of the biggest surprises of my tour of select Roman military sites on the British frontier/s has been coming across the "prominently" placed, and often signposted, Roman military loos (in Britain, so loos).  Of course, there had to be a place where people did numbers ones and number twos, but in normal conversation or discussion - at least in my experiences in class and in the course of my research - it's not something that's entered my stream (pun intended) of consciousness.  Toilets have come occasionally, or rarely even, in my preparation in years past for the UofW's Roman Society course.  It's always fun too to bring up the famed bleaching of Roman togas, for which we have such great evidence from Pompeii.  Indeed, I remember learning all about it in my 4th year honours seminar class on Pompeii at Mac.  

      Anyway, point is it's come up on occasion, I know it had to be there (in the back of my mind), but I hadn't given much thought beyond that.  I've come across five Roman military loos on this comparably short and condensed tour:  one at Caerleon in Wales, one at Chesters in England, one at Housesteads in England, and one at Arbeia in England.  Evidently too, though I haven't seen it myself, they've found a wooden "posh" toilet seat at Vindolanda.  What's familiar about seeing what few "seats" we've found is that the shape is basically the same that you find in most toilets, at least in the west, today.  What's less familiar, again in the west, save for those troughs you find in so many UK mens' toilets, is the public aspect of the urination and defecation.  Some of us don't have any trouble doing the duty in the presence of others; others of us, myself included, like to keep our number ones and numbers twos on the down-loo.  In the Roman forts, however, at least those that I've seen, the common soldiers are more often than not going to be doing the business - how many euphemisms can I use? - in the presence of their comrades.  Sure, we can't prove that those long-dead Roman soldiers who shared my views didn't go off into the middle of the woods to do their thing, but I'm guessing given various rules and regulations surrounding movement into and out of a fort on duty, this might have been more difficult to do.  

      Ultimately, this public pooing raises all sorts of interesting questions.  For one thing, from the perspective of the sensory experience of Roman life, it's not hard to imagine what it might have been like.  If you've ever had some experience of port-o-johns, as they called them in my youth, put up for construction workers or at outdoor concerts and the like, or even the kaibos and outhouses of the Canadian cottage-country world, then you know how bad those things can smell when you're inside.  Many of those, at least the former, would be emptied on some sort of rotation; of the latter, I've never really known.  In the case of Roman military bases, however, would anyone every empty those things?  Presumably something would have to give, though beyond my experience with dog poo in the cities and wilds of Canada, I know little-to-nothing about how long it takes for it decompose.  Still, if it was allowed to pile up, and if the all the men (to say nothing of the women and children) in a base were regular (no fibre needed), it wouldn't be long before you might have something approaching "Aegean Stable" proportions with no Herakles in sight.  Even so, even if the emptying of the loos wasn't regular, the smell, possibly even the taste, of those environments would have been remarkable unless they made some attempt to mask the smell or keep things in check.  And, these loos were also found within the confines of what where enclosed settlements – Roman military forts were without fail surrounded by walls, often stone ones that would, I’m guessing, trap the smell inside.  For, as bad as it might be for those who went in to do a number one or number two, there’s also the issue of the smell wafting over to those who lived beside the loos.  If I recall, at Caerleon the loos were positioned right beside one part of the barracks.  Perhaps if you’d been a bad soldier you’d have to live at that end for a time?

      As many forts as possible, it seems, from what I can gather, tried their utmost to be self-sustaining.  Should the loos be seen as part of this practice?  When it comes to urine I would think so, if we assume that there was some sort of piping that led the urine to some sort of fulling centre.  On the other hand, I don’t recall ever coming across some sort of place in a fort.  Maybe they’re there and I missed them, but maybe not.  Of course, Roman soldiers, the odd officer aside, would likely have little concern with getting their togas gleaming white.  If we get back to the poo, might it have been used as part of wider fertilization practices in and around the fort?  I have no idea how useful human poo is when it comes to fertilization, though I imagine it would have some benefit.  At the same time, their diets wouldn’t have been comprised of the same sorts chemicals and processed foods that ours are today, so their poo might have been more valuable from a re-use perspective, though I’m speculating.

      Another issue is the standing or sitting for number ones – and one can’t hope to resolve (I think?).  We thinking of men standing to pee and, well, obviously sitting to poo.  From a practical point of view – and bear in mind you would get a whole row of these toilets – would those who had to pee be standing, hypothetically, between those who had to poo?  What happened if the spray got out of control?  On the other hand, did you just sit in these environments?  Standing while peeing, at least among males, seems like a biological characteristic, at least when toilets aren’t involved.  But if you were in this environment would you change your habits?

      One last thing to note:  unit cohesion.  What better way to bond with your fellow soldiers than in the loos?  Those who shit together, fight better together.  Might these public military loos have had some sort of advantage from that perspective?  I guess the only catch with this angle is that I believe that public loos were a common thing in the Roman Empire in general.  In that instance it might have been less the case that it provided soldiers an opportunity to bond and more the case that it was just part of regular Roman urban life.  Indeed, many see Roman forts as mini-outposts of Roman urban life, which I think is a reasonable enough assumption.  

      All in all, much food for thought – or in this case digest.  And I leave you with a photo of the Roman military kaibos at Arbeia.


      The Archaeology News Network

      The return of the Parthenon Sculptures is a matter of cultural morality

      On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the Parthenon Sculptures violent removal from Greece and their transfer to the British Museum, the president of the Acropolis Museum, Professor Dimitris Pantermalis gave an interview to ANA-MPA on the return of the marbles stressing that "it is a matter of cultural morality." "Great monuments have their own rights. The rights of their own integrity. Great monuments cannot be fragmented," he...

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      James Hamrick (The Ancient Bookshelf)

      Interpreting women out of the New Testament?

      There are a handful of spots in the New Testament where interpreters have debated whether or not a woman is being referred to.  Perhaps the most well-known example is 2 John, which opens like this: “The elder to the elect lady and her children . . .” (1).  The author addresses this “lady” again in verse 5, and closes with a greeting from “the children of your elect sister” (13).  Interpreters debate whether we encounter here a female personification of Christian communities, or whether the text is talking about an individual female leader.  This discussion goes back to the early church. 

      Check out:
      Anderson, Paul.  “Second John and Women.”

      Another interesting example is the identity of Junia, who is mentioned in the closing greetings of Paul’s letter to the Romans: “Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was” (16:7; NRSV).  In some Bible translations you’ll find “Junias” instead of “Junia.”  This reflects debate over whether this figure is female (“Junia”) or male (“Junias”).  The evidence supports understanding this as a reference to a woman named “Junia.”  But, the gender identity of Junia continues to be a hot topic in some circles, specifically within those church traditions where the ordination of women is still an open question. Naturally, the idea that Paul mentions a woman apostle has some relevance for the discussion . . .

      Check out:
      Brooten, Bernadette J.  “‘Junia . . . Outstanding among the Apostles’ (Romans 16:7).”  Pages 141-144 in 
      Women Priests: A Catholic Commentary on the Vatican Declaration.  Edited by Arlene Swinder and Leonard Swindler.  New York: Paulist Press, 1977.  Readable online!

      Epp, Eldon Jay.  Junia: the first woman apostle. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005.

      Fàbrega, Valentin.  “War Junia(s), der hervorragende Apostel (Röm 16,7), eine Frau?” Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum 27/28 (1984/85): 47-64.

      Wolters, Al.  “IOUNIAN (Romans 16:7) and the Hebrew name Yeḥunī.” Journal of Biblical Literature 2 (2008): 397-408.

      Read more »

      ArcheoNet BE

      Romeinse ambachtslieden strijken zondag neer in Velzeke

      Naar aanleiding van de vlooienmarkt slaan Gallische en Romeinse ambachtslieden en handelaars op zondag 29 mei opnieuw hun tenten op aan het Provinciaal Archeologisch Museum in Velzeke (Zottegem). De bezoeker kan er zijn voorouders aan het werk zien terwijl ze ijzer smeden, been en hout bewerken, weven, verven, eten bereiden en nog veel meer. Kom zelf de sfeer opsnuiven en uitproberen. Het museum is voor één dag gratis te bezichtigen onder leiding van ervaren gidsen. Meer info op www.pam-ov.be.

      The Archaeology News Network

      14,500-year-old cave paintings discovered in Spain

      A series of prehistoric cave paintings has been uncovered in the Basque Country, northern Spain, in a discovery experts have called a "once in a generation" find. The cave paintings were discovered by archaeologist Diego Garate and caver Iñaki Intxaurbe. They span roughly 100 metres, and largely represent horses, bison, goats, and deer [Credit: Provincial County of Bizkaia]The paintings, which include those of bison, horses and goats,...

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      Archaeological News on Tumblr

      Ancient sculpture of bell-skirted woman draws interest at Malatya Museum

      A sculpture of a woman dating back to 2,000 B.C., discovered in the İmamoğlu mound on an island in...

      The Archaeology News Network

      Greek archaeologists announce the discovery of Aristotle's tomb

      There are strong indications that a peculiar ancient tomb found in the area of Stagira, in central Macedonia, is the tomb of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, archaeologist Kostas Sismanidis said on Thursday, during an international conference on the famous philosopher in Thessaloniki. Addressing the “Aristotle World Congress”, Sismanidis, whose team has spent 20 years digging in the area, said the horseshoe-shaped domed building...

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      James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

      How To Decide On A Conference Paper Title

      Sarah Bond shared the above flow chart that she made, and I thought I should share it here too, since many will find it entertaining and/or helpful!

      American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

      American School and Gennadius Library Celebrate Anniversaries with Gala

      Agora Excavations Director John Camp and the A.G. Leventis Foundation were both recognized for their contributions at the May 12th event in New York City.

      Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

      Mystery Of Morbid Aztec Skull Masks Solved By Archaeologists

      Archaeologists have finally solved the mystery behind the origin of these morbid Aztec skull masks.

      Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

      Open Access Journal: Clara Rhodos: Studi e materiali pubblicati a cura dell' Istituto Storico-Archeologico di Rodi

      [First posted in AWOL 22 September 2014, updated 26 May 2016]

      Clara Rhodos: Studi e materiali pubblicati a cura dell' Istituto Storico-Archeologico di Rodi
      Στη σειρά Clara Rhodos, που αποτελείται από δέκα τόμους και εκδόθηκε από το 1928 έως το 1941, παρουσιάζονται οι έρευνες και οι ανασκαφές στα Δωδεκάνησα, κυρίως στη Ρόδο, την Κω, τη Χάλκη και τη Νίσυρο, κατά τη διάρκεια της Ιταλοκρατίας. Η σειρά αποτελεί έκδοση του ινστιτούτου FERT, που συστήθηκε από τους Ιταλούς αρχαιολόγους το 1927. Μετά την ενσωμάτωση της Δωδεκανήσου στην Ελλάδα το 1948, οι δικαιοδοσίες του FERT μεταβιβάστηκαν στην Ελληνική Αρχαιολογική Υπηρεσία, και συγκεκριμένα στο Αρχαιολογικό και Ιστορικό Ίδρυμα Ρόδου, το οποίο το 2003 μετονομάστηκε σε Αρχαιολογικό Ινστιτούτο Αιγαιακών Σπουδών.

      Εκδόσεις:
      Clara Rhodos I: A. Maiuri – G. Jacopich, Rapporto generale sul servizio archeologico a Rodi e nelle isole dipendenti dall’anno 1912 all’anno 1927, Bergamo 1928
      Clara Rhodos II: A. Maiuri, Monumenti di scultura del Museo archeologico di Rodi I, Bergamo 1932
      Clara Rhodos III: G. Jacopi, Scavi nella necropoli di Jalisso, 1924-1928, Bergamo 1929
      Clara Rhodos IV: G. Jacopi, Esplorazione archeologica di Camiro I, Bergamo 1931
      Clara Rhodos IX: 1. L. Laurenzi, Monumenti di scultura del Museo Archeologico di Rodi – IV; e dell’ Antiquarium di Coo - II. 2. E. Paribeni, Due vasi del Museo Archeologico di Rodi. 3. G. Levi Della Vida, Una bilingue Greco-Nabatea a Coo. 4. M Segre, La legge ateniese sull’ unificazione della Moneta. 5. M Segre, Iscrizioni di Licia. 6. S. Accame, Un nuovo decreto di Lindo del V Sec. A.C., Bergamo 1938.
      Clara Rhodos V. 1: G. Jacopi, Monumenti di scultura del Museo archeologico di Rodi II, Bergamo 1931
      Clara Rhodos V. 2: G. Jacopi, Monumenti di scultura del Museo archeologico di Rodi III, Bergamo 1932
      Clara Rhodos VIII: 1. L. Laurenzi, Necropoli ialisie (Scavi dell’ anno 1934). 2. P. E. Arias, “Pelike” con amazzonomachia dell’ “Antiquarium” di Coo. 3. M Segre, Dedica votiva dell’ equipaggio di una nave rodia. 4. P. Lojacono, La chiesa conventuale di S. Giovanni dei Cavalieri in Rodi. 5. P. Lojacono, Il Palazzo del Gran Maestro in Rodi , Bergamo 1936.
      Clara Rhodos VI-VII: G. Jacopi, Esplorazione archeologica di Camiro II, Necropoli, Acropoli, Bergamo 1932-3

      Clara Rhodos X: 1. L. Laurenzi, Ritratto di un principe ellenistico. 2. L. Laurenzi, Statuetta acefala di Cleobulo Lindio. 3. L. Laurenzi, Iscrizioni dell’ Asclepieo di Coo. 4. G Monaco, Scavi nella zona micenea di Jaliso (1935-1936). 5. M. C. De Azevedo, Una oinochoe della necropoli di Jaliso. 6. A. Degrassi, Iscrizioni latine inedite di Coo, Bergamo 1941.



      Guide to Graduate Programs in the Classics

      Guide to Graduate Programs in the Classics
      Home
      The Guide to Graduate Programs in the Classics is a project of the American Philological Association’s Committee on Education.  During the past year the APA has decided to make this resource primarily an electronic publication so that it can be updated more frequently.  As a temporary measure, a list of departments offering graduate programs appears below.  Over the summer we hope to install a new database that will enable departments to submit and change as necessary the detailed information that has traditionally appeared in the Guide, e.g., degrees offered, fees, and areas of faculty expertise.

      As you will see, the listing below consists of a table showing which graduate degree(s) in Classics each institution offers, with the name of the institution serving as a link to the relevant department’s web site.  Please send any corrections to this list to apaclassics@sas.upenn.edu, using the subject heading Graduate Program List Update.

      Scott Moore (Ancient History Ramblings)

      10 Days to Go

      Time is flying by, I only have til Sunday in Polis and then we head to Larnaka to do some PKAP work next week, mainly cataloguing and illustrating artifacts. Today I drove Bill and David to the airport, they are headed to Greece. The ride isn’t bad, just long – 2 hours each way.When I got back to Polis it was about midday, so I went to the museum to look at some of the registered artifacts from the areas that Bill and I have been focusing on this summer. It turned out to be not very helpful, the pieces did not add to our knowledge about the area. It happens that way sometimes.

      IMG_0487[1]Since I mentioned them earlier, I thought I would try the ketchup and mustard chips by Tsakiris. It turns out that some of them are ketchup flavored and ridged, while others are mustard flavored and not ridged. Since I had not looked at the bag closely, I was expecting a mix of ketchup and mustard on each chip. The chips were crunchy as usual, but I have to admit to not liking either type of flavored chip, the taste was …… just strange in my opinion. And I did try them separately and together, for the sake of science. So, I give them – ** (2).

      RSM


      BiblePlaces Blog

      Most Beautiful Edition of Josephus’s Jewish War

      Carta has just released what is likely the most beautiful and most useful edition of Josephus’s The Jewish War ever printed. Here’s why I think this is the edition you (and your students) will want to read:

      • Josephus needs maps, and this edition includes 40 maps. They are on the same page as the events, so you don’t have to flip around.
      • Almost every page has a photo or illustration of some kind. I love full-color double-page spread aerials of Masada, and I love architectural renderings of Herodium and Roman Jericho. This makes an exciting history even better.
      • The color-coded text makes it easier to read, with personal names in red, place names in blue, and references in green.
      • This edition provides both reference systems (Whiston and Loeb) so it’s easy to find your place no matter how another source cites it.

      Josephus — Carta’s Illustrated - The Jewish War

      Carta’s Illustrated The Jewish War uses the venerable Whiston translation and the maps follow the numbering system in The Carta Bible Atlas, with a table cross-referencing these to The Sacred Bridge.

      Carta is offering 30% off through June (with the code “30-off,” bringing the price from $60 down to $42. They’ve also reduced shipping to $5 (from Israel) during the sale as well. This is a great deal on an essential resource.

      Perhaps a further word for those of my readers who are not aware of how important The Jewish War is. If you know anything about the first century in Israel outside the New Testament, there’s a good chance it came from this book. There are other sources, but The Jewish War is the best, because it is (1) contemporary, (2) lengthy, (3) interested in subjects related to the New Testament, like Jerusalem, temple, Herod, Galilee, and Pharisees; (4) generally accurate as it was written by a historian who was eyewitness to so much. I will be leading a group of students throughout Israel for the next three weeks and probably not a day will go by when I am not quoting or referencing this book. I encourage my students to read it, mark it, and keep it handy.

      jewish-war-carta

      Page 1, from the online sample pages

      American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

      Ανθοδετική Τέχνη ΙΚΕΒΑΝΑ

      June 07, 2016 - 3:45 PM - Σεμινάριο στο πλαίσιο της έκθεσης “Flora Graeca’‘ Ιωάννα Χαρίτου-Μπάρτσικ, Ελληνικός Σύλλογος Ανθοδετικής IKEBANA Σχολής Ohara Ιαπωνίας

      Τα χρώματα της άνθισης των φυτών της Flora Graeca

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      Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

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      Il 27 ed il 28 ottobre 2016, presso il Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria, si terrà IWCIM – International Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding, organizzato annualmente dal gruppo di lavoro Multimedia Understanding through Semantics, Computation and Learning (MUSCLE) dell’ERCIM, l’European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics.

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      A study of more than 6,000 marine fossils from the Antarctic shows that the mass extinction event that killed the dinosaurs was sudden and just as deadly to life in the polar regions. Reconstruction of typical Cretaceous marine environment in Antarctica, including the paperclip-shaped  ‘heteromorph’ ammonite Diplomoceras [Credit: James McKay]Previously, scientists had thought that creatures living in the southernmost regions of...

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      Archaeological News on Tumblr

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      Vampires are real, and they've been around for millions of years. At least, the amoebae variety has. So suggests new research from UC Santa Barbara paleobiologist Susannah Porter. Half-moon shaped holes (black arrows) and circular holes (white arrows) in 780–740 million-year-old fossils  of shell-forming amoebae from the Chuar Group of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Holes are approximately  15 to 35 micrometers in size: shells...

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      Molens zetten zondag deuren open

      Op zondag 29 mei vindt de jaarlijkse Vlaamse Molendag plaats. Tientallen molens, verspreid over heel Vlaanderen en Brussel, zijn die dag tussen 10u en 18u gratis te bezoeken. In de meeste molens worden ook gidsbeurten, maaldemonstraties en andere randactiviteiten georganiseerd. De lijst met de deelnemende molens en de randactiviteiten vind je op de website van Molenforum Vlaanderen.

      James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

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      Several interesting-looking videos of lectures came to my attention and I wanted to share them. First, here’s Amy-Jill Levine on sex, rape, gender, and other related matters in the Bible: Next, here’s Jason Beduhn on the “secret history” (i.e. neglected “heretical” streams and stories) of early Christian centuries: And finally, Ancient World Online shared some videos [Read More...]

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      Those Jerusalem tunnels

      <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/OY1iLNDlTiA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>