Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

http://planet.atlantides.org/maia

Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

This feed aggregator is part of the Planet Atlantides constellation. Its current content is available in multiple webfeed formats, including Atom, RSS/RDF and RSS 1.0. The subscription list is also available in OPML and as a FOAF Roll. All content is assumed to be the intellectual property of the originators unless they indicate otherwise.

November 25, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

La rive orientale de la mer Rouge, d'Aqaba aux Îles Farasan durant l'Antiquité

Conférence donnée par Laila Nehmé
dans le cadre du Séminaire "Techniques et économies de la Méditerranée antique" dirigé par Jean-Pierre Brun.
- Pour en savoir plus sur ce séminaire

JPEG - 143.5 ko
Carte de la Coste d'Arabie, Mer Rouge et Golphe de Perse, tirée de la carte Françoise de l'Océan Oriental - 1754




















November 21, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

L'hittitologie aujourd'hui : études sur l'Anatolie hittite et néo-hittite à l'occasion du centenaire de la naissance d'Emmanuel Laroche

Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations, Université Koç, Istiklal cadd. 181, Beyoglu/Istanbul

Colloque organisé par Alice Mouton et l'Institut Français d'études anatoliennes (IFEA)

Ces rencontres se tiendront à l'occasion du centenaire de la naissance d'Emmanuel Laroche

- Consulter le programme

Contact

November 14, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

Le christianisme syriaque en Asie centrale et en Chine

XIIe Table ronde de la Société d'études syriaques :
Le christianisme syriaque en Asie centrale et en Chine

- Consulter le programme

La Société d'études syriaques organise chaque année une table ronde thématique à l'intention de ses membres, des syriacisants français et étrangers, et de tous ceux qui sont intéressés par les cultures syriaques en Orient, en Asie et en Occident.

Chaque table ronde débouche sur un volume publié l'année suivante dans la collection Etudes syriaques.
Derniers volumes parus :
Les Pères grecs dans la tradition syriaque (2007)
L'Ancien Testament en syriaque (2008)
L'historiographie syriaque (2009)
Le monachisme syriaque (2010)
La mystique syriaque (2011)
L'hagiographie syriaque (2012)
Les églises en monde syriaque (2013)
Les sciences en syriaque (2014)

informations : www.etudessyriaques.org/actus.php





avec le soutien du Labex RESMED

Les mots de la paix

Journée d'étude organisée dans le cadre du projet de recherche :
La paix : concepts, pratiques et systèmes politiques

- Télécharger le programme

November 08, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

L'Anatolie de l'époque archaïque à Byzance

Journée d'étude de l'école doctorale 1 : Mondes anciens et médiévaux

- Consulter le programme

Journée d'études à la mémoire de Pierre Bordreuil

Programme

9h15 : accueil par Corinne LANOIR, doyenne de la Faculté de théologie protestante de Paris

introduction par Françoise BRIQUEL CHATONNET et Marion FÉVRIER BORDREUIL

9h30 : Première session, présidée et introduite par Dennis PARDEE

9h 40 :Robert HAWLEY et Hedwige ROUILLARD BONRAISIN : « A la recherche du sens perdu des mots ougaritiques : un savoir gourmand et gourmet »

10h10 : Jean MARGUERON et Béatrice MULLER : « Questions sur le temple palatial d'Ugarit »

10h40 : Leila BADRE : « Les pays d'Amurru et les pays d'Ugarit ne font qu'un »

11h10-11h40 : Pause

11h40 : Carole ROCHE-HAWLEY : « Milieux lettrés syriens au XIIIe siècle »

12h05 : Arnaud SÉRANDOUR et Sophie CLUZAN : « Baal, Yahweh et les étoiles »

12h35-14h30 : repas

14h30 Deuxième session présidée et introduite par Rolf STUCKY

14h40 : Maria-Grazia MASETTI-ROUAULT : « Le monde syro-mésopotamien à l'Âge du Fer I-II : cultures locales et culture impériale, entre Assyriens et Araméens »

15h10 : Frédérique DUYRAT : « Comportements monétaires en Syrie à l'époque achéménide »

15h30 : Françoise BRIQUEL CHATONNET : « Migraines d'épigraphiste »

15h55-16h20 pause

16h20 : Annie CAUBET et Marguerite YON : « Tubal Caïn, Kothar Khasis et le pseudo Bès »

17h10 : Eric GUBEL : « Bon oeuf – Bon poussin ? Une enquête de Pierre menée à bien »

17h 40 : Felice ISRAEL : témoignage d'amitié

- Télécharger le programme

November 01, 2014

All Mesopotamia

pennmuseum: This is Matt the mount maker at the Penn Museum....









pennmuseum:

This is Matt the mount maker at the Penn Museum.  He is carrying Puabi’s earrings safely in his fancy blue basket.  Puabi goes on loan soon to the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at NYU

Queen Puabi’s earrings are going to be in New York soon!

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: November 1

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): Kalendae Novembres, the Calends of November.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Odysseus and the Sirens; you can also see the legends for the current week listed together here.


TODAY'S MOTTOES and PROVERBS:

TINY MOTTOES: Today's tiny motto is: Vincit labor (English: Hard work is victorious).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word verb-less proverb is Ad Graecas calendas (English: On the Greek calends - which is to say "never," since the Greeks did not have a day called the calends as the Romans did).

AUDIO PROVERBS: Today's audio Latin proverb is In idem flumen bis non descendimus (English: We do not go down into the same river twice). To read a brief essay about this proverb and to listen to the audio, visit the Latin Via Proverbs blog.

PUBLILIUS SYRUS: Today's proverb from Publilius Syrus is: Quam miserum est, cum se renovat consumptum malum (English: How wretched it is when a problem which had run its course comes back!).

ERASMUS' ANIMALS: Today's animal proverb from Erasmus is Mus non uni fidit antro (English: A mouse cannot entrust itself to just one hole; from Adagia 5.1.4).

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Pro Patria Cara. Click here for a full-sized view.


And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:



Lege totum si vis scire totum
Read it all if you wish to know it all.

Cum audace non eas in via.
Do not travel with a bold companion.

TODAY'S FABLES:

FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Cervus et Hinnulus Eius, a story about inward and outward power (this fable has a vocabulary list).

MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Struthiocamelus et Gallina, the story of the ostrich who wanted to fly.

Struthiocamelus Volans

Latin Fables Read by Justin Slocum Bailey. Here is today's audio fable: Leo et Equus, with links to the audio and to the blog post.

Equus et Leo Medicus

October 31, 2014

Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

What does Eutychius’ Annals contain?

Arabic Christian literature is little known.  There is no English-language handbook, and even the “big histories”, the works in which Arabic-speaking Christians recount their own history, are mostly not translated into English; or, indeed, sometimes even edited.

Eutychius – also known as Sa`īd al-Bitrik -, Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria between 877-940 AD, wrote one of the five histories; and indeed was one of the first Christians to adopt Arabic, the language of the conquerors.  This is commonly known by its 17th c. Latin title, the Annals.  A partial German translation exists – of value to that tiny part of the world who speak German – and a full Italian translation by Bartolomeo Pirone.  The latter was published in Cairo in 1987 by the Franciscan Centre, thereby ensuring that few copies were distributed.  My own copy came over the internet from the Franciscan bookshop in Jerusalem and is, to the best of my knowledge, the only copy in England.

I thought that it might be useful to give the table of contents here.  Note what was known in the 10th century, as passed down by (mainly ecclesiastical) writers.

Note that Pirone has decided to give proper names as transliterated from the Arabic, except in exceptional cases, so I have done likewise.

Part I – From the Creation to Heraclius

Cap. I.  The Creation of Adam and Eve - Cain, Abel and their sisters - The descendants of Shīt and those of Cain - Noah, his descendants, and the Flood - Noah leaves the Ark - The calling of Malshīsādāq - The commencement of the spread of the cult of images - The confusion of tongues in Bābil and the division of territories among the peoples of the earth - The origin of magic - Abraham came out from Harran and went to live in Kan’ān - More on Malshīsādāq - Ishmael and Isaac - Jacob and his sons - Joseph in Egypt (p.33)

Ch. II.   The Israelites become slaves of the Egyptians - The killing of every newborn Jew - Moses is forced to leave Egypt and goes to Midian - Pharaoh allows the children of Israel to leave - Moses on Mount Sinai - Death of Moses, Aaron and Maryam - Joshua becomes leader of the people - Joshua’s battles and alliances with nations and cities - Partition of the conquered territories among the children of Israel (p.63)

Chap. III.   Israel gives itself to the worship of idols - Judges appear - The prophetess Deborah - Judge Gideon - Abimelech rules the nation three years - Israel returns to the worship of the idols Baalim, Ashtarot and Bael - Yefte, judge of Israel - Samson frees the people from the slavery of foreign tribes - Samson gives himself to Delilah, is taken, blinded, killed. (p.73)

Chap. IV   The priest Ali governs the people - The Prophet Samuel in the Temple in Shīlūn - The Ark and the misadventures of foreign tribes - Samuel governs the people of Israel - The people demand a king - Saul is made ​​king over the children of Israel - Samuel anoints the young David King - David fights, by order of Saul, against foreign tribes - Death of Saul and his sons Gloriata, Abbiadati and Malhīsh (p.83)

Chap. V    David, king of Israel, faces various types of opposition and civil unrest - The ark in the house of Abinadab - David wars against the enemies of IsraelSolomon succeeds David - Hiram, king of Tyre, and the origin of purple - Measurements of the Temple built by Solomon - Two women ask for the judgment of Solomon - the Queen of Sheba in Jerusalem - Kingdom of Jeroboam and Rehoboam - the kings of Judah and Israel - Akhab and the prophet Elijah - Akhab and Yosafat. (p.91)

Chap. VI    King Ocozia and the prophet Elijah - Reign of Yoram, son of Akhab - Yoram fights against the king of Damascus - Prophecies of Elisha - Ocozia and his mother Athaliah reigned over Judah - Elisha sent to anoint king Yehu - Yehu becomes King of Israel - Yoash reigns over Judah - Akhaz returns to worship of idols - Yoash king of Israel - was followed by the kings of Judah: Amaziah, Azariah, Yotam, Akhaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amori, Josiah, Yoakhaz, Yoakim, Yahunakim - Sennacherib invades Judah - the pharaoh Necho fights against the king of Mosul (p.111)

Chap. VII    Nebuchadnezzar and the three young men in the furnace - Daniel interprets and explains the king’s dream - Prophets in Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Egypt, then he dies - Reign of his successors - Daniel explains to King Belshazzar the meaning of the three words on the wall - the reign of Darius and the appearance of the Persians - Daniel and the idols of Babil - Daniel in the den - Sequence of Persian kings - Ezra rebuilds the Temple - War between Darius and Alexander the Great: exchange of Letters - Death of Darius and campaigns of Alexander - Death of Alexander and panegyrics of the sages of the time, before the body of the hero, humbled by death - Dismemberment of the empire: the Ptolemies - Simeon the Just receives the grace of seeing the Messiah (p.127)

Chap. VIII   Caesar and Augustus rule Rome - Death of Cleopatra - Herod terrorizes Jerusalem and the region - Augustus orders a census in the territories of the Empire - The Birth of Christ - The Magi looking for Jesus - Jesus is baptized by John - Death of John and death of Christ - Joseph of Arimathea places the body in a tomb - the Resurrection and Ascension of Our Lord Jesus Christ (p.147)

Chap. IX      Reign of Tiberius and Herod Agrippa - Arcadius first Patriarch of Antioch - Death of Agrippa - The apostle Mark in Alexandria: founding of the Patriarchate of Alexandria - Nero, the persecutor of Christians - Luke writes the Gospel and the Acts - The Crucifixion of Peter head down - Vespasian, Titus and the destruction of Jerusalem - in Rome Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, and Hadrian succeed one another - Hadrian destroys Jerusalem and builds a new city called Aelia - Successions of popes, patriarchs and emperors - question of the calculation of Easter, when it should be celebrated (p.157)

Chap. X    Under the rule of Ardashir the Persians reappear - In Rome Pertinax, Julian, Severus follow one another: new persecutions against Christians - Sequence of kings of Persia: rule of Sapor - Maximinus Caesar persecutes the Christians - The persecution of Decius - Legend of the Seven Sleepers - Sequence of Persian kings and Roman emperors (p.173)

Chap. XI   Reign and persecution of Diocletian - Arian heresy arises - Phenomenon of the Tetrarchy - persecution suffered by Christians at the hands of Maximian and Galen - Constantine becomes emperor and took over the command of his father Constantius - Galerius contracts a nasty disease - Sapor secretly visits the Roman lands - Constantine‘s vision of the Cross - the Martyrs of Sebastia - Schism caused in the church by Arius and Meletius - the Council of 318 - Helena in the Holy Land: the discovery of the Cross - Constantine gives instructions to rebuild the churches of Jerusalem - Synod of Tyre and consecration of the church of Jerusalem - Constantine persecutes the Jews (p.187)

Chap. XII    Murder of Constantine - Apparition of the Cross on the Mount of Olives - Cyril of Jerusalem interprets the meaning - Dissemination of the doctrine of Arius - Heresy of Macedonius - Reign of Julian the Apostate: persecution of Christians and attempt to re-establish the worship of gods - the monastic movement in Egypt and Palestine - Reigns of Valentinian and Valens - Cycle of Theophilus and Theodosius (p.209)

Chap. XIII Reign of Theodosius the Great - Still more Arianism - Council of 150 on the teaching of Macedonius, Apollinaris and of Sabellius - Of the Manichaeans: their habits and customs - Theophilus, former friend of Theodosius, became patriarch of Alexandria - Arsenius, tutor of Arcadius and Honorius, emperors, one of the East , the other in the West - Still more on Arsenius - Disagreement between John Chrysostom and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria - The Queen Eudoxia - Epiphanius and John Chrysostom - Third ecumenical Council - Nestorius and his heresy (p.223)

Chap. XIV   Refutation of Nestorius and Nestorianism by Sa`id ibn Batrīq - Against Nestorius, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Severus, Jacob Baradaeus and their followers - On the various types of union - The person, two natures, two wills of Christ (p.239)

Chap. XV    End of Yazdagard and reign of Bahram Gor - Heresy of Eutyches - The Synod of 8 November 448 against Eutyches - The robber-synod of Ephesus: August 449 - Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius - Marcian reigns in Constantinople - the Council of Chalcedon in 451 against the heretic Eutyches and Dioscorus - Repercussions within the realm (p.259)

Chap. XVI    Reign of Firuz over the Persians - The coming to the throne of Leo the Great - Rioting in Alexandriathe murder of the patriarch Proterius - Basilicus usurps the throne - Succession of Patriarchs in the various locations - The figure of Patriarch Elias I - Firuz at war with the king of Hephthalites - Death of Firuz and the kingdom of Qabād - Anastasius, king of the Byzantines, abandons the doctrine of the Melkites and embraces that of the Jacobites - Opposition of the monks of Laurium, supported by Elias and guided by their superiors Theodosius, Chariton, Saba - the heresy of Severus and the support given to it by the king Anastasius - the monks of Palestine against the king - Eutychius refutes the doctrine of the Jacobites - A famine at Jerusalem - Justin becomes emperor of Constantinople (p.269)

Chap. XVII   Justinian vanquishes the Jacobite heresy using Apollinaris and monitors the Samaritans of Nablus. - St. Saba at the court of Constantinople - Construction of the Basilica of the Nativity of the monastery of Sinai, and the houses for the keepers of the monastery - The heresy of Origen and the synod of Constantinople II on May 5 553 - Mazdak preaches in Persia and implements the equal distribution of property - The coming to the throne of Anūshirwān - Anastasius, Patriarch of Antioch - Doctrine of Maron - The robber of the city of Ifrīqiyah - War between the Persians and Khaqan - Kisra Abarwīz, king of Persia - Kisra marries the daughter of Maurice and becomes a Christian - Phocas Emperor of Constantinople - the Persians invade Palestine and Egypt - John the Almoner - The Jews of Tyre plot to annihilate the Christians - Heraclius becomes Emperor of Constantinople (p.291)

Part II – From Heraclius to ar-Rādī  (p.317)

Cap. XVIII    Heraclius break the siege of Constantinople, Heraclius and kisra - Heraclius to Jerusalem - Heraclius and Maronites - Death of Muhammad - the Caliphate of Abū Bakr — Caliphate of ‘Umar — Caliphate of ‘Uthman — Caliphate of ‘Alī— Caliphate of Mu‘āwiya — Caliphate of Yazīd b. Mu‘āwiya — Caliphate of Marwān b. al-Hakam — Caliphate of ‘Abd al’Malik b. Marwān — Caliphate of al-Walīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik — Caliphate of Sulaymān b. ‘Abdal-Malik — Caliphate of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz — Caliphate of Yazīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik — Caliphate of Hishām b. ‘Abd al-Malik — Caliphate of al-Walīd b. Yazīd — Caliphate of Yazīd b. al-Walīd — Caliphate of Marwān b. Muhammad al-Gā‘dī  (p.319)

Cap. XIX    The Abbasid Caliphs.   Caliphate of Abū l-Abbās as-Saffāh — Caliphate of Ga‘far al-Mansūr — Caliphate of al-Mahdī — Caliphate of Mūsa al-Hādī — Caliphate of Hārūn ar-Rashīd — Caliphate of Muhammad al-Amīn —Caliphate of al-Ma’mūn — Caliphate of al-Mu‘tasim — Caliphate of al-Wāthiq — Caliphate of al-Mutawakkil — Caliphate of al-Muntasir bi’llāh — Caliphate of al-Musta‘īn — Caliphate of al-Mu‘tazz — Caliphate of al-Muhtadī — Caliphate of al-Mu‘tamid e nascita di Sa‘īd Ibn Batrīq — Caliphate of al-Mu‘tadid — Caliphate of al-Muktafī — Caliphate of al-Muqtadir — Caliphate of al-Qāhir: Sa‘īd Ibn Batrīq is made Patriarch of Alexandria — Caliphate of ar-Rādī  (p.391)

It might be interesting to translate some of this material.

Ancient Art

Greek philosopher Socrates (ca. 470–399 BC): a bust of him, and...



Greek philosopher Socrates (ca. 470–399 BC): a bust of him, and a few quotes from him.

"There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance."

"Remember that there is nothing stable in human affairs; therefore avoid undue elation in prosperity, or undue depression in adversity."

"The shortest and surest way to live with honour in the world, is to be in reality what we would appear to be; and if we observe, we shall find, that all human virtues increase and strengthen themselves by the practice of them."

"True wisdom comes to each of us when we realize how little we understand about life, ourselves, and the world around us."

I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.”

I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”

Shown bust courtesy of & currently located at the Glyptothek, Munich. Photo taken by Bibi Saint-Pol, via the Wiki Commons.

David Gill (Looting Matters)

Does Britain "condone systematic looting"?

I have been doing some work on the Icklingham bronzes that were apparently removed illegally from a Suffolk field. Neil Brodie, then in Cambridge, wrote a rather good letter in response to Peter K. Tompa (Washington Post 9 November 1999; with response 5 December 1999). Brodie talks about the Icklingham bronzes that "were illegally excavated and smuggled out of the United Kingdom and now are owned by an American collector". Brodie contrasted the Italian approach to that adopted in Britain: "At a recent conference held to discuss these issues, delegate after delegate from around the world expressed amazement at the British system, which allows the private excavation of antiquities and which, in the words of one participant, condones systematic looting."

Tompa did respond to Brodie (Washington Post 23 December 1999) and accepted that the Icklingham bronzes was indeed an "incident".

There are several things to note looking back at this exchange in 2014.

First, the present proprietor of the Icklingham bronzes has yet to return these objects to Suffolk. She has returned material to Greece and to Italy, so why not the UK?
Second, does the "private excavation of antiquities" continue in the UK? (I am not sure about the word "excavation" here.) This is exactly the point that I made in the Papers of the Institute of Archaeology in 2010 ... eleven years after Brodie's letter. And have there been any changes in the last four years?

Is it time that we heard more about the protection of unrecorded archaeological sites in the UK and less about the recording of portable stuff that has been hoiked out of the ground?

Bookmark and Share so Your Real Friends Know that You Know

Archaeology Magazine

The Big Circles of the Middle East

PERTH, AUSTRALIA—Jordan’s “Big Circles” were first spotted from airplanes in the 1920s, but little has been learned about them since then. The low walls, often made from uncut stones, would not have kept animals in or enemies out. New aerial images of the structures, which generally measure more than 1,300 feet in diameter, have been taken by David Kennedy of the Aerial Archaeology in Jordan Project and the Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East (APAAME), located at the University of Western Australia. “Most are crude circles, but many are clearly intended to be geometrically precise, although often slightly distorted,” he told the Daily Mail. Kennedy hopes the photographs will bring attention to the rings. Excavation could tell scientists more about their construction and purpose.

Preserved Grains & Trade Goods Unearthed in Indonesia

YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA—Rice and maize grains dating to sometime between the eighth and tenth centuries have been found in a bamboo basket on the slope of Mount Sindoro in Central Java. Joko Siswanto, head of the Yogyakarta Archaeology Agency, says that the maize and other imported artifacts such as Chinese vases from the Tang Dynasty suggest that Indonesia was part of an international trade network at this time. “The finding is also crucial to help us trace the history of food cultivation and technology in Indonesia, especially in Java,” he told The Jakarta Post. To read more about contemporary sites on Borneo, see ARCHAEOLOGY's "Letter From Borneo: Landscape of Memory."

Second Leaf of Marble Door Uncovered in Amphipolis

AMPHIPOLIS, GREECE—According to the Greek Reporter, a second leaf of a marble door has been found in the third chamber of the massive Hellenistic tomb in northern Greece, along with a sand-filled trench. The marble door is estimated to weigh one and a half tons. Tracks carved in stone on the floor to guide the pivoting doors have also been uncovered. Archaeologists are continuing to dig in an effort to reach the tomb's fourth chamber. To read about the search for Alexander the Great's tomb, see ARCHAEOLOGY's "In Search of History's Greatest Rulers."  

Ancient Peoples

Torso of Akhenaten 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom Amarna...



Torso of Akhenaten

18th Dynasty, New Kingdom

Amarna Period

c.1353-1336 BC

This torso from a statue of Akhenaten was found in the Sanctuary of the Great Aten Temple or in the dump south of the Sanctuary area of the temple. The heavy breasts and sagging belly of the king are typical of his representation, a feminized body that may suggest his fertile receptiveness to life and divine inspiration from the Aten.
The statue appears to have been standing with its arms held naturally so that they hung slightly forward, a realistic pose developed by Amarna artists. Like all images of the king and queen, but not the princesses, the torso is inscriped with pairs of Aten cartouches on its chest. In addition the names of the god appear on the preserved upper arm (and would have appeared also on the missing arm and on both wrists), on the king’s belt, and at the top of the backpillar and .

(Source: The Met Museum)

Open Access Archaeology

Open Access Archaeology Digest #588

A nice batch of Open Access (free to read) articles:

Notice of a Leaf-shaped Bronze Sword, found at Leannan Buidhie (Yellow Hollow) Farm of Lower Coiabus, Oa, Islay.
http://bit.ly/ZayEHD

Direct Dating of Botanical Samples in an Archaeological Context – Plant Remains from the Prehistoric Site of Kaptol-Gradci near Požega (Croatia)
http://bit.ly/1tIQrFr

Excavations in Passage-Graves and Ring-Cairns of the Clava Group, 1952-3.
http://bit.ly/16Lr9ta

Nazeingbury 20 years on or ‘where did the royal ladies go?’
http://bit.ly/1aPIAZu

Medieval Britain in 1959
http://bit.ly/10UuNA0

Learn more about Open Access and Archaeology at: http://bit.ly/YHuyFK

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Antiquitist Special Pleading


Sam Hardy (‘Virtually none of them have a provenance that says where they were dug up or when’) referring back to one of my posts from yesterday makes a cogent point worth stressing and discussing:
antiquities collectors and dealers cannot deliberately obscure the origins of almost all of their antiquities, then complain that it is very difficult for them to know if the antiquities on the market are legal, then complain that they are unfairly disadvantaged by regulations that are designed to ensure that the antiquities on the market are legal.
They create their own disadvantage by consistently filling their stockrooms with material for which they have failed to verify a proper provenance and collecting history, in order to establish that the material they trade in is of wholly licit provenance. If responsible dealers only handled material for which they can establish licit origins, and then demonstrate to discerning customers, they would not be faced with the problem of offloading potentially dodgy stuff to buyers when they cannot. Instead they attempt to foster the myth that this is in some mysterious way always impossible (though, as we can all see, some dealers do manage it - and they cannot all be making it up). It is time to clean up the antiquities market and its dodgy arguments.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Scriptura

Scriptura
ISSN 2305-445X (online)
ISSN 0254-1807 (print)
http://scriptura.journals.ac.za/public/journals/1/pageHeaderTitleImage_en_US.png
Scriptura is an independent journal which publishes contributions in the fields of Bible, Religion and Theology refereed by peers. It is international in scope but special attention is given to topics and issues emerging from or relevant to Southern Africa. Scriptura publishes contributions in English but also in other languages relevant to the Southern African region (such as Afrikaans, Xhosa, Sesotho, Zulu, French and German).









1997

Archaeology Magazine

17th-Century Luxury Goods Discovered in Irish Castle

Ireland-Castle-GobletsDUBLIN, IRELAND—The Irish Times reports that workers installing an elevator shaft at Rathfarnham Castle found a cache of seventeenth-century artifacts sealed between two stone floors at the bottom of one of the castle towers. The damp environment yielded well preserved objects, including a foldable toothbrush, clay pipes, jewelry, porcelain, coins, chamber pots, an intact drinking glass and early wine bottles, ointment jars, and a stoppered perfume bottle. “Most of the material here was imported. The family had a lot of contacts with the royal courts in England so they would have gone to London, seen the fashion, and brought it all back to show off to all of their neighbors and friends,” said Alva MacGowan, find supervisor with Archaeology Plan. Food remains indicate that the family, the descendants of Lord Adam Loftus, who built the castle in 1583, enjoyed shellfish, cherries, apricots, peaches, and tea leaves. “Tea was only introduced in England in 1650. They correspond with the porcelain tea sets imported from China. The family were importing high luxury goods from all over the world, which shows Ireland wasn’t as cut off and unfashionable as we might think,” MacGowan added.

Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

Speaking with Authority on Syria

Michel al-Maqdissi, former director of  Syria's Archaeological Excavations Department, has spoken with authority about severe threats to Syria's cultural heritage.

Al-Maqdissi places most blame on the Syrian government and military which has "destroyed a lot with its incessant bombing."  And even if Assad ultimately prevails, Syria's cultural heritage will remain at risk from a government more interested in grandiose building projects (that will no doubt enrich the dictator's cronies) than in caring for its cultural heritage.  As an example, al-Maqdissi mentions longstanding plans for a hotel and tourist center to be built right over the ruins of an important Phoenician site.

In response to a question, Al-Maqdissi states that looting is a serious problem, particularly at Apamea. However, al-Maqdissi rightly notes that rebels and the "real terrorists" of ISIS are far more likely to make quick cash from easy to sell commodities, like "hot oil."  Simply, antiquities are not very "liquid"-- it's hard to sell them fast and for top dollar. And then there is the real question whether the iconoclasts of ISIS would rather smash than sell what they find anyway.

Revealingly, al-Maqdissi has little good to say about UNESCO and its tired group of experts who use the same cookie-cutter approach to every "cultural heritage crisis."

Instead, what's needed is outside funding for site guards (which would be difficult given international sanctions) and more realistically, effective policing of Turkey's border, something CPO suggested awhile ago.

David Stuart (Maya Decipherment)

Notes on a Sacrifice Scene

by David Stuart, The University of Texas at Austin

The Late Classic cacao vase K8719 (from Justin Kerr’s The Maya Vase Database) depicts one of the more grisly scenes of human sacrifice known from Maya art. (Happy Halloween!). The surrounding imagery and texts provide some interesting tidbits of information about the timing and setting of such events, and also how they related to the pomp and circumstance of royal performance in the courts of the Classic era.

Figure 1. Rollout of vase K8719  (Photograph by Justin Kerr).

Figure 1. Rollout of vase K8719 (Photograph by Justin Kerr).

In the scene we see a king seated upon what looks to be a portable throne and looking on a scene of decapitation sacrifice.  The victim, perhaps a war captive, lies prone upon a stone altar and before a small stela. His head lies atop the stone monument, placed on a surface of amate paper-cloth (huun) and suggesting some sort of corporeal metaphor involving the upright stone (see Stuart 1996 for a further discussion of steel-body symbolism). Judging by similar scenes (see K8351), the familiar stela-altar pairing one so often see at Maya sites was often a formal place for human sacrifice. Indeed, I suspect that most stelae-and-altars erected in the plazas (Figure 2) were conceived as settings for the execution of prisoners, much as we see on this vase. To the left of the dead victims are two performers in fantastic animal costumes, wearing red scarves. As Elliot Lopez-Finn points out to me, similar portly animal performers are depicted on other vessels (see K1835, K4947. K4960). And elsewhere many similar clawed figures with red scarves are explicitly identified as wahy beings, who I have interpreted as the spooky embodiments of witchcraft and dark forces wielded by Maya rulers and elites (Stuart 2005). On this vessel the costumed figures are performing in an extraordinary setting of courtly sacrifice, perhaps as executioners that embody the animated forces of the king’s power and control over life and death.

Figure 2. Uncarved stelae and altars at Tikal.

Figure 2. Uncarved stelae and altars at Tikal.

Figure 3. Main text caption from K8719. (Photograph by J. Kerr)

Figure 3. Main text caption from K8719. (Photograph by J. Kerr)

A lengthy text runs down the middle of the image above the slain victim (Figure 3). Unfortunately it shows considerable modern repainting and “touching up” by someone who knew nothing of hieroglyphs. Nevertheless, we can see that it is a complex name caption for the seated king, opening with a CR date and then perhaps the possessed noun u baah, “the person of…” (A2 and B2). The date looks to me to be 4 Ahau 13 Yax, correspond to the k’atun ending 9.15.0.0.0. (August 16, 731 A.D.). The royal name and accompanying titles extend down into the vertical column. At B3 we see the well preserved sequence CHAN-na-K’INICH, after an initial name glyph that is largely illegible. This may well be the name Tayel Chan K’inich, in reference to the Late Classic king of the Ik’ polity who is named on a number of other vessels (Just 2012:102-123, Reents-Budet, Guenter, Bishop and Blackman 2013, Tokovinine and Zender 2013). A possible Ik’ emblem glyph might be at block A7, though again much garbled by the vase’s “restorer.”

A date of 731 A.D. agrees well with Tayel Chan K’inch, who we know from other sources to have been in power by 726 and seems to have ruled for at least a decade afterwards, perhaps a good deal more (Tokovinine and Zender 2012: 43). The 9.15.0.0.0 k’atun ending would have been among the major ceremonial event of his reign, and I suggest that the scene on this vase depicts at least one of the ceremonies from that very day.

Ascribing this vessel to the Ik’ polity and its workshops also is in keeping with the general style and color palette of the scene. Orange-colored glyphs are known from other pots of this style. We also see elaborate animal costumes worn by rulers and other performers on many other Ik’ vessels (K533, 1439, among others). As already noted, I suspect that this pair of weird-looking performers are the sacrificers responsible for the beheading. The white color here, also worn by the king, may be significant, as we find white sacrificers also shown on K2781 and K8351.

8719txt2hi

Figure 4. The glyph aj laj, “finished one,” near the victim. (Photo by J. Kerr)

Placed near the stela and just above the legs of the sacrificial victim is a lone hieroglyph (Figure 4) readable as AJ-la-ja, for aj laj. This presumably is an agentive noun based on the root laj, meaning “end, finish, die,” found throughout lowland and highland Mayan languages (Kaufman [2003] reconstructs the common Mayan form as *laj or *laaj). The connections of this word to death are widespread, and are particularly acute in colonial Tzotzil, where we find laj meaning “be dead” and the nominalized form lajel, “death” (Laughlin 1988,I: 241). There can be little doubt that here we are meant to read the glyph on the pot as a somewhat obvious descriptor of the slain figure as “the finished one, the deceased.” As far as I am aware this is a unique example of such a title used to refer to a sacrificial victim.

Overall this vessel offers a remarkable and maybe even surprising look into the nature of Maya calendar ceremonies. Written records of k’atun endings, for example, feature the ritual acts of kings who “bind the stone” or “cast the incense.” They never directly mention human sacrifices nor the bloody anointing of stelae, and why they don’t raises an interesting issue worth pondering further. The wider canvas of a portable cylindrical vase perhaps allowed for such grisly displays, more so than the stiff and narrow face of a stone stela set in a plaza. For whatever reason, cacao vases that circulated at the courts of the Late Classic period were deemed a more appropriate media for the display of some darker subject-matter, including the gorier aspects of royal ceremony and performance.

Sources Cited:

Just, Bryan. 2012. Dancing into Dreams: Maya Vase Painting of the Ik’ Kingdom. Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton.

Kaufman, Terrence. 2003. A Preliminary Mayan Etymological Dictionary. PDF ms.

Reents-Budet, Dorie, Stanley Guenter, Ronald L. Bishop and M. James Blackman. 2013. Identity and Interaction: Ceramic Styles and Social History of the Ik’ Polity, Guatemala. In Motul de San Jose: Politics, History, and Economy in a Classic Maya Polity, edited by A. E. Foias and K. F. Emery, pp. 67-93. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Stuart, David 2005. Glyphs on Pots. Sourcebook for the 2005 Maya Meetings. Department of Art and Art History, The University of Texas at Austin.

Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Marc Zender. 2013. Lords of Windy Water: The Royal Court of Motul de San Jose in Classic Maya Inscriptions. In Motul de San Jose: Politics, History, and Economy in a Classic Maya Polity, edited by A. E. Foias and K. F. Emery, pp. 30-66. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Pirate Blackbeard's Newly Recovered Cannon to be Shared with Public

GREENVILLE, N.C. — Just in from the Atlantic Ocean, the 23rd cannon recovered from the Queen...

Kristina Killgrove (Powered by Osteons)

Who needs an osteologist? (Installment 20)

This story seems to have slipped my notice over the last two weeks, but a team of radiologists in West Palm Beach, Florida, scanned an Egyptian mummy dating to 30-300 AD in advance of its going on display at the South Florida Science Center and Aquarium.

According to the news reports, which aren't terribly great, 40 years ago the mummy was studied, and researchers thought the mummy was that of a girl between the ages of 4-9 who died of tuberculosis.  The diagnosis rested on missing vertebrae, but those were found when they scanned her.  So based on a small spot, they think she may have died of appendicitis instead.

The analysis seems to have been sanctioned by the head curator of the exhibit, Egyptologist Carolyn Routledge.  But as far as I can tell from the news coverage, no osteologists were involved.  The main way I can tell? -- "Based on the modern scans, doctors say she likely is a Caucasian toddler."

Yeah, no.  Doing an ancestry estimation on subadult bones is simply not a good idea, because they're not in their adult forms (and we don't have solid methods of estimating ancestry from subadult remains, only adult remains).  However, the main reason not to call this child "Caucasian" is because that is a modern classification that is based on the (skin color) analysis of modern people, and she died 2,000 years ago. While you could argue that we could call the mummy "Caucasoid" using the correct forensic terminology, bioarchaeologists do not do ancestry estimations from modern forensic criteria.  When we do, we get issues like the shitstorm that erupted when Kennewick Man was called "Caucasian" and everyone thought that meant Europeans were in the U.S. before Native Americans.  This ancient Egyptian 3-year-old was not Caucasian.  Just... no.

Next time, please call an osteologist with expertise in mummies, or at least don't let doctors speculate on an ancient person's genetic heritage based on poorly understood terminology and poorly applied techniques used in contemporary forensic situations.

---
Previous Installments of Who needs an osteologist?

Roman Bioarchaeology Carnival LXV

Welp, I seem to have missed last month's RBC.  Oops.  So here's an extra-large helping of Roman(ish) bioarchaeology news for the last couple of months!

Italy and Greece
"Witch girl". Via Discovery News.
Britain
  • 23 October. Roman-Britons had less gum disease than modern Britons (Medical Xpress). Over 300 skulls from Poundbury (Dorset; 200-400 AD) were studied for various dental diseases. Only 5% had significant periodontal disease, whereas 15-30% of modern Britons do. The Romano-Britons did have more carious lesions, abscesses, and tooth wear, though.
Siberia
  • 17 September.  Successful 2,300-year-old brain surgery techniques now being recreated in Siberia (IB Times). An interdisciplinary team of specialists is trying to recreate the form of and tools used for trepanation practiced by the Pazyryk people, who lived in the Altai Mountains (Siberia) and were known to the Greeks as early as the 5th century BC. Specifically, they posit a link between the Pazyryk and the Hippocratic Corpus, which mentions techniques like trepanation.  (This is possible, of course, that the knowledge was shared, but trepanation was independently invented at least several times over the course of human history.)
Asia Minor
  • 10 October. Mystery of mass graves in ancient Roman village under examination (Hurriyet). These mass graves were found in the ancient city of Pisidia Antiocheia and include 24 skeletons. They might be related to an epidemic that swept through between the 6th and 9th centuries AD, and the excavator thinks it may have been a family.
Gladiator blows. Via LiveScience.
Middle East
  • 30 September. Skeletons shed light on ancient earthquake in Israel (Discovery News). Archaeologists have found at least one skeleton (doesn't seem to be an MNI in the article) that they think was a person killed in a violent earthquake in 363 AD in the ancient city of Hippos.
Africa
  • 17 October. St. Mary's doctors determine 2,100-year-old "Mummy Girl" died of appendicitis (WPTV News).  For some reason, a bunch of radiologists scanned a mummy that's on display in a museum in West Palm Beach, Florida.  There's no suggestion for why they think she died of appendicitis (which isn't really common in young children, is it?).  They also apparently determined she was "Caucasian" which (even if we buy the idea that we could apply modern racial labels to people from 2,000 years ago, which WE CAN'T) is literally impossible from the bones of a child, so yeah.  No osteologists appear to have been consulted in this, even though there are plenty of us in this state.  Grrrr.  This kind of nonsense annoys me because you can't just xray or CT scan a mummy and assume that you have all the information a highly trained osteologist with expertise on human remains from the past would. (Another report suggests she died around 30 BC.)
News Items Relevant to Roman Bioarch
  • 11 October. The fatal attraction of lead (BBC News). Everyone loves lead poisoning lately, and this is a brief survey of its use over the last couple millennia.
Hope you all enjoy your Halloween!  I will get to last night's Bones as soon as I track down a copy, as my DVR messed up and didn't record it.  In the meantime, here are the cupcakes my 5-year-old made for the occasion:


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Slandering Tutankhamun?

The results of a virtual autopsy on the mummy of the boy king Tutankhamun have triggered the anger...

Penn Museum Blog

Ur Project: October 2014

Tomb Fit for a Queen (and King?)
Spotlight on PG789 & PG800
Royal graves that might or might not be linked

In December of 1927, Leonard Woolley uncovered a pair of tombs that would become two of the best known from the Royal Cemetery at Ur, inspiring many newspaper and magazine articles and sparking the public’s imagination. One of them held a body that wearing an inscribed cylinder seal, a name tag of sorts. The cuneiform signs gave her name and title–Queen Puabi–and she in particular has been the focus of much speculation.

I reported last month on Puabi’s golden headdress and I am continuing research into the circumstances of her find. (NB: in my last report I made an error–I said Puabi’s headgear weighed around 3kg, but the total weight of the gold and beads on her head, as reported by Baadsgaard 2008, is 2.215 kg. not including the amulets found near her head that may have been worn in the hair. You’ll hear anything from 5 to 10 pounds as the total weight of her jewelry, which depends on which objects you include in the overall analysis. If we include all the beads found on her body total weight is around 5kg–her beaded cloak alone weighs 2.2kg–and this is probably where people get the 10 lb. figure, not as the headdress, but the entire ensemble.)

One of the things I’m now investigating, or re-investigating really, is the interrelationship of Puabi’s tomb (PG800) with the closely related tomb (PG789) that Woolley claimed held her husband, the King. Paul Zimmerman (1998 Master’s paper and in publication in the Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur, Zettler et al. 1998) had already noted the discrepancies in measurements and did an excellent job of reconstructing the potential layout of the graves, but naturally we go back through these things as we digitize and try to understand the site.

PG789 formed the basis for royal tombs in Woolley’s typology, a stone built chamber containing the principle burial (the ‘king’ in this case, though the tomb had been looted and no king’s body was found here) surrounded by a death pit wherein were arranged sacrificial victims who went to their deaths to serve the royal personage in the afterlife. In PG789, the floors of these elements are at the same elevation, but in the neighboring PG800 (Puabi), the elevations differ by at least 1.7 meters.

Plan drawing of PG800 death pit and chamber PG800B (Woolley 1934, Ur Excavations vol. 2)

Plan drawing of PG800 death pit and chamber PG800B (Woolley 1934, Ur Excavations vol. 2)

That pesky third dimension ruins everything. In the top-down drawing of PG800, it all looks so clear. But in 3D, it is far from it.

When excavating, Woolley first came down on a death pit reportedly at 7 meters below the surface (A in the 3D model below). Beneath it, he found a stone chamber (B in the model). Then he dug away the upper pit and discovered a lower (C in the model). The depth here was reportedly 8.3 meters below surface. Finally, he ran into the wall of another chamber in the north (D in the model). The floor of this chamber was 40 centimeters lower than the first chamber. In the orthographic illustration shown below, the letters A-D show the order of discovery (E is a hypothetical death pit never discovered but which might exist). Woolley then put parts B and C together (as PG789) and parts A and D together (as PG800).

3D reconstruction of PG789 and PG800. Letters represent order of excavation, with E? hypothetical only.

3D reconstruction of PG789 and PG800. Letters represent order of excavation, with E? hypothetical only.

Woolley says the roof of the PG800 chamber was flush with the upper death pit, making its height 1.7 meters, its floor 8.7 meters below the surface of the mound. But his measures are inconsistent.

Reported measures:

PG800 death pit = 7.0 meters below surface
PG789 death pit and chamber floor = 8.3 meters below surface
PG800 chamber floor = 8.7 meters below surface

PG789 chamber walls = 1.5 meters in height before vault begins
PG800 chamber walls = 1.4 meters in height before vault begins

The numbers can’t be correct since a 1.5 meter height of 789 walls from an 8.3 meter depth would make them rise to at least 6.8 meters below surface, meaning they would intrude on the upper death pit at 7 meters below surface. And then the vault would take up even more space. Since we know Woolley found the 789 chamber under the upper death pit 800, something has to be wrong.

So we look for more evidence. Woolley states that the upper death pit sloped as much as 50 centimeters but he doesn’t say where he took his 7 meter depth measure, so there could be as much as 1.8 meters between the two pits in some places. That still doesn’t seem to be enough to include the entire chamber, but at least it shows that there was more space even in Woolley’s reckoning. Furthermore, the Forestier reconstruction that Woolley included in publication shows people standing next to the PG789 chamber with its vault rising well above them. In this reconstruction, the total height would be around 2.2 meters.

Artist's reconstruction of PG789 death pit before the courtiers died. The chamber is seen in the background, taller than the people.

Artist’s reconstruction of PG789 death pit before the courtiers died. The chamber is seen in the background, taller than the people. (Artwork done in 1928 by Amedee Forestier)

Then we look at Woolley’s section drawing, a cross-section through the tombs, and see that he shows a distance between the two death pits, calculated from the scale he placed on the map, at approximately 2.2 meters. He also shows the vault of PG800 rising above the upper death pit line with its total height around 2.6 meters. This is substantially different from the reported height of 1.7 meters.

Finally, Zimmerman (1998) interprets a survey document found by Nissen (1966) in Woolley’s notes to indicate the height above sea level of PG789 at 7.65 meters. This would make it, in Zimmerman’s analysis, 8.95 meters below the surface, not 8.3 as reported by Woolley. Of course, the modern ground surface is not constant and we don’t know exactly where Woolley took his measures.

Zimmerman’s calculations seem much more plausible than Woolley’s direct reports. Woolley probably calculated from a base measure after areas had been excavated away, unable to re-measure, and the survey numbers are likely more accurate. The only problem with the recalculations is that it makes the PG800 chamber as much as 2.7 meters in height rather than the 1.7 that Woolley reported. This difference is quite noticeable in excavation since it is over the typical height of a person and climbing down into a pit 2.7 meters deep is much different than one only 1.7 meters. Nonetheless, Woolley’s own section drawing shows PG800 to be at least 2.5 meters tall, a good indication that it really was larger than he reported. Plus, the vaults of both tombs had largely collapsed, so the total height is an estimate at any rate.

Computer model of PG789 and PG800 with Woolley's section map to scale. Letters again designate sequence of excavation with E? never excavated.

Computer model of PG789 and PG800 with Woolley’s section map to scale. Letters again designate sequence of excavation with E? never excavated.

The conclusion we have to come to is that there was more vertical space between the death pits than reported in the publication of Ur Excavations volume 2. Furthermore, the chamber of PG800 (D in the model) probably doesn’t belong with the high death pit labeled PG800 (A in the model). In fact, there may well be another death pit below PG789 (E? in the model) that is at the level of PG800′s chamber floor and associated with that tomb. Woolley didn’t dig deeper here. He was convinced that Puabi outlived her husband and wanted to be buried next to him but with her servants placed above his grave. That seems a more complex reconstruction than the idea that Puabi had died before whoever was in PG789 and the death pit above 789 is a still later grave.

Martin Rundkvist (Aardvarchaeology)

October Pieces Of My Mind #2

  • What are the best arguments to keep your home wifi password protected? I think it’s a pain in the ass. My retired neighbour makes prophecies of doom involving child pornographers standing around with laptops outside my fence, distributing contraband files and leaving me to do the jail time.
  • I tell my students that the two most important pieces of information I’ll be handing out, the ones they should remember after they’ve forgotten everything else from Scandy Archaeology 101, are these. 1. Agriculture starts in 3950 BC. 2. From that time and 5000 years on, most Scandies live in post-borne wooden long houses.
  • I miss my toddlers sitting on my lap.
  • Medieval Scandy laws didn’t differentiate between rape of and consenting extramarital canoodling with other men’s wives and daughters. The main wronged party in either case was the man who owned control over the woman’s sexual favours and fertility. A man raping his own wife was a contradiction in terms and no concern of the judicial system.
  • The burp at the start of Saint Vitus’s doom boogie tune “Thirsty and Miserable” sounds a lot like the one at the start of the Stooges’ “I Wanna Be Your Dog”.
  • Jrette is now so old and mature that not only does she have no interest in pink conical Bratz(tm) party hats, she thought I was joking when I found some and asked.
  • I put a tray on the conveyor belt at airport security. The guy behind me in line puts his laptop into it and ignores me. I put another tray on the belt. He puts his jacket into it, still ignoring me. Dafuq?
  • A week ago I emailed my local public library and asked for an inter-library loan. They just texted me that they’ve got the book for me. This is on a multi-ethnic working-class council housing estate.
  • Lasagna typifies dishes that, though they may be tasty enough, aren’t worth the time and effort compared to quicker and easier recipes with similarly tasty outcomes.
  • Using Google Translate to communicate with cleaning lady. Good thing I tested the output phrase by retranslating it before printing. The first version I got when translating “How is your back?” meant “How is your eyesight?”
  • Soon remodelling of the Slussen traffic bottleneck in Stockholm will add 5-10 minutes to my daily commute for a period of years. I look forward to investigating whether the Nacka strand to Nybroplan commuter boat will gain me any time.
  • Kim Stanley Robinson’s 1998 novel Antarctica is set in some nearish future where Earth’s human population is ten billion. But they still use faxes, modems and chemical photography. And there’s no wifi.
  • Ha! Screw you, Telenor! I found two of the comfy chairs in another part of the Bromma airport departures hall!
  • Insight: a planet’s rotational poles will only be cold if the axis is roughly at right angles to the planet’s orbit around the star.
  • After a day working at home I’d quite like to be chased by the Nazgûl.

From Stone to Screen

We’re upgrading!

Our project has had some amazing opportunities and exposure this academic year, and we’re only two months in!  To reflect this, our team is in the process of redesigning our webpage!  We have some great ideas and can’t wait to put them into place.

We also want to hear from you, though!  As our readers, supporters, and the whole reason why we’re doing this, we value your opinion and want to know what you’d like to see.  We would really appreciate it if you could take a minute to answer our poll and let us know what you would like to see on our website!  Vote on a particular aspect you think would be great to see upgraded or suggest your own!  We would love any feedback you have.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

New search planned for grave of Spanish poet Lorca

Archeologists will start inspecting the land in an area in southern Spain near where the acclaimed...

Peter Konieczny and Sandra Sadowski (History of the Ancient World)

What Philosophical School of Thought are you in?

This short quiz briefly assesses your philosophical world views and tells you which out of eight schools of thought you are closest.

See also:

Which Great Philosopher Are You?

20 Great Quotes from Ancient Greece

Which Ancient Greek Philosopher Are You?

What Philosophical School of Thought are you in?

Ancient Peoples

Scarab inscribed with the throne name of Thutmose I  18th...



Scarab inscribed with the throne name of Thutmose I 

18th Dynasty, New Kingdom

c.1504-1492 BC

(Source: The Met Museum)

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Starfleet Business as Usual

James and Redshirt 1

This is how we dress for meetings on October 31th at Butler University. I liked that the redshirt t-shirt had a warning label on the back:

DeadJim-FrontBack

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Old Hampton dig confirms evidence of lost Civil War refugee slave village

Archaeologists probing for signs of a landmark Civil War refugee slave camp were digging against...

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Vampires and Archaeology ...

I don't have photos of all the excavated vampires, for example this one ...
Bulgarian archaeologists find ‘twin’ of Sozopol ‘vampire’ at Perperikon | The Sofia Globe: Archaeologists working on Bulgaria’s Perperikon site have found the skeleton of a male buried with a ploughshare in its chest, a find that professor Nikolai Ovcharov has already described as a “twin of the Sozopol vampire.”
But I've blogged about them before, so look at last year's quick summary - Dorothy King's PhDiva: The Archaeology of Vampires 101 - including the Vampire of Venice (photo to left), those from Poland and oh pretty much all over Europe. Between that and the label Vampires I think I've covered most of those found before this year ...

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Roman skeletons found in Worcestershire

ROMAN age skeletons have been unearthed at a school in Worcestershire. The two incomplete adult...

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Werewolves and Zombies

Miranda Griffin gave a lecture at the University of Cambridge Festival Ideas in 2013 - she concentrates on Medieval example: Werewolves and snakewomen 

For Roman examples I recommend A Roman Werewolf and a Dinner Tale - Beachcombing's Bizarre History Blog - he covers the story from the Satyricon:
The word for werewolf is versipellis, ‘turn-fur’, and werewolf veterans will notice some familiar traits. The moon is very much in evidence in Petronius’s story.
Dr Beachcombing even has a tag devoted to Werewolves!

There is quite a good summary of the Greek and Roman examples of the λυκάνθρωπος on Wikipedia, although as always I recommend double-checking anything there: Werewolf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dr Beachcombing also has a tag for witches - here - and one for human sacrifice - here - and ... oh, I'm going to bet if you click on his blog you'll find something fascinating!

Beachcombing's Bizarre History Blog -

For zombies, see Medievalists: What a Bunch of Tools: Zombie Saints and Their Use Within Medieval Communities



ArcheoNet BE

Honderdtal graven ontdekt in het centrum van Zottegem

In het centrum van Zottegem hebben de archeologen van SOLVA de sleuven langs de Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Hemelvaartkerk afgewerkt en deze leverden enkele opmerkelijke vondsten op. Minstens sinds de 14de-15de eeuw situeerde zich een begraafplaats rondom de kerk. Bij de opgraving is de bakstenen muur rond het kerkhof aangetroffen. Tussen de muur en de kerk bevonden zich talrijke graven bestaande uit houten kisten die de stoffelijke resten bevatten. In totaal kwamen 94 graven aan het licht.

De recentste graven bevinden zich nauwelijks 50cm onder het huidige plein. Het gaat steeds om begravingen in een houten kist. Het hout is meestal vergaan maar de skeletten zijn goed bewaard. Het kerkhof is minstens 500 jaar in gebruik geweest. Het schrijnende plaatsgebrek tijdens die lange periode is duidelijk af te leiden uit de archeologische sporen.

Verschillende oudere graven zijn gedeeltelijk verspit bij het aanleggen van een jongere grafkuil. Dit wijst erop dat de graven bovengronds niet of slechts kortstondig gemarkeerd waren. Op een dieper niveau troffen de archeologen tevens een knekelput aan. Waarschijnlijk is een van de oudere delen van het kerkhof geruimd om plaats te maken voor nieuwe graven.

Bron: SOLVA nieuwsbrief 33 (pdf)

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Pompeii artefact returned fifty years after it went missing

A Canadian tourist has returned a 2,000-year-old terracotta artefact to Pompeii - half a century...

From Stone to Screen

Spells, Potions, and Curses of the Ancient World

Happy Halloween! Today’s post is a slight departure from our regular talk of digital humanities, but still has an epigraphic focus – we’re looking at ancient papyri texts with spells, curses and potions.


Invisibility Spell

P. oxy. LVIII.3931

P. oxy. LVIII.3931

Translation by Richard L Phillips:[1]

ASSESOUO, dim the eyes of every man or woman, when I go forth, until I achieve as many things as I wish, and I say, Choreith, listen to me, (you) who are in charge of the universe, ALKME, master of the sea; (you) who are in charge of the night. 

 

POxy.v0058.n3931.b.01.hires

P.Oxy.LVIII 3931; Papyrology Rooms, Sackler Library, Oxford

The back side of the papyrus seems to have a potion recipe on it, cautiously restored as:

Soak fine….in oil with crocodile dung and a few mature mallows and rub on the face.

Crocodile dung sounds really gross, but weighed against the benefits of invisibility…I might be tempted.


 

Prophetic Dreams

To see a true dream:

Upon going to sleep say after you have eaten ritually pure food, “Verily by Neith, verily by Neith, if I shall succeed in a certain activity, show me water, if not, fire.” 

Aegis_of_Neith-H1550-IMG_0172

Neith, Goddess of War and Hunting, Nurse of Crocodiles, Cow of Heaven, Opener of the Ways.

These two examples basically mean the ancients sat around doing the papyri equivalent of a Buzzfeed quiz;  Which psychic power should you have?[2] Or at least, that they had the same silly desires we do – invisibility and the ability to tell the future. What other frivolous concerns did they decide were worth dabbling in the supernatural?


Curses

Spell for the Chariot Race

Spell for the Chariot Race

Translation:

“…Sarakenos Belehmu Parthaon Didyme Nymphike Pele- Strabos…by the holy names that are attached to you…smite the horses of the Blues, hold them back so that…Parthaon Nymphike Strabos Pele-. I adjure you, spirit of the dead, by (voces magicae). I adjure you [...by] Gabriel, Raphael, Michael, Bouel, go off to the (hippodrome?) so that you may cast down, cause to fall, and bind the…Parthaon Didyme Strabos Nymphike Pele-…I adjure you by the God of the Gods…Ousirapis Ousor Mnevis Ous-…of the Lord Ouser-…drag, cause to fall…smite…”[3]

The text of this curse, from 4th Century Beirut,  is missing the end of each line but it is clearly a curse against the horses rather than the charioteer. Chariot races were extremely popular in the Roman world and people got as heated about their faction as any modern sports fan does for their team – check out the Wikipedia entry on the Nika riots,”the most violent riots in the history of Constantinople”; it began in the hippodrome, escalated to the nearby palace and half the city was destroyed.

Curse tablets directed against sporting rivals or specific horse teams like the one above are often found buried in and around the sites of chariot races, but curses were also a popular way to deal with legal troubles, business rivals and thieves.[4]

The commonalities between spells, curses and potions of the ancient world are that they invoke the gods – the more, the better, it seems – there is a ritual formula that anyone can use, no special training necessary, and they tend to borrow foreign words in much the same way that modern tv shows throw out Latin or Sumerian when they want to really impress the viewers. Co-opting foreign words because they sound more magical is just one more thing that hasn’t really changed with time.

Have a happy Halloween, everyone, and if you find any crocodile dung…let me know how that invisibility spell works out for you.

Jack-o'-Lantern 2003-10-31

Jack-o’-Lantern 2003-10-31


 

[1] R. Phillips, “Blinding as a Means of Becoming Invisible” ICS 35-36 (2010-11) 111-20.

[2] I got Clairvoyance, for the record.

[3] H. Amirav, G. Bevan, D. Colomo

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curse_tablet


Further Reading:

Adams, Geoff W (2006), The social and cultural implications of curse tablets [defixiones] in Britain and on the Continent, Studia Humaniora Tartuensia, 7.A.5: 1–15.

Baker, K. (2003), ‘Greco-Roman Curses: Curse Tablets’, History of Magick

Kotansky, Roy, Greek Magical Amulets: the inscribed gold, silver, copper and bronze lamellae (Part I: Published Texts of Known Provenance), Papyrologica Coloniensia 22/1, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1994

Ogden, Daniel (1999), “Binding Spells: Curse Tablets and Voodoo Dolls in the Greek and Roman Worlds”, in Ankarloo, Bengt; Clark, Stuart, In Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 3–90.

Tomlin, Roger (2005), Curse Tablets of Roman Britain, et al, Oxford, ENG, UK: Oxford University.

 

Compitum - publications

A. Ferreiro, The Visigoths in Gaul and Iberia (Update)

visigoths.jpg

Alberto Ferreiro, The Visigoths in Gaul and Iberia (Update). A Supplemental Bibliography, 2010-2012, Leyde-Boston, 2014.

Éditeur : Brill
Collection : The Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World, 55
XXXIV-365 pages
ISBN : 978-90-04-27568-3
140 €


The bibliography includes material published from 2010 to 2012. Following on from the first bibliography (Brill, 1988) and its updates (Brill 2006, 2008, 2011) this volume covers recent literature on: Archaeology, Liturgy, Monasticism, Iberian-Gallic Patristics, Paleography, Linguistics, Germanic and Muslim Invasions, and more. In addition, peoples such as the Vandals, Sueves, Basques, Alans and Byzantines are included. The book contains author and subject indexes and is extensively cross-indexed for easy consultation. A periodicals index of hundreds of journals accompanies the volume. Further updates are to be expected at intervals of three years.


Source : Brill

American Philological Association

How learning works in the Greek and Latin classroom, part 3

This month’s column is the third part in a series I’m posting every other month or so about how we can apply and see in action the 7 principles of research-based pedagogy described in the excellent book How Learning Works, by Susan Ambrose, et al.  Last time was motivation, and before that was knowledge organization.  This month’s topic: practice and feedback, ch. 5 of the book.

 

Language acquisition is a hard task, particularly when the language is, like Latin and ancient Greek, inflected, culturally distant, and highly literary.  Learning a foreign language demands the kind of rigorous and sustained practice that is the basis for all successful learning — and in language study, it’s hard to fake either the skills or development towards skill mastery.  The research-based learning principle about practice and feedback is therefore essential to effective foreign-language instruction.

In the formulation of Ambrose et al., “[g]oal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback are critical to learning.”  By goal-directed practice, the authors mean practice deliberately applied to a specific challenge related to the skill under study, as opposed to general or unfocused practice: in music, for instance, practicing scales or especially tricky passages is an example of goal-directed practice, as opposed to mere playing-through of a piece from start to finish.  By targeted feedback, the authors mean feedback that comes frequently and timely, indicates to students their progress towards their learning goal, and lays out the steps they must take to achieve their goal.

Imagine learning how to make a cake.  Your instructor could have you follow the recipe all the way through and give you feedback at the end of the process based on how the cake came out of the oven.  Or s/he could direct your practice in several isolated steps — measuring, mixing, baking, icing — and give you feedback on the way along with suggestions about common pitfalls to avoid (“use a kitchen scale, not a measuring cup”) and clarifications of expectations (“when I say make thick batter, I mean…”).  The second approach is more effective, will likely result in a better cake, and will definitely result in better baking skills.

So what are the ramifications of this pedagogical principle for us as teachers of Greek and Latin?  First and foremost, we shouldn’t merely tell our students to study and leave it to them to figure out what, how, how often, and for how long.  To teach language, we also need to teach how to learn a language.  This meta-instruction can take the form of discussion about tips, tricks, and techniques, like flashcards, tools for organization, concept maps, drilling, self-testing, and application.  It could involve the Macalester College / University of North Dakota pamphlet “Learning to Learn” (PDF) by Karl R. Wirth and Dexter Perkins and reports on neuroscientific research about long-term memory storage (as presented by Ed Vockell or Peter Brown et al.).  Key findings indicate that multiple, staggered sessions of memorization/practice on different, interwoven topics/skills make for a more effective strategy than monolithic chunks of time spent cramming a single content area that will never be revisited.  However we introduce these considerations to our students, it is crucial for them to be motivated to learn, or else we might as well inscribe our language-learning advice upon the wind and running water.

Part of our task in fostering effective practice is, as Ambrose et al. explain, to set challenges at an appropriate level for our students’ current knowledge and skill development.  In language courses beyond the first, then, it is beneficial to determine students’ prior knowledge through an early survey or assessment and to adjust our instruction to meet them where they are (more on this in December’s column).  Similarly, it is more effective to make adjustments to pacing, schedule, and even pedagogical methods mid-term than to plow ahead according to the original plan or goal.  Rubrics — though often lamented as part of the bureaucratization of education — are in fact an extremely useful tool when used correctly, since well-designed rubrics clarify criteria and expectations, focus attention and practice on key areas, and enable students to self-assess and direct further efforts.  A language-acquisition rubric could be as straightforward as this set from Santa Monica High School, or as nuanced and detailed as the VALUE rubrics for reading and writing (with some adaptation to classical-language acquisition necessary).

Some of the strategies for ensuring effective modes of practice are already standard elements of Greek and Latin teaching: multiple occasions for practice and scaffolded practice, i.e., exercises that break down a complex skill into its component parts and focus on each part in isolation.  Examples of scaffolded practice include parsing nouns and verbs and transforming case/gender/person/number/tense/voice/mood; translating sentences with vocabulary list provided; and diagramming sentences without translation.

The way we use our in-class time with our students will set the tone for their out-of-class activities.  If we spend the whole session lecturing, students will tend to be content merely with reading their textbooks at home and not the kinds of practice that are more active and, not coincidentally, more successful.  If, on the other hand, we leave the initial grammar lessons to the textbook (or to YouTube, or to our own lectures posted on a course website), and devote class time to practice individually and in groups and as a whole, our students are more likely to use their homework time in like fashion, and thus to make greater language gains both in and outside class.

A typical means of giving feedback in classical language courses — daily homework assignments in addition to regular quizzes and tests — embodies the fundamental pieces of good feedback, namely frequency, timeliness, and specificity.  And there are other things in the feedback toolbox that can greatly assist students without being as labor-intensive as marking papers.  For instance, we might describe to our students the patterns of errors we have noticed in the class or offer a handout with guidance on common pitfalls in the grammar topic currently under examination.  By using class sessions for practice and drills rather than grammar lecture, we can troubleshoot our students’ language skill development singly or in groups, and can use patterns of error we detect to guide our future instructional activity.  (If we do so in the context of an adventure roleplaying game, so much the merrier!)

It is also worthwhile to distinguish between summative and formative feedback.  Summative feedback consists of grades, which can be given on tests or quizzes with relatively little correction markup.  Formative feedback, on the other hand, doesn’t affect a student’s grade in the course but instead is intended to guide and shape the student’s subsequent efforts, and is particularly useful in daily/weekly homework assignments and in-class exercises.  Allowing revision or resubmission of assignments for a somewhat higher grade is a tool that I have found pays off in terms of student practice and improvement.

All of these considerations ultimately boil down to course design, a matter that my fellow columnist Curtis Dozier discussed at the beginning of the academic year.  Our students will get the most out of our courses generally — and out of goal-directed practice and targeted feedback specifically — when we design our courses carefully, intentionally, and with attention to the alignment between course learning goals, exercises that prompt practice at those goals, and mechanisms for assessment, feedback, and evaluation of student progress towards those goals.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient Greek Port Revealed Near Corinth, Peloponnese

An ancient Greek port was revealed and recorded at the location of the Ancient Lechaion harbor, in...

He has a wife you know

Well - it’s Halloween so my gorgon themed pumpkin as per...




and my gorgon pumpkin...

Well - it’s Halloween so my gorgon themed pumpkin as per the famous image (above).

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Signs carved in the trees reveal the mysteries of the past

The discovery of carvings in the trees allowed to uncover an unknown episode of the Międzyrzecz...

CHS Fellowships Research Bulletin

Trojan War by Homer: Retaliation, Narrative Order, and Cretan Focus

Citation with persistent identifier: Zecchin de Fasano, Graciela. “Trojan War by Homer: Retaliation, Narrative Order, and Cretan Focus.” CHS Research Bulletin 2, no. 2 (2014). http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:hlnc.essay:ZecchindeFasanoG.Trojan_War_by_Homer_Retaliation_Narrative_Order.2014 Introduction* 1§1 The retaliation war (Trojan War), the internal war of a genos for power and heritage (Theban War), the war for identity (Persian Wars), and finally, the war for the hegemony of one city (Peloponnesian War) were all painful, usual phenomena in the life of Ancient Greece. My project aims at studying how the Greeks told their particularly bellicose history and how it is represented in their epic, tragic, and historical works. 1§2 Especially, the Trojan War passes through all the Classical Greek Literature in a unique transversality. Each author has established a personal relationship with this subject and each text has been produced in terms of a factual, counterfactual, ironical, or mocking relationship, that is, in the multiple “textualization” ways the modern literary theory usually analyzes. 1§3 Homer’s […] more

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Dracula’s Prison in Tokat ...


Clues about 'Dracula’s captivity' unearthed in Tokat - ARCHAEOLOGY:
Restoration works in the Tokat Castle have discovered a secret tunnel leading to the Pervane Bath and a military shelter. Two dungeons have also been discovered in the castle, where Wallachian Prince Vlad III the Impaler, who was also known as Dracula, is said to have been held captive in the early 15th century.
 There's a more recent story about it here: Archaeologists Found The Dungeon Where Vlad Dracula Was Imprisoned

ArcheoNet BE

Zoniënwoud kandidaat UNESCO-werelderfgoed

Vlaanderen, Wallonië en Brussel willen het Zoniënwoud door UNESCO laten erkennen als werelderfgoed. De bevoegde ministers voor Onroerend Erfgoed en Leefmilieu ondertekenden vandaag een intentieverklaring om de officiële kandidatuur voor te bereiden. Dat gezamenlijke engagement gaat enerzijds over de opname van de strengst beschermde delen van het Zoniënwoud op de lijst van de beukenwouden in Europa die UNESCO nu al erkent. Anderzijds willen de gewesten onderzoeken hoe het Zoniënwoud als geheel erkend kan worden als UNESCO-werelderfgoed.

Eerder erkende UNESCO al andere ongerepte beukenwouden: in 2007 die in de Karpaten en in 2011 vijf Duitse beukenwouden. Het Werelderfgoedcomité vroeg toen om na te gaan hoe die serie nog verder uitgebreid kan worden tot een netwerk dat álle types van ongerepte beukenwouden in Europa omvat. Duitsland startte daarop een internationaal onderzoeksproject. Uit alle geïnventariseerde beukenwouden werd een shortlist samengesteld met 37 ‘werelderfgoedwaardige’ beukenwouden, waarop ook het Zoniënwoud een plek kreeg.

“We hopen om in 2016 het dossier in te dienen zodat we kunnen aansluiten bij de reeds door UNESCO erkende werelderfgoedsite ‘Ongerepte beukenwouden in Duitsland en de Karpaten’, aldus Vlaams minister Geert Bourgeois. “Vanuit de Vlaamse regering steunen we de erkenning van het Zoniënwoud als natuurwerelderfgoed wegens zijn unieke mix aan cultuurhistorische waarden, een hoge ecologische waarde, en de hoge belevingswaarde voor een groot publiek. Daarnaast is het Zoniënwoud van groot belang als groene long voor Brussel en de Vlaamse rand.”

In de intentieverklaring engageren de drie gewesten zich ook om te onderzoeken of het volledige Zoniënwoud erkend zou kunnen worden als werelderfgoed. Dat studiewerk is gepland voor 2015 en 2016. In een eerste fase zullen de landschappelijke en archeologische waarden en cultuurhistorische relicten van het hele woud geïnventariseerd worden. Een tweede fase omvat het onderzoek van de eventuele ‘uitzonderlijke universele waarde’ op basis van een of meerdere culturele criteria, en de daarmee samenhangende vergelijkende analyse. In een derde fase wil men ten slotte nagaan of het Zoniënwoud nog voor andere internationale statuten in aanmerking kan komen.

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

This Day in Ancient History: pridie kalendas novembres

pridie kalendas novembres

  • ludi Victoriae Sullanae (day 6) — games held in honour of Victoria commemorating Sulla’s defeat of the Samnites in 82 B.C.
  • 286 — martyrdom of Quentin

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Blog Love: Katy Meyers and Bones Don't Lie on Vampires etc

Katy is an anthropology PhD student who specializes in mortuary archaeology and bioarchaeology - she has a fascinating blog which covers all things bones in an approachable but academic manner.

Obviously she has covered the Vampire Burials:

Archaeology of Vampires | Bones Don't Lie
Archaeology of Vampires, part II | Bones Don't Lie
CAPA Conference and Mapping Deviant Burials | Bones Don't Lie
Deviant Burials in Early Medieval Ireland | Bones Don't Lie
Happy Halloween! | Bones Don't Lie

... as well as grave robbing ...

Grave Robbing: Not Always What it Seems… | Bones Don't Lie

 ... witches ...

Happy Halloween: Can we excavate witches? | Bones Don't Lie

... and Victorians having themselves photographed with the deceased, which makes most frat boy pranks seem rather tame:

The Presence of the Deceased | Bones Don't Lie

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Lindisfarne hoard to stay in North East

The public campaign, by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne (SANT), to raise funds...

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

RepiTitiationes ~ 10/30/14

Around the Classical Blogo/Twittersphere yesterday:

http://twitter.com/rogueclassicist/status/527933253400141824


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Eight Square Meter Vault and Marble Door Found in Amphipolis Tomb

In an effort to reach the fourth chamber in the Amphipolis tomb, the excavation crew reached an...

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

A New Polish Vampire ...


Archaeologists announced this new discovery in May.

‘Vampire’ skeleton discovered in Poland:
Archaeologists working in northwestern Poland have unearthed the remains of man who was buried with a rock jammed into his jaw and a stake driven into his leg. They believe that the individual was considered to be a vampire and given a deviant burial by the local population.
The discovery was made in a cemetery outside a church in Kamien Pomorski, a town close to the German border. They believe the skeleton dates back to the 16th century – it was found facing east instead of west (the typical orientation of a burial) and with a wound in the leg. At first the lead archaeologist Slawomir Gorka thought the injury was caused by a gunshot, but later tests revealed it was a puncture wound caused by a wooden stake that was meant to prevent the corpse from getting up.
The archaeologists also found that a rock was placed into the man’s mouth so hard that it knocked out his top-front teeth. It was a common method to have stones placed in the mouth of a person suspected of being a vampire.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient ruins of Castell Dinas Bran to undergo vital £50,000 repairs

The ancient ruins of Castell Dinas Bran are to undergo £50,000 of vital repairs. Towering high...

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Today In 475: Romulus Augustulus Became Emperor

... well, he tends to be seen more as an usurper, and his puppet 'reign' lasted less than a year before the boy was sent into exile in Naples.



If you enjoyed this video by Adrian Murdoch, check out his book on The Emperors of Rome; Kindle UK, Kindle US, etc

Adrian has also written a book about Romulus Augustulus, although since there is so little information about him, it is more a history of the period.

The Last Roman: Romulus Augustulus and the Decline of the West - Amazon UK


Compitum - événements (tous types)

Prendre les Anciens au mot : quand savoir c'est dire et faire

Titre: Prendre les Anciens au mot : quand savoir c'est dire et faire
Lieu: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales / Paris
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 12.11.2014
Heure: 19.00 h - 21.00 h
Description:

Information signalée par Rachel Darmon

Première séance du séminaire "Antiquité Territoire des Ecarts"

Prendre les Anciens au mot : quand savoir c'est dire et faire.


- Claude Calame (EHESS) : « Introduction à la problématique du séminaire ».

- Sandra Boehringer (Université de Strasbourg) : « L'initiation, une catégorie utile ? Retour sur les rites de passage et la sexualité dans l'Antiquité »

L'Antiquité gréco-romaine nous tend des pièges intellectuels : les termes grecs ou latins, comme theatron, muthos, poiesis, eros, philosophia, fabula, res publica ou pater familias, n'avaient ni le sens ni les emplois que nous donnons aujourd'hui à théâtre, mythe, poésie, érotisme, philosophie, fable, république ou père de famille. L'identité formelle entre les termes anciens d'un côté, français de l'autre donne l'illusion que nous pouvons les utiliser sans précaution, sans traduction anthropologique. Ils ont fini par renvoyer à des concepts anhistoriques, souvent présentés comme des catégories universelles.
Il s'agira de retracer les pratiques discursives correspondant à l'usage de ces mots, puis les réalités sociales auxquelles ces termes renvoient, grâce à une approche croisant les acquis de l'anthropologie, de la sociologie et de la linguistique pragmatique de l'énonciation, donc en rompant avec les habituelles analyses textuelles. On pourra ainsi revisiter les savoirs que ces pratiques antiques construisent dans des contextes historiques et culturels donnés. Pratiquer l'écart ne vise pas seulement à mesurer la distance anthropologique qui sépare Antiquité et modernité, mais aussi à activer le questionnement sur la modernité à partir de l'Antiquité.

Séminaire mensuel le mercredi de 19 h à 21 h
EHESS, 96 Bd Raspail, 75006 Paris, Salle Lombard
(Mo Saint-Placide ou Notre-Dame-des-Champs)

Lieu de la manifestation : EHESS, 96 Bd Raspail, 75006 Paris, Salle Lombard.
Organisation : Sandra Boehringer, Carole Boidin, Claude Calame, Florence Dupont, Pierre Vesperini
Contact : antecarts@gmail.com

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ben-Hur villa at risk of demolition in Rome

The remains of an ancient Roman villa linked to one of the principal characters in the legend of...

Compitum - événements (tous types)

Figures mythiques et discours religieux dans l'empire gréco-romain

Titre: Figures mythiques et discours religieux dans l'empire gréco-romain
Lieu: Université de Strasbourg / Strasbourg
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 20.11.2014 - 21.11.2014
Heure: 19.00 h - 21.00 h
Description:

Information signalée par Maryse Schilling

Figures mythiques et discours religieux dans l'empire gréco-romain

Colloque international



organisé avec le soutien
de l'EA 3094 « Centre d'Analyse des Rhétoriques Religieuses de l'Antiquité » (C.A.R.R.A.),
de l'IDEX/Translatio, du Conseil scientifique de l'Université de Strasbourg et de la Faculté des Lettres de l'Université de Strasbourg

Objet du colloque :
S'inscrivant dans un axe de recherche consacré à « La fabrique des figures exemplaires », le colloque « Figures mythiques et discours religieux dans l'Empire gréco-romain » se propose d'étudier le recours aux figures exemplaires à la fois dans le discours sur les religions et dans le discours religieux à l'époque de l'Empire grécoromain.
Par « figures mythiques », il faut entendre les grandes figures de la mythologie ou de l'histoire des cités grecques et de Rome, qui servent tantôt de modèles, tantôt de repoussoirs dans un contexte qui peut être critique, poétique, philosophique, historiographique, encomiastique ou apologétique.
L'intérêt de l'approche proposée consiste à aborder parallèlement des types de textes différents qui sont habituellement étudiés indépendamment les uns des autres. De fait les sophistes grecs, par exemple, évoluent dans le même monde que les apologètes chrétiens ; de la même façon, si la culture mythologique gréco-romaine est commune à des poètes ou à des historiens qui n'ont pas les mêmes croyances, la critique ou la promotion de telle ou telle figure mythique n'émane pas toujours d'un auteur ou d'un groupe d'auteurs attendu.

PROGRAMME :

Jeudi 20 novembre 2014

10h : Accueil des participants, discours de bienvenue
10h15 : Introduction scientifique (Johann GOEKEN)

La construction des figures exemplaires
10h30 : Anthony ANDURAND et Corinne BONNET, « Le "divin Platon" à la table des Grecs et des
Romains : dynamiques et enjeux de la fabrique d'une mémoire savante dans les Propos de table »
11h : Anne-Catherine BAUDOIN, « Ponce Pilate : du personnage historique à la figure du
gouverneur »
11h30 : Gérard FREYBURGER, « Regulus, héros de la fides »

12h-14h : pause déjeuner

Les figures exemplaires dans leur contexte d'énonciation
Réflexions sur Hercule
14h : Catherine NOTTER et Igor YAKOUBOVITCH, « Usages de la figure d'Hercule dans la littérature flavienne »
14h30 : Céline URLACHER, « Hercule, vainqueur d'Antée : deux lectures de l'issue de ce "combat fameux" dans les œuvres d'Ennode de Pavie »

Orphée et Pythagore
15h : Maud PFAFF, « La figure de Numa chez Ovide et ses liens avec Pythagore et Orphée »
15h30 : Mina TASSEVA-BENCHEVA, «Les figures d'Orphée et de Pythagore dans les témoignages sur le discours sacré (hieros logos) de la période impériale »

16h-16h30 : pause café

Le philosophe et le prophète
16h30 : Cécile MERCKEL, « Figures mythiques et théologie philosophique : modèles et contre-modèles divins chez Sénèque »

17h : Benoît MOUNIER, « La figure du Prophète au sein de l'œuvre exégétique de Jérôme »
17h30 : discussion, conclusions de la première journée


Vendredi 21 novembre 2014

Permanence et mutations des figures exemplaires

8h30 : Gaëlle TALLET, « Figures de sages, figures divines : l'exemple des architectes égyptiens
Imhotep et Amenhotep dans la documentation de l'Égypte gréco-romaine »
9h : Sylvia ESTIENNE, « Des boucliers sacrés aux cendres d'Oreste : variations autour des pignora imperii chez Servius »
9h30 : Christiane VOIGT, « La figure légendaire d'Alexandre et sa transformation arabe »

10h-10h30 : pause café

Lectures chrétiennes de figures païennes
10h30 : Francesco MASSA, « Compétitions littéraires autour de Dionysos : païens et chrétiens
au IVe siècle de notre ère »
11h : Régis COURTRAY, « Les "fables des poètes" dans l'oeuvre de Jérôme »
11h30 : Michele CUTINO, « Les figures mythologiques dans le discours religieux d'Ambroise de Milan : l'excursus nécessaire »

12h-14h : pause déjeuner

Élaboration rhétorique et/ou polémique
14h : Giovanna LATERZA, « La rhétorique de l'exemplarité religieuse : le cas de Numa (En. 6.808-812) »
14h30 : Marco FUCECCHI, « Entre littérature, religion et politique : quelques réflexions sur le rôle des prosopopées divines chez Claudien »
15h : Frédéric CHAPOT, « Héroïnes chrétiennes et modèles païens dans l'hagiographie latine
antique »

15h30 : Discussion finale, conclusions du colloque

16h : fin du colloque

Lieu de la manifestation : Strasbourg, Bâtiment nouveau Patio, Campus de l'Esplanade, 20 rue Renée Descartes, salle des thèses
Organisation : Frédéric Chapot, Johann Goeken, Maud Pfaff
Contact : chapot@unistra.fr jgoeken@unistra.fr mpfaff@unistra.fr

Que faire avec... des scholies ?

Titre: Que faire avec... des scholies ?
Lieu: Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée / Lyon
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 03.11.2014 - 03.11.2014
Heure: 13.00 h
Description:

Information signalée par Romain Loriol

Séminaire AMASA : Que faire avec... des scholies ?

Date de début : Lundi 3 novembre 2014, 13h-14h

 

"Que faire avec... des scholies ?", par Bruno Bureau, Professeur à Lyon 3

Les scholies, ces notes marginales des textes anciens, peuvent « polluer » notre lecture des classiques, en lui enlevant son caractère immédiat. Elles peuvent aussi nous raconter l'histoire de ces textes apparemment bien connus, comment on les a lus au fil des siècles, et surtout comment les lire aujourd'hui comme peut-être leurs auteurs voulaient qu'ils soient lus. Ces « fragments d'érudition », où les chercheurs puisent constamment au risque parfois de la décontextualisation, sont tissés d'un faisceau d'interprétations qu'il s'agit de démêler pour mieux en comprendre l'histoire.

Le séminaire AMASA, ni séminaire de spécialité ni séminaire d'initiation, s'adresse en particulier aux chercheurs désireux d'aborder certaines sources ou thèmes d'accès difficile, en bénéficiant du regard et de la méthode de chercheurs spécialistes.

Pour plus d'informations (programme, affiches des séances, compte-rendu des séances précédentes), rendez-vous sur la page AMASA du site du laboratoire HiSoMA :
http://www.hisoma.mom.fr/recherche-et-activites/rencontres-scientifques/amasa

Lieu de la manifestation : Lyon, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée (Salle Reinach, 4ème étage)
Organisation : Nicolas Genis & Romain Loriol
Contact : nicolas.genis@univ-lyon2.fr, romain.loriol@gmail.com

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Instrumentum: Groupe de travail européen sur l'artisanat et productions manufacturées dans l'Antiquit

Instrumentum: Groupe de travail européen sur l'artisanat et productions manufacturées dans l'Antiquit
http://www.instrumentum-europe.org/images/masthead3.jpg 
INSTRUMENTUM est un groupe de travail international composé de chercheurs travaillant sur l'artisanat antique et ses produits dans l'Europe et le Bassin méditerranéen. Le champ chronologique couvert par l'association concerne les Ages du Fer européens ainsi que les cultures Grecque et Romaine, avec de possibles incursions dans l'Age du Bronze et le Moyen Age.

INSTRUMENTUM s'est donné pour but de fédérer les recherches sur l'artisanat antique et ses productions en faisant connaître les travaux publiés, afin de mieux comprendre les conditions dans lesquelles l'artisanat, les productions et les techniques ont évolué antérieurement au Moyen Age. INSTRUMENTUM publie tous les 6 mois (en juin et en décembre) un Bulletin regroupant diverses informations, encourageant la recherche et facilitant la communication internationale entre les chercheurs de tous horizons. Une mise à jour bibliographique, des articles plus ou moins brefs selon les besoins, ainsi que des demandes de renseignements peuvent faire partie du contenu de chaque livraison en fonction des besoins des membres.

Par ailleurs, depuis juin 1997, INSTRUMENTUM a également publié 36 monographies sur divers aspects de l'artisanat antique (thèses, colloques, recueil divers...) (Editions Monique Mergoil). Cette collection très active comprend en permanence plusieurs volumes en préparation.

INSTRUMENTUM a également organisé, financé ou co-organisé des dizianes de manifestations scientifiques, dans plusieurs pays européens, sur des thèmes proposés par ses membres
.
INSTRUMENTUM is a working-group that comprises scholars interested in the crafts and industries of ancient Europe and the Mediterranean. The chronological scope of the organization covers the European Iron Age and the eras of Greek and Roman civilization, with some overlap into the late Bronze Age and the early Middle Ages.

The aim of INSTRUMENTUM is to bring together research on crafts and industries by drawing attention to published work, thus elucidating the conditions in which crafts, industries, and manufacturing techniques evolved before the Middle Ages. Twice a year INSTRUMENTUM issues the Bulletin, which disseminates information, encourages research, and facilitates international communication. An up-to-date bibliography, brief notices on current research, and requests for information also are included in an attempt to promote and facilitate research on objects, their use, and manufacture. Since June 1997 INSTRUMENTUM has published 35 monographs on ancient crafts and industries (Editions Monique Mergoil), with several more in preparation.

INSTRUMENTUM also has organized and supported dozens of scientific meetings in various countries on topics proposed by members. 
Publications Topics Bibliography Announcements Dissertations Links Contact

Instrumentum Bibliographies
Click on a topic for a specific bibliography
1

17
2

18
3

19
4

20
5

21
6

22
7

23
8

24
9

25
10

26
11

27
12

28
13

29
14

30
15

31

32



33

BiblePlaces Blog

CORONA Atlas of the Middle East

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

I recently discovered a mapping resource hosted by the University of Arkansas, the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East. The CORONA Atlas is not a brand new website (it was reviewed in 2012), but it says it is still in BETA stage. Simply put, the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East overlays CORONA satellite imagery over Google Earth imagery.

What is CORONA imagery?
During the Cold War, CORONA was a codename for one of the United States' top-secret satellite missions created to capture high-resolution imagery. The first mission was launched into space in 1960, and the program continued until 1972. The imagery was declassified in 1995, making it available to the public.

What is the value of CORONA imagery?
From the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East:
In regions like the Middle East, CORONA imagery is particularly important for archaeology because urban development, agricultural intensification, and reservoir construction over the past several decades have obscured or destroyed countless archaeological sites and other ancient features such as roads and canals. These sites are often clearly visible on CORONA imagery, enabling researchers to map sites that have been lost and to discover many that have never before been documented. 

For example, in 1998, James Hoffmeier and his team were able to locate additional sections of Egypt's east frontier canal in northern Sinai thanks to CORONA imagery.

What has the University of Arkansas done with the imagery?
First, even though CORONA imagery is in the public domain, there are costs associated with digitization of the original film and acquisition of the files. The University of Arkansas has purchased much of this imagery and made it available for researchers. Second, the University of Arkansas corrected the spatial geometry of the photos for distortion (orthorectification) and has positioned the imagery in real geographic space (georectification). This allows the CORONA Atlas to overlay the CORONA imagery on top of other imagery that is positioned in the same geographic space.

How can the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East be used?
Recently, I was trying to locate the site of Samsat in Turkey. Samsat is believed to be ancient Kummuḫ, capital of a Neo-Hittite kingdom by the same name. (In the Hellenistic period, it was replaced by the kingdom of Commagene.) The problem with finding Samsat today, however, is that it now lies at that bottom of Lake Atatürk Dam. It is very hard to find a tell in a lake. The Atatürk Dam was built on the Euphrates River and was completed in 1990. The reservoir flooded the valley of the Euphrates River and its tributaries, and the lake today covers approximately 320 square miles. The CORONA Atlas of the Middle East allows me to see Samsat (and the Euphrates River) before it was submerged, and to locate it with precision in Google Earth, because you can adjust the transparency of the CORONA imagery. The CORONA atlas also has tools for measuring, obtaining coordinates, and capturing imagery for other uses.

Here is a comparison of images taken from the CORONA Atlas of the Middle East. On the left is the Google Earth imagery, in the center is the CORONA imagery with some transparency over Google Earth, and on the right is the CORONA imagery.


The tell of Samsat is located in the center of the right photograph. Here is a close-up.


Head on over and poke around. It took my internet service several moments to load imagery, so it may require you to have a little patience.


Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Artefacts©, Encyclopédie en ligne des petits objets archéologiques

Artefacts©, Encyclopédie en ligne des petits objets archéologiques
http://artefacts.mom.fr/en/images/banner.jpg

Ceci est la version en cours d’élaboration d'Artefacts©, Encyclopédie en ligne des petits objets archéologiques. 

La base de données librement accessible sur l'internet reflète une partie d’une base de travail enrichie en permanence par un réseau de chercheurs. Elle permet d’effectuer des recherches simples, ou plus complexes.

Qu 'est-ce qu'un "petit objet" ? Les spécialistes en discutent encore... Après la numismatique, dont le champ d'application (la monnaie) est assez bien défini, la céramologie a été la première à s'ériger en spécialité archéologique. Mais s'intéresse-t-elle au matériau (la terre cuite) ou à ce qu'on en fait ? De fait, beaucoup d'objets sont produits en argile, et le critère du matériau n'est pas le meilleur pour trier ce qui relèverait de la céramologie ou d'une nouvelle spécialité, celle concernant les objets. Au cours des dernières années s'est imposé le critère fonctionnel, qui permet de confier aux "céramologues" tout ce qui est vaisselle, de cuisine (préparation, service) ou de stockage (amphores...). Les "objets", qui ne sont pas toujours petits, c'est donc le reste.

Catégorie vaste, donc, et variée, puisqu'elle touche à presque tous les domaines de l'activité humaine. Pour mettre un peu d'ordre dans ce très vaste ensemble, Artefacts utilise un système hiérarchique à trois niveaux, sur lequel vient se greffer la chronologie. Chaque objet est attribué à une fonction, et chaque fonction entre dans un domaine. Ainsi un "dé à jouer" (code DEJ) appartient à la fonction "jeu-comptage", qui est elle-même insérée par le domaine socio-culturel. Il s'agit ici d'identifier la fonction première des objets, celle pour laquelle ils ont été conçus, et non leur réutilisation éventuelle dans un contexte secondaire (par exemple religieux, ou funéraire).

L'optique principale d'Artefacts est d'ordre typologique, mais certains types existent [presque] sous la même forme à des époques différentes. Un dé cubique en os, par exemple, pourra donc se trouver en DEJ-3, DEJ-4 ou DEJ-9 selon qu'il est étrusque, romain ou médiéval. Il est donc intéressant, quand on a trouvé le code de l'objet recherché (DEJ-, dans l'exemple ci-dessus), d'aller voir les attestations dans d'autres périodes, pour mesurer l'évolution de cette forme à travers le temps.


This is the "in progress" version of Artefacts©, Online Encyclopedia of Archaeological Small Finds.
This database, in free access on the internet, reflects part of a working base to which many researchers have contributed. It allows simple, or more advanced searches.

What is an artefact ? Specialists still discuss the matter. After numismatics, of which the field (coinage) is well defined, ceramology was the first to reach the status of a speciality. But does ceramology deal with a material (terracotta) of with what is done with it ? Several artefacts are actually made of terracotta, and using the material is probably not the best way to sort data between what regards 'ceramology' and what could be given to a new speciality, 'artefacts stydy'. During the last years, 'functional sorting' imposed itself as the most useful criterium : creamology can study all the vessels, either for preparing, serving or storing goods, while 'artefacts study' deals with the rest.

A vast category, therefore, and various, touching nearly any domain of human activity. To attempt ordering this huge chaos, Artefacts makes use of a 3-level hierarchy, on which chronology is added. Every objectr is attributed to a function, and any functrion enters a domain. For ex., a dice (code DEJ) belongs to the 'game & counting' function, which is part of the 'socio-cultural' domain. The aim of this system is to identify the primary function of artefacts, for which they were produced, not their eventual re-use in a secondary context (such as religious, or funerary).

The main ambition of Artefacts is typological, but some types exist under (nearly) the same form under variuous epochs. A cubic solid bone dice, for example, will be found under DEJ-3, DEJ-4 or DEJ-9 according to its date, Etruscan, Roman or Medieval.When the code of a certain object type is available (DEJ-, in the above example), it is therefore interesting to serach it under othet periods, to evaluate the evolution of this form through the course of time.
Welcome Instructions for use Codes Bibliography Musées Mapping Copyright FAQ News Links Forum Open account Log in
Advanced search

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

Actualités 2014

Novembre 2014


- Conférence
6 novembre 2014, 18h15
Association Bible et terre sainte
Institut catholique de Paris, 21 rue d'Assas, 75006

Dennis Pardee : D'Ougarit à Zincirli : repas sacrés, repas profanes, repas mortuaires

Entrée libre


- Conférence
7 novembre 2014, 12h
Institut catholique de Paris, 21 rue d'Assas, 75006

Dennis Pardee : L'autre scribe des textes littéraires ougaritiques (XIIIe s. av. J.-C.)

Conférence donnée dans le cadre des Vendredis de l'ELCOA. Entrée libre

En savoir plus


- Journée d'étude
8 novembre 2014 - 9h15 à 18h

Paris, Institut de théologie protestante

Journée d'étude à la mémoire de Pierre BORDREUIL

Informations et programme


- Communication
10 novembre 2014

Journée d'étude : Ex Oriente luxuria
Paris, École normale supérieure

Laetitia GRASLIN - Produits de luxe dans les sources écrites mésopotamiennes au premier millénaire av. J.-C.

Programme


- Conférence
12 novembre 2014

Bâle, Université de Bâle (Alttestamentlich-semitistisches Kolloquium)

Laïla NEHMÉ - Hegra and the Nabataeans in Northwest Arabia / Hégra et la présence nabatéenne en Arabie du Nord-Ouest

Informations


- Colloque international
14 novembre 2014

Paris, Institut de théologie protestante

XIIe Table ronde de la Société d'études syriaques : Le christianisme syriaque en Asie centrale et en Chine

Colloque organisé par la Société d'études syriaques
Informations et programme


- Séminaire

17 novembre 2014 - 14h-16h
Lyon, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée

Laïla NEHMÉ - Hégra cité caravanière d'Arabie ?

Séminaire du laboratoire Archéorient : Actualités des méthodes et du terrain au Proche-Orient ancien
Programme 2014-2015


- Colloque international
21-22 novembre 2014

Istanbul - Research Center for Anatolian Civilizations, Université Koç, Istiklal cadd. 181, Beyoglu

5e Rencontres d'archéologie de l'IFEA
L'hittitologie aujourd'hui : études sur l'Anatolie hittite et néo-hittite à l'occasion du centenaire de la naissance d'Emmanuel Laroche

Informations et programme


- Séminaire au Collège de France
25 novembre 2014 - 10h à 12h

Collège de France, 11, Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005, Paris
Amphithéâtre Marguerite de Navarre

Laïla NEHMÉ - La rive orientale de la mer Rouge, d'Aqaba aux Îles Farasan durant l'Antiquité

Séminaire donné dans le cadre du cours du Professeur Jean-Pierre BRUN, Techniques et économies de la Méditerranée antique


- Conférence au musée du Louvre
28 novembre 2014 - 12h30

Paris, musée du Louvre

Olivier ROUAULT, Université Lyon 2 et Maria Grazia MASETTI-ROUAULT, EPHE, Paris - Quatre saisons de fouilles au Kurdistan d'Irak : la mission archéologique française à Qasr Shemamok, 2011-2014

Entrée libre
Conférence donnée dans le cadre du cycle Actualité de la recherche archéologique, 2014-2015


- Colloque
28 novembre 2014

Institut catholique de Paris
21, rue d'Assas, 75006 Paris

Correspondre au Proche-Orient ancien : lettres et messages en tous sens - Colloque ELCOA : Langues anciennes en contexte

Informations et programme


Octobre 2014


- Communications

- L'argent des dieux. Religions et richesses en Méditerranée dans l'Antiquité et au Moyen Âge
16-18 octobre 2014

Jimmy DACCACHE - Les dépenses pour l'édification des sanctuaires : Étude comparative des sources phéniciennes et hébraïques

Carole ROCHE-HAWLEY et Alice MOUTON - Les « trésors » des temples en Syrie et en Anatolie (XIVe - XIIe s. av. J.-C.)

Informations et programme


- Communication à l'Académie

Vendredi 3 octobre 2014 - 15h30

Mme Valérie MATOÏAN

Ougarit et les Phéniciens : divinités protectrices et guérisseuses. Lecture d'images

Institut de France - 23, Quai de Conti - Paris 6e


- Colloque international

Corps, âmes et normes : approches cliniques, légales et religieuses du handicap

9 au 10 octobre 2014
Collège de France, salle Claude Lévi-Strauss
52, rue du cardinal Lemoine. 75005 Paris
Colloque organisé par H. ROUILLARD-BONRAISIN, M.-G. MASETTI-ROUAULT, J.-M. VERDIER, Chr. LEMARDELÉ

Informations et programme


Septembre 2014


- Communications

- 8e World Syriac Conference
8-16 septembre 2014
St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, Kottayam, Kerala (India)

Participation de Françoise BRIQUEL CHATONNET, Alain DESREUMAUX, Robert HAWLEY, Carole ROCHE, Linda HERVEUX, Matthias WERNHARDT, Jimmy DACCACHE

Informations


- Communication

- 9th International Congress of Hittitology
1-7 septembre 2014
Hitit University, Çorum (Turquie)

Alice MOUTON - Ritualized Violence in Hittite Anatolia

Informations


Juillet 2014


- Communications

- 21-25 juillet 2014
- 60th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale. "Fortune and Misfortune"
- Université de Varsovie

Workshop 9. In Memoriam Pierre Bordreuil

Valérie MATOIAN - De l'alphabet cunéiforme aux divinités d'Ougarit : une recherche au sein de la mission de Ra shamra

Françoise ERNST-PRADAL - Pierre Bordreuil, un professeur de terrain

Hedwige ROUILLARD-BONRAISIN - Pierre Bordreuil et le Pays d'Ougarit

Workshop 6. Beyond Hierarchies : Heterarchy and Gender

Vanessa JULOUX - How to define relation between ʿAnatu and Baʿlu : answer by absence of proofs

Informations et programme


- Communication

- 24 juillet 2014
- Xe Congrès de l'association européenne des études juives (EAJS) - Session Rabbinic Literature
- Paris, Ecole normale supérieure

Gavin McDowell - Christian Legend and Anti-­‐Christian Polemic in the Pirqe de-­Rabbi Eliezer

Informations et programme


- Communication à l'Académie

Vendredi 4 juillet 2014 - 15h30

MM. ‘Alî Ibrâhîm al-GHABBÂN, Saïd al-SAÏD et Christian ROBIN (membre de l'AIBL)

Inscriptions antiques récemment découvertes à Najrān (Arabie séoudite méridionale) : nouveaux jalons pour l'histoire de l'oasis et celle de l'écriture et de la langue arabes

Institut de France - 23, Quai de Conti - Paris 6e


- Soutenance

Jeudi 3 juillet 2014, 14h - Paris, salle des Actes, en Sorbonne
Soutenance d'habilitation de Stephanie ANTHONIOZ

Israël dans son environnement proche-oriental. La construction d'une identité religieuse au Ier millénaire av. n. è.

Sous la direction de Marie-Françoise BASLEZ

Jury :
▪ Fr. BRIQUEL CHATONNET
▪ M. Gr. MASETTI-ROUAULT
▪ O. MUNNICH
▪ Fr. JOANNES
▪ Th. RÖMER
▪ M. G. BIGA


Juin 2014


- Soutenance

Samedi 21 juin 2014, 14h - Paris, Amphithéâtre Michelet, en Sorbonne
Soutenance d'habilitation de Jean-Baptiste YON

Histoire et écritures. Population et sociétés du Proche-Orient d'Alexandre à l'islam

Sous la direction de Françoise BRIQUEL-CHATONNET
Jury :
▪ Thomas Corsten (Professeur, Université de Vienne)
▪ Muriel Debié (Directrice d'études, EPHE)
▪ Denis Feissel (Directeur de recherche, CNRS)
▪ Michel Gawlikowski (Professeur émérite, Université de Varsovie)
▪ Maurice Sartre (Professeur émérite, Université de Tours)
▪ Giusto Traina (Professeur, Université Paris Sorbonne)


- Communications

- 9-13 juin 2014
- 9. International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
- Université de Bâle

Guillaume CHARLOUX et al. - New Evidence of the Nabatean Presence in the Jawf Region at the Dawn of Romanization : a Triclinium at Dûmat al- Jandal (North Saudi Arabia)

Jérémie SCHIETTECATTE et al. - al-Yamāma. Excavation of an Islamic city in Central Arabia

Olivier ROUAULT et Maria Grazia MASETTI-ROUAULT - French excavations in Qasr Shemamok, Iraqi Kurdistan (2013 and 2014 campaigns) : the Assyrian Town, and Beyond

Guillaume CHARLOUX et Romolo LORETO - The Saudi-Italian-French Archaeological project at Dûmat al-Jandal (ancient Adummatu) : Results from 2009-2013 Seasons

Informations et programme


- Communications

- 4-7 juin 2014
- 18e Rencontres Sabéennes - Populations en mouvement, colonisations, migrations, sédentarisation

- Saint Petersbourg, Institut des manuscrits orientaux

Christian ROBIN - Les inscriptions rupestres de la région de Himâ (Najrân, Arabie séoudite)

Mounir ARBACH - Mission diplomatique aux Pays de Sha'mat, d'après une inscription sabéenne de Jabal Riyâm datant du milieu du 2ème siècle de l'ère chrétienne

Informations et programme des Rencontres


Mai 2014


- Communication

- 26 mai 2014
- CRAterre, Séminaire Patrimoine 2014 - La conservation des architectures de terre sur les sites archéologiques. Nouvelles pratiques et perspectives
- Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Grenoble (ENSAG)

Jérémie SCHIETTECATTE - Entre archéologie, tourisme et idéologie. La préservation et la valorisation d'un site en cours d'étude : la grande mosquée d'al-Yamâma (Arabie Saoudite).

Informations et programme du séminaire


- Cycle de conférences

Mercredis 7, 14, 21 et 28 mai 2014, 10h à 12h
EPHE, Bâtiment le France

Marie Theres WACKER, Professeur à la Faculté de Théologie Catholique (Université de Münster), Directrice d'études invitée

Homme sauvage et femmes étrangères. Le Cycle d'Élie (1 R 17- 2 R 2) dans la perspective du « genre »/des genres

Informations et programme


- Communications

6 et 7 mai 2014
Langage et communication. 139e congrès du CTHS, 5 au 10 mai 2014
Université de Nîmes

Carole ROCHE-HAWLEY - Les références à l'Antique dans les inscriptions monumentales mésopotamiennes

Françoise BRIQUEL CHATONNET - Un cas d'allographie : le garshuni

Jimmy DACCACHE - Guerres et discours royaux dans le monde ouest-sémitique au Ier millénaire avant J.-C.

Darya PEVEAR - Traduire la littérature en Mésopotamie : comment et pourquoi ? Les textes suméro-akkadiens du Ier millénaire avant J.-C

Informations et programme du colloque


Avril 2014



- Conférence

11 avril 2014, 12 h.
Christian ROBIN, Membre de l'Institut – Directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS

Les juifs dans l'Arabie antique

ELCOA - Institut catholique de Paris
21 rue d'Assas - 75006 Paris

En savoir plus


Mars 2014


- Cycle de conférences

Social History from Early Rabbinic Texts

Lundi 17 mars 2014, 11h-13h : Rabbinic Texts and the History of Roman Palestine

Lundi 24 mars 2014, 11h-13h : Prosbul and the History of Debt

Lundi 31 mars 2014, 11h-13h : The Development and Cessation of Religious Taboos

Lundi 7 avril 2014, 11h-13h : Marriage and Divorce Documents and Local Forms of Marriage

Cycle de conférences de M. Martin GOODMAN, Professeur à l'Université d'Oxford, Directeur d'Etudes invité dans le cadre des conférences de M. Daniel STÖKL BEN EZRA, Langue, littérature, épigraphie et paléographie hébraïques et araméennes du IVe siècle avant notre ère au IVe siècle de notre ère (Section des Sciences historiques et philologiques)

Les conférences auront lieu dans la salle D059 de la Sorbonne (17 rue de la Sorbonne, 75005 Paris, Escalier E 1er étage).


- Vient de paraître

Michel MOUTON et Jérémie SCHIETTECATTE

In the Desert Margins : the Settlement Process in an Ancient South and East Arabia
Rome, l'Erma di Bretschneider, 2014, (Arabia Antica, 9)

En savoir plus


- Vient de paraître

Renée SCEMAMA

Zacharie, le prophète exégète. Ko amar Adonaï : modalités et enjeux du discours prophétique dans le livre de Zacharie 1-8. Analyse littéraire
Paris, Gabalda, 2014 (Etudes bibliques, 65), 618 p.
ISBN : 978-2-85021-226-0

En savoir plus


- communications à l'Académie

Vendredi 21 mars 2014 - 15h30

Mme Alessandra Avanzini (professeur à l'Université de Pise) sous le patronage de M. Christian ROBIN :

Sumhuram, un port d'Arabie entre Inde et Rome

M. Michel al-Maqdissi (chercheur à la Direction nationale des Antiquités de Damas), sous le patronage de MM. Jean-Marie DENTZER et Christian ROBIN :

Amrith, nouvelles recherches sur la ville phénicienne

Institut de France - 23, Quai de Conti - Paris 6e


Février 2014





- Vient de paraître

Sophie CLUZAN et Pascal BUTTERLIN (dir.)

Voués à Ishtar : Syrie, janvier 1934, André Parrot découvre Mari : exposition au musée de l'Institut du monde arabe, [Paris], 23 janvier - 4 mai 2014

En savoir plus


Janvier 2014






- Vient de paraître

M. AZAIEZ (éd.), S. MERVIN (collab.)

Le Coran. Nouvelles approches

En savoir plus







- Vient de paraître

F. BARATTE, C. J. ROBIN et E. ROCCA (éd.)

Regards croisés d'Orient et d'Occident. Les barrages dans l'Antiquité tardive. Actes du colloque, 7-8 janvier 2011, Paris
Orient et Méditerranée|Archéologie 14

En savoir plus



- Formation - 16 janvier 2014

  • Séminaire des doctorants de Paris IV

Le numérique pour le jeune chercheur et enseignant en humanités : environnement, enjeux, outils documentaires

Service commun de la documentation, Université Paris Sorbonne Paris 4
Séminaire : 16 janvier
Ateliers : janvier et février 2014

Informations et inscription
Programme


Voir les actualités 2013

Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi (Stone Pages' Archaeonews)

Bronze Age settlement in England found using Google Earth

Devonshire treasure hunter Howard Jones trawled satellite images for the sort of terrain that would have offered food, water and shelter for a prehistoric settlement, pinpointing a spot in the...

Ancient sundial discovered on a Russian stone slab

The stone slab is marked with round divots arranged in a circle, and an astronomical analysis suggests that these markings coincide with heavenly events, including sunrises and moonrises. Last year,...

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Friday Varia and Quick Hits

Our mild and sunny fall has given way to grey and cold to remind us that winter is on the way here in North Dakotaland.

To compensate for the failing sun, I woke up early this morning to get some sunshine and vitamin D by watching Pakistan v. Australia in Abu Dhabi. Unfortunately, Australia can’t get anyone out so my sunny morning involves watching Younus Kahn’s double century and Misbah-ul-Haq score a century. Oh well, the great thing about test match cricket is when a match is well and truly over, you still have three days more to savor the agony.

One more thing, if you haven’t checked out the first installment of my Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch, please click over to Medium to give it a read.

On to the varia and quick hits:

IMG 2246Milo sez: The rug really tied the room together


Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Amphipolis: Oh Ye of Little Faith

First off a little clarification - "hold your horses" is an English expression, an idiom which means "hold on" or "wait" ... I realised the in the English language we find puns as funny as the ancient Greeks did (for example a lion shown on the tomb of a man named Leo), but when people are reading across languages they can be confusing.

Maybe one day the Ministry of Culture will make our dreams come true and release an image of a horse which said "Alexander's horse" ;-) ... but please just take the expression at face value.

Speaking of horses, they had great meaning to the ancients, being both tractor and Ferrari, an indispensable tool and a means of showing off wealth. Many Macedonian and Thracian tombs had items belonging to the deceased buried outside the entrance, so that first thing I asked the excavators this time last year when they were digging the entrance was "did you find a chariot?" and the answer was no. That's one of the many reasons I assumed the tomb would not be filled with gold and grave goods, another being that we were well aware that it had been destroyed at some point and so was likely to have been emptied. Even if tomb robbers had stolen the gold and so forth, had it been used for burial they almost certainly would have left behind bits of bone, broken off fragments of objects and ash. The swan found inside could have swum in from the river, or it could have been killed for symbolic reasons - let's not forget it featured in numerous myths, for example Leda and the Swan.

Another English colloquial expression I was tempted to use yesterday was "it ain't over until the fat lady sings" - which means that we should not presume to know the outcome of an event still in progress ... but I didn't in case people misunderstood and thought I was accusing someone of being fat :-(  

Logic and years of experience tell me that there is a whole lot more to find at Amphipolis. 

I have done a couple of interviews in Greece this week, and one of the reasons I dislike doing press is because it gives the impression that I am the centre of a story, when the truth is that often there is a whole team working on a project, all of whom deserve credit.

One of the main reasons I did the press and am writing the book is to explain to people why the archaeologists working at Amphipolis are some of the very best in the world (I use the term 'archaeologist' in a generic way to include everyone from Dr Peristeri to the Architect Lefantzis to the technicians and guards and even the people of Amphipolis who have contributed). I was getting fed up of the way jealous archaeologists were trashing their site because of jealousy.

Today's press release is here.

I'm used to looking at the material from sites before a press release has been written, so for Amphipolis I look at the photos first.

So first off I see much rougher limestone blocks than the beautifully cut marble used elsewhere on the tomb ... and evidence that the tomb could go down further or that these could be the foundations; but if they are foundations, where is the finished floor that covered them? The earth underneath the blocks has many very clear layers of stratigraphy, with several that appear in the photograph to be distinctly different.

Then I see a door. The side of the door facing the viewer is rough, so this is the side which would have been by the doorframe and hidden.


Then I note the the design of the door is very different from the other photographs of the door with large 'nails' (or small shields): is this a different door or the reverse of the same door showing the interior view? The door looks thinner, but this could be an optical illusion due to the design and angle.


This photo tells me less about the excavation, more about what the archaeologists are thinking. Probably along the lines of "oh shit and we thought we'd get to go home this week-end" ... and "the Greeks wanted more, and this could well be more. Is it the start of something ...? when will the tomb end?" ... should we dress up as ghosts tonight and scare our colleagues for Halloween? (Okay, I admit the last bit I made up)


Then I look at the statement.

"revealed the foundations of the side walls. The mounting wall sits on artificial embankment of well compacted gravel with clay, thickness about 0.40 m" which confirms that the yellowish band is clay.

"The embankment was standing on the bedrock of the Kasta hill, which appears as a surface of fragmented schist" My Greek is poor, so the normal translation of σχιστόλιθος is slate ... but schist is another, and it seems more likely that ...?  Bedrock to me suggests that most of the mound was indeed artificial; it is possible the tomb goes down into the bedrock elsewhere, as tombs often did, but not there?

They go on to confirm that they found an artificial trench showing that there was at least an attempt to dig down into the rock. Silty sand like the rest of the tomb. They have already excavated 1.40 m down, and that they say they have not reached the threshold suggests that it might go down further?

The second marble door was found in this pit, further emphasising the idea that it was 'open' when the tomb was back-filled with soil.

The rest is just more details of technical work and shoring up.

Just to quickly add to what we were discussing last night in comments and on Twitter. Someone suggested that since I had made a point that the 1930s excavators had found enough to think the Lion Monument had stood near where they excavated it ... instead of my suggestion that it was re-erected not long after the tomb was built ... could there instead have been two monuments with Lions? 

I don't believe I'm always right, sometimes I'm wrong. And I am a great believer in discussing ideas as they can sometimes go nowhere and sometimes lead to a solution.

This map shows Kasta in red, where the Lion was erected in the '30s in green and the yellow thunderbolt of Zeus to show very roughly where the material was found in the 1930s.


The destruction of the tomb and the movement of the blocks is almost a bigger puzzle than who built it. Yes, two monuments sounds mad, and I can't think of a precedent, but then so little at Amphipolis has precedent and that's what indicates it was an important tomb ...

Antibes in France was originally Antipolis - anti-city, not in the negative sense, but as a pendent to and pre- echo of a larger city, possible Nikeia (Nice) or more likely Cannes.

The idea of a smaller monument to complement the larger one has no equivalent that I can think of. But given that Alexander was worshiped alongside his friend Hephaestion in many of his cults in Egypt, and that one of the things Alexander did before he died was order a tomb for Hephaestion ... it could almost serve as a 'gateway' to the larger heroon, the way gates to sanctuaries served?

No, I do not think that there are two tombs, but I also think it is worth exploring ideas and it is not impossible. It is only by discussing our ideas that we can clarify our thoughts.

 

The Vampire of Veliko Turnovo


Found in Bulgaria in 2012 ...

Bulgaria’s ‘vampire’ saga continues | The Sofia Globe:
This time it was near Veliko Turnovo, in a necropolis near the St. Ivan Rilski church and is from a much later period – 18th century CE.
The head of the archaeological dig, Professor Nikolai Ovcharov, told public broadcaster Bulgarian National Radio that there was nothing sensational in such findings.
He said that all kinds of rituals protecting the deceased from turning into vampires were widely practiced up until the beginning of the 20th century CE.
“For example the deceased is pierced through the heart, or stones are piled up on top of the body”, Ovcharov said.
“There is a ritual in which embers are placed on the chest of the deceased. Or his feet are tied. Or a fire is lit in the grave before the funeral. Those were folk practices from pagan times and didn’t mean necessarily that the deceased was evil or a vampire. It was simply believed that if the rituals are not carried out, s/he might turn into a vampire.”
Ovcharov said that in the grave in Veliko Turnovo, a purse was found, with about 30 silver coins so the deceased could pay for the passage to the other world and his feet were tied to prevent him from rising from the grave.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Swedish glass production 300 years older than historians believed

Archaeologist Anna Ihr of the University of Gothenburg has excavated quantities of glassy...

ArcheoNet BE

Environmental Archaeology of European Cities: call for papers

Van 27 tot 29 mei 2015 vindt aan het KBIN in Brussel de ‘Conference on the Environmental Archaeology of European Cities’ plaats. Wie een paper wenst te presenteren op deze conferentie, kan nog tot 18 november een abstract indienen. De thema’s die aan bod komen zijn onder meer: het ontstaan van de stedelijke sites en stratigrafie, het stedelijk landschap, economische activiteiten en het persoonlijke leven van de stadsinwoners. Meer informatie over de conferentie en een overzicht van de keynote-sprekers is te vinden op www.naturalsciences.be of in deze bijlage (pdf).

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Vampires at the British Library

There's more about the exhibition on their web site: Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Rezan Has Museum opens Urartian jewelry collection to public

Showing off the glory and wealth of the ancient Urartians, a new exhibition has opened at...

graduate classics students at Cambridge (res gerendae)

Classical Gothic

OtrantoGothic literature started in 1746 with Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto. That’s the orthodox line, the version you’ll see at the British Library exhibition. But it’s notoriously difficult to pinpoint the origins of literary genres; especially one as fuzzy and hard to define as ‘Gothic’. While there was certainly a definite tradition that started with Otranto, one thing that came quite clearly out of the exhibition was that the further you get away from that, the less cohesive and well-bounded that tradition becomes. Where do you draw the lines? Is Weird Fiction Gothic? Sometimes or always? Are zombies? What’s the difference between horror and Gothic? These aren’t questions I mean to answer – I don’t think they necessarily have simple answers – but if you include some of the more debatable offshoots of the tradition after Walpole, why not some things beforehand?

What I’m coming down to is this: is there such a thing as Classical Gothic?

It looks like an oxymoron at first. After all, the ‘Gothic’ tag Walpole attached to the second edition of his story does double service – it links it to a certain architectural style and aesthetic enjoying a revival in the eighteenth century, but it also marks the adventure’s Italian setting as specifically post-, perhaps anti-Classical. We think of Gothic as a literature of grey-skied, rainy, temperate Europe, rooted in its barbarian heritage. It stands in opposition to the idealised Culture and Reason of the Classical.

But, of course, the idea that the Classical world was a shining beacon of high culture, rationality and progress is as much an Enlightenment fantasy as Gothic literature itself. As any Classicist knows, the Greek and Roman worlds had their dark and strange underbellies, even within the mostly aristocratic texts that survive and despite any loftier ideals their great minds might have espoused. In that respect they have a great deal in common with the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries (and doubtless with pretty much any other century you care to name). It’s not hard to find elements of the Gothic in Classical texts. Two overlapping categories particularly spring to mind: tragedy and Neronian literature.

But, in classic essay-writing style, we’re going to have to define our terms before we go much further. I’ve already said Gothic is hard to pin down, but if we’re going to look for elements and themes, we need to have to know what they are. A few features have been widely mentioned as characterising the Gothic:

An ancient, or at least antique, setting.

  • A concern with the surfacing of the repressed and buried, both internally and externalised in the form of ghosts, spectres and monsters.
  • An predilection for doubles, doppelgängers and mistaken identity.
  • A concern with problematising straightforward gender roles, especially the feminine.
  • The breaking down of bodily boundaries, again especially feminine.
  • It’s a literature of an emerging middle class, and ambivalent to the traditions and privileges of the old establishment, at once repulsed by and coveting them.
  • Excess and the conspicuous transgression of norms of good taste.

That’s not exhaustive, but it’s enough to be getting on with.

Gothic Tragedy

Almost any ancient tragedy you care to name has at least some of those features. Let’s start obvious. Let’s start with Oedipus.

In his introduction to the Cambridge Companion to Gothic Fiction, Jerrold Hogle refers to Gothic fiction as an Oedipal genre because of its love and loathing of the past – the fifth point in the list above. Freud has been the starting point for a lot of writers in their thinking about Gothic: both his writings on psychoanalysis and his theories about the uncanny. So it’s no big surprise, then, that the Oedipus story itself ticks pretty much every box for Gothic. It’s set in the mythical past, even by Classical standards, in the crumbling and troubled palace of Thebes. The whole play revolves around Oedipus’s repressed memory coming to the fore and the havoc that causes (though the only monster is the absent Sphinx). The messed-up gender roles surrounding Jocasta are so obvious I hardly need mention them, and both her fate and that of her erstwhile husband Laios are cases of tragically mistaken identity. Bodily transgressions and breakdowns also feature prominently. Again Oedipus’ interactions with his parents, his self-mutilation, but also the preponderance of physical disabilities and disease. Incest, regicide and patricide is pretty much the trifecta of totemic transgressions. Bung it in a Gormenghast-style castle set, dress everyone in pseudo-mediaeval costumes and you’d recognise this as pure Gothica in a heartbeat.

Another one that immediately springs to mind is Euripides’ Bacchae, probably the standout Greek text on the violent explosion of repressed desire. Even more than Oedipus, it captures the sex, violence and scandal aspect of Gothic fiction. It’s about a band of cultists (female, naturally) belonging to an exotic, barbarian religion, bringing their dangerous and seductive god to ordered society, upturning the status quo and scandalising the prudish and prurient Pentheus with their refusal to conform to their expected gender roles. The women are outdoors on their own (!), up to who-knows-what in the dead of night (!!) and their leader’s a sexy, suave, uncomfortably effeminate man with supernatural powers (!!!) It has cross-dressing, mistaken identity (again), and culminates in a blood-soaked gore-fest with the brutal murder of a son by his own unknowing mother. Sounds pretty Gothic to me.

PentheusMedium

One more and I think I’ve made my point. The House of Atreus. Obviously there’s not actually a play called that, but it was the name of the Cambridge second-year tragedy course when I took it a decade ago. As an umbrella term for the various plays surrounding Agamemnon and his family, even then it struck me as having a particularly Gothic ring to it, echoing Poe’s House of Usher. But we can hardly label these stories Gothic based on the title of a Cambridge course, vitally important though the Classics Tripos undoubtedly is. Fortunately for my argument the same themes are there again. Mythical past, check. Once-great Palace Gone to the Dogs, check. Women Not Acting The Way They’re Supposed To, check. Bodily violation, check. The later volumes in the Oresteia even give us some proper monsters in the shape of the Furies. Less said about the courtroom drama ending, the better…

But while Aeschylos’s definitive take on this story has its share of Gothic elements, it’s Seneca’s Latin take on the cycle which really hits all the Gothic marks, and brings me into the second area I want to talk about.

Neronian Gothic

I’ve mainly talked about Greek stuff so far, but it’s the Romans who are the masters of ancient Gothic. Stuffy, pompous, jackbooted, morally-preachy-but-terrified-by-their-own-depravity, they’re the high Victorians of antiquity. Even the most straitlaced and respectable of Roman writers have at least some stuff that can be read in terms of Gothic themes. I’ve written before about the bit where Cicero kind of loses it a bit and accuses a foe of necromancy and cannibalism, and there’s a rich seam of Gothic in imagery in the Aeneid, especially Book VI. But the Neronian period’s where things really kick off. I can’t help thinking of it as antiquity’s answer to the 1980s, and if Aeschylos’s Oresteia is the worthy literary take on the House of Atreus stories, Seneca’s Thyestes is the straight-to-video-nasty schlock prequel.

It’s trash. But I really, really like it. I think I like it more than the Oresteia, and I like it even more because I know that’s wrong. Thyestes is the House of Atreus story with the gore turned up to eleven. From beginning to end it’s an exuberant, excessive carnival of body-parts, violence, transgression and blood, all lovingly described and just daring you to be repulsed. It’s horror, but is it Gothic? Absolutely. Brotherly rivalry, incest, secrets, lies, dismemberment and unwitting cannibalism (mistaken identity taken to the limit here, as Thyesetes mistakes his kids for dinner), all set in an ancient palace entering the last years of its dynasty.

But it’s not just the tragedy that’s Gothic in Neronian literature; arguably the whole tenor of the age is. As it’s passed down in literature, Nero’s whole court is like The Masque of the Red Death, a pageant of excess, bad taste, violence and spectacle. I’m going to talk about Petronius now, which may ring alarm bells for at least one current Cambridge PhD student, who argues the traditional attribution of his Satyricon to the Neronian period is mistaken. But even if it does post-date Nero’s court, Trimalchio is undoubtedly based on Nero and his dinner party is a comment on, and response to, the mores and style of his court. Needless to say, it’s every bit as brash, excessive and tacky as we imagine Nero himself to have been. From the dishes he serves to Trimalchio himself, the dinner-party is filled with the artificial and the false: nothing is what it pretends to be. As a comedy freedman, a social-climbing upstart with delusions of upper-classdom, Trimalchio embodies the Gothic ambivalence towards aristocracy and social mobility. But what elevates the story from the Neronian Keeping Up Appearances to a genuine work of the Gothic is that it’s positively dripping with monsters. Witches, owls, and, most delightfully, a very early but wholly recognisable werewolf story. The monstrosity of Trimalchio/Nero’s court is contrasted and reflected in these monstrous tales. Not just in its excess but in this horrific vein, it presages the later concerns and methods of Gothic fiction.romans

So while I’m not saying there was any kind of unbroken tradition connecting these Classical works to Gothic fiction of the eighteenth century and beyond, there is a wealth of material which can be read as Gothic or could easily be staged or retold as Gothic without much change. Which is reason enough, if any reason were needed beyond the fact that it’s really good, why any Classicist should get themselves over to the British Library and take in their exhibition.

Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination is on at the British Library until 20 January 2015. Adaptations of The Castle of Otranto and other Gothic classics are currently available from BBC Radio 4 Extra, and there’s a bunch of Gothumentaries from the BBC’s usual suspects on iPlayer.

Review: Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination

As the winds of October blew, five classicists set off for the British Library to take its exhibition Terror and Wonder: The Gothic Imagination.

John_Henry_Fuseli_-_The_Nightmare

The exhibition covers roughly two centuries of works described as “gothic”, from Horace Walpole’s 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto to contemporary authors like Susan Hill and Sarah Waters. The exhibition is laid out more or less chronologically, with rooms dedicated to the major authors/works in the genre. It begins with Walpole, looking at not only editions and manuscripts of his novel, but also his letters which deal with the various events that may have inspired the novel, as well as various small items attesting to his antiquarian interests.

gothicFrom Walpole, one moves through the early nineteenth century explosion of gothic literature (including on display of the “seven horrid novels” referenced in Jane Austen’s send-up of the gothic, Northhanger Abbey) to a display dedicated to Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. I found particularly effective the way in which the much-mythologized origins of that work were presented. The ghost-story competition in the Villa Diodati at which Shelley came up with the idea for the work is introduced through letters from Percy Shelley and Lord Byron – the latter accompanied by an audio recording of the letter, an extremely effective device that is used to good effect several times throughout the exhibition. This method allows us to see the degree to which the gathering of “outcast” poets and their hangers-on was already becoming legend in its own day, and the difficulty in separating fact from fiction when dealing with the lives of authors.

frontispiece-of-third-edition-first-illustrated-Moving into the later nineteenth century, the exhibition, with brief forays into the Brontes, Poe, Dickens and Stevenson, focusses on vampire literature with Bram Stoker’s Dracula taking centre stage. Perhaps as a result of the exigencies of preservation, the Dracula exhibit focusses much less on contemporary documents, and more on the reception of the text in the century following its publication. There is, of course, no shortage of such material, but compared to the earlier author-focussed exhibits this seemed to lack focus. One highlight of this collection, however, was a series of paper stage-sets for Dracula created by Edward Gorey – which were in fact on sale in the gift shop, and which at least one member of our party would have bought had his accommodation been more permanent.

gorey-theatre-1The exhibition began to run into trouble as it moved into the twentieth century. The exhibition certainly captured the fragmentation of the genre over the last 100 years – southern gothic, weird tales, and psychological horror stories are all represented, and convincingly argued to partake of the gothic legacy. But there seems little organization or narrative to this section; even the chronological principle is abandoned, with Arthur Machen’s works from the early 20th century coming after those by Susan Hill and Sarah Waters from the early 21st. After this point, the exhibition more or less fizzles out. After a brief mention of zombie literature (whose gothicness was a point of question in our party), we have tiny cabinets of children’s and young adult literature (Goth Girl, Twilight, a copy of Wuthering Heights with a hideously Twilight-esque cover), a brief display of cover art from Goth bands, and then some photos of participants at the annual Goth gathering in Whitby. There is little to no explanation of how and why modern Goth culture emerged, or how it draws on the earlier literature. Indeed, from the twentieth-century material on, the exhibition seemed largely to abandon analysis in favour of simply declaring “this is also a thing.”This was particularly jarring because, prior to this point, the documentation had been excellent.

The labels provided good background information on the works discussed, giving good overviews to those who have not read them without seeming patronizing to those who had. Particularly striking were displays that linked trends in gothic literature to reactions to contemporary events. So, for example, a display of pamphlets on the horrors of the French Reign of Terror was used to discuss how the increasingly bloody revolutions in Europe challenged Enlightenment optimism and focussed the minds of British writers on the darker aspects of the psyche; another display of the media circus that surrounded the Whitechapel Murders and “Jack the Ripper” was linked to the images of urban violence found in Dracula and Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde.

rippervic-wl

Less successful were attempts to integrate film into the exhibition. The various works were often accompanied by posters and indeed clips of film adaptations. While potentially useful for discussing reception, these tended to be under-analysed and ended up largely as distractions. A notable exception to this was one of the first clips, a response to The Castle of Otranto by Czech animator Jan Švankmajer.

ghostThe short film jumps between Monty-Python style animated illustrations of the novel and an “interview” with a mad Czech doctor who has concluded that the castle in question is not in Otranto in Italy but in fact in a Czech village of similar name. His bizarre linguistic and archaeological arguments sounded depressingly familiar to an audience of classicists. Also of note was a clip from The Wicker Man, whose chief villain bore a shocking resemblance to one senior member of the classics faculty. . .

thewickerman_lordsummerisle

One interesting aspect of the exhibition, whether positive or negative, was that, though discussions of individual works were extremely thorough, little was explicitly said about broader patterns. Perhaps most strikingly, no comprehensive definition of “gothic” was attempted. Whether this was a strength or weakness is difficult to say. While it may be partly responsible for the lack of focus toward the end of the exhibition, I think that it was to some degree a strength. Rather than being artificially imposed, an idea of the gothic was permitted to emerge cumulatively and organically from the material itself. On a smaller scale, little was done to trace the shifts in the genre. So, for example, the change in setting of gothic stories from the countryside in the early nineteenth century to the city in its latter half was not remarked upon; nor was there discussion, for example, of the role of women in gothic fiction – where earlier gothic fiction saw women like Ann Radcliffe and Mary Shelley highly influential, for much of the nineteenth century women seem largely to have vanished as authors of gothic fiction, only to reappear strongly in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries as the leading gothic revivalists. On the other hand, the fact that I perceived these trends without their being explicitly mentioned perhaps means that specific mention is unnecessary, as the logic of the exhibition will naturally produce these conclusions.

These concerns aside, the exhibition was highly effective, and stimulated a great deal of reflection on the idea of the gothic, and its broader application. Can Hamlet, Macbeth and Lear be considered gothic? And what about further back? Did the ancients themselves have a “gothic” of their own? Stay tuned. . .


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Hubbard excavation sheds light on overlooked settlers

After flooding damaged structures throughout Iowa City in 2008, residents have witnessed waves of...

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

The ‘Vampire of Vratsa’ ...


In July Bulgarian archaeologists " a medieval vampire burial site had been found during excavations of an ancient fortress near Vratsa" ...

Archaeology: Bulgaria’s ‘Vampire of Vratsa’ | The Sofia Globe:
Unlike the previously well-known method of disposing of vampires by driving a stake through the heart, the funeral ritual of the “Vampire of Vratsa” ... involved a boulder from the mountain. ... archaeologists have found the grave of an elderly man of a unusually tall height for the time, 1.8 metres. The burial site testifies to the special treatment of the deceased. On his heart, archaeologists found a deliberately placed processed white stone, said to be part of rituals against vampirism.
Archaeologist Alexandra Petrova told Bulgarian National Television that placing a stone on the chest, notably the left side where the heart is, was part of such a practice, that could also involve stabbing with a stake or iron knife. The aim was to prevent the deceased’s return to the world of the living, which in turn also could be done by putting a pet cat or chicken across the body. Such rituals would be carried out if the deceased was a stranger to the community, or loner or who had no one to watch over him at night. Another reason could be if the man, while alive, had been evil, thus prompting precautions against him coming back to cause mischief. In the case near Vratsa, there was apparently double insurance. This involved tying the feet to make the dead stumble if trying to return to the world of the living.

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Archaeologists Uncover “Vampire” In Plovdiv


In August Bulgarian archaeologists unearthed another Vampire burial ...

Archaeologists Uncover “Vampire” Burial In Plovdiv - Novinite.com - Sofia News Agency:
One of the skeletons had a brick in its jaws and a roof tile on its head. “This is a typical European practice between XV – XVII c. and was done to prevent the dead from turning into a vampire,” the leader of the archaeological team Elena Bozhinova said. - See more at: http://www.novinite.com/articles/162947/Archaeologists+Uncover+%E2%80%9CVampire%E2%80%9D+Burial+In+Plovdiv#sthash.A54NXycW.dpuf

Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East

Fortnight of Firsts - Flight 20141028


I was very fortunate to be invited to join the Aerial Archaeology in Jordan 2014 flying programme this year. It has been a fortnight of ‘firsts’ for me. My first visit to Jordan, first visit to a Roman site, and a my first time in a helicopter – something I am particularly proud of as one who is terrified of flying, even on commercial aeroplanes. Taking photos from the open-door side of a Huey was not something I imagined I would be able to do.

As the helicopter rose up out of Marka Air Force Base, and the view of Amman began to unfold before our eyes, my fear turned to fascination and excitement. The bird’s eye view, whether of a modern city or an archaeological site, gives a unique perspective on the connexion between the various different elements that together make up those larger networks we usually only ever see from ground level.


View of Amman © APAAME_20141028_TPH-0004

Trying to espy a site from above and then photograph it was a very rewarding experience. Undertaking the flight only increased the respect I have for the dedication David Kennedy and Robert Bewley have for recording as much of Jordan’s immense and varied archaeological treasures as they have thus far been able. No doubt this respect and gratitude is a sentiment that future generations, especially Jordanians, will share.

Of the sites we photographed two were particularly memorable for me – the recently spotted, possibly Roman, quarry with columns, under threat of being consumed by the adjacent modern quarry and Qasr el-Maduna, an imposing desert castle.

Sahab Quarry © APAAME_20141028_TPH-0010


Qasr el-Maduna © APAAME_20141028_TPH-0069

While much work goes on behind the scenes, including cataloguing photos and making them available through our Flickr page, I have also had time for a visit to Gerasa (Jerash), Azraq Oasis, and, this morning, a ground visit to an endangered Roman town, Yajuz, just outside of Amman – this is one example, yet certainly much of Jordan’s heritage is under threat. 

I have thoroughly enjoyed joining the team in Jordan, my time in Amman has been made pleasurable and stress-free thanks to the support of APAAME, the BIA (British Institute in Amman) and the Jordanians I have had the pleasure to meet with, all of whom are wonderful ambassadors for their country – much good could come of tourism to Jordan’s remarkable historical sites. As Jordan faces various challenges, hopefully the opportunities to preserve (and market) its heritage are not lost.



Research - Jordan 'Big Circles' Publicity

We are receiving a lot of hits and publicity from the Owen Jarus 'Ancient Stone Circles in Mideast Baffle Archaeologists' article published on LiveScience yesterday (30 Oct. 2014). 

DailyMail Online have also followed up with their article 'Mystery of Jordan's Big Circles: Ancient Stone Rings in the Desert have left archaeologists baffled' (Victoria Woollaston, 30 Oct. 2014).

If you are interested in accessing the original article by Prof. David Kennedy in Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie 6 please see our blog for publication details: Publications: Remote Sensing and ‘Big Circles’ A New Type of Prehistoric Site in Jordan and Syria 

The Syrian 'Big Circle' was discovered and investigated by Graham Phillip and Jennie Bradbury and published in the journal Levant, you can access their article through Maney Online: 'Pre-Classical Activity in the Basalt Landscape of the Homs Region, Syria: Implications for the Development of 'Sub-Optimal' Zones in the Levant During the Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age'.

If you are interested in seeing more photographs taken in the course of our investigation of the structures on the ground and from the air, please visit our Flickr page and search for 'Big Circle'.

Circle 6
Jordan Big Circle 6. © APAAME_20090930_DLK-0263.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

ANCIENT ECONOMIES AND HOW WE CAN STUDY THEM

November 04, 2014 - 11:38 AM - Dr Makis Aperghis, Honorary Research Fellow, University College London

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Presentato a Paestum il Manifesto Open Data Archeologici

 

moda-manifestoSi chiama MODA il Manifesto Open Data Archeologici promosso dal Laboratorio MAPPA dell'Università di Pisa e dal Gruppo Archeo & Arte 3D della Sapienza di Roma, primo Manifesto per la promozione degli Open Data Archeologici.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Visiting Fellowships in Oxford: Israel in Egypt / Egypt in Israel

TIMOTHY MICHAEL LAW: Visiting Fellowships in Oxford: Israel in Egypt / Egypt in Israel: An investigation of the land of Egypt as concept and reality for Jews in Antiquity and the early medieval period.
For Jews in ancient and medieval Palestine and the Diaspora, the land of Egypt was a real place and also an abstract notion shaped by scriptural texts. The nation-defining episode of the Exodus of the Israelites, the unequivocal injunction in the Torah not to return to Egypt (Deut 17:16) and the negative attitude of biblical writers in general towards Egypt, existed in tension with the fact of Jewish residence there. Jewish settlements in Egypt ranged from the time of Jeremiah, to the Jewish military garrison in Elephantine during the Persian period, to major settlements and above all the huge urban community in Alexandria under the Ptolemies and Romans. Though all these disappear in the second century following the revolt of 115–17 CE and the extermination of the Jews of Egypt under Trajan, the presence of Jews is attested again in the fifth century by patristic writers, and then through Byzantine and Islamic rule into the medieval period, principally by the documents preserved in the Cairo Geniza.

The ‘Israel in Egypt’ project addresses a number of questions about identity and belonging among Egyptian Jews over the course of one and a half millennia.
Follow the link for further particulars and application information.

Antiquity Now

Halloween, “The War of the Worlds” and Why We Love Flying Machines

Happy Halloween! AntiquityNOW has been celebrating Halloween this year with blog posts about doppelgangers, the origins of tricks and treats, modern and 2,000 year old ghost stories, and now, an original short story by author Victoria Weisfeld. For inspiration Weisfeld … Continue reading

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Blog Love: Discarding Images

Because what could be better than a Tumblr that posted weird and assorted little drawings from Medieval Manuscripts?

Discarding Images

For example ...

angry bats
'Northumberland Bestiary', London ca. 1250-1260.
LA, J. Paul Getty Museum, MS. 100, fol. 37r




medieval batman
Hans Vintler, Die pluemen der tugent, Vienna 1450.
Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, cod. s. n. 12819, fol. 129r



oh hi there  
'The Dawnce of Makabre' from Carthusian miscellany, Yorkshire or Lincolnshire ca. 1460-1500.
BL, Add 37049, fol. 31v


Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Lindbeck, Elijah and the Rabbis

TALES RETOLD: Elijah's women (Caren Schnur Neile, Florida Jewish Journal).
The Talmud is the written record of the spoken conversations and questions, teachings and stories of the Sages. It documents a Jewish oral tradition that continues in one form or another to the present day.

One of the most prominent characters in Rabbinic literature is Elijah, who appears in many guises, serving as herald, mediator, adviser and teacher. According to Dr. Kristen Lindbeck at Florida Atlantic University, Elijah's duties include protecting travelers, helping those in financial distress, and devising useful stratagems.

In her book "Elijah and the Rabbis: Story and Theology," Dr. Lindbeck recounts oral Elijah tales from the Babylonian Talmud, with a few exceptions. "The Seven Good Years" first appeared in a tenth-century midrash from Israel. Like all oral narrative, every retelling is different. The following is my own, closely based on that of Dr. Lindbeck. Pay close attention to the role of the farmer's wife ...
This book was noted earlier here.

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Ambienti virtuali per statue 3D in alta risoluzione: MellaniuM

 

Aphrodite-MellaniuMMellaniuM 3D è una nuova applicazione web che permette di creare musei virtuali in 3D in modo accurato.

Lo studio canadese di progettazione virtuale MellaniuM ha recentemente messo a punto un processo per importare gli oggetti 3D molto dettagliati negli spazi dell'AvayaLive Engage, piattaforma virtuale basata su browser. A dimostrazione di questo processo, l'azienda ha importato due statue della statuaria classica Greca, la Venere di Milo e la Vittoria alata di Samotracia.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Taylor Swift and the DSS

CULTURAL ICON WATCH: Don't go breaking my heart - Taylor Swift opens up. The Dead Sea Scrolls come up in the most unexpected places:
Taylor Swift, however, is very much a big deal. Her every utterance and action is world news or at least trending on Twitter. Her lyrics are dissected by culture vultures as though they are the Dead Sea Scrolls of post-teen angst. ...

Biblica

THE JOURNAL BIBLICA, a longstanding staple of biblical studies, is online for free (for reading but not downloading) and archived back to 1979. I haven't mentioned it in years. Thanks to AWOL for the reminder.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

The Archaeology of Theoria: Landscape, Movement, and Materiality in Ancient Pilgrimage.

November 13, 2014 - 10:38 AM - Associate Professor Troels Myrup Kristensen, Aarhus University.

Stadt- und Bauforschung in Larisa am Hermos (2010-2014)

November 05, 2014 - 10:33 AM - LECTURE Prof. Dr. Turgut Saner (Istanbul)

Dorothy King (PhDiva)

Vampires and Garlic ...

Probably the only medical study of the effects of garlic on vampires:
Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead.
I use a lot of garlic in cooking. We don't keep crucifixes at home, but the garlic seems to have protected us from Vampires ... so far!

Since today is Halloween, we'll be going Vampire today with a series of posts covering everything about their archaeology.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

‘The philosophical archetype of the ship: a boat-journey to metaphors and dreams’

November 24, 2014 - 10:19 AM - Upper House Seminar Dr Chryssanthi Papadopoulou (Assistant Director, BSA)

‘Cultural homogeneity and diversity in Prepalatial Crete: New evidence from the excavation of tholos

November 10, 2014 - 10:09 AM - UPPER HOUSE SEMINAR Dr Yannis Papadatos (University of Athens)

Όπου η αρχαιολογία συνάντησε την αρχιτεκτονική.

November 04, 2014 - 10:00 AM - κύκλος ομιλιών: Ματιές στην πόλη, μεταξύ αρχιτεκτονικών και αρχαιολογικών προσεγγίσεων Καθ. Δημήτρης Φιλιππίδης, ΕΜΠ

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2014.10.61: L'Alceste de Barcelone (P.Monts. Roca inv. 158-161). Édition, traduction et analyse contextuelle d'un poème latin conservé sur papyrus. Papyrologica Leodiensia, 3

Review of Gabriel Nocchi Macedo, L'Alceste de Barcelone (P.Monts. Roca inv. 158-161). Édition, traduction et analyse contextuelle d'un poème latin conservé sur papyrus. Papyrologica Leodiensia, 3. Liège: 2014. Pp. 214. €30.00 (pb). ISBN 9782875620415.

2014.10.60: Ovid: Epistulae ex Ponto, Book I. Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics

Review of Garth Tissol, Ovid: Epistulae ex Ponto, Book I. Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics. Cambridge; New York: 2014. Pp. ix, 191. $36.99 (pb). ISBN 9780521819589.

2014.10.59: The Oxford Anthology of Roman Literature

Review of Peter E. Knox, J. C. McKeown, The Oxford Anthology of Roman Literature. Oxford; New York: 2013. Pp. xii, 633. $35.00 (pb). ISBN 9780195395167.

2014.10.58: Between Constantinople and Rome: An Illuminated Byzantine Gospel Book (Paris gr. 54) and the Union of Churches

Review of Kathleen Maxwell, Between Constantinople and Rome: An Illuminated Byzantine Gospel Book (Paris gr. 54) and the Union of Churches. Farnham; Burlington, VT: 2014. Pp. xvi, 307; 63 p. of plates. $119.95. ISBN 9781409457442.

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

Le monde romain de 70 av. J.-C. à 73 ap. J.-C. III

Quelques publications sur le même thème pour faire suite au post précédent :

Un ouvrage qui à partir de l’étude de cas d’une résidence nobiliaire s’intéresse à l’Ibérie orientale du Ier s. av. J.-C. au Ier s. ap. J.-C.. Il y a un bon résumé des relations de cette région du Caucase avec Rome.

Furtwängler, A. et al., éd. (2008) : Iberia And Rome. The Excavations of the Palace at Dedoplis Gora and the Roman Influence in the Caucasian Kingdom of Iberia, Langenweißbach.

http://iberiaandrome.wordpress.com/

Un article sur les unités auxiliaires en Mésie qui porte sur l’essentiel sur le déploiement de ces troupes avant 73 apr. J.-C. : Matei-Popescu, Fl. (2013) : « The Roman Auxiliary Units of Moesia », Il mar Nero, 8, 207-230

https://www.academia.edu/6383357/The_Roman_Auxiliary_Units_of_Moesia

 


Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

New Cultural Heritage Laws in Switzerland


It does not seem all that long ago that they revised these laws, now they are being rewritten:
Bern, 29.10.2014 - Der Bundesrat hat an seiner heutigen Sitzung beschlossen, das totalrevidierte Kulturgüterschutzgesetz auf den 1. Januar 2015 in Kraft zu setzen. Auf den gleichen Zeitpunkt tritt die Totalrevision der Kulturgüterschutzverordnung in Kraft, die der Bundesrat heute genehmigt hat. Mit der Totalrevision des Kulturgüterschutzgesetzes (KGSG) werden die rechtlichen Grundlagen auf die aktuellen Herausforderungen ausgerichtet. 
(source: Neues Kulturgüterschutzgesetz tritt am 1. Januar 2015 in Kraft). The details were not given, but let's hope they are bad news for cultural property racketeering. More disturbingly however it talks in a rather object-centred fashion of Switzerland becoming some sort of an international 'safe haven' for conflict and displaced antiquities. It is believed that this is what they already have in the depths of the Geneva Free Port.

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

US helps fund Philippine church restoration

The US Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation has donation $300,000 for the restoration of the 400-year-old church of the Immaculate Conception in Eastern Samar province, which was damaged by last year’s typhoon Yolanda.

Immaculate Conception Church in Eastern Sama.r. Philippine Inquirer 20141030

Immaculate Conception Church in Eastern Sama.r. Philippine Inquirer 20141030

US donates $300,000 to rebuild Eastern Samar church
Philippine Inquirer, 30 October 2014

The United States embassy has donated $300,000 for the reconstruction of the centuries-old Church of the Immaculate Conception in Guiuan, Eastern Samar, destroyed nearly a year ago by Super Typhoon Yolanda (international name: Haiyan).

“Historic landmarks like this are important to the community. The US Embassy believes it is important to preserve cultural sites for future generations to enjoy,” said US Ambassador to the Philippines Philip Goldberg said in a statement Thursday.

The grant comes from the US Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP) and will be implemented through a partnership between the US Embassy and the National Museum of the Philippines.

Read more: http://globalnation.inquirer.net/113703/us-donates-300000-to-rebuild-eastern-samar-church/#ixzz3Hh505Ebu
Follow us: @inquirerdotnet on Twitter | inquirerdotnet on Facebook

Full story here.

Majapahit Museum to be built in Bali

A museum to the ancient Majapahit culture is planned to be completed in 2016, to be located in southern Bali.

Source: BeritaBali.com 20140924

Source: BeritaBali.com 20140924

Museum Majapahit Akan Dibangun di Balangan Bali
BeritaBali.com, 24 September 2014
Article is in Bahasa Indonesia

Sebuah museum yang berisi aneka koleksi benda peninggalan Kerajaan Majapahit, akan dibangun di Balangan, Badung, Bali. Selain sebagai pengingat sejarah kebesaran Kerajaan Majapahit, museum ini akan menjadi obyek wisata baru di Bali.

Museum ini nantinya akan diberi nama Museum ‘Jali Mali’, yang merupakan singkatan dari Jawa Bali Majapahit Kembali. Museum akan dibangun di atas lahan seluas 30 hektar di kawasan Balangan, Kabupaten Badung, Bali.

“Saat ini kita sudah dalam proses pengumpulan barang-barang yang akan dipajang di museum, sudah ada sekitar 30 ribu item yang sudah kita kumpulkan, mulai aneka benda purbakala, keris, tempat tidur, stempel Majapahit, lukisan, patung, batik, hingga aneka jenis perhiasan di era Majapahit,”jelas konsultan pembangunan Museum Jali Mali, Yunaini AR, kepada beritabali.com, Rabu (24/9/2014).

Full story here.

Gunung Padang excavators working out of questionable assumptions

A controversial archaeological excavation is taking place at Gunung Padang, a megalith site in Java, where the investigators are looking for evidence for a lost civilisation. The problem is, they seem to be working on a number of questionable assumptions, and the article talks about one of them – the so-called Out of Sundaland hypothesis.

Gunung Padang site, Java. Source: Jakarta Globe 20141028

Gunung Padang site, Java. Source: Jakarta Globe 20141028

‘Out of Sundaland’ Assumption Disproved
Jakarta Globe, 28 October 2014

Among the large stone structures of Gunung Padang, a megalithic site in Cianjur district, West Java, a group of scientists is searching for Indonesia’s “lost civilization” — a civilization that, according to them, pre-dates the ancient societies of Egypt and Sumeria.

The group has many critics, both in the local and international scientific communities, but they keep on digging. What makes them so optimistic about this ambitious project?

Geological studies of the site were the first clue. Carbon dating of the rock layers suggest there is an ancient building buried beneath the site that could be more than 10,000 years old. The team has turned to genetics to find the truth.

In a presentation to the World Culture Forum in Bali last year, Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, the lead researcher of the team spoke of Stephen Oppenheimer, an Oxford scientist who proposed the “Out of Sundaland” theory.

Full story here.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

#AARSBL App Available But Not Ready

Torrey Seland mentioned on his blog that the app for the upcoming AAR/SBL conference is available on the Apple store. There is a notice in the app that it is not yet in its final form, as data is still being added. So it is up to you whether to download it now, or wait for them to finish. But I thought I should mention it.

SBLAAR 2014

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Thomas Sutikna, co-discoverer of the Hobbit, continues research through Wollonggong University fellowship

A new fellowship has been set up at the University of Wollonggong, in memory of the late Mike Morwood, to continue the research into the ‘hobbit’. The first recipient of the fellowship is Thomas Sutikna, one of the co-discoverers of the astonishing find.

Thomas Sutikna. Source: The Conversation 20141030

Thomas Sutikna. Source: The Conversation 20141030

Hobbit’s world to be explored with University of Wollongong fellowship
Illawara Mercury, 28 October 2014

A decade on and the Hobbit still holds secrets
The Conversation, 30 October 2014

The University of Wollongong has created a fellowship in memory of the late archaeologist Mike Morwood, to mark 10 years since controversial papers were published proclaiming a team co-led by Prof Morwood had discovered a tiny new human species, nicknamed the “Hobbit”.

Prof Morwood’s colleague and friend, Thomas Sutikna, will be the first recipient of the Michael J. Morwood postdoctoral fellowship.

Mr Sutikna was one of the key Indonesian archaeologists involved in the original Hobbit discovery at Liang Bua, on the Indonesian island of Flores.

He will begin his fellowship next year, including continued research at Liang Bua and exploration of limestone caves elsewhere in the Indonesian archipelago.

Mr Sutikna aims to find out more about the Hobbit’s last days and to make other new discoveries.

Full stories here and here.

Locals reportedly looting shipwrecks in Quang Ngai Province

Fresh out of the underwater archaeology conference in Quang Ngai Province comes more reports of looting of shipwrecks by locals – as much as two tonnes of coins have already been removed illegally.

Source: Thanh Nien News 20141028

Source: Thanh Nien News 20141028

Vietnam salvager says ancient coins looted from shipwreck
Thanh Nien News, 28 October 2014

Around two tons of ancient coins have disappeared from a sunken boat yet to be salvaged off Quang Ngai Province on Vietnam’s central coast and locals held the blame of stealing them.

Nguyen Dang Vu, director of the province’s culture department, said many people have taken advantage of the rough weather that delayed salvaging efforts to steal from the shipwrecks at night, Tuoi Tre newspaper reported.

Archeologist Nguyen Tuan Lam from Ho Chi Minh City company Doan Anh Duong, which is hired to recover ancient boats from the province’s waters, said locals have stolen around two tons of coins from the 9th to 11th centuries from a recently-discovered boat around 100 meters off Binh Chau Commune, Binh Son District, the paper said.

Culture officials have asked the police and border guards and heighten security in the area.

Full story here.

Unclear agency jurisdictions put Philippine sites in danger

Not quite archaeology, but related. (which is in the National Museum of the Philippines’ domain). An article highlighting how competing agencies with unclear jurisdictions may be putting heritage sites in Philippines at risk.

The Army Navy Club in Manila. Source: Rappler.com 20141028

The Army Navy Club in Manila. Source: Rappler.com 20141028

PH cultural agencies in need of major overhaul?
Rappler.com, 28 October 2014

If the recent controversies regarding historical and cultural sites are any indication, national government agencies with relevant mandates are in need of a major overhaul.

This was the conclusion of certain members of the House of Representatives after a hearing on Monday, October 27.

The omnibus hearing looked into all the recent issues concerning heritage sites and culturally-important structures in Manila such as the construction of DMCI’s Torre de Manila, the development of the Army Navy Club and Admiral Hotel and another planned real estate development in the historic Santa Ana district.

The hearing was attended by real estate developers involved, heritage advocates and officials from the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP), National Commission on Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and the National Museum.

The last 3 are the national government agencies mandated to protect and conserve historically and culturally-significant sites and structures all over the country.

Full story here.

Robert Consoli (Squinches)

Plants of Lake Copais



Riparian and Aquatic environments in the Lake Copais basin as reflected in Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants, 4.10

The basin of Lake Copais has been, throughout nearly its entire history, a rich aquatic and riparian environment.[1] The basin was drained in the nineteenth century and so this environment survives only in patches around the basin and along the course of the Cephissos and the Melas rivers.

Near the springs of the Graces (πηγές των Χαρίτων). Photo from [Moustakas 2012] Fig. A-17
Instructional and non-commercial use.[2]

When Lake Copais was flooded, as it has been for most of its history, the aquatic and riparian environments provided a rich source of food and sustenance. In the late fourth or early third centuries B.C. Theophrastus, the student of Aristotle, left us a tantalizing picture of the riches to be found along the Lake and its feeder rivers.[3]

Ἐν δ᾿ οὖν τῇ λίμνῃ τῇ περὶ Ὀρχομενὸν τάδ᾿ ἐστὶ τὰ φυόμενα δένδρα καὶ ὑλήματα, ἰτέα ἐλαίαγνος σίδη κάλαμος ὅ τε αὐλητικὸς καὶ ὁ ἕτερος κύπειρον φλεὼς τύφη, ἔτι γε μήνανθος ἴκμη καὶ τὸ καλούμενον ἴπνον. ὃ γὰρ προσαγορεύουσι λέμνα τούτου τὰ πλείω καθ᾿ ὕδατός ἐστι.

“Now in the lake near Orchomenos grow the following trees and woody plants: willow, goat-willow, water-lily, reeds (both that used for making pipes and the other kind), galingale, phleos, bulrush; and also ‘moon-flower’, duckweed and the plant called marestail: as for the plant called water-chickweed the greater part of it grows under water.”[4]


Let us look at these plants in turn.


ἡ ἰτέα, Willow. This refers to either of Salix Alba (common willow) or to Salix amplexicaulis.[5]

Willow is a common building or framing material.

Herodotus refers to the use of willow to make boats.[6]

“The Armenians who live upstream from Assyria construct the ribs of the boat out of cut willow branches and stretch around them watertight skins to complete the hull.”[7]

Hippocrates advised patients to chew on willow bark to relieve pain.[8]

The Tebtunis Papyri show that the willow was cultivated in Hellenistic Egypt.[9] We are not told precisely what for but it appears to have been a valued source for fast-growing wood. Because it was planted on embankments it may have been seen as a means of ground stabilization.


ἐλαίαγνος is S. c. var. caprea [10] known commonly as pussy willow, goat’s willow, or great sallow. Theophrastus is probably not referring to the other variety of Salix caprea, namely S. c. var. sphacelata which is more at home at high altitudes. S. caprea thrives in riparian environments as

Theophrastus confirms:

“ἔστι δὲ ὁ μὲν ἐλαίαγνος φύσει μὲν θαμνῶδες καὶ παρόμοιον τοῖς ἄγνοις, φύλλον δὲ ἔχει τῷ μὲν σχήματι παραπλήσιον μαλακὸν δέ, ὥσπερ αἱ μηλέαι καὶ χνοῶδες. ἄνθος δὲ τῷ τῆς λεύκης ὅμοιον ἔλαττον· καρπὸν δὲ οὐδένα φέρει. φύεται δὲ ὁ πλεῖστος μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν πλοάδων νήσων· εἰσὶ γάρ τινες καὶ ἐνταῦθα πλοάδες, …”

“The goat-willow is of shrubby habit and like the chaste-tree: its leaf resembles that leaf in shape, but it is soft like that of the apple, and downy. The bloom is like that of the abele, but smaller, and it bears no fruit. It grows chiefly on the floating islands; …”[11]

It is a source of fodder for goats and other mammals. In some places (but this is not testified in ancient Greece) the branches can be carved into flutes. The reference to ‘floating islands’ is interesting as it implies that there were great masses of vegetation which periodically broke off from the surrounding edge of the lake or which had washed down from the Cephissos, Hyrcanus, or the Melas rivers.

σίδη, ἡ                  The water lily.  LSJ identifies this as Nymphea alba.  This is the same as the ‘nymphaia’ (νυμφαία) which Theophrastus tells us has various uses:[12]   


“..the Boeotians, who eat the fruit, call it madonaïs (μαδωνάϊν[13]). It has a large leaf which lies on the water: and it is said that it acts as a styptic if it is pounded up and put on the wound: it is also serviceable in the form of a draught for dysentery.”[14]

The family of the Nymphaeaceae include several genera among which are Nymphaea and the Nuphar. Among the Nuphar there are several genuses (sometimes these are treated as a single species in Europe where it is known as N. lutea). Among the true Nuphar a distinguishing feature is that the fruit matures above water level. Among the Nymphaea the fruit sinks below the water level after the flower closes. Leaves, roots, and seeds of some Nymphaea species are edible, and have various traditional medicinal uses.[15]


Several parts of the water lily are edible. The flowers, seeds and rhizomes are edible raw or cooked although the rhizome should be peeled. The seeds should be dried and then ground into flower. Tea
can be made from the roots and was used as a specific against diarrhea.[16] Theophrastus tells us:

“Of the plants of the lake the parts good for food are as follows: of the water-lily both the flower and the leaves are good for sheep, the young shoots for pigs, and the fruit for men”[17]

In a future post I will continue with the plants of Lake Copais.



Notes


[1] [Zaimes, et al., 2010] For the distinction between riparian and aquatic in the context of modern Greek environmental practice.

[2] [Moustakas, 2012] fig. A-17.

[3] Theophr. Enq. Plants, iv.10.1.

[4] [Hort, 1916] 361. I have separated the individual plant names in Hort’s translation with commas.

[5] See a photograph of a typical specimen here: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salix_alba_leaves.jpg

[6] Herod. i.194, ἰτέης.

[7] Translation from [Purvis 2007] 105.

[8] Often stated but I cannot find a source for this claim.

[9] In P. Tebt. 103.195. [Hunt et al. 1933] 79, 98.

[10] A picture is available online at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salix_caprea8.jpg

[11] [Hort 1916] 361. Theoph. Enq. Plants., iv.10.1.

[12] Theophr. Enq. Plants. ix.13.1. “The plant called yellow water-lily is sweet: it grows in lakes and marshy places, as in the district of Orchomenus ..” [Hort 1916] 281.

[13] I find no further instance of this word in the Classical corpus.

[14] Theophr. Enq. Plants, IX.xiii.1. [Hort 1916] 283.

[15] http://eol.org/pages/60384/overview

[16] http://eol.org/data_objects/15632570

[17] Theophr. Enq. Plants. iv.10.7. [Hort 1916] 366.



Bibliography


[Hort 1916].  Theophrastus. Enquiry into Plants. Books I-V.  Translated by Arthur Hort.  Loeb Classical Library, vol. 70.  Harvard University Press, London, England. 1916.

[Hunt et al. 1933] Arthur S. Hunt, J. Gilbart Smyly.  The Tebtunis Papyri, III, i.  Humphrey Milford.  Oxford University Press, New York.  1933.

[Kontouri et al., 2012] E. Kountouri, N. Petrochilos, D. Koutsoyiannis,  Mamassis, N. Zarkadoulas, ΝA.ΝVoett, H. Hadler, P. Henning, T.ΝWillershaeuser. “A New Project of Surface Survey, Geophysical and Excavation Research of the Mycenaean Drainage Works of the North Kopais: The First Study Season” in IWA Specialized Conference on Water&Wastewater: Technologies in Ancient Civilizations.  March 22-24, 2012.  Istanbul, Turkey.

[Moustakas 2012] Sotiris, Moustakas. “Reconstruction Operation in Ancient Hydraulic Works: Area of Kopais”. National Technical University School of Civil Engineering.  Department of Water Resources and Environment.  Athens, 2012.  Online here: https://www.itia.ntua.gr/en/docinfo/1310/

[Perrin 1916] Plutarch. Lives.  Alcibiades and Coriolanus, Lysander and Sulla.  Bernadotte Perrin (tr.). Loeb Classical Library, vol. 80.  Harvard University Press, London, England. 1916.

[Purvis 2007] Andrea L. Purvis, translator.  The Landmark Herodotus. The Histories.
Robert B. Strassler, ed.  Anchor Books, Random House, New York, USA.  2007.

[Revedin et al. 2010] “Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA. 107 (44): 18815-18819. Online here: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/44/18815.full?sid=ab5d3991-b37b-46f2-ad26-869b172d6006

[Zaimes et al., 2010] G. N. Zaimes, V. Iakovoglou, D. Emmanouloudis, D. Gounaridis, “Riparian Areas of Greece: Their Definition and Characteristics” in Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 3 (1) (2010).  176-183.

October 30, 2014

Al West (West's Meditations)

Ethnological Method

Applying the comparative method in historical linguistics is relatively straightforward and academics habitually apply it to any language they come across at some point or other. But the comparative ethnology attached to linguistic constructions isn't so straightforward or quite so reflexively applied, presumably because 'ethnology' is a word reminiscent of the nineteenth century and because there is no academic department devoted solely or even primarily to such things.
Read more »

Ancient Art

Fresco from Til Barsip (Tell Ahmar), Syria, 8th-7th centuries...





Fresco from Til Barsip (Tell Ahmar), Syria, 8th-7th centuries BC.

Courtesy of & currently located at the Louvre, France. Photos taken by Richard Mortel (edited).

Samuel Hardy (Conflict Antiquities)

‘Virtually none of them have a provenance that says where they were dug up or when’

Paul Barford noted today, amongst other items, Wayne G. Sayles’ Antiquarian e-store on V-coins offers ‘Artukid coins (from the present Turkey/Syria border area), a Byzantine coin struck in Homs (now a bombed out town) and other items from Syria, and quite a few from regions in and around modern Turkey’, but rarely displays documentation that […]

Archaeology Magazine

Three Egyptian Mummies Receive High-Tech Treatment

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI—Experts from the Washington University School of Medicine, the Saint Louis Art Museum, and the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum at Washington University teamed up to examine three Egyptian mummies with a state-of-the-art computerized tomography (CT) scanner. One of the mummies, Henut-Wedjebu, or “singer of Amun and lady of the house,” was discovered near Thebes and dates to the reign of Amenhotep III. The recent scans reveal that she had been mummified with her brain and lungs. Small objects had been placed around her head that may be a headdress or embellishments on her shroud. “The technical sophistication of all three mummies suggests that these were well-off individuals. We would expect to see that reflected in the condition of their teeth and skeletons. The CT scan helps us to better understand their lifestyles,” Lisa Çakmak of the Saint Louis Art Museum announced at Washington University. To read about the in-depth study of a 3,000-year-old Egyptian mummy see ARCHAEOLOGY's "Priestess of Amun." 

Bullets Point to the Battle of the Ford of the Biscuits

COUNTY FERMANAGH, NORTHERN IRELAND—In 1594, a force loyal to Queen Elizabeth I was traveling to Enniskillen Castle when it was intercepted by Irish chieftain Hugh Maguire at the Arney River. It had been thought that the ensuing Battle of the Ford of the Biscuits, named for the lost English rations that floated down the river, took place at the Drumane Bridge crossing. Local people, however, remembered that this first battle of the Nine Years War took place further upstream. Archaeologists conducted a metal detector survey at the proposed meadow and found sixteenth-century armor-piercing bullets. “Up until right now, for hundreds of years, the battle was meant to be behind us about a mile and a half at Drumane and that’s what I believed as well.…But when we’ve looked at the landscape a bit better, there’s a big massive line of bog for miles along here and there’s one crossing point across that bog if you want to have dry feet, and it leads right to this little ford. What we’ve found are little bullets that are special little bullets that show us the cavalry were here, armored men,” archaeologist Paul Logue told BBC News

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Excavation works at Rathfarnham Castle uncover 17th century artefacts

Excavation works at Rathfarnham Castle in Dublin have uncovered what archaeologists are describing...

Fossilized maize, rice found in Temanggung

Liyangan archaeological site on the slope of Mount Sindoro in Temanggung regency, Central Java, has...

Reading, Writing, Romans: The Ashmolean Latin Inscription Project (AshLI)

Did the Romans believe in ghosts?

 

The haunted house…

It was a sprawling town house that anyone would have been proud to own. But every night, the sound of clanking chains and a terrifying vision of an old man, his shaggy hair crusted with filth, woke the inhabitants. With each visitation, their terror grew until, sick with sleeplessness, they abandoned the house. It was put up for sale, but no-one would go near it. Then, one day, a man arrived in town, a man famous for his rational mind. A man who didn’t believe in ghosts.

Dr Llewelyn Morgan picks up the story with a recording he made especially for AshLI:

 (opens in new window)

The story of Athenodoros and the haunted house comes from the turn of the second century AD, in a letter from Pliny the Younger to his friend Sura (Pliny, Letters VII.27).

 

Spookily familiar

The basic story – a place is haunted by a ghost who can find no peace until its bones are found and laid to rest – is a very familiar one (The Woman in Black, Coraline, and Sleepy Hollow all rely on it). It’s also very ancient. In Homer’s Odyssey XI, Odysseus meets the ghost of his comrade Elpenor in Hades, and discovers that he’s been left behind on Circe’s island. Elpenor had rolled off the roof where he was sleeping and broken his neck, and needs a proper burial.

 

The many faces of the Roman ghost

In modern, Western culture, ghosts are often associated with this kind of unfinished business. Set against the Christian tradition of heaven and an appealing afterlife, ghosts often need to have a good reason to be hanging around on earth when they could be somewhere better.

But the Romans didn’t have just one idea about ghosts. Some, like the old man in Pliny’s story, were lemures, angry or overlooked spirits, who could cause trouble for the living. They were honoured annually with a series of feast days in May. Not surprisingly, lemures mostly appear in Latin literature (e.g. Ovid’s Fasti 5), since they tend to make good stories.

Others ghosts were members of the natural, and ever-increasing band of dead ancestors and close relatives, who functioned as guiding and protective forces in Roman daily life. These spirits, the manes, were imagined as being in or under the earth, and were celebrated with a nine-day festival, the Parentalia, in February, and were often described as gods (di). The distinction between gods and protective spirits wasn’t one which the Romans would have worried too much about.

 

‘Dis Manibus’

It’s the assembled ranks of this second type of ghost, the ancestor-spirit, which are extremely common in Latin inscriptions. Roman tombstones often open with two letters: DM, short for dis manibus – ‘To the spirits of the departed’. It’s an address to those who have gone before which alerts them that another spirit is on its way, and is commended to their care.

Even if the rest of the inscription is broken off, worn away, or downright horrible, the opening letters DM mean that we can be sure we’re dealing with a tombstone, and not some other type of inscription.

 

Tombstone of Restitutus, 2nd-3rd century AD, Ashmolean Museum ANChandler.3.79

Tombstone of Restitutus, 2nd-3rd century AD, Ashmolean Museum ANChandler.3.79

 

If we’re really lucky, the stonecutter might have included a slightly longer abbreviation, like the DIIS (this time with double ‘i’) MANIB we see on this ash-urn currently on display in the Ashmolean’s Rome gallery:

 

Ash-urn of Cornelia Thalia, c. AD 50-100, Ashmolean Museum AN2007.63, Rome Gallery

Ash-urn of Cornelia Thalia, c. AD 50-100, Ashmolean Museum AN2007.63, Rome Gallery

A toast for a ghost

One of the ways that the Romans kept the di manes happy was by making offerings. A recently deceased relative and the rest of the di manes could be honoured by pouring libations or leaving food on or near the grave.

One of the pieces that the Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions Project hopes to put on display in 2015 is a remarkable tombstone for a woman named Livia Casta. In the middle of the stone is a relief carving of a Roman cup, pierced with four holes. The stone was originally set horizontally so that Livia Casta’s relatives could pour wine, honey and water offerings into the cup, which would drain through onto her ashes where she could enjoy it. Honouring the ghosts of dead relatives and the wider band of di manes was really a question of keeping them involved, and making sure they had their share of pleasures like food and drink.

Mensa sepulchralis of Livia Casta, AD 50-100, Ashmolean Museum ANChandler3.45

Mensa sepulchralis of Livia Casta, AD 50-100, Ashmolean Museum ANChandler3.45

Did the Romans believe in ghosts?

It’s always dangerous to make generalisations about what an entire culture believed. It’s tempting to use the evidence in literature and inscriptions to draw conclusions about what the Romans thought, but plenty of people read (and write) ghost stories without necessarily being convinced about the existence of ghosts, and plenty of people ask for things to be caved on tombstones because they’re traditional. Some Romans probably believed in ghosts, and some probably didn’t. But what’s very clear is that the Romans liked the idea of ghosts, and used them in various different ways: for managing luck, for keeping family memories alive and even, just like us, for telling scary stories.

 

 

A more detailed discussion of the Latin inscriptions shown here, with full bibliographic references, will appear in the new catalogue of the Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions, which will be fr

Archaeology Magazine

Teotihuacan’s “Powder-Glittered Tunnel” Revealed

Tunnel-Teotihuacan-Pyramid-DiscoveredMEXICO CITY, MEXICO—Project director Sergio Gomez of Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History announced that his team has completed the excavation of a 340-foot-long tunnel beneath the Temple of the Plumed Serpent at Teotihuacan. The tunnel, sealed some 1,800 years ago, contained seeds, pottery, sculptures, jewelry, shells, and animal bones. Its walls had been covered with a powder made from ground metallic minerals that, when lit by a torch, created a glittering effect reminiscent of the night sky. “Because this is one of the most sacred places in all Teotihuacan, we believe that it could have been used for the rulers to acquire divine endowment allowing them to rule on the surface,” Gomez told The Telegraph. His team will now excavate the chambers at the end of the tunnel, which may hold the remains of the city’s rulers. To read about recent Mesoamerican discoveries, see ARCHAEOLOGY's "Under Mexico City." 

Ancient Peoples

Outer Coffin of Iotefamun 21st Dynasty, Third Intermediate...



Outer Coffin of Iotefamun

21st Dynasty, Third Intermediate Period

c.1070-925 BC

(Source: The Met Museum)

Open Access Archaeology

Open Access Archaeology Digest #587

Todays Open Access (free to read) Archaeology articles:

Discoveries in North-Western Wigtownshire : Cinerary and Incense-Cup Urns and Perforated Axe-Hammer; Mould for Bronze-Winged Chisel; Whetstone for Stone Axes; Cup-marked Rocks and Boulder; Apron of Moss Fibres.
http://bit.ly/1aFYcyw

The Lopez Homestead
http://bit.ly/10CvC3A

Bodiam castle, Sussex
http://bit.ly/12JViFC

New perspectives on Indo-Malaysian prehistory
http://bit.ly/1ehUdt2

Learn more about Open Access and Archaeology at: http://bit.ly/YHuyFK

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeologists Excavate Earthquake-Devastated Roman City

Perched atop Sussita Mountain near the eastern bank of the Sea of Galilee, the city’s ruins...

Shawn Graham (Electric Archaeology)

I’m no MacGyver

I’m no MacGyver. Tim the Tool Man? Bill Nye, Science Guy? Hell, I’m nowhere near Heinz Doofenshmirtz. Or Phineas. I’d kill to be Ferb.

Wile. E. Coyote? Brain? Possibly Pinky.

I’m not handy. But I thought I could do Google Cardboard. Print out the template. Glue it to a sheet of cardboard. Cut. Fold. VR!

Tab A certainly doesn’t fit into Slot B. And how does the eyepiece, crossbrace thingy work out? A Pampers box is admittedly probably too thick for this. Sheesh. Google, go look at Ikea instructions; they are masters of the art.

As for me, I’m going back to the warm embrace of acoustic augmented reality.

Visual- meh.


Archaeology Magazine

Seven Arrested in Egypt for Excavating Ancient Temple

GIZA, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that seven men have been arrested for digging up an ancient temple that they discovered beneath their home. The temple dates to the reign of the New Kingdom pharaoh Tuthmose III. Police have recovered a seated colossal statue, seven carved limestone blocks, and two marble columns. The area has been declared a protected archaeological site and the recovered objects have been taken to Saqqara for restoration and further study.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Bulgarian archaeologists find skeleton of child buried with anti-vampire ritual

The skeleton of a child whose legs had been bound after death in an anti-vampire ritual has been...

Carole Raddato (Following Hadrian)

The inscription dedicated to Hadrian from the Tel Shalem arch

About a year and a half after the discovery of the bronze statue of Hadrian (see previous post here) in 1977, six fragments of a monumental Latin inscription – the largest ever found in Israel – were discovered near the camp of the Sixth Legion in Tel Shalem.

Monumental inscription from a triumphal arch dedicated to Hadrian, discovered near the camp of the Sixth Legion at Tel Shalem, Israel Museum, Jerusalem © Carole Raddato

Monumental inscription from a triumphal arch dedicated to Hadrian, discovered near the camp of the Sixth Legion at Tel Shalem, Israel Museum, Jerusalem
© Carole Raddato

The inscription, inscribed in three lines, had belonged to a large triumphal arch erected presumably in AD 136 by order of the Roman Senate to commemorate the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt.

A proposed reconstruction of the inscription was made in 1999 by Professor Werner Eck of the University of Cologne, a renowned scholar on Roman ancient history. According to W. Eck the inscripton reads (with the expansion of abbreviations):

Proposed restoration of the monumental inscription by W. Eck (1999)

Proposed restoration of the monumental inscription by W. Eck (1999)

Imp (eratori) Cae [s (ari) divi T] ra [iani Par-]
th [i] ci f (ilio) d [Ivi Nervae NEP (Oti) Tr] Aiano [Hadriano Aug (Usto)]
pon [t] if (i) m [ax (imo), Trib (Unicia pot (estate) XX ?, imp (eratori) I] I, co (n) s (uli) [III, p (atri) p (atriae) S (enatus) P (opulus) q (ue) R (omanus)?]

The reconstructed titulare by W. Eck precisely dates the arch. In AD 136 Hadrian accepted the title of Imperator for the 2nd time -IMP II-. If W. Eck’s reconstruction is correct then the arch was dedicated to Hadrian in honor of his victory over the Jews. Unfortunately, the end of the third line, where the dedicator was mentioned, is not preserved. However W. Eck’s reconstruction, when using the correct scale, demonstrates that only a few letters are missing after the emperor’s titles. The choice seemed quite clear for W. Eck; the letter missing were SPQR -Senātus Populusque Rōmānus- (the Senate and the People of Rome). The Senate and the People of Rome is several times attested as having honoured emperors by erecting an arch or some other large monument in the provinces to commemorate a great achievement, especially an important victory.

The impressive dimensions of the inscription – about 11 m wide – and the size of the letters – 41cm high in the first line – show that the inscription belonged to a monumental arch similar to the Arch of Titus in Rome, erected after his death to commemorate his conquest of Jerusalem.

Reconstruction drawing of the triumphal arch dedicated to Hadrian near the camp of the Sixth Legion at Tel Shalem, Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Reconstruction drawing of the triumphal arch dedicated to Hadrian near the camp of the Sixth Legion at Tel Shalem, Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Celebrations of the victory over the Bar Kokhba revolt were not confined to Judaea. Monuments commemorating the event were also set up in Rome; an inscribed slab (CIL VI 974) from the base of a colossal statue of Hadrian dedicated directly beneath the Temple of the deified Vespasian and Titus – the first destroyers of the Jews – has survived. This may indicate an attempt to link the Bar Kokhba revolt victory with Vespasian’s victory during the First Jewish–Roman War.

CIL VI 974

The name of the rebellious province of Judaea was officially changed to Syria Palaestina (chosen after the Philistines, ancient enemies of the Israelites) as further punishment of the defeated and the Jewish population expelled.

Sources:

  • Werner Eck, The bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View , The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 89, (1999), pp. 76-89
  • The Israel Museum (museum link)

Filed under: Epigraphy, Hadrian, Israel, Judaea, Museum, SPQR Tagged: Hadrian, Sixth Legion

David Stuart (Maya Decipherment)

The Reading of Two Dates from the Codz Pop at Kabah, Yucatan

by David Stuart and Meghan Rubenstein, The University of Texas at Austin

A few important hieroglyphic inscriptions are known from the ruins of Kabah, Yucatan, but most of them remain poorly published, much less analyzed. The site’s lengthiest inscription comes from on the so-called Hieroglyphic Platform (2B2), and remains a disordered puzzle that has thus far eluded much in the way of interpretation (Grube 1986). The dedicatory panels from the Manos Rojas structure have been only partially documented, published and studied, and require further investigation (Carrasco and Pérez de Heredia 1996, Pérez de Heredia 1998, Graña-Behrens 2002). Perhaps the best-known inscription of Kabah comes from the well-preserved carved doorjambs on the eastern side of the so-called Codz Pop (Structure 2C6), one of the most ornately decorated buildings in the long history of Maya architecture (Figure 1, 2).

Figure 1. Structure 2C6 (the  Codz Pop) of Kabah, Yucatan (Photograph by M. Rubenstein)

Figure 1. Structure 2C6 (the Codz Pop) of Kabah, Yucatan (Photograph by M. Rubenstein)

Analyses of the date inscribed on the Codz Pop jamb have been wildly inconsistent and contradictory. Here we would like to clarify the reading of this date once and for all (we hope) as well as announce a new date from the same structure, inscribed on another door jamb recently discovered in excavations conducted by INAH in 2013. We hope that pointing to these two dates will help to refine the chronology of Kabah’s architectural history, and by extension the chronology of the Terminal Classic period in the Puuc as a whole.

The Eastern Door

With the exception of the famous western façade of the Codz Pop (Figure 1), the most reproduced image from Kabah is the set of carved doorjambs located on the eastern side of the same building (Figure 2). The stone jambs from Room 21 were first excavated, photographed, and reburied between 1934 and 1935 by Harry Pollock during his architectural survey for the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Drawings of the jambs by two different illustrators are included in Pollock’s masterwork on the architecture of the Puuc region (1980: 196, 197), and their first formal publication seems to have been in Proskouriakoff’s A Study of Classic Maya Sculpture (1950: 169, Fig 103a,b).

Figure 2. The north jamb from Room 21 (Eastern Door) of the Codz Pop, (a) detail photo by D. Stuart, (b) Drawing by M. Rubenstein.

Figure 2. The north jamb from Room 21 (Eastern Door) of the Codz Pop, (a) detail photo by D. Stuart, (b) Drawing by M. Rubenstein.

The carved jambs of Room 21 mirror each other: in the upper scene, a dance is performed, and in the lower scene, a prisoner subjugated. A horizontal hieroglyphic band separates the two events. Neither Pollock nor Proskouriakoff attempted to interpret these inscriptions.

Excavations at Kabah in the early 1990s, under the direction of Ramón Carrasco Vargas at the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), renewed interest in the Codz Pop jambs known at the time. Carrasco and José Ligorred Perramón, the archaeologist who oversaw work at the Codz Pop, relocated them using Pollock’s reports. They also offered the first interpretation of the inscription (Carrasco et.al. 1991: 83; Carrasco and Pérez 1996: 302; Ligorred Perramón 1993: 196-97). The southern jamb, broken at the hieroglyphic band, is illegible. For the north jamb, they proposed a reading of the Calendar Round date as 2 Chuen 3 Xul (this and other dates are written in the Yucatecan system). Ligorred Perramón calculated its placement in the years 987 or 1195, but leaned toward the earlier of these based on associated ceramic and architectural data (1993:196). This would place the Long Count at 10.7.19.5.11 2 Chuen 3 Xul (March 16, 987), making for one of the very latest monument dates in all of the Maya area.

Soon after this Linda Schele and Nikolai Grube proposed a different calculation for the date on the north jamb, placing it a century earlier at 10.2.13.15.11 2 Chuen 3 Xul, in the year 883 (Schele and Grube 1995: 203). Schele’s field drawing, published alongside their analysis, seems to confirm the reading of the Calendar Round as 2 Chuen 3 Xul, but settling on an earlier position in the calendric cycle than Ligorred Perramón.

Grube, in his appendix to his overview of hieroglyphic inscriptions from northwest Yucatan (1994: 344), offered a different analysis of the date, reading the month as Muan and not as Xul. He lists the date for the jambs as 10.1.10.0.11, or October 14, 859. Daniel Graña-Behrens also noted this in his later dissertation on the Northwest Yucatan (2002: 393). Graña-Behrens does not settle on a year, however, but suggests 807, 859, or 911.

To summarize: In the short span between 1991 and 2002 no less than six(!) assessments of this inscribed date on the Codz Pop were proposed or at least considered, ranging over an almost three hundred year span: 807, 859, 883, 911, 987, or 1195. The situation raises a highly confusing and important archaeological question, and above all reveals just how little is known about the chronology of the Puuc area in the Terminal Classic period.

FIgure 3. Detail of the text on the northern jamb of Room 21. (Photograph by D. Stuart)

FIgure 3. Detail of the text on the northern jamb of Room 21. (Photograph by D. Stuart)

Here we would like to clarify that the reading of the date on the Room 21 jamb is certainly 2 Chuen 3 Muan, just as Grube and Graña-Behrens proposed. Although Schele and others had suggested Xul as the month glyph, the contours and features of the month sign clearly show it to be a bird with a –ni suffix. This can only be read as Muan (MUWAAN-ni). We can narrow this further by proposing that the two most likely placements of 2 Chuen 3 Muan in the Long Count are:

10.1.10.0.11 2 Chuen 3 Muan (October 14, 859)
10.4.2.13.11 2 Chuen 3 Muan (October 1, 911)

A placement one Calendar Round earlier, in 807, seems far too early considering other dates from buildings in this same “florescent” Puuc style. Of these two, we consider 859 to be the most likely, agreeing with the previous proposals by Grube and Graña-Behrens.

The event recorded with this date on the north jamb of Room 21 seems to be “his death” (U-KAM?-mi-ya, u kamiiy) surely in reference to the scene of a warrior being slain in the image below the text band. The text on the southern jamb of the same doorway, given further information no doubt, is unfortunately destroyed.

The Northern Door

In 2013, excavations overseen by Lourdes Toscano Hernández and Gustavo Novelo Rincón of INAH revealed two important doorjambs originally placed within the central doorway of the northern room of the Codz Pop complex. This is Room 1 of Structure 2C6. Similar to the examples from Room 21, each jamb is carved with images divided by rows of hieroglyphs. In this case, we have three scenes on the eastern jamb and three scenes on the western jamb, with a total of four bands of text separating them.

Figure 4. Text band from the jamb of the northern doorway. (Photograph by ***; Preliminary drawing by D. Stuart)

Figure 4. Text band from the jamb of the northern doorway. (Photograph by M. Rubenstein; Preliminary drawing by D. Stuart)

The upper band of the eastern jamb records a date using a variation of the Yucatecan style, where a Calendar Round is described by its position in a numbered tun within a named k’atun.

[9-CIMI] U-K’IN-ni-le tu-8-TE’-e SUUTZ’-tz’i u-ti-ya tu-4-TUUN-ni 1 a-AJAW-wa ?-cha?-ja?
[Bolon Kimi] u k’iniil tu waxak-te’ suutz’ uhtiiy tu kan tuun (ti) juun ajaw ?..aj
Nine Cimi is the day on the eighth of Zotz’, it happened in the fourth stone (year) of 1 Ahau…

1 Ahau marks a specific k’atun ending of the Maya calendar, which can only correspond to 10.3.0.0.0 1 Ahau 3 Yaxk’in. The date falls in the fourth tun of that k’atun, or in the 360 days after 10.2.4.0.0. The month position 8 Zotz’ narrows this further to one possibility (again in the Yucatecan system):

10.2.3.11.6 9 Cimi 8 Zotz (March 9, 873)

The k’atun ending recorded on this northern doorway firmly anchors its date to 873 A.D. In doing so it should affirm the placement of the eastern door’s date (in an earlier phase of the building) to 859, only fourteen years prior.

Conclusions

The new jambs from the Codz Pop show a date falling in the year 873, helping to confirm one of many previous readings of the date from the eastern door as 859. It is important to note that these two dates might conform to the overall construction sequence of the Codz Pop and its modification over time. That is, the later of the two is associated with the northern extension of the structure that appears to have been a later addition to the original building. That being said, it would be a mistake to take the two dates as simple dedication records. As noted, the eastern door records the death of Kabah’s vanquished enemy, whereas the nature of the event on northern jamb remains to be determined. Nevertheless, the anchoring of these two dates should help us be confident in the chronological placement of the Codz Pop, and of its place in the wider context of archaeology in the Puuc region.

Acknowledgements

We are most grateful to our colleagues Lourdes Toscano Hernández and Gustavo Novelo Rincón for their permission to share our analysis of the date recently discovered at the Codz Pop complex. A more thorough study of the building’s dates and construction sequence will be produced by them at a future date. A formal presentation of the new Codz Pop jambs will take place at the upcoming Maya Meetings at UT-Austin in January. We also thank Sid Hollander for pointing out a couple of typos (now corrected) in our transcription of Maya dates.

Sources Cited

Carrasco Vargas, Ramón, et. al. 1991. Proyecto Kabah: Informe de los trabajos realizados en la temporada 1991. Tomo II. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Centro Regional Yucatán.

Carrasco Vargas, Ramón, and Eduardo Pérez de Heredia. 1996. “Los últimos gobernadores de Kabah.” In Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993. M. Macri and J. McHargue, eds. pp. 297-307. San Francisco: The Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute.

Graña-Behrens, Daniel. 2002. Die Maya-Inschriften aus Nordwestyukatan, Mexiko. Thesis, Fakultät der Rheinischen-Friedrich-Wilhelms, University of Bonn.

Grube, Nikolai. 1986. Die Hieroglyphenplattform von Kabah, Yucatán, México. Mexicon Vol. VIII (1): 13-17.

_____________. 1994. “Hieroglyphic Sources for the History of Northwest Yucatan.” In Hidden Among the Hills: Maya Archaeology of the Northwest Yucatan Peninsula. H.J. Prem, ed. pp. 316-358. Acta Mesoamericana. Möckmühl: Verlag von Flemming.

Ligorred Perramón, José de Calasanz. 1993. La escultura Puuc: Análsis iconológico del Codz Pop de Kabah. Thesis, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

Pérez de Heredia, Eduardo. 1998. El edificio de las Manos Rojas de Kabah, Yucatán: chronologia y funcionalidad. Thesis, Facultad de Ciencias Antropológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán.

Pollock, Harry Evelyn Dorr. 1980. The Puuc: an Architectural Survey of the Hill Country of Yucatan and Northern Campeche, Mexico. Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.

Proskouriakoff, Tatiana. 1950. A Study of Classic Maya Sculpture. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Schele, Linda, and Nikolai Grube. 1995. Notebook for the XIXth Maya Hieroglyphic Workshop at Texas: Late Classic and Terminal Classic Warfare. Austin: Art Department, University of Texas.


Archaeological News on Tumblr

Tang Dynasty Coins Found in South Sumatra

Jakarta - A team of Researchers from the Palembang archaeology station said that the ancient coins...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Alétheia - Revista de estudos sobre Antigüidade e Medievo

 [First posted in AWOL 22 May 2011. Updated 30 October 2014]

Alétheia - Revista de estudos sobre Antigüidade e Medievo
ISSN: 1983-2087
A Revista Alétheia incentiva a divulgação de trabalhos acadêmicos que abordem a Antiguidade e o Medievo, em âmbito nacional e internacional. Este periódico recebe publicações de pesquisadores de todas as áreas das Ciências Humanas, em nível de graduação e pós-graduação. Os trabalhos serão avaliados por pareceristas ad hoc, sendo veiculados de acordo com as exigências estabelecidas nas normas de publicação.

v. 9, n. 1 (2014)

Artigos

Métrica, Rítmica e Tradução das Anacreônticas PDF
C. Leonardo B. Antunes 1-11
SOCIEDADE E MITO NA TRAGÉDIA GREGA PDF
Andreza Caetano 12-22
CONSIDERAÇÕES SOBRE A CONSTRUÇÃO DA SANTIDADE FRANCISCANA NO INÍCIO DO SÉCULO XIII PDF
Victor Mariano Camacho 23-39
O HOMEM MEDIEVAL: UM PEREGRINO POR EXCELÊNCIA PDF
César Augusto da Silva Foga 40-48
CONSIDERAÇÕES SOBRE O ESPAÇO SAGRADO E MÍTICO, PAISAGEM E TERRITÓRIO NO EGITO FARAÔNICO PDF
Elian Jerônimo de Castro Junior 49-60
OS PROCESSOS DE IMPIEDADE CONTRA OS FILÓSOFOS NA ATENAS CLÁSSICA PDF
Priscilla Gontijo Leite 61-81
PARA UM ESPAÇO ALÉM DO SENSÍVEL: ACEPÇÕES FILOSÓFICAS DO HOMEM NO COSMOS EGÍPCIO PDF
Keidy Matias 82-97
CÍNTIA: A FIDES NO AMOR PDF
Roberto Arruda de Oliveira 98-109
ESPAÇO SAGRADO E ESPAÇO DOMÉSTICO: UM ESTUDO SOBRE OS TEMPLOS E AS CASAS NO ANTIGO EGITO PDF
Matheus Breno Pinto da Câmara 110-120
DIÓGENES LAÉRCIO E O ALVORECER DA FILOSOFIA PDF
Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista, Romulo Siqueira Batista 121-128
Ideias que atravessam os tempos: a recepção e a transmissão dos versos ovidianos PDF
Ana Lúcia Santos Coelho 129-141
IDENTIDADE E ALTERIDADE EM HERÓDOTO: VISÃO DE UM GREGO A RESPEITO DOS EGÍPCIOS PDF
Liliane Pessoa, Arthur Fabrício 142-159

Resenhas

RESENHA: FUNARI, P. P. A., CARVALHO, M. M., CARLAN, C., SILVA, E. C. M. (ORGS.) “HISTÓRIA MILITAR DO MUNDO ANTIGO: GUERRAS E REPRESENTAÇÕES”. SÃO PAULO: ANNABLUME, 2012. PDF
Thiago do Amaral Biazotto 160-163
LEVINSON, Bernard M. Revisão legal e renovação religiosa no antigo Israel. Tradução de Elizangela A. Soares. São Paulo: Paulus, 2011, 192 p. PDF
João Batista Ribeiro Santos 164-169

 

Vol 8, No 1 (2013)

Table of Contents

Artigos

A GUERRA ENTRE AESIRES E VANIRES: A ALIANÇA ENTRE GUERRA, MAGIA E FERTILIDADE OU AS MEMÓRIAS DE UM CONFLITO? PDF (Português (Brasil))
Munir Lutfe Ayoub 1-11
DELINEAMENTOS PARA UMA COMPREENSÃO DA CIDADE MEDIEVAL PDF (Português (Brasil))
José D'Assunção Barros 12-32
ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA DISCREPANCIA EN LA REPRESENTACIÓN DE LA FIGURA DE NUMA EN LAS METAMORFOSIS DE OVIDIO Y EN LA HISTORIA DE ROMA DE TITO LIVIO PDF (Português (Brasil))
Guillermina Bogdan 33-43
MENDICANTES E USURÁRIOS: A POSTURA DA IGREJA DIANTE DAS TRANSFORMAÇÕES NA IDADE MÉDIA CENTRAL PDF (Português (Brasil))
Alex Aparecido Costa 44-54
SEXUALIDADE E SENTIMENTO RELIGIOSO NO PALEOLÍTICO: NARRATIVAS ELEMENTARES DE HIEROGAMIAS ENTRE AS VÊNUS E OS ANIMAIS PDF (Português (Brasil))
Flávia Regina Marquetti, Pedro Paulo Funari 55-69
INVENTANDO O INIMIGO: O DISCURSO SOBRE OS CÁTAROS NA “HISTORIA ALBIGENSIS” DE PEDRO DE VAUX-DE-CERNAY COMO ESTRATÉGIA DE UMA CONDIÇÃO CLERICAL (1198-1218) PDF (Português (Brasil))
André Marinho de Oliveira 70-91
O CONFLITO ENTRE OS ESPAÇOS EXTERNO E INTERNO NA TRAGÉDIA OS SETE CONTRA TEBAS DE ÉSQUILO PDF (Português (Brasil))
Evandro Salvador 92-100
“LE ROI EST MORT”: O DEBATE HISTORIOGRÁFICO SOBRE AS CAUSAS DA MORTE DE ALEXANDRE MAGNO NA BABILÔNIA, EM 323 A.C. PDF (Português (Brasil))
Henrique Modanez de Sant´Anna, Beatriz Aires Fernandes Cunha 101-113
UM OLHAR HISTÓRICO SOBRE A IDADE MÉDIA EM RICARDO II DE WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616) PDF (Português (Brasil))
Elaine Cristina Senko 114-122
O TEATRO EURIPIDIANO COMO MÍMESE CATÁRTICA PDF (Português (Brasil))
Tatielly Fernandes Silva 123-137
Αληθης Λογος: VIDA E OBRA DO FILÓSOFO PAGÃO CELSO PDF (Português (Brasil))
Carolline da Silva Soares 138-155
AMIZADE E PATRONATO: UMA ANÁLISE DA RELAÇÃO DE VELÉIO PATÉRCULO E MARCO VINÍCIO (sec. I d. C.) PDF (Português (Brasil))
Alice Maria de Souza 156-173









Ancient Peoples

Upper Part of a Statue Representing a Man Called Iker 11th-12th...



Upper Part of a Statue Representing a Man Called Iker

11th-12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom

c.2000-1917 BC

(Source: The Met Museum)

AIA Fieldnotes

Silent Participants: The Uses of Terracotta Figurines in Non-Official Ritual

Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
Sponsored by Sponsored by the Coroplastic Studies Interest Group
Event Type (you may select more than one): 
conference
Start Date: 
Thursday, January 7, 2016 - 8:00am to Sunday, January 10, 2016 - 5:00pm

117th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America
and the Society for Classical Studies, San Francisco, CA
January 7-10, 2016 Read more »

Location

Name: 
Erica Angliker
Call for Papers: 
yes
CFP Deadline: 
February 15, 2015

Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents

CSAD and EAGLE

On Thursday 16th October, Dr. Pietro Luizzo of the The Europeana EAGLE Project met with representatives of CSAD (Prof. Alan K. Bowman and Dr. Charles Crowther) and some of its projects (AshLI, represented by Prof. Alison Cooley of Warwick University, and Dr. Jane Masséglia) along with Prof. Byran Ward-Perkins for the Late Statues of Anquitities Project.


CSAD & EAGLE meetingCSAD & EAGLE meeting: (l-r): Dr. Jane Masséglia (AshLI), Dr. Pietro Luizzo (EAGLE), Dr. Charles Crowther (CSAD), Prof. Byran Ward-Perkins (Lasts Statues of Antiquity), Prof. Alison Cooley (AshLI),and Prof. Alan Bowman (CSAD).


The aim of the meeting was to discuss cooperation between CSAD and EAGLE's portal. Projects that will be providing metadata for EAGLE are the Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions Project (an AHRC-funded collaboration between the University of Warwick, the Ashmolean Museum and CSAD); The Corpus of Ptolemaic Inscriptions project; and Roman Inscriptions of Britian.

EpiDoc Training for CSAD Projects


Dr. Charlotte Tupman (King's College London) held a two day workshop (25-26th October) on EpiDoc for researchers of two CSAD projects: Dr. Kyriakos Savvopoulos (The Corpus of Ptolemaic Inscriptions Project), and Dr. Hannah Cornwell (The Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions Project). The workshop was held in the CSAD project room, at the Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies.

The training with enable both projects to work in collaboration with EAGLE.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Monograph Series: Polymnia

[First posted in AWOL 20 May 2013, updated 30 October 2014]

Polymnia: Numismatica antica e medievale. Studi
      Polymnia: Numismatica antica e medievale. Documenti
     Polymnia: Collana di Scienze dell'Antichità. Studi di Storia romana
     Polymnia: Collana di Scienze dell'Antichità. Studi di Archeologia
     Polymnia: Collana di Scienze dell'Antichità. Studi di Filologia classica
       

    Dorothy King (PhDiva)

    Alpha TV etc

    This is still baby steps - first I made my Twitter account public, then I started to talk to press ... the world has not collapsed. Although I still don't read or watch them, and I wish more of them would emphasise that I think the archaeologists at Amphipolis are amazing and doing all the hard work, apparently Social Media 101 is to also post links, so here goes:


    Kristina Killgrove (Powered by Osteons)

    Who needs an osteologist? (Installment 19)

    Welcome back to Who needs an osteologist?  Today, we have a special fantasy-chimera edition thanks to my husband, who was recently at GitHub HQ in San Francisco for an all-company meeting.  He snapped this picture of the "skeleton" of the famous GitHub Octocat:

    Felis octocatus skeleton at GitHub headquarters

    Octocat in the flesh

    The sign below the display reads, "Octocat Skeleton. Felis octocatus.  This piece, which GitHub was lucky enough to receive from an anonymous donor, is the oldest known fossil evidence of an octocat. Carbon dating reveals the remarkably well-preserved remains to be approximately 6.3 million years old, suggesting that the evolutionary and taxonomical split between Felis silvestris and Felis octocatus gradually occurred somewhere off the coast of the South China Sea, when a constitutionally robust ancestor of octocatus ventured seaward, most likely as a result of the scarcity of rodent prey."

    Yes, this is a cute mock-up of a fake animal.  But I can still rag on it, right?  To wit:
    • Carbon dating can only go back to about 60,000 years, not 6 million.  We can't actually directly date fossils that old; we have to use the context in which they were found (e.g., rock) and we have to use other elements, like uranium, potassium, and argon.
    • Felis silvestris showed up 2 million years ago, having come from the earlier Felis lunensis (around 2.5 million years ago), so it's impossible for Felis octocatus to have diverged from F. silvestris 6 million years ago. 
    • Octopuses have no bones.
    • So, assuming the majority of the skeleton in question would be similar to a cat--domesticated or ancient--it appears that
      • Each of the five arms (yes, the Octocat is a Pentacat) is composed primarily of what look like caudal vertebrae.
      • The rudimentary body is similar to the morphology of large cervical vertebrae, I guess.
      • The nasal opening is far too small for that of a cat.
      • Unless the Octocat is part primate, as it has large, forward-facing eyes and bony orbits more similar to lemurs' and monkeys' than to cats', the eyes are wrong.
      • I'm unaware of any mammal that has bony protrusions for the ears rather than, you know, ear-holes.
    I have no artistic talent, though, so can't make a mock-up of what I think the Octocat should look like.  Anyone want to take a shot?

    And GitHub... pretty please, could you change the sign so that the C14 information is corrected? A simple substitution of "uranium" or "potassium" for "carbon" should do.  It makes me twitchy.

    ---
    Previous Installments of Who needs an osteologist?

    Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

    Warsaw-- A New Numismatic Capital for the World

    While a certain blogger might not approve of all the unprovenanced material for sale, CPO is gratified to learn that a Polish firm is conducting an auction of better quality ancient coins which is accessible through the German "Sixbid" auction platform

    Warsaw and Krackow were traditionally centers of the cosmopolitan spirit that fosters ancient coin collecting.  Then, the Nazis and Communists came, "liquidating" intellectuals and replacing that cosmopolitanism with first a racist and then a statist ideology.   And in Communist Poland, collectors were considered "speculators" or far worse.

    Happily, all that is now getting to be ancient history.

    So, let's all celebrate the fact that Warsaw now joins Beijing, London, Munich, New York, Rome and Zurich as a place where ancient coins are bought and sold openly and in abundance, fostering a renewal of cosmopolitanism for which Poland was rightly known.

    G.W. Schwendner (What's New in Papyrology)

    Geens, K., Panopolis, a Nome Capital in Egypt in the Roman and Byzantine Period (ca. AD 200-600)

    Karolien Geens, Panopolis, a Nome Capital in Egypt in the Roman and Byzantine Period (ca. AD 200-600) Leuven 2014 [= Diss. Leuven 2007], xiii & 578 pp. (28.4 Mb), ISBN: 978-94-9060-409-7.

     TOP Special Series 
    Often a PhD thesis for some reason cannot be published immediately. In the years that follow, the authors do not find the time to revise the manuscript as they wanted. This in turn causes problems because new literature appears or the evidence of new sources needs to be incorporated. As a result, the manuscript often remains unpublished and the valuable insights risk to be inaccessible and thus lost for scholarship. To prevent this, Trismegistos Online Publications have decided to open up a new 'Special Series', where valuable PhD theses or other scholarly manuscripts can be published with an ISBN number.
     Contributors can send in manuscripts in Word or PDF format to mark.depauw@arts.kuleuven.be
    The editors will consult experts about the quality of the manuscript without taking into account whether it is abreast of the most recent scholarly literature or developments. ISBN: 978-94-9060-409-7 Leuven, September 2014, reprint of the Diss. Leuven 2007 Volume I
    Acknowledgements I 

    Table of contents. II

    Introduction 1 

    Chapter 1: Sources …14 <
    1.1. Introduction …14
    1.2. A survey of monuments and archaeological sites in the region of Akhmim  …15
    1.2.1. The East bank
    A. Akhmim
    Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman remains
    Late Antique remains
    B. The Wadi Bir El-Aïn  

    C. The area of El-Khazindariya 

    1.2.2. The West bank 

    A. The ancient village of “Athribis” 

    B. The White and Red Monasteries  

    The White Monastery Monastery 

    C. Tell Edfa 

    1.2.3. The cemeteries on the East and West banks 

    A. The East bank .

    The cemetery of El-Hawawish (A). 

    a) Excavation history

    b) Typology and topography of the tombs  

    The cemetery of El-Madina (B) 

    The cemetery of El-Salamuni (C)  

    a) Excavation history

    b) Topography and typology of the tombs 

    The cemetery of Abu el-Nasr

    B. The West bank 

    The cemetery of El-Hagarsa 

    The cemetery of Athribis/Tripheion 

    a) Excavation history

    b) Topography and typology of the tombs  

    West cemetery of the White Monastery

    The cemetery of Awlad Azz

    C. Funerary objects from the Graeco-Roman cemeteries 

    Stelae 

    Sarcophagi 

    Mummy cases 

    Mummy portraits

    Funerary papyri 

    D. Conclusion.

    1.3. Documentary papyri …50

    1.3.1. General features.

    1.3.2. Late second and third century AD  

    A. Reused papyri

    B. Ostraca and isolated papyri .

    1.3.3. Fourth century 

    A. Archives

    B. P.Berl.Bork

    C. Isolated papyri 

    1.3.4. Fifth and sixth centuries 

    A. Archive of Aurelius Pachymios  

    B. Isolated papyri

    C. The archive of Flavius Dioskoros 

    1.4. Literary papyri74

    1.4.1. Classical literature 

    1.4.2. Christian literary papyri 

    A. Greek papyri 

    B. Coptic papyri

    1.4.3. The Panopolitan standard  

    1.4.4. Provenance of literary papyri 

    1.4.5. Archives

    A. The Bodmer papyri  

    B. The library of the White Monastery  

    1.5. Mummy labels …85

    1.5.1. General features: outward appearance, content and purpose  

    1.5.2. Language

    1.5.3. Date

    1.5.4. Provenance 

    A. Mummy labels with provenance indicated in the text . 

    B. Mummy labels without indication of provenance  

    1.6. Greek, Latin, Coptic inscriptions … 92

    1.6.1. General features.

    1.6.2. Dedications and records of visit 

    1.6.3. Funerary inscriptions  

    1.6.4. Other Christian inscriptions  V

    1.6.5. The monument of Ptolemagrios .

    A. Description.

    B. Date .

    C. Order of the poems 

    1.7. Pachomius and Shenoute …100

    1.7.1. Pachomius

    1.7.2. Shenoute 

    A. The “Vita Sinuthii”  

    Editions

    Biography? 

    Historical value 

    B. Shenoute’s literary corpus  

    Editions

    Canons and Discourses 

    Historical value 

    Chapter 2: A survey of the site …109

    2.1. Introduction: geography and name …109

    2.1.1. Geography

    2.1.2. Name of the city: etymological and topographical remarks

    2.2. A survey of the nome …112

    2.2.1. Situation and extent 

    2.2.2. Toparchies and pagi 

    A. Toparchies 

    B. Pagi

    2.2.3. Settlements in the Panopolite nome 

    2.3. A survey of the city …130

    2.3.1. Streets, districts and quarters. 

    2.3.2. From temple city to classical city  

    A. A temple city: the temple(s?) of Min/Pan  

    The pharaonic temple of Min (= place A)  

    The temple of Min in the Ptolemaic/Roman period (= the birba?) 

    B. Municipal public buildings  

    C. Christian urbanisation 

    2.3.3. Residential and occupational areas . 

    2.3.4. Conclusion 

    Chapter 3. Administration …143

    3.1. Introduction: urban status – defining the city …143

    3.2. The Roman period until the reign of Diocletian …145

    3.2.1. Imperial government

    3.2.2. Nome administration

    3.2.3. Administration of the metropolis before the introduction of city councils

    A. Magistracies (archai) 

    B. The koinon of the archons  

    C. Liturgies 

    3.2.4. Administration of the metropolis after the introduction of city councils 

    A. Administration of the councils  

    Prytanis/proedros 

    Syndikos 

    Archiprytanis

    B. The business of the councils 

    Internal administration of the metropolis 

    Responsibilities towards the central government  

    C. A tribal structure. 

    Amphodogrammateus, phylarchos and systates 

    Appointment of the council president  

    3.2.5. Toparchies

    3.2.6. Village administration 

    A. Komogrammateus and komarch 

    B. Presbyteroi.

    C. Police liturgists

    3.2.7 Conclusion: local variation 

    3.3. The reign of Diocletian …159

    3.3.1. Imperial government 

    3.3.2. Nome administration

    A. Tax collection.

    Reforms in tax assessment  

    The census of AD 298-303 

    New tax liturgists 

    B. Supervision of annona militaris 

    C. Other responsibilities  

    3.3.3. Diocletian’s visit to the Panopolite nome: the strategos and the town council coping 

    with an unusual situation 

    A. The revolt of L. Domitius Domitianus 

    B. Preparations for the imperial visit  

    3.3.4. Conclusion: local variation

    3.4. From the Tetrarchs until the reign of Constantine (AD 306-337) …177

    3.4.1. Imperial government. 

    3.4.2. Nome and city administration 

    A. Traditional archai  

    B. New municipal officials 

    Logistes 

    Exactor 

    Syndikos/ekdikos

    Praepositus pagi 

    C. Police officials 

    3.4.3. A new administrative structure: the pagus 

    3.4.4. Village administration  

    3.4.5. Conclusion: the character and function of the boulai in the fourth century 

    3.5. From the reign of Constantius until the end of the fourth century …184

    3.5.1. Imperial government 

    3.5.2. Nome and city administration  

    A. Leading officials  

    Logistes vs. defensor civitatis 

    Police officials

    B. Decline of the council 

    C. Tax reforms

    The village as a tax unity  

    Taxes in gold 

    The vestis militaris 

    3.6. The fifth and sixth centuries …189

    3.6.1. Imperial government. 

    3.6.2. Nome and city administration . 

    A. Traditional administrative system  

    B. New forms of control 

    Pater tes poleos.

    The role of bishops in urban politics  

    Pagarchs.

    C. Village administration. 

    Chapter 4. Socio-economic history  …195

    4.1. Social structures in the Roman period before AD 212  …195

    4.1.1. Citizenship and privileged groups. 

    A. Roman citizens 

    B. Alexandrian citizens. 

    C. Citizens of Greek cities  

    D. Metropolitain

    E. Gymnasial order. 

    4.1.2. The distribution of wealth. 

    A. Categories of land 

    B. Landholding patterns . 

    C. Landownership in the Panopolite nome . 

    Inequality and gender

    Large landowners  

    4.1.3. The political elite.

    4.1.4. Conclusion: Leading social groups in the first and second centuries 

    4.2. Social structures in the third and early fourth centuries …206

    4.2.1. The end of citizenship status and the emergence of a bouleutic class . 

    4.2.2. The distribution of wealth 

    A. Economic crisis 

    B. Landed property. 

    Land categories .

    Landholding patterns .

    Landownership in the Panopolite nome  

    a) Land tenure

    b) Work at a farm estate  

    C. Non-landed property 

    Immovable urban property: the evidence from P.Berl.Bork 

    a) Composition of P.Berl.Bork 

    b) P.Berl.Bork. as a source for the distribution of wealth 

    Slaves

    Money lending 

    4.2.3. Power and authority: the political elite. 

    A. Defining the political elite . 

    B. Councillors as the nucleus of the political elite  

    The bouleutic class: a well-defined social group  

    Composition of the councils. 

    a) Number of councillors  

    b) Admission procedure. 

    c) Profile of a councillor . 

    C. Social stratification among councillors . 

    D. Bouleutic vs. non-bouleutic elite  

    E. The burden of local prestige  

    4.2.4. The priestly elite: the family of Aurelius Ammon, scholastikos . 

    A. Ammon’s family

    B. Economic power  

    Temple income 

    Private property .

    a) Land and houses 

    b) Slaves

    C. An elite family .

    4.2.5. Conclusion: leading social groups in the third and early fourth centuries . 

    4.3. Social structures in the second half of the fourth until the sixth centuries …242

    4.3.1. The distribution of wealth . 

    A. Landholding in the fourth and first half of the fifth centuries . 

    The end of the economic power of the bouleutic elite  

    a) The burden of taxation. 

    b) The flight of the bouleutic class . 

    Changes in the pattern of landownership . 

    Economic power in the Panopolite nome (late 4th – first half of the 5th century): the 

    evidence from Shenoute

    a) The White Monastery under the leadership of Shenoute . 

    b) Shenoute’s criticism on corrupt landowners . 

    c) Shenoute’s opponents: economic and religious considerations 

    B. Mid fifth-sixth centuries: large estates and religious institutions . 

    Provincial and imperial bureaucrats  

    a) The Apion family .

    b) Landowners from the Panopolite nome 

    Religious institutions: churches and monasteries. 

    a) The White Monastery. 

    b) The monasteries of Zmin and Apa Zenobios 

    c) The guest house of Apa Dios. 

    Absentee landlords, business agents and middlemen . 

    a) Business agents 

    b) The rural oligarchy as middlemen: the evidence from Dioskoros of Aphrodito . 

    4.3.2. Power and authority in a new Christian empire  

    A. The end of the councils . 

    B. New institutions of power. 

    Geouchoi .

    The Church hierarchy 

    The provincial and imperial bureaucracy: the “Flavii”  

    a) The provincial and imperial administration . 

    b) The law court 

    4.3.3. Literary culture and power: social mobility in Late Antiquity . 

    A. Ammon and Harpokration . 

    Ammon .

    Harpokration

    B. The grammarian’s authority  

    An increased status .

    Horapollon.

    C. “Wandering Poets”: Poetry as the pathway to a provincial/imperial career  

    Pamprepius 

    Cyrus 

    D. Conclusion: social mobility, geographical mobility and networking  

    4.3.4.Conclusion: leading social groups in the fourth till sixth centuries . 

    4.4. Occupational structures in the Roman and Byzantine period …276

    4.4.1. Agriculture 

    4.4.2. The urban economy 

    A. Three sectors .

    Agriculture .

    Production and distribution  

    Services

    B. Craft specialisation. 

    C. Trade networks 

    4.4.3. Craftsmen and traders in Panopolis . 

    A. Textile industry.

    Sources for textile production . 

    Stages in textile production . 

    a) (Purple) dyeing 

    b) Weaving.

    c) Finishing touches .

    Guilds 

    The role of Panopolis as textile centre . 

    B. Gold smith’s trade 

    C. Quarrying.

    D. Shipbuilding .

    Chapter 5. Cultural and religious transformations …307

    5.1. Traditional Egyptian culture  …307

    5.1.1. Principal divinities

    A. The divine triad of Panopolis  

    Min

    a) Min as fertility god. 

    b) Min as lord of the mountains and the desert 

    c) Min as king of the gods. 

    Aperet-Isis – Isis – Triphis  

    Horus-Kolanthes.

    B. Horus 

    C. Thot and Anubis 

    D. Onomastics.

    Popular names from Egypt . 

    Popular names from the (Northern) Thebaid. 

    Popular names from the Panopolite nome . 

    5.1.2. Cult and priestly service . 

    A. Priesthoods 

    B. Cults 

    Temples and the public 

    Temple culture

    5.1.3. Burial customs and funerary beliefs  

    5.1.4. Conclusion.

    5.2. Greek culture  …329

    5.2.1. Greek civic culture: self-representation and urban identity of the bouleutic class . 

    A. Building programs . 

    B. Titles and epithets. 

    C. Panhellenic games  

    Herodotus’ account 

    a) Perseus.

    b) Games in a Greek fashion 

    Reestablishment of the games in the third century AD . 

    a) Pythian games 

    b) An Olympic agon 

    Reconstruction: and “invented tradition” 

    5.2.2. Greek education 

    A. Public education: the gymnasium  

    B. Private education  

    Stages of education: didaskalos, grammatikos and beyond . 

    Villages vs. towns .

    Literary papyri.

    Ammon as a child of Panopolis  

    a) Classical literature  

    b) A rhetorical education. 

    c) A philosophical education . 

    5.2.3. Philosophy and poetry. 

    A. Philosophy 

    B. Poetry

    Panopolis

    Thebaid.

    5.3. Traditional Egyptian culture in a hellenised context  …354

    5.3.1. Principal divinities

    A. Min/Pan.

    B. Other divinities 

    5.3.2. Funerary art.

    A. Decorated tombs. 

    B. Mummy cases.

    C. Mummy portraits. 

    5.3.3. Language and script 

    A. Demotic literature under Greek influence  

    B. Language use in the Panopolite nome  

    5.3.4. Onomastics

    A. Metropolis vs. villages. 

    B. Elite nomenclature  

    5.3.5. The garden of Ptolemagrios and the temple of Pan-Phoibos. 

    A. Religiously inspired euergetism  

    B. The garden of Ptolemagrios: a temple garden  

    C. Ptolemagrios’ generosity: the banquets of Phoibos  

    D. A humble, laborious, philosophical way of life . 

    E. Ptolemagrios as a benefactor . 

    F. Conclusion 

    5.3.6. Hellenism in the fourth and fifth centuries  

    A. Fourth century - Aurelius Ammon, priest and scholastikos 

    Temple service and Greek culture 

    Ammon’s religion 

    B. Fifth century - Flavius Horapollon: Neo-Platonic Hellenism as a vehicle for 

    Egyptian paganism . 

    Traditionalism temple service . 

    a) Neo-Platonic ecumenism 

    b) Egyptian wisdom.

    c) Pagan holy men

    d) The Hieroglyphica of Horapollon  

    From local to Egyptian past  

    5.4. Christianization …386

    5.4.1. The Christian community before the reign of Constantine . 

    A. Persecutions .

    B. Martyr cult .

    C. Parembole 

    D. The Great Oasis . 

    5.4.2. The Church from the reign of Constantine until the sixth century  

    A. Onomastics .

    B. Bishops and clergy 

    Bishop’s sees .

    Priests and deacons 

    C. Ascetism, monasticism and monastic culture 

    Hermitages .

    Cenobitic monasticism: Pachomian monasteries  

    a) “Invention” of cenobitism. 

    b) The koinonia .

    c) Pachomian monasteries in the region of Panopolis. 

    d) The Pachomian monasteries in later periods  

    (Semi-?) cenobitic monasticism: The monastery of Shenoute  

    a) Pgol and Pschoi

    b) The rise of a monastic leader . 

    c) Life in and around the White Monastery 

    d) The White Monastery in later periods 

    Other monasteries in the region of Panopolis . 

    a) The monastery of Abu el-Nasr 

    b) The monastery in the Wadi bir el-Aïn . 

    c) The parembole and the former temple of Min 

    d) Apa Zenobios and the women’s convent. 

    e) The xenodochion of Apa Dios. 

    f) The monastery of Psinabla 

    g) The monastery of Saint Psote (Psates). 

    Monasteries after the sixth century. 

    D. Christian literature. 

    5.4.3. (Non-)orthodox Christians: a pluralist Christianity 

    A. Patriarchs, councils and controversies between AD 300 and 451. 

    Disciplinary matters .

    Doctrinal matters .

    a) The Arian controversy 

    b) The Origenist controversy 

    c) The Nestorian controversy. 

    d) The Coptic Church: monophysitism 

    Origenism in the Panopolite nome . 

    Nestorianism in the Panopolite nome . 

    B. Gnosticism and Manichaeism . 

    A definition of Gnosticism  

    Gnostic and Manichaean ideas in the Panopolite region . 

    a) Zosimus the alchemist . 

    b) Gnostic texts 

    c) Shenoute against Gnosticism and Manichaeism . 

    5.4.4. Encounters between pagans and Christians in Panopolis: a conflict?. 

    A. Decline vs. continuity: Bagnall vs. Frankfurter. 

    B. The religious balance in the first half of the fourth century  

    C. The religious balance in the late fourth – early fifth century  

    Anti-pagan imperial legislation 

    Shenoute’s actions against public temples 

    a) The temple of Atripe . 

    b) The temple of Plevit 

    c) Reuse of pagan temples. 

    Shenoute’s actions against private shrines  

    a) Shenoute and Gessios . 

    b) Shenoute and the pagans of an unknown village 

    Shenoute’s invectives against pagan gods  

    Shenoute’s invectives against Greek culture. 

    Christian – pagan balance: an evaluation of Shenoute’s writings . 

    a) A world full of temples and pagans? 

    b) Crypto-paganism 

    c) A religious and socio-economic conflict

    D. Conclusion: Panopolis as a hotbed of religious conflict?. 

    Pagan religion.

    Pagan practices 

    5.4.5. Greek culture in a Christian context  

    A. Traditional education .

    B. Greek culture in Christian Panopolis 

    Cyrus 

    Nonnus 

    Conclusion … 465

    Volume II

    Bibliography … 2 

    Appendices … 79

    Litinas, N. INSCRIPTIONS OF THE CAVE "LATSIDA STON KERAMO"

    Nikos LITINAS

, INSCRIPTIONS OF THE CAVE "LATSIDA STON KERAMO"
    
Inscriptiones Creticae "Latsidae Kerami" Antri, I.Cret.LKA
 
    with a speleological presentation by Kostas Foteinakis and Kaloust Paragamian

 
    TYCHE Supplementband 8 (Englisch) 

112 Seiten | 170 x 240 mm | Softcover | EUR 55,00 | ISBN: 978-3-902976-08-6 | Erscheinungstermin: September 2014

    Overview:
The existence of ancient graffiti on the walls of caves is a rare and important discovery. The Graffiti in the cave "Latsida ston Keramo" are c. 2000 years old. The volume is the edition of a series of graffiti from a remote cave in Crete. The cave "Latsida ston Keramo" was not well known and was difficult to locate. Although there were reports of archaeological findings on the surface, no official archaeological work has ever been undertaken.
The introduction to this volume is divided into two chapters. The first one contains a collection of the described or published Greek inscriptions incised into or written  on the walls, either inside or in the entrances, of natural caves and caverns dated from the fifth century B.C. to the sixth century A.D. The second chapter is an English translation of a paper published in Greek by the speleologists K. Foteinakis and K. Paragamian in the third Pancretan Speleological Symposium. This is included as it will help the reader to understand the natural underground space and environment of the cave.
The graffiti are incised or scratched into or written on the flowstones, the walls, the stalagmites or the columns of the cave. About 40 names, masculine or feminine, appear. None of the bearers of the names can be identified with a certain person known from other Cretan inscriptions or literature. The possible origin of the identifiable names in the cave is Crete (mostly cities of the eastern Crete), but other areas, e.g. Thessaly, Boeotia and the Aegean islands, should not be excluded. Based on the internal evidence and the palaeographical details a date that could be assigned to these graffiti is from the first century B.C. until the end of the second century or early third century A.D.
The people who inscribed these names were either natives or migrants, who found themselves in this area of Crete for a certain purpose, and found a good reason to spend some time visiting this remote place. They might have been local farmers or/and shepherds or travelers or/and traders or people who were trying to escape from their social condition within the community and/or from its laws, who found shelter in this cave. If the graffiti (or some of the graffiti) are dated to the Hellenistic period in Crete, a second possibility is that all these men could have been members of a garrison or a patrol whose duty was to protect the countryside or the roads from "enemies" or "outsiders". The third possibility concerns the well-known ritual kidnapping of young boys by adults, which has been recorded by Ephorus (cited by Strabo).

Table of Contents:
    Preface - Acknowledgements
    01. Introduction -  Greek inscriptions on the walls of natural caves and cave-shelters dating from the Classical to the early Byzantine period. Speleological presentation of the cave "Latsida ston Keramo” (Kostas Foteinakis and Kaloust Paragamian)
    02. The Location of the Inscriptions in the Cave
    03. General Observations on the Inscriptions
    04. The Text-Forms
    05. Chronology
    06. Function
    07. Hands and Scribes
    08. Grammar
    09. Transcription, Translation and Commentary
    10. Bibliography
    11. Indexes
    Plates
    
Author:
Nikos Litinas is employed in the Workshop of Papyrology and Epigraphy in the Department of Philology, University of Crete. His publications vary from editions of documentary and literary papyri, ostraca and tablets to editions of notations on vessels and inscriptions. He is also a speleologist and is engaged in researching graffiti in the caves.


    Current Epigraphy

    EAGLE 2014 International Conference: The IGCyr | GVCyr corpora

    The IGCyr | GVCyr demonstration site is now available.

    The Inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica (IGCyr) and the Greek Verse inscriptions of Cyrenaica (GVCyr) are two corpora, the first collecting all the inscriptions of Greek (VII-I centuries B.C.) Cyrenaica, the second gathering the Greek metrical texts of all periods. These new critical editions of inscriptions from Cyrenaica are part of the international project Inscriptions of Libya (InsLib), incorporating Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania (IRT, already online), the Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica project (IRCyr, in preparation), and the ostraka from Bu Ngem (already available on the website Papyri.info).

    A comprehensive corpus of the inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica is a longstanding desideratum among the scholars of the ancient world. Greek inscriptions from Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic Cyrenaica are currently scattered among many different, sometimes outdated publications, while new texts have been recently discovered and edited. For the first time all the inscriptions known to us in 2014, coming from this area of the ancient Mediterranean world, will be assembled in a single online and open access publication. An essential addition to the IGCyr and GVCyr corpora, as well as a natural outcome of the study of the inscriptions, is the planned publication of the Prosopographia Cyrenaica.

    Catherine Dobias-Lalou is the main epigraphy researcher working on these comprehensive epigraphic corpora in EpiDoc in cooperation with scholars from the University of Bologna, the University of Macerata, the University of Roma Tor Vergata, the University of Paris-Sorbonne and King’s College London. Although the edition of the inscriptions is still in progress, the team working on the project wish to share with others the structure of the publications and the research approach. For this reason three of the texts which will be published and a selected bibliography are included in the demonstration site. The website, hosted by the University of Bologna, has been developed and is maintained by the CRR-MM, Centro Risorse per la Ricerca Multimediale, University of Bologna.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Med Bourse of Archaeological Tourism starts in Paestum

    This year's Mediterranean Bourse of Archaeological Tourism in Paestum will be focusing on a wide range of issues, from smuggling of cultural artifacts in Italy to the safeguarding of cultural heritage in war zones, and will take a look at the situation of Italian archaeological missions in Jordan, Libya, Tunisia, Turkey, Iran and Pompeii. The Temple of Ceres in Paestum [Credit: ANSA]It will also look at the case of Burnum, in Croatia,...

    [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

    G.W. Schwendner (What's New in Papyrology)

    Choat, M, and Gardiner, I. edd., A Coptic Handbook of Ritual Power


    This volume publishes a new Coptic handbook of ritual power, comprising a complete 20 page parchment codex from the second half of the first millennium AD. It consists of an invocation including both Christian and Gnostic elements, ritual instructions, and a list of twenty-seven spells to cure demonic possession, various ailments, the effects of magic, or to bring success in love and business. The codex is not only a substantial new addition to the corpus of magical texts from Egypt, but, in its opening invocation, also provides new evidence for Sethian Gnostic thought in Coptic texts.

    A Coptic Handbook of Ritual Power is the first volume in the series The Macquarie Papyri, which will publish the papyri in the collection of the Museum of Ancient Cultures, Macquarie University (Sydney, Australia).

    New series: The Macquarie Papyri (P.Macq.)
    The Museum of Ancient Cultures at Macquarie University, Sidney, holds a small, but important collection of some 640 papyri. These are mainly Greek texts. There are also some items written in other languages and scripts, notably Demotic and Coptic (Egyptian). Most are papyri in the strictest sense, but the collection also includes a small number of items written on ostraca, parchment, and wooden tablets. Most of the texts date from the period of the third century BC to the eighth century AD.
    Private individuals are advised to order available titles direcly online, using the Brepols web shop*: www.brepols.net. If you prefer to place your order by email, please do not forget to mention the shipping address on your order, and the invoice address if that should be different. Brepols Publishers undertake to minimize costs of shipment by sending books by “non-priority mail”

    XIV+146 p., 20 colour ill., + CD, 210 x 297 mm, 2013 ISBN: 978-2-503-53170-0 Languages: Coptic, English Paperback The publication is available. Retail price: EUR 65,00 excl. tax Table of Contents
    Abbreviations
    List of Figures and Plates
    Introduction


    1. The Codex: Codicology – Palaeography, Date, and Provenance – Dialect and Orthography
    2. The Contents of the Handbook: The Invocations Text – 
      1. The Three Versions of the Invocations Text – 
      2. The Invocations Text, Sethianism, and the Practice of Ritual Power – 
      3. The List of Prescriptions – 
      4. Conspectus of Prescriptions
    Text and Translation

    1. Coptic Text and Facing Translation
    2. Continuous Translation
    Commentary
    Appendices

    1. P. Lond. Copt. I 1008 (BL MS Or. 5987) (L)

    2. P. Berl. Inv. 5527 (B)
    Bibliography
    Indices

    1. Words of Egyptian Origin
    2. 
Words of Greek Origin
    3. Proper Names and Words of Power
    4. Symbols and Abbreviations
    Plates




    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    A Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch

    This morning I posted a draft of the introduction and conclusion to my Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch to the online publishing site Medium. I’m just a bit excited about the experiment and will almost certainly publish drafts of the rest of the Guide to Medium over the next few days

    I used Medium, rather than my trusty WordPress blog for a number of reasons. First, it seems more suited to long form reading and while none of the individual sections of my guide are long by Archaeology of the Mediterranean World standards, they are just on the edge of tl;dr status on a typical blog. So I wondered whether the clean interface on the Medium would make it easier to read.

    More importantly than that, Medium allows readers to comment on specific paragraphs rather than just comment at the level of the blog post. This is a very helpful way of collating comments on a longer manuscript and allows readers to post their immediate gut reactions to a particular section.

    My plan is to use the comments assembled at the Medium to revise my manuscript prior to submitting it for peer-review and publication. As readers of this blog know, this project places me a wee bit outside of my traditional, academic comfort zone, so I’m particularly eager to get some feedback on how I do as a historian of North Dakota, as a commenter on our modern, industrial condition, and as an author of something more popular than scholarly (although this work has clearly academic goals).

    I intend to serialize my tourist guide over the next couple of weeks, but for this first group of posts, I have focused on my introduction and a fairly rough draft of my concluding comments. More of the tourist guide proper will follow, so please stay tuned!

    A Tourist Guide to the Bakken Oil Patch

    Table of Contents

    I. Introduction

    I.1. A Brief Industrial History of the Bakken Counties
    I.2. Practical Notes on Travel, Roads, and Weather in the Bakken
    I.3. Technical Notes and Key Terms about the Bakken
    I.4. Controversies and Concerns
    I.5. The North Dakota Man Camp Project
    I.6. Further Reading

    II. Route 1: Minot to Ross
    II1. Route 1a: Ross to White Earth

    III. Route 2: Ross to Tioga

    IV: Route 3: Tioga to Williston
    IV.1. Route 3a: Wheelock, Nession Flats, East Williston
    IV.1. Route 3b: Wildrose

    V: Route 4: Williston to Watford City

    VI: Route 5: Williston to Sidney, MT

    VII: Route 6: Watford City to New Town

    VIII. Conclusions: Industrial Tourism and Some Theoretical Reflections

     

     


    Dorothy King (PhDiva)

    Donna Yates on Christos Tsirogiannis

    Dr Donna Yates would like me to make it clear that despite repeated claims, Christos Tsirogiannis is just a student with nothing to do with the Greek Ministry of Culture. She would also like me to make it clear that she was having a private conversation on Twitter that she just happened to keep Tweeting at me even though as she herself admits my account was then set to private and she couldn't read my Tweets, which was why she was quite happy to just insult me. She has made it clear that what she said was again wrong, and that Christos Tsirogiannis has only ever made general claims of looting at Amphipolis, and that she was  being incompetent spreading propaganda with very little tangential link to reality.


    A vaguely incompetent student with a not particularly good Dr Yates seems like a rather rude way to describe Christos Tsirogiannis, but since Yates has been haranguing me to 'correct' myself, I am happy to indulge her and post her views.

    My past experience of Yates has never been particularly positive. My past experience of Tsirogiannis was a conference last year where he spoke about a sculpture I had been instrumental in getting returned after the Libyan archaeologist had tried everyone else; he kept 'correcting' me and referred me to seek guidance from "the real expert" Peter Watson. I had not until that point been aware that Watson had even had any involvement with the sculpture, but expertise surely would have been getting it back to Libya?

    Welcome to the world of people who fight looting by raising as much money as they can to go to conferences to talk about it, and who give as many versions as suit them rather than getting on with catching the looters.