Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

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Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

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March 30, 2017

Insula: Le blog de la Bibliothèque des Sciences de l'Antiquité (Lille 3)

Un voyage en Afghanistan, d’Alexandre à nos jours

À propos d’un livre de Jean-Pierre Perrin.

L’écrivain-voyageur Jean-Pierre Perrin vient de publier Le djihad contre le rêve d’Alexandre (Seuil 2017). Il y raconte l’Afghanistan de l’intérieur, entremêlant les périodes en un périple qui est à la fois le sien et celui d’un pays où échouent les empires.

Une mosaïque de galets découverte à Pella montre Alexandre de Macédoine chassant le lion. Le conquérant est représenté portant la kausia (καυσία), un béret à gros bourrelets devenu le couvre-chef national des Macédoniens. Ce béret a voyagé avec Alexandre, loin de Macédoine, en particulier jusqu’en Afghanistan, où il a survécu. Il y porte le nom de pakol ou pakoul پکول et a été popularisé dans le monde entier par la présence médiatique des moudjahidines.

AlexanderAndLion

Le pakol est l’un des vestiges de la présence des Macédoniens en Afghanistan. Les découvertes archéologiques témoignent également d’un riche passé. En 1992, un des plus gros trésors de l’antiquité grecque a surgi fortuitement d’une source jaillissant à Mir Zakah, un village pachtoun. Des kilos d’objets divers en or et argent sont remontés à la surface ainsi que 500.000 pièces, dont un médaillon à l’effigie d’Alexandre, unique au monde. Ce fabuleux trésor fut dispersé aux quatre vents, revendu pour acheter des armes. Une grande partie de celui-ci se trouve désormais exposé au Japon. Le médaillon, quant à lui, a été acquis par un collectionneur américain, qui promet de le rendre à l’Afghanistan, quand le pays retrouvera une stabilité politique. Autant dire, semble t-il : quand les poules auront des dents.

AlexCoinAfg

Le pays des Afghans, point de passage obligé des envahisseurs, est surnommé le « cimetière des empires ». Il est vrai qu’avant l’échec de la grande coalition face aux talibans, mise sur pied au lendemain du 11 septembre 2001, les Soviétiques avaient quitté le pays qu’ils n’avaient su vaincre. Avant eux, les Britanniques, pourtant récents vainqueurs de Napoléon, avaient également échoué à se rendre maîtres de ce pays. La première armée mondiale fut en effet défaite en 1842 à Gandamak, massacrée par quelques milliers de gueux, armés comme ils pouvaient.

The Last Stand of the 44th Regiment at Gundamuck, 1842 par William Barnes Wollen - WikipediaThe Last Stand of the 44th Regiment at Gundamuck, 1842 par William Barnes Wollen – Wikipedia

En Afghanistan, « les envahisseurs se succèdent à une cadence folle » : ils y déferlent en 1220, 1370, 1526, 1713, 1738, 1837, 1842, 1879, 1919, 1979, 2001. De tous les envahisseurs occidentaux, seul Alexandre fut vainqueur. Peut être parce que le Macédonien fut « conquis par l’Asie en même temps qu’il la conquérait », pour reprendre les mots de Nicolas Bouvier. Il y est appelé de son nom persan : Iskander. Son aura y est encore vive. C’est un demi-dieu qu’on ne cesse de croiser. Son nom d’Iskander se retrouve dans celui de la ville de Kandahar, l’Alexandrie d’Arachosie. À entendre les Afghans, « on croirait la piste du conquérant encore fraîche et ses batailles, dans tel ou tel recoin de l’Hindu Kush, récentes ». Alexandre, le galopin de Macédoine, avait vingt-cinq ans quand il traversa cette terre, traquant Bessos, satrape de Bactriane, qui avait osé se proclamer empereur sous le nom d’Artaxerxès V.

Bactres, la capitale du royaume gréco-indien d’Alexandre, est comme engloutie. Elle s’appelle désormais Balkh. « On ne la reconnaît plus dans cette bourgade moribonde, sale, suintant l’ennui, évincée du monde, rincée par les vents de sable ». Alexandre y avait fait construire une acropole, une agora, des bains, des temples, pour en faire la rivale des grandes villes perses. C’est là qu’il épousa Roxane, la fille de Oxyartès, un chef bactrien. La cité était déjà riche d’un passé avant l’arrivée du Macédonien. C’est à cet endroit que vécut et mourut Zarathoustra. Balkh aujourd’hui est peuplée de talibans. Le territoire du Gandhara, cette extraordinaire civilisation née de la rencontre de la Grèce et de l’Orient, fusionnant l’art grec et le bouddhisme, coïncide avec celui du djihadisme contemporain qui vit « la poussée des talibans, la création d’Al-Qaïda, la montée en puissance d’Oussama Ben Laden, la rencontre de la plupart des idéologues islamistes dans les camps de la Frontière ». Brisant le rêve eurasien d’Alexandre le Grand, les talibans réduisirent en un tas de gravats les Bouddhas de Bâmiyân, que même le « Maudit » Gengis Kahn (« la bombe atomique de cette époque ») avait épargnés.

Jean-Pierre Perrin - Seuil 2017Jean-Pierre Perrin – Seuil 2017

Jean-Pierre Perrin nous emmène dans un périple passionnant, entraînant le lecteur dans un ballet de poussière. Avec lui, on parcourt les siècles à grandes enjambées, en suivant les cavaliers grecs et mongols, les dromadaires des Britanniques, les chars des Russes, les véhicules blindés des Américains, des Français, les rails des trains des investisseurs chinois. On bivouaque dans les nuits glaciales des montagnes avec des personnalités souvent guerrières, parfois littéraires, aventureuses, d’hier et d’aujourd’hui. Il sert de guide au lecteur sur les sentiers rocailleux et les franchissements de montagne, nous aidant à comprendre ce pays, en désignant le paysage et les villes rencontrés et narrant des récits qui y sont associés.

Le reporter eut lui-même les meilleurs guides. Dans les années 1980, il suivit les moudjahidines dans leur lutte contre l’armée soviétique. Ceux-ci ont d’abord suscité l’admiration de l’occident avant de s’entre-déchirer dans des luttes de factions, de rivalités ethniques et idéologiques, religieuses et mafieuses. Dans cette région du monde, les accords entre les chefs de groupes ne durent jamais plus que quelques jours, semaines ou mois. Parmi ces chefs de meutes, nous rencontrons la figure de Massoud, « l’Afghan qui a gagné la guerre froide », pour reprendre un titre du Wall street journal, charismatique lion des montagnes, dont Jean-Pierre Perrin rappelle l’idéologie islamiste. L’homme, auréolé de son pakol, sera bientôt effacé sur le devant de la scène par les hommes en noir du mollah Omar, autoproclamés talibans. Nous rencontrons aussi Haqqani, chef de l’un des principaux groupes contribuant à la guérilla contre la grande coalition. L’insurrection afghane contre les Soviétiques servit de matrice à une vaste entreprise militaro-religieuse qui allait s’étendre au monde entier. On y croise les traces du Saoudien Oussama Ben Laden, qui commandita l’assassinat du populaire commandant Massoud, deux jours avant les attentats du 11 septembre.

En 2010, le reporter retourne en Afghanistan en empruntant cette fois les véhicules blindés de la coalition. Les VAB roulent à vive allure pour déjouer les attaques de ces rebelles, jadis alliés, sur une route jonchée de carcasses de camions afghans, de squelettes de véhicules soviétiques et, sans doute aussi, de quelques traces d’Alexandre, mêlées à la poussière des Bouddhas de Bâmiyân.

Pour en savoir plus

Jean-Pierre Perrin, Le djihad contre le rêve d’Alexandre : en Afghanistan, de 330 avant J.-C. à 2016, Paris, Seuil, 2017, 292 p.

Buddha statues in Bamyan

Archaeology Magazine

New Thoughts on the “Neanderthal Aesthetic”

Neanderthal raven boneBORDEAUX, FRANCE—A fragment raven bone thought to have been carved with ridges by Neanderthals has been unearthed at a rock shelter in Crimea, according to a report in The International Business Times. The bone, which may be between 38,000 and 43,000 years old, is thought to have been carved with six irregular ridges at first. Two additional, shallow ridges may have been added later to improve the regularity of the pattern. The researchers speculate the ridges might have been intended to make the bone easier to grip, or as a mark of ownership. But, “if it was just a mark of ownership or to facilitate grip of object then they were not obliged to make them so clearly equidistant and similar,” explained Francesco d’Errico of the University of Bordeaux. The team members tried to replicate the incisions on turkey bones in order to determine how difficult it was to create a regular pattern. “So there is a will to produce something that can be recognized visually as consistent,” d’Errico concluded. “If consistency is an indication of aesthetics, then this supports the idea that Neanderthals did have a sense of the aesthetic.” To read more about our extinct cousins' artistic sensibilities, read "Neanderthal Necklace."

Viking-Era Toy Boat Discovered in Norway

Norway toy boatØRLAND, NORWAY—According to a report in Live Science, a wooden artifact thought to have been a child’s toy some 1,000 years ago has been found in a well at a farming site in central Norway, by a team led by Ingrid Ystgaard of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. As many as seven farms are thought to have clustered in the area during the medieval period. The toy resembles an ocean-going Viking ship, with an uplifted prow and a hole in the center for a mast and sail. Its presence at the site suggests that people in the farming community were familiar with Viking vessels, despite living inland and away from major trade routes, and that the children had time and materials for play. To read about some of the earliest Norse raiders, go to "The First Vikings."

“Coffin Birth” Identified in Medieval Cemetery

Italy coffin birthGENOA, ITALY—According to a report in Seeker, researchers have identified a rare “coffin birth” in a fourteenth-century cemetery at the hostel of San Nicolao di Pietra Colice in the Northern Apennines. The hostel and its church served as a rest stop for travelers headed to Rome. The woman’s remains, found in a grave with the skeletons of two children, had been placed on her side. “In this case, we have a partial expulsion of a 38- to 40-week-old fetus, which was found to be complete and to lie within the birth canal,” said Deneb Cesana of the University of Genoa. “Coffin birth,” or the expulsion of a fetus after death, is caused by the build-up of gas pressure from the decomposition of a pregnant woman’s body. The study also suggests the woman and the children had all been buried at the same time, directly into the ground, and all of them have tested positive for the antigen to the bacteria that causes the bubonic plague. DNA analysis could determine if the three were related. 

2,500-Year-Old Chariot Burial Unearthed in England

England Chariot burialPOCKLINGTON, ENGLAND—BBC News reports that the remains of two horses and an Iron Age chariot were discovered at a cemetery site in East Yorkshire by a team from MAP Archaeological Practice. The cemetery’s more than 75 square barrows, built by the Arras Culture, have also yielded human remains, swords, shields, spears, brooches, and pots. Further research could determine if the people buried at the Burnby Lane site were indigenous to northern England or if they had migrated from continental Europe. To read more about the Iron Age in Britain, go to "Letter From Wales: Hillforts of the Iron Age."

March 29, 2017

Mary Harrsch (Roman Times)

Review: Fortress of Spears by Anthony Riches

A historical resource article by Mary Harrsch © 2017

As Anthony Riches' third novel in his "Empire" series begins, we find our protagonist Marcus, now known as Marcus Tribulus Corvus, preparing to attack the fortified encampment of the (fictional) rebel Selgovae chieftain, Calgus, and his warriors and allies, the fiercesome Venicones.  The Romans succeed in devastating the Selgovae at the encampment but with terrible losses including one of Marcus' own brother centurions. To make matters worse, Calgus is spirited away by the Venicones, although now he is their captive, no longer their war leader.  However, before his loss of power, Calgus dispatched a contingent of Selgovae to take over the Votadini capital, the daunting "Fortress of Spears" of this installment's title, and the Romans must now plan an even more dangerous assault to finally rid themselves of the last of the rebellious Selgovae and return the Votadini to their previous status as Roman allies.

Fortunately, the Votadini Prince, Martos, captured by the Romans in book 2, now shares their cause and harbors nothing but hatred for Calgus and the Selgovae who so ruthlessly betrayed him. Martos will prove invaluable in the ultimate attack on the "Fortress of Spears". But capturing the fortress is not the only obstacle to Roman victory. The Venicones king discovers the Romans have his treasured torc, found when the original encampment was seized, and vows to take it back or die gloriously in the attempt.


Celt Neck-Ring known as the Snettisham Great Torc Iron Age 150 BCE - 50 BCE Electrum photographed at the
British Museum by Mary Harrsch © 2008

Meanwhile, unbeknownst to Marcus, the corrupt Praetorian Prefect in Rome, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, has dispatched a Praetorian assassin and a "corn" officer to hunt down Marcus, the last surviving son of a proscribed senatorial family.  Perennis' son, the villain of book 1, betrayed Marcus' biological father's Sixth Legion to engineer a promotion and accolades from the vile emperor Commodus. The younger Perennis' treachery was, as is often the case with wealthy, powerful men, covered up by the military.  So, the elder Perennis mistakenly believes Marcus killed his son and is being protected by an auxiliary unit of Tungrians serving on Hadrian's Wall.

In the novel, the Praetorian assassin holds a rank equivalent to a centurion but I was confused about the presence of a "corn" officer. However, if you read up on the importance of those charged with supervision of the Roman grain supply, it becomes quickly apparent that such officers carried quite a bit of clout.

"In classical antiquity, the grain supply to the city of Rome could not be met entirely from the surrounding countryside, which was taken up by the villas and parks of the aristocracy and which produced mainly fruit, vegetables, and other perishable goods. The city, therefore, became increasingly reliant on grain supplies from other parts of Italy, notably Campania, and from elsewhere in the empire, particularly the provinces of Sicily, North Africa, and Egypt. These regions were capable of shipping adequate grain for the population of the capital amounting to 60 million modii (540 million litres / 540,000 cubic metres or 135 million gallons / 16.8 million bushels) annually, according to some sources. These provinces and the shipping lanes that connected them with Ostia and other important ports thus gained great strategic importance. Whoever controlled the grain supply had an important measure of control over the city of Rome." - Wikipedia, Cura Annonae

Neronian coin with the reverse depicting the goddesses Annona, the personification of the grain supply, and Ceres, whose temple was the site of the dole
Throughout most of the Republican era, the care of the grain supply (cura annonae) was part of the aedile's duties. The Annona was personified as a goddess, and the grain dole was distributed from the Temple of Ceres. As early as 440 BC, however, according to Livy, the Roman Senate appointed a special officer called the praefectus annonae with greatly extended powers. His staff apparently carried a paramilitary rank and could have theoretically been suborned for "special" duties.

Perennis' assassins harbor no qualms about slaughtering anyone who gets in their way and they leave a bloody trail in their pursuit of Marcus.

Once again, Riches develops intriguing characters and empathetically portrays the comradery that develops between men struggling to survive north of Hadrian's Wall.  The action scenes are superb and draw the reader right into the beating heart of Roman military life.  Riches artfully transitions between scenes in the multithreaded plot and successfully maintains a high level of suspense until the novel's climactic conclusion. I highly recommend this series and have already plunged ahead into subsequent installments.

A Kindle preview:



Maïeul Rouquette (Apocryphes)

Soutenance de thèse

Après cinq ans à Lausanne, quatre ans de recherche, un certain nombre d’heures passées à effectuer des actions parfois intéressantes (décrypter un texte, en articuler plusieurs, trouver comment automatiser toujours plus de chose avec LaTeX) parfois moins (remplir des formulaires administratifs et faire la chasse aux graphies non conventionnelles), je soutiendrai ma thèse de doctorat le 12 mai 2017 à 13h30, dans la salle 319 de l’Amphipôle de l’Université de Lausanne (métro Unil-Sorge).

Ma thèse s’intitule « Étude comparée sur la construction des origines apostoliques des Églises de Crète et de Chypre à travers les figures de Tite et de Barnabé ». En voici un résumé:

La fondation d’une Église locale par un apôtre constitue un élément important dans les relations interecclésiales. Une telle fondation peut cependant être elle-même l’objet de contestation, en particulier si le statut apostolique de la figure fondatrice n’est pas manifeste dans le Nouveau Testament. C’est pourquoi une Église peut être amenée à se construire un passé apostolique, notamment à travers la production de vies d’apôtre, lesquelles peuvent souligner tant le statut apostolique de la figure que son caractère fondateur pour l’Église.

La comparaison des modalités par lesquelles les Églises de Crète et de Chypre construisent leurs passés apostoliques à travers les figures respectives de Tite et de Barnabé constitue l’objet du présent travail, lequel s’attache également à analyser les enjeux ecclésiaux et politiques de ces constructions et à étudier la réception de celles-ci par les Églises extérieures à la Crète et à Chypre.

Après avoir présenté les données néotestamentaires sur Tite et sur Barnabé puis avoir étudié la réception de ces figures dans le christianisme des cinq premiers siècles, cette thèse analyse le rapport que les Églises de Crète et de Chypre entretiennent avec elles. Pour ce faire, elle s’intéresse d’abord aux écrits chypriotes et crétois composés à partir du Ve siècle à leur sujet, puis aux textes qui les mentionnent de manière incidente, avant d’étudier d’une part les pratiques dévotionnelles envers ces figures et d’autre part les emplois identitaires de celles-ci, notamment durant les périodes de domination franque et vénitienne. Ce travail examine enfin la réception des traditions crétoises et chypriotes sur Tite et sur Barnabé en dehors de leurs îles respectives, dans la littérature tant hagiographique que non hagiographique de l’Empire byzantin et des mondes copte, syriaque et arménien.

Pour finir ce message, je propose un jeu: je paie un verre à la ou les personnes qui trouveront le rapport entre l’image ci-dessous et ma thèse, sans utiliser un outil de reconnaissance d’images.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Rare 'Coffin Birth' Found in Black Death Burial Site

Researchers investigating a 14th century burial ground have identified a rare case of “coffin...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: HISTORIKA Studi di storia greca e romana

ISSN 2240-774X
e-ISSN 2039-4985
http://www.ojs.unito.it/public/journals/1/pageHeaderTitleImage_it_IT.png
Historika è una pubblicazione a periodicità annuale edita dall’Università degli Studi di Torino (Dipartimento di Studi Storici - Storia antica) in collaborazione con la casa editrice universitaria Celid. Nasce per iniziativa dei docenti di storia greca e romana dell’Ateneo torinese: intende proporre al lettore ricerche su “oggetti” storici e storiografici, historika/historica appunto, i quali, segnati nel mondo greco e romano dall’identità linguistica e metodologica di historìa/historia, continuano a suscitare oggi come allora scritti storici, historika grammata.

Historika sperimenta la diffusione on line ad accesso aperto, aderisce alla “Dichiarazione di Berlino” (Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities) e, nell’ambito della ricerca universitaria in storia antica, promuove la comunicazione e il dibattito scientifico nell’età del web: senza rinunciare all’edizione cartacea, diffonde le proprie pubblicazioni nel proprio sito internet e depositandole nei repository e nelle open libraries internazionali, pratica la peer review anonima al fine della valutazione dei testi proposti al comitato scientifico ed editoriale, conserva all’autore la piena proprietà intellettuale del testo pubblicato (con il solo vincolo di citare la pubblicazione su Historika qualora si riproponga il testo, in tutto o in parte, in altra sede), riconosce al lettore il diritto di accedere gratuitamente ai risultati della ricerca scientifica finanziata con risorse pubbliche.

Historika è a disposizione della comunità scientifica internazionale per accogliere contributi innovativi e originali inerenti alla storia antica dal periodo arcaico a quello tardoantico. In particolare sono specifici obiettivi di Historika la storia politica, istituzionale, sociale, economica e culturale, la ricerca epigrafica e il suo contributo alla macro e microstoria, l'uso politico e ideologico del passato greco e romano nelle età postclassiche.

Call of papers Historika VII

 
Sono aperte le proposte per il VII volume - anno 2017. Entro giugno 2017 gli Autori possono proporre i loro testi, scrivendo via email alla redazione oppure attraverso la registrazione sul sito e apposita procedura on line.









2011


See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Transnational Crime Made a Trillion Dollars in 2016


Kevin Knodell, 'Transnational Crime Made a Trillion Dollars in 2016' War Is Boring Mar 29 2017, Politicians and cops are doing very little to stop it
The result is a global shadow economy that’s hard to trace, but whose windfalls often end up in the hands of unsavory characters. They use the money — which they often hide in shell corporations — to bribe politicians and finance insurgencies, hardening the conditions that allow lucrative criminal enterprises to function in the first place. “The international community has paid too little attention to combating the money in transnational crime, instead preferring to focus on the materials or the manifestations of the crimes,” GFI president Raymond Baker noted.
So, in antiquities cases, the authorities think it's enough to 'repatriate' the material evidencem, but not go after those responsible. Time after time. T[the authorities are accessories to the perpetuation of the crime. ;br -:

Bruce Wharton on 'Protecting Cultural Heritage'


Bruce Wharton (Acting Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, U.S. State Dept): 'Protecting Cultural Heritage is vital to the United States and the World'. Video here. A good question then, is why the US does not fully implement the 1970 UNESCO Convention instead of its CCPIA half-hearted selective implementation in the case of cultural property illegally exported from a handful of countries. STOP the hypocrisy.


Egypt Should Flog off the Past?


'Egypt is overflowing with antiquities. So much so that they are stuffed away to moulder in warehouses, sometimes forgotten and allowed to deteriorate, never to be seen again by the public or by researchers' writes Patrick Werr ('Selling precious artefacts could top up Egypt’s coffers', The National March 29, 2017).
Why not package up some of these artefacts and organise their sale to foreigners or Egyptians, complete with documents telling the buyer where the item was found and why it is significant? The government could add tens of millions of dollars to its coffers each year. [...] The objects could be given official registration with papers, which would make them more valuable on the international market since their provenance would be documented, making them legally tradable. 
And how long will they remain associated with such papers? Is this not a model too close to the PAS? Where could it go wrong, eh?

In any case, such moves should gain the approval of the main stakeholder, the general public in Egypt, it is their identity at stake:
It will probably not happen. Last week a television station asked in an online poll if Egypt should sell antiquities to solve its economic crisis. Critics of the government immediately went on the attack, accusing it of being behind the poll. Said one online opposition newspaper: "After the regime sold the country ... it’s going to sell our history and civilisation."



Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Léxico de magia y religión en los papiros mágicos griegos (LMPG)

[First posted in AWOL 21 December 2012, updated 29 March 2017]

LMPG en línea (Léxico de magia y religión en los papiros mágicos griegos)
http://dge.cchs.csic.es/lib/img/dge_64.png
LMPG en línea es la edición digital del libro Léxico de magia y religión en los papiros mágicos griegos, obra de Luis Muñoz Delgado publicada en 2001 como Anejo V del Diccionario Griego-Español. Esta edición en línea está concebida como un paso más en el proyecto de digitalización de nuestras publicaciones. Ha sido realizada a partir de la conversión en XML del Léxico, con una estructura acorde con las recomendaciones de la TEI P5.

Los papiros mágicos griegos, que se sitúan cronológicamente entre los siglos II a.C. y V d.C., ofrecen un amplio e impresionante panorama sobre las prácticas mágico-religiosas en el Egipto greco-romano. En este léxico vienen recogidos y estudiados más de dos mil quinientos términos relacionados con la magia y la religión atestiguados en estos documentos, tal y como se encuentran recogidos en las ediciones de K. Preisendanz (Papyri Graecae Magicae) y de R. Daniel y F. Maltomini (Supplementum Magicum). También han sido tenidos en cuenta algunos papiros editados con posterioridad a esta última edición. Para más información sobre el planteamiento y contenido de este Léxico remitimos a la Introducción a cargo del autor.

En su contribución al volumen The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology (ed. R.S. Bagnall, Oxford, O.U.P., 2009, pp.644-660), titulada «The Future of Papyrology», Peter van Minnen señala (p. 652), junto a la presencia del corpus de Preisendanz en el Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, la existencia de este léxico, si bien lamenta que, en su versión impresa, no resulte tan útil como una “fully searchable database”. Esperamos que LMPG en línea constituya un avance significativo en esta dirección para los estudios papirológicos y sobre la magia y la religión griega en general.

LMPG en línea es un recurso open access, siguiendo la política institucional del CSIC, que en 2006 suscribió la Declaración de Berlín sobre el acceso abierto al conocimiento en las Humanidades y las Ciencias.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Selling precious artefacts could top up Egypt’s coffers


"Egypt is overflowing with antiquities. So much so that they are stuffed away to moulder in warehouses, sometimes forgotten and allowed to deteriorate, never to be seen again by the public or by researchers" writes Patrick Werr ("Selling precious artefacts could top up Egypt’s coffers" The National Business March 29, 2017) .
Why not package up some of these artefacts and organise their sale to foreigners or Egyptians, complete with documents telling the buyer where the item was found and why it is significant? The government could add tens of millions of dollars to its coffers each year. It’s not like Egypt isn’t selling antiquities now. The problem is that the sellers are not the government, but rather organised looters who have been plundering the country’s archaeological sites. In the process they have been destroying important historical information that proper archaeology would glean from the objects’ physical contexts. The pillaging has been going on full force since the 2011 uprising, with digging and looting in sites from Alexandria to Aswan. [....] Egypt has been getting little benefit from many of the artefacts. When an archaeological site is excavated, typically the archaeologists are required to place all the objects they find in warehouses. The public is not allowed to visit and view them, and they usually are not accessible for study. Even the archaeologists working on the project often can’t get back to study them once they have delivered them to the magazine. By now, the number of such pieces hidden away in countless magazines probably runs into the hundreds of thousands. The objects are often moved with corresponding loss of information and occasionally stolen.
There are so many of these objects that most no longer have use in research, museums or academia. Until the 1970s the Egyptian Museum in Cairo had a sale room for surplus antiquities, and until the ‘80s foreign archaeologists excavating a site were given a proportion of the finds (partage).
One important effect of again legalising the export of artefacts would be to direct at least a part of the current illicit trade into official channels. Instead of smugglers reaping the gains, the revenue would go to the state treasury. This is particularly urgent. Since the collapse of tourism after the 2011 uprising and subsequent political turmoil, ticket sales have plummeted and antiquities have been starved of funds. Egypt needs more revenue to operate its museums, restore more important artefacts and preserve and protect its main archaeological sites. The objects could be given official registration with papers, which would make them more valuable on the international market since their provenance would be documented, making them legally tradable. They could be digitally scanned before the sale, and conditions could be put that the buyer will make the object available to researchers if necessary.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Ancient Religions eJournal

 [First posted in AWOL 28 October 2014, updated 29 March 2017]

Ancient Religions eJournal
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This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts having a primary focus on the religions of Greece and Rome. Papers dealing with specifically Greek or Roman religion will appear in the appropriate subcategory, more general or comparative work in the General subcategory. The Religions of Peripheral Cultures has its own subcategory. The subcategory for Christianity has three subdivisions for History, Theology and Cult. Additional subcategories and/or subdivisions of them will be added as appropriate.
Click here to Browse our Electronic Library to view our archives of abstracts and associated full text papers published in this journal.


Ancient Religions eJournal Advisory Board Click on the individual's name below to view the editor or advisory board member's author home page.


Andrew L. Ford

Carin M. Green

Judith Evans Grubbs

Dirk Obbink

Josiah Ober

Andrew M. Riggsby

Ruth S. Scodel
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International Islamic University, Islamabad
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Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study
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affiliation not provided to SSRN
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Whittier Law School
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SciencesPo, Ecole de Droit
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Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

From Trench to Tablet: Field Recording, Interpreting, and Publishing in the Age of Digital Archaeology

This week the Society of American Archaeology annual meeting takes place is Vancouver, B.C. Unfortunately, I won’t be attending, but I will be there in person as my colleagues Derek Counts and Erin Averett deliver a paper that looks at how digital archaeology and digital publishing will work together to reshape the future of the discipline and archaeological knowledge making.  

Check out our paper, below, and download some cool publications in digital archaeology from The Digital Press.

“From Trench to Tablet: Field Recording, Interpreting, and Publishing in the Age of Digital Archaeology”

Session: Archaeological Epistemology in the Digital Age

Erin Walcek Averett (Creighton University), Derek B. Counts (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), William Caraher (University of North Dakota), and Jody Gordon (Wentworth Institute of Technology)

Introduction

Before we get started, I wanted to offer two prefatory remarks: First and foremost, on behalf of my co-authors, I want to thank Rebecca and Michael for the kind invitation to offer a paper in this session, which positions itself nicely as digital approaches to archaeology continue to transform the field. Secondly, I must apologize for our title and the published abstract… and especially to those who have attended our paper on the promise of what we proposed. Seven months ago, Derek, Bill, Jody and I were in the trenches, battling the nuances of digital archaeology on several fronts as we made the final push to complete our book, Mobilizing the Past (Averett et al. 2016), which appeared in October (and is still available free to download at TheDigitalPress.org!). At the time, we thought a paper for this session provided a wonderful opportunity to synthesize what we had learned – and to discuss the ins/outs of our publication process and how we harnessed the promise of “digital” and “open” to build our book.

Fast-forward seven months. The title makes less sense and already seems dated. Things are moving that fast. Mobilizing the Past captured a moment in the evolution of digital archaeology. And, while we recognize that archaeological projects have incorporated digital technologies unevenly —especially if you scan the landscape outside of the Mediterranean—most agree that the move to ‘born-digital’ is well underway. Still, archaeologists haven’t fully articulated the benefits and problems of replacing traditional methods of field recording with digital technologies. And, while our recent publication was a step in the right direction, it was more about tools and technology than it was about process and products.  So – the first part of our original title – “From Trench to Tablet” –  is no longer useful for two reasons:

  1. The ship has sort of sailed on paradigm-shifting conversations about iPads; folks are using mobile devices in the field to do archaeology; and
  2. Because it imposed a limit on the conversation by separating the process of field recording from interpretation and analysis.

Field Recording is thus also no longer the focus per se of this paper, in part, because it may not be particularly useful to think of it as a discrete “stage” or “step” within the practice of archaeological knowledge making.

For the record, our title is now: Interpreting and Publishing in the Age of Digital Archaeology. We think this title embraces more fully how digital practices in archaeology impact the entire process from interpretation to publication.

Mobilizing the Past: Goals and Moving Forward

To start, I want to return briefly to Mobilizing the Past. The book grew out of a rather selfish need: as the Athienou Archaeological Project decided to move to digital recording methods in 2011, we struggled with the logistics of incorporating new technologies and digital data into our legacy workflow. On a practical level, we understood that other projects were struggling with the same concerns, but there was a surprising lack of published discourse. Thus, the idea for an NEH-funded workshop and publication was born. Our initial goal was to convene a forum that might begin to establish best practices and protocols for mobile computing in digital archaeology with respect to technologies and approaches to both in-field recording and the dissemination of the results. We structured the workshop sessions around the development and use of software, tools, and systems, but also pedagogy, data curation, and critiques. It soon became clear that our original focus on the practical aspects of digital technologies could not be separated from larger theoretical questions concerning field methods and interpretation. Some of this is apparent in the volume, which while remaining biased toward practical perspectives on the turn toward the digital, often left as tacit issues relating to the interpretation and publication of this rapidly expanding and diversifying body of “born-digital” evidence.

This point was not lost on folks who have commented on the volume. For example, Morag Kersel, in her response paper in the volume, notes her “shock” at the lack of attention to publication in Mobilizing the Past, remarking on “the lack of engagement of what to do with the increasing amount of data produced as a result of these new technologies—most of the submissions stopped at the edge of the square or in the analysis stage of fieldwork; very few mentioned publication” (Kersel 2016: 486).  In a series of blog posts, Dimitri Nakassis criticized the contributions for focusing too heavily on accuracy and efficiency in collecting data at the expense of interpretation.[1]  Making his point provocatively, he notes that the word “data” appeared 1619 times, while variations on “interpret” appear only 164 times.

At the same time, most of our contributors recognized that the perceived division between data collection and analysis is more closely related to the physical organization of archaeological work on the ground than the intellectual organization of the task involved in structuring an archaeological project. This division between physical and intellectual work, while a persistent idea both in archaeology and the larger organization of labor and humanity, has more to do with the separation of the field from the lab or office than any intent to isolate collection from interpretation. Thus, the distinction identified by Nakassis is more illusory than real. Data collection is interpretation. If we’re serious about digital technologies being part of a dynamic ecosystem of practice, then interpretation, and by extension publication, is more than just the result of digital work, but an essential aspect of what we do in the field. 

This perceived dichotomy between data and interpretation, however, belies a general schizophrenia in critical approaches to digital archaeology: as some call for more introspection with respect to the integration of digital approaches in field archaeology, others push for more discussion of how digital technology at large is changing interpretation and publication. Most projects started ‘going digital’ in the last five years—that process is still young, and so is the data that those excavations have produced. Moreover, as Shawn Graham recently blogged: this first phase (and maybe no phase) of digital archaeology is not efficient. It’s experimental; it’s slow; it rarely goes “click, bing! result.”[2] It is difficult to avoid the feeling that chastising archaeology done digitally for not offering ‘more on interpretation and more on publication’ reflects a sense that digital archaeology is somehow ‘faster’ (which it is not) and that somehow it allows its researchers to get to answers and new interpretations more quickly (why would it?).

This view of digital practices that demands efficiency in many ways embraces the linearity of the assembly line that starts with the “lowly” technical and physical task of data recording in the field, progresses through collating and processing the data in the lab, and ends with the most respected phase of interpretation – the final publication. The result of archaeological fieldwork, in this process, is the definitive work: the book or the article. This result carries marks of authority from its form as a printed text through exaggerated expectations of persistence and the symbols of authority imparted by a largely commercialized publishing industry. In this system, the authority of the final publication overwrites interpretations at the trowel’s edge, the selection of technology, or even the iterative process of analysis.  To put it another way, our current model of knowledge production exchanges the authority of methodologically sophisticated, consistent, and rigorous fieldwork for the authority imparted by the publication process itself. Critiques that noted the absence of interpretation in Mobilizing the Past do so because data isn’t recognized as fundamentally interpretative in our current model of producing knowledge, not because interpretation was absent.

While acknowledging that this view of traditional publishing is a wee bit (!) polemical, we wonder if part of the current schizophrenia in the discussion of digital practices could be overcome by embracing a non-linear model of publishing that values reflexive approaches and interpretation that take place at every phase. This isn’t to throw the baby of high quality academic work out with bathwater of traditional publishing, but rather to suggest that critical attention to digital field practices needs to extend through the entire publishing process. The goal isn’t interpretation as an end (pace Nakassis), but ways to demonstrate the interpretive moves that take place throughout archaeological work. These perspectives, of course, aren’t new and are part-and-parcel of post-processual archaeology (see recently Berggren et al. 2015). For example, Morgan and Eve (2012) demonstrated how digital technology could mediate a decentered and participatory approach to fieldwork at the Prescot Street excavations in the UK. Caraher and Reinhard (2015) and Zubro (2006), using slightly different terms, argued that communities of practice extant across social and new media sites provide ways for archaeological information to disseminate to wide audiences with relatively little friction. These models of publishing can be both dynamic and fluid without the unnecessary stigma of being provisional (or relegated to “mere data collection”) if we de-emphasize the linear process of knowledge of production.

The technologies and conventions already exist for more dynamic publishing conventions that both embrace the core values of scholarly publishing and reflect the continuous nature of archaeological publication. Despite persistent anxiety, there are ways to preserve even academic standards such as peer review with platforms like Hypothes.is (https://hypothes.is/) and MIT’s PubPub (https://www.pubpub.org/)that allow for threaded conversations to develop texts in ways that go well beyond the limits of conventional paper publishing, and to allay concerns of persistence with the rapidly maturing infrastructure of the stable web with projects like the Internet Archive (https://archive.org/index.php). More importantly for archaeologists, however, is that there is a basic consensus for practices fundamental to a linked, open data infrastructure that many of the people on this panel understand. The approaches taken by Open Context (https://opencontext.org/), Perio.do (http://perio.do/), and Pleiades (https://pleiades.stoa.org/) provide foundational structures for de-centered, but consciously curated, strategies of publishing archaeological contexts and artifacts, periods, and places respectively. The decisions to embrace digital media both in new ways and within existing scholarly conventions is at least partly in the hands of the archaeological community. At some level, we set the standards for what constitutes legitimate disciplinary knowledge through our own practices of citation and participation.

There are, however, legitimate complications. For example, some countries remain hesitant to allow for digital publication of archaeological data, and it goes without saying that all forms of publication, but particularly those presented in a highly accessible way, must remain sensitive to the cultural interests of communities impacted by archaeological work. A less linear publication model will only exacerbate the overwhelming proliferation of scholarly outlets, publications, and resources (for a similar critique, see Witmore 2009 and Bevan 2015 on the “data deluge”). On a more subversive note: academic and professional institutions increasingly are beholden to the use of standardized metrics to assess research productivity and these tend to be calibrated to traditional publications; it is not unappealing to take approaches to knowledge production that intentionally break that system. But we must also recognize that such institutions tightly regulate tenure and promotion processes that might undervalue (or not acknowledge) forms of publication that do not adhere to the traditional modes. There are long-standing attitudes toward the book as a physical object that makes manifest in its form, a finite and apprehensible body of knowledge, and this stands in contrast to the seemingly limitless space of linked, digital knowledge on the internet.

Despite these challenges, it is easy enough to understand how digital technologies can create wondrous new forms of digital publication. For example, several years ago, Derek Counts and I decided to incorporate 3D scanning into our study and recording of the limestone and terracotta sculptures from the site of Athienou-Malloura in Cyprus.  This new 3D documentation strategy invariably forced a new publication strategy. Most importantly, the broader arc of our research agenda—from data collection to dissemination—was conceived digitally. Recognition that each step in the process requires careful consideration of interpretive decisions with respect to tools, methods, and analysis, ultimately is yielding multilateral control of interpretations that we hope will transform the traditional catalogue. Our collaborator, Kevin Garstki, has just highlighted some of this, but also recently written about the importance of recognizing these interpretive, even editorial, stages in 3D scanning in the Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (Garstki 2016). Unlike a traditional printed catalogue, the digital catalogue will include dynamic 3D images with a variety of user-manipulated tools, but it will also harness the potential for multiple forms of complementary linked data not possible in print form from simple hyperlinks to GIS-generated provenience maps. The catalogue can be updated each season with links to new stratigraphic data or information related to new finds, associated artifacts, and existing comparanda. Sculptural fragments published previously can be reunited with newly-discovered joins. As objects are photographed, digitally modelled, formally described, and contextually analyzed, the more traditional interpretive facets of their existence can be integrated with digital dissemination. Narrative analyses can be easily updated and linked to new information and to the range of technical and grey literature, from excavation manuals to published records produced at trenchside, providing relational knowledge that supports various readings of the site, the objects, and archaeological work. In other words, such standard interpretive moves that locate an object within an archaeological context are thus disseminated in an innovative, organic, and open way.

The basic tools for this kind of approach already exist and models are appearing regularly that demonstrate how this or that element could work – from real time recording like Morgan and Eve describe at Prescot Street to artifactual records published by Open Context to the bewildering range of associated files types supported by online repositories like the Internet Archive and tDar (https://www.tdar.org/). On a very practical level, there is no need for us to imagine data collection as somehow un-interpretive and just a step toward publication. To the contrary, this type of publication embodies these fragments of archaeological knowledge as digital technologies provide a relational, linked, and largely open platform for a non-linear and transparent ecology of archaeological knowledge making.

When confronted by the potential and challenges of such boundless and infinitely-linked knowledge, it is helpful to return to the field and Mobilizing the Past. One of the major critiques of our book, which applies to many recent explorations of digital technologies and archaeological work, is that we continue to use the language of objective empiricism and industrial process to describe “data collection,” while at the same time acknowledging that we recognize the interpretive character of field work and the influence of digital technologies on the knowledge that we produce. Part of the reason for this perspective on fieldwork rests in the tradition of seeing archaeological knowledge production in a linear way with the final publication marking the culmination of an interpretive and analytical process. A more reflexive digital archaeology in the field, however, pushes us to think how publishing can capture these interpretive processes. Rather than seeing the interpretation at the trowel’s edge as a provisional stage in the way to a final analysis, we’re proposing a digital archaeology that explores non-linear publications to expose, to probe, and ultimately to destabilize the binaries that have come to dominate our field.

 

Works Cited

Averett, E. W., J. M. Gordon, and D. B. Counts (eds.), Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future. The Potential of Digital Archaeology. The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota (Grand Forks, 2016). https://thedigitalpress.org/mobilizing-the-past-for-a-digital-future/

Berggren, Å., Dell’Unto, N., Forte, M., Haddow, S., Hodder, I., Issavi, J., Lercari, N., Mazzucato, C., Mickel, A., Taylor, J. 2015. “Revisiting the Reflexive Archaeology at Çatalhöyük: Integrating Digital and 3D Technolgies at the Trowel’s Edge,” Antiquity 89: 433-448. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2014.43

Bevan, A. “The data deluge,” Antiquity 89 (2015), 1473-484. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2015.102

Caraher, W. and A. Reinhard, “From Books to Blogs: Blogging as Community, Practice, and Platform,” Internet Archaeology 39 (2015). http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue39/7/toc.html

Garstki, K. “Virtual Representation: the Production of 3D Digital Artifacts” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2016), DOI:10.1007/s10816-016-9285-z.

Kersel, M. “Response: Living a Semi-Digital Kinda Life,” in E. W. Averett, et al. (eds.), Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future. The Potential of Digital Archaeology. The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota (Grand Forks, 2016), 475-92. https://digitalpressatund.files.wordpress.com/2016/09/5_1_kersel.pdf

Morgan, C. and S. Eve, “DIY and digital archaeology: what are you doing to participate?” World Archaeology 44 (2012), 521-37. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2012.741810

Zubrow, E. B. “Digital Archaeology: The Historical Context” in T. Evans and P. Daly (eds.), Digital Archaeology: Bridging Method and Theory. Routledge. (London, 2006), 10-31.

Witmore, C. 2009. “Prolegomena to Open Pasts: On Archaeological Memory Practices,” Archaeologies 5 (2009), 511–545. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225833647_Prolegomena_to_Open_Pasts_On_Archaeological_Memory_Practices 


American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Bare Bones to Bodies: Embodying Social Diversity in Late Bronze Age Greece

April 03, 2017 - 2:32 PM - FITCH-WIENER LABS SEMINAR Ms. Kaitlyn Stiles, PhD candidate, University of Tennessee, Malcolm H. Wiener Laboratory Research Associate

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

CJ-Online Review ~ Echoing Hylas: A Study in Hellenistic and Roman Metapoetics

Echoing Hylas: A Study in Hellenistic and Roman Metapoetics. By Mark Heerink. Wisconsin Studies in Classics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. Pp. xii + 243. Cloth, $65.00. ISBN 978-0-299-30540-6.

Reviewed by Goran Vidović, University of Belgrade

The story of Heracles’ young companion Hylas is generally as follows: during a break on the Argonaut expedition, he goes into the woods to fetch water and is abducted by nymphs; Heracles calls his name repeatedly, sometimes hearing an echo. In this slightly revised 2010 Leiden PhD (dissertation is now available online), Mark Heerink explores variations of the episode, arguing that “Hellenistic and Roman poets used the story of Hylas as a vehicle to express their ideas about poetry and to react to those of others” (4). The metapoetic approach is justified by verbal repetitions, taken as tropes of poets responding to each other; by activating the etymology of Hylas’ name-ὕλη, “wood,” and “poetic subject matter;” and by “the relationship and opposition between the archetypal hero Hercules and the tender boy Hylas, which is appropriated to symbolize the poet’s positioning toward his predecessor(s)” (9).

While the focus is on Apollonius’ Argonautica, Theocritus’ Idyll 13, Propertius 1.20, Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica and Statius’ Thebaid, the structure of Heerink’s argument requires including other works, both of these authors and Homer, Hesiod, Aristotle, Virgil, Ovid, and especially Callimachus: “the Hylas poems all adhere to a Callimachean poetics, however differently interpreted by each individual poet” (9). In the Introduction, once Callimacheanism is outlined and situated in relation to Homer and Hesiod, intergeneric relations emerge as one of the central concerns of the book. Chapters explore how the poets, competing with their contemporaries and predecessors, experiment with generic prerogatives of epic, bucolic poetry, and elegy, via the Hylas episode.

A few snapshots illustrate this rich investigation. Chapter one: Apollonius’ Heracles, too traditionally heroic, literally too heavy for the Argo, is left behind and replaced by “Callimachean” diplomat Jason, prefigured by Hylas. Insightful intra- and intertextual examination demonstrates that “in the Hylas episode, the epic has taken an important step in the “right” direction, by causing an important threat to the epic to leave. Hylas’s entry into the spring, which symbolizes Apollonius’s Callimachean epic, and the concomitant leaving behind of Heracles, reflect Apollonius’s attitude toward heroic-epic poetry and Homer in particular,” which he can follow only to a certain extent (48).

Chapter two: Theocritus aetiologizes bucolic poetry by “bucolizing” Homeric legacy: Hylas is transformed into an echo, a natural sound, symbolizing the bucolic poet, Theocritus (67), who “shows his colleague and poetic rival Apollonius another way of writing Callimachean poetry by rewriting his Hylas episode” (72), and finds “his own poetic, Callimachean niche in relation to Homer’s heroic-epic poetry” (82).
Chapter 3 is a particularly stimulating analysis of Propertius’ 1.20, where he alerts the poet Gallus to protect his lover Hylas from Italic nymphs. By introducing Virgil’s “elegiac excursion in Eclogue 2” (93) and Gallus’ attempt to write bucolic poetry in Eclogue 10 (97), Heerink unpacks the tension between bucolic and elegiac mode (97-98). While drowning Hylas symbolizes Gallus’ poetry absorbed by Virgil’s pastoral landscape, Propertius “has capped Virgil”: the echo is “not reproduced by Hylas but is demythologized into a natural phenomenon that only symbolizes elegiac absence of the beloved.” Moreover, “[b]y inverting what happened to Gallus and his elegy in the Eclogues, and by putting Hylas in service of that typically elegiac activity of the praeceptor amoris to warn Gallus, Propertius has also outdone his elegiac rival” (111-112).

As intertexts accumulate, reading of imperial epicists in chapter four grows more complex. Valerius Flaccus anomalously assigns “anti-epic” Hylas an unfitting epic role: he is carrying Heracles’ weapons but, unlike in the corresponding passage in Apollonius (1.131-132), he is not yet strong enough to carry his heavy club (Arg. 1.110-111). Similarity with Ascanius following Aeneas dressed like Heracles (Aen. 2.721-724) presents Hylas as “a potential epic hero” (114). This “Virgilization” of Apollonius, impeded by Hylas’ un-heroic pedigree, “functions as a metapoetical manifesto, revealing Valerius’s Argonautica as an epic that can only imitate its Augustan epic predecessor to a certain extent,” recalling “Apollonius’s Callimachean position vis-à-vis Homer” (116-117). Ovid’s “elegiac epic” Metamorphoses is thrown into the mix: Valerius’ Heracles’ passion for Hylas, who resembles Narcissus and Hermaphrodite, “elegizes” the Aeneid (cf. “Ovidian” unequal-foot-pun, Arg. 3.485-486; page 141). Further, Valerius combines Theocritus’ and Propertius’ Hylas (124), and is “window alluding” to Propertius through Ovid (133). Heerink then discusses Hylas in the Thebaid (5.441-4) and Statius’ reference to following the Aeneid admiringly (12.816-817), arguing that these passages combine two Valerian Hylas passages (1.107-111, 3.495-496) in an allusion to Ascanius following Aeneas. The book ends with some remarks on political and poetic succession in imperial epic.

It is beside the point to blame such a streamlined inquiry for omissions, except the curiously understudied Echo ending Callimachus’ epigram 28-especially since the poem is Heerink’s interpretive touchstone throughout. Still, given the importance of succession, wood symbolism, bilingual name etymologies, and Heracles-Hylas paralleling Aeneas-Ascanius, one wonders how Heerink would have incorporated Heracles’ son and heir Hyllus, etymologized when gathering wood for Heracles’ funeral pyre in Sophocles’ Trachiniae (πολλὴν μὲν ὕλην, 1195), or indeed Aeneas’ other son, Silvius, a Latin “Woody” (Aen. 6.763-772, with suggestive quercu).

The study is dense, even mildly but attractively dizzying. Meticulously close readings alternate with zooming out-trees and forest, as it were-assembling one giant puzzle. Thankfully, it is very accessible due to generous cross-references, recaps and summaries, clear, level-headed exposition, and absence of critical jargon. No specific theoretical framework is applied, though Bloomian “anxiety of influence” is implicit. In brief, this book is learned, exhaustively documented,imaginative and ultimately exciting.


Posted with permission …

©2017 by The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. All rights reserved.

CJ-Online Reviews Archive


#classicaltwitter ~ March 28, 2017 (ii)


#classicaltwitter ~ March 28, 2017 (i)


Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Waqf workers arrested for assault on archaeologists

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/M7_bX2WtPcw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Jarick (ed.), SOTS at 100

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/3oLArMmNF6U" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Krause, Synagogues in the Works of Flavius Josephus

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/EghyzVL7e6Q" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Phoenicians in America?

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/kjbldxd8HhU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

Greenberg on Be'eri and the Israel Prize

<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/y5g1hPFDowE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: News

Blegen Library Easter Holiday Hours

During the Easter holiday period, the Blegen Library will be closed to visitors from Holy Friday, April 14, through Easter Tuesday, April 18, 2017. On Holy Thursday, April 13, the Library will close at 17:00.

Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

Between Landing Site and Vicus – Between Emporium and Town. Framing the Early Medieval Urban Development

Another session of videos from the EAA conference.

Session Abstract

Urban development is one of the most pressing topics within Early Medieval archaeology. Among scholars there is heated debate about how to think about and study these urban places before the emergence of “proper” High Medieval towns. Strategies range from analyses of Latin vocabulary from contemporary historical sources, to the application of Polanyis’ concept of “ports of trade”, to the use of neologisms such as “early towns” or “proto-towns” or lately the simple the designation of “Viking-age towns” or “towns of the age”. However, apart from a few exceptions (e.g. the works of R. Hodges or J. Callmer), discussions soon turn into debates over terminology rather than on the actual nature of these sites, and most studies have fail in one decisive way: the sites under discussion are treated as monolithic entities instead of dynamic environments with distinct development phases and different characteristics over their often considerable periods of existence.

Archaeologically, this misconception is often predominately based on the mid-phase of an urban development, which has been taken as representative for the site as a whole. Being covered by metres of cultural layers, a search for these settlements’ spatially limited roots can literary turn into a quest for a needle in a haystack. The latest Early Medieval developments on the other hand are often either largely disturbed in the plow layers or strongly affected by the subsequent High Medieval settlement activities, including masonry construction and cellars. This session, therefore, seeks specifically to address the inconspicuous phases of urban development at both their inception phases and up through the latest Early Medieval structures on these sites. Papers in the session will address methodological problems, but more importantly, they will seek to widen our understanding of early urbanism as a complex and utterly dynamic process.

Saturday, 3 September 2016, 09:00-18:30
Faculty of Philology, Room 118
Author – Kalmring, Sven, Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schleswig, Germany
Co-author(s) – Tys, Dries, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
Co-author(s) – Fleming, Robin, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, United States of America
Co-author(s) – Van Oosten, Roos, Leiden University, Amersfoort, Netherlands
Co-author(s) – Reilly, Eileen, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Co-author(s) – Crabtree, Pam, New York University, New York, United States of America
Keywords: early medieval, urbanisation
Emergence and Downfall of Viking Towns: The Concealed Phases within the Archaeological Record

https://youtu.be/J6JGBtPB7kU Author – Dr. Kalmring, Sven, Centre for Blatic and Scandinavian Archaeology (ZBSA), Schleswig, Germany (Presenting author)

Keywords: Concealed Phases, Urbanisiation, Viking Towns

In Viking studies one of the most attended field of research is – apart from the process of Christianisation and Scandinavia’s integration into the occidental Europe – the emergence of urbanism in a remote area where the concept of towns was never introduced before.Interestingly enough scholars agree on the fact that in Scandinavia itself only four sites can be regarded as urban at all. Despite their limited number these few sites tend to be conceived as chronologically rather monolithic entities taking the best preserved evidence as a characteristic for the whole settlements, which in fact have – mostly as a discontinuous phenomenon – have existed and change over a time period of some 250 to 300 years.The reason for this is due to the fact that the earliest traces of over time intensively settled communities are covered by metres of cultural layers and thus their spatially limited origins tend to be hard to trace down. And in some regard the same is true for their latest phases of development exposed to ploughing, erosion or modern construction. Despite these obstacles this paper wants to focus on just these hard to grasp phases in order to contribute to a more differentiated view on Viking urbanism in its chronological depth deserved.

Before and after the emporium. The early and late phases of Walichrum (Domburg-Oostkapelle, NL)

https://youtu.be/mzZ-gohTonc Author – Dr. Deckers, Pieterjan, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Etterbeek, Belgium (Presenting author)
Walichrum, situated near the present-day town of Domburg (Netherlands), is often referred to as one of the late Merovingian and Carolingian emporia, an interpretation mainly based on the substantial number of coins collected on the eroding beach by 19th-century antiquarians. However, a review of the full range of evidence makes clear that this emporium did not emerge out of nothing: situated nearby a Roman temple, the site probably continued to function as a cult site throughout the Early Middle Ages and derived some of its early significance as a trading site from this. Similarly, the significance of the site following the heyday of Carolingian rule, from the second half of the 9th century onwards, has been neglected. Previously, it was thought that the site was abandoned in the later 9th century, a few decades after a recorded Viking raid in AD 837. However, the re-evaluation of the evidence brought to light late 9th- to 11th-century material attesting to continued activity. This, in turn, necessitates a renewed assessment of the relationship with the nearby ringfort of Domburg. Previously the fort was thought of as a successor to Walichrum, the refuge of the latter’s inhabitants in the politically unstable post-Carolingian period.
Thanks to new research the fort area now emerges as an integral part of Walichrum from the 7th or 8th century onwards, long before the construction of the fort in the third quarter of the 9th century. This paper will trace the life trajectory of Walichrum, with special attention to these hitherto overlooked early and late phases. The developments on the site will be framed in wider discussions of landing places and urban settlements in northwestern Europe. This will be done in reference to the dynamic coastal landscape in which this site was located, which during the period under consideration developed from a remote barrier island in the Scheldt estuary, backed by an inhospitable tidal marsh, to the dune belt of a large island rich in sheep-grazing grounds. It will be argued that the site’s occupation history, in particular its final phase and ultimate disappearance, was determined to a large part by regional socio-political developments, in turn tied to much broader cultural and political changes in the North Sea area.

Bypassing monolithic entities: diachronic and spatially informed approaches to early medieval towns

https://youtu.be/TQlrhVA0OdA Author – Wouters, Barbora, Vrije Universiteit Brussel & University of Aberdeen, Brussel, Belgium (Presenting author)
Keywords: early medieval, geoarchaeology, urbanisation

The settlement areas of early medieval towns have in the past been subject to generalising interpretations of their character, layout and function. Changes in the towns’ dynamics over generations of town dwellers have not often been addressed, while these changes are the key to a multi-faceted understanding of the daily lives of the inhabitants, and how these may have changed over time. The complex nature of urban deposits has in some cases prompted excavation using a random division in spits, while an opposite reflex is necessary to produce a clearer phasing of each separate case. Before comparisons are made, the individual life trajectory of each town should be understood to its fullest. This paper examines how geoarchaeological approaches (micromorphology, microXRF, and other techniques) contribute to a more nuanced understanding of these towns, with a focus on the earliest and latest phases of the towns under study. Illustrating this approach with case studies from the Low Countries, including Tongeren and Antwerpen, and Scandinavia, such as Hedeby and Kaupang, this paper makes a case for a particularistic examination of early medieval towns before wider comparisons are made.
With current geoarchaeological methods, it is possible to record and interpret separate phases of each town in more detail, to collect finds accordingly and source dating materials more securely. It is also possible to add information about well-dated but unclear phases of the towns, such as in the case of homogeneous deposits, so-called dark earths. The latter often occur precisely at the beginning and perceived end of early medieval towns, making their interpretation a challenging endeavour. Not every single layer, event or nuance is captured by geoarchaeological means, but more details can be added to the state of the art of each individual town, perhaps even narrowing down the scope to particular changes at the scale of generations. Not just a diachronic approach, but one that takes into account diversity on a horizontal level as well, is necessary to further grasp the complexity of
these urban entities. A combination of a diachronic approach and spatially informed one on a micro-scale yields archaeological results with the strongest interpretive value, and, if integrated into the research project design from the very beginning, provides a way to contextualise the enormous amounts of material these sites produce.

Changing Places: a comparative discussion of London and Tours in the Early Medieval Period

https://youtu.be/1xDYDVJEwCM

Author – Donnelly, Harriet, The University of Sydney, St Leonards, Australia (Presenting author)
Keywords: early medieval, settlement patterns, urbanism

The settlements of Western Europe experienced a period of significant transition following the decline of Roman control in the 5th century AD. The movement of people and ideas resulted in change and reorganisation for many communities living in what had previously been Roman settlements. Such developments occurred both within the boundaries of the old structures, and by expanding or moving beyond those existing limits. Many of those sites which saw significant change developed slowly over a longer period of time, often not taking the recognisable Medieval shape until at least the 12th century. This paper examines the developmental stages that occurred at two settlements which saw significant changes from the 5th to 12th centuries AD;
London and Tours. Both developed according to a pattern of twin towns with the two halves divided by a small area with limited occupation. London and Tours were both hugely important settlements and a comparative discussion of respective changes at each site during this period highlights the various methods by which such settlements developed as well as providing insight into both a trade driven and monastic model of the twin town phenomenon. Examination of these sites and how they changed during the Early Medieval period, will enable a deeper understand of the complexity of urban development and transitional processes.

A Subersive Urbanism: Venice in the 9th century

https://youtu.be/i3EZH6O-VAI Author – Calaon, Diego, Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America (Presenting author)
Keywords: Adriatic, Emporia, Venice

How did Venice’s urban structure look like in the 9th century? Venice suffers from its own legends. The materiality of the rising Venice has been generally perceived as sites without time and space, where a fully established myth describes the origin of city. The Venetian lagoon, in fact, was the place where the noble Romans sought refuge from the barbarian hordes: they had been forced to move to unwelcoming islands among the marshes to be free and safe. In the islands the newcomers were able to rebuilt a place that – according the historic narratives – was ideologically and materially comparable to the old Roman sites.
The uncovered wood structures of the early medieval houses, for example, have been described as a poor reaction to a sudden displacement. Recent archaeological assessment, on the contrary, has shown how these buildings were confortable and perfectly designed for the lagoon environment. Clay foundations and wood structures were technically appropriate for a cold and humid setting. The choice of the lagoon itself was not forced. The settlement patterns were not extemporary, but followed precise social and economic designs. The settlement followed the movements of the lagoon and the river mouths: the first Venetians tried to occupy the more distant islets in order to control both the maritime and the riverine sailing routes. Artisanal productions (glass goblets, parchments, metal crafts) were not subsistence economies; the emporia layout of the sites allowed the circulation of raw materials, techniques and skilled people.
Venice was a proto-capitalistic site. A large part of the production (shipyard, timber industry, glass and metal productions, etc.) was made by labour forces with a status very similar to slaves. Probably, also, slaves were one of the most value goods, which the Venetians traded with the Islamic world. But slaves, dirty workshops or labour class issues are not good ingredients for the myth of the origins or for the official history of a superpower state. Venice proudly defined itself from the very beginning as a democracy and a free republic: Venetians needed a respectable and glorious past, and they made it up, reshaping also the “idea” of the early city.
The idea of the early Venice, moreover, cannot be separated from the present. Traditional archaeology, instead, has studied it as phase of the previous roman past. The archaeological study of its urbanism should it considered in the counter light of the fluid social negations that took place around a very specific environment, creating polyfocal sites, which will be cities in the following years.

How and when Venice became Venice. Framing the urban development of a trading town in Italy

https://youtu.be/ihoOjtoUbwI Author – Dr. Pazienza, Annamaria, Ca’Foscari University, Venice, Italy (Presenting author)
Keywords: Early Medieval Venice, Trading Town, Urban Identity

Venice was one of the most important cities in Europe in the late Middle Ages and the Modern era, when it formed an independent state which controlled trade across the Mediterranean and towards the Levant. A myth of Venetian uniqueness has been cultivated by local historians and international specialists which has always attributed to the town on the lagoon an innate and unique vocation for political autonomy and trade.
This in fact is only partially based on historical facts. Although some exceptional elements are observable – such as the local government of the Venetian public assembly (placitum) and the amphibian nature of the settlement – these elements have been much overestimated at least as far as the Early Middle Ages is concerned. In the 9th and 10th centuries the apparently novel appearance of Venice on the Italian political scene and the associated emergence of the Venetian public assembly presided over by the duke has numerous parallels in other parts of Italy where several urban communities, mostly represented by their bishops, started to act as social and political entities at the same time. In addition, the region around Venice demonstrated its own economic vitality with other towns competing for the control of the Adriatic sea well before the 9th century by engaging in maritime and artisanal activities remarkably similar to those of other settlements in Northern Europe, which archaeologists such as Chris Loveluck and Will Bowden usually call emporia.
Moreover, some recent reconstructions suggest that the rapid growth of Venice in the 8th and 9th centuries can be explained by the conjunction of the contemporary expansion of the Carolingian empire which increased demand for luxury goods with Venice’s special location on the sea near a great river delta (the Po). Although it is likely that the convergence of both these factors had played a major role in the sudden development of the city, it is often forgotten that Venice shared the same ecological position and the same economic system with many other trading towns at least in this earlier period.
These facts pose other challenges to the traditional triumphalist explanations. Why did Venice enjoy a more durable success in a longterm perspective with respect to other towns? What exactly made the difference in the Venetian case? Was it mere coincidence that Venice was the seat of a political authority, the doge, whereas the other emporia were not? Was the fact that this authority was secular (a duke) rather than religious (a bishop) as elsewhere the key point?
The paper will seek to answer these questions by analysing the case of Venice in a comparative context and in the light of both archaeological data and written sources, by suggesting for the city, before 1050, typicity rather than exceptionality in terms of population size, accumulation of wealth and socio-economic development.

The origins of urbanization in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

https://youtu.be/uiNaS_G_CaA Author – Tsembalyuk, Svetlana, Institute of problems of devepment of the North, Tyumen, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Anoshko, Oksana, Institute of problems of devepment of the North, Tyumen, Russian Federation
Co-author(s) – Berlin, Svetlana, Institute of problems of devepment of the North, Tyumen, Russian Federation
Keywords: fortresses, urbanization, Western Siberia

A huge archeological material testifies that the origins of urbanization in Western Siberia should be associated with the formation of ancient fortified settlements – fortresses that appeared on this territory in the Bronze Age and protocities formed in the early Iron Age.The first simple fortifications in the form of stockades or fortified dwellings in the forest-steppe zone of Trans-Urals are fixed on the materials of the Bronze Age monuments (the II millennium BC). During this period their number was insignificant, the bulk continued to be unfortified villages.The increase in the number of fortified settlements was greater in the transition period from bronze to iron (the 2nd quarter of the 1st millennium BC). They were round-oval in shape towns with area up to 4 hectares.
There were major suburbs around them. The citadels of the time were poorly fortified fences. The appearance of first fortifications is connected with the destabilization of the political situation in the region as a result of the influx of migrants from the North of Western Siberia. Then the strengthening of the village with a palisade or a fence was not defensive but probably ideological in nature. The aim was to preserve their cultural traditions within phratry.In the early Iron Age (the middle of the 1st millennium BC – the middle of the 1st millennium AD) the number of settlements increases. In the forest-steppe zone of Trans-Urals they number more than 100. One-third of excavated settlements are multicultural, from 15 to 20 fortified settlements belonged to carriers of certain traditions. Within this period the dynamics of fortification is well traced. Fortifications of early stage continue the tradition of the transition from bronze to iron time. Archaeologically they are fixed in the form of small grooves on the perimeter, holes for posts, charcoal and traces of burnt wooden structures in the embankment of the earthen rampart. They are reconstructed as a hedge of stockade fence around the residential area. Most of them could not perform a defensive function. Already at that
time there is specialization of fortified settlements as centers of metalworking, import, exchange, cooperation of multicultural
population.By the 5-3 centuries BC increasing complexity of fortifications is recorded. The number, height and power of the earthen ramparts with wooden fortifications in the form of the palisades, fences, walls, crates, towers and surrounding ditches are increased. There is not only a general tendency to strengthen the fortifications, but also to the complexity of their structure: double-, triple area settlements are emerging. The search for new forms, combinations of known elements and structures to enhance the overall defense capability is noted. The materials of some fortresses recorded import items of Chinese and Central Asian origin indicating them as centers of trade and exchange. The fortresses became the centers of origin and transmission of cultural innovation, and the process of urbanization and the resulting changes in the ancient and medieval societies to the greatest extent determined the development of the region.

The early urban development in the steppes

https://youtu.be/Mt67ZbWPzwM Author – Dr. Habil. Ochir-Goryaeva, Institute of archaeology Tatrstan academy of sciences,
Kazan, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Dr. Habil. Sitdikov, A., Institute of archaeology Tatrstan academy of sciences, Kazan, Russian Federation
Co-author(s) – Kiyashko, Y., Volgograd State University, Volgograd, Russian Federation
Keywords: Chasarian Kaganat, steppe, urban development

The earliest urban sites in the East European steppe date to the Early Medieval Epoch and, in particular, to the time of the Chasarian Kaganat (from the 7th to the 9th cc). So far their number has been limited to several, now famous, urban developments located along the Don river such as Sarkel-Belaya Vezha, Pravoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye gorodishe (urban development), and Semikarakorskoye gorodishe. Numerous urban developments in the adjacent areas of the foreststeppe Podonye (the Don basin valley) and Pridneprovye (the Dnepr basin valley) dating to the Chasarian epoch are representative of the material culture of the Don Alan, Bulgar, Oguz, Pecheneg, and Slavs. Those of the Crimea and the Northern Caucasus associate with the culture of local sedentary populations who were agrarians. Only those sites that are located between the Don and the Volga belonged to the Chasarian Kaganat proper, hence it is these urban developments that can be related to ethnic Chasarians. The last decades saw simultaneous discoveries of several sites of the Chasarian Kaganat in the Volga-Don steppe. In the late 1990s at a kilometer distance from the Pravoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye gorodishe an urban development was opened, which contained the ruins of fortress walls of white lime stone. One of the stone blocks displayed a tamga of a typically Chasarian shape. The new fortress got the designation of Sarkel-3 as a part of the whole agglomeration complex that includes also Sarkel and Pravoberezhnoye Tsimlyanskoye urban developments. At the same time a Chasarian epoch lower layer was opened under the layers of the Golden Horde urban center on the site at the village of Samosdelka in the Volga estuary. According to the archeologists that led the exavations, the geographical position and the character of the constructions of the Samosdelka lower layer suggest that these may be the remnants of the town of Itil´. In 2008 followed the opening of the Bashanta gorodishe that contained the ruins of constructions made of white clam shell stone and tile fragments parallel to those found in late Chersonesus on the Crimean peninsula (Jacobson, 1958, 1964). One of the stone blocks also had a tamga cut in it. According to two radiocarbon dates ( 622- 655 at 68.3% and 600-662 at 95.4 %) and ( 672 – 782 at 90.6 %), resulting from the analysis carried out by Leibnitz Laboratory of the Kiel University (Germany), Bashanta turns out to be the earliest of the urban developments in the East European steppe dating to the time of the Chasarian Kaganat. The excavations of 2000-2005 of a number of late medieval urban centers and developments in the Lower Volga, undertaken by the Khalikov Institute of Archeology of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, resulted in discovering cultural layers dating to the pre-Mongolian epoch. As a number of the recovered finds show, they may also be dated to the time
of the Chasarian Kaganat. Thus, further effort along the lines will contribute to an understanding of early medieval urbanism in the archeology of Europe.

Viking age settlement networks and the rise of the early urban centers on the Upper Volga

https://youtu.be/AplEz7h6TWs Author – academician Makarov, Nikolay, Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: large unfortified settlements,early urbanization, Upper Volga

Early urbanization of Northern Rus’, including Upper-Volga region, is usually presented as the formation of the trading centers which emerged in IX-X cc on the river routes from the Baltic to the East in connection with the Cufic silver circulation and later developed in the centers of control over the trade networks. This vision of the early urban centers of Rus’ was strongly inspired by the studies of emporia in North-Western Europe. One of the central issues of this concept is the idea of drastic contrasts between the rural sites and the early towns, both in their economical background and cultural shape. Field investigations in the Suzdal Opolie region in the Upper Volga, which constituted the core area of North-Eastern Rus’, conducted in the two recent decades, produced extensive new data on the Viking age and Medieval settlement, cultural landscapes, rural sites and early towns with the perspective of better understanding of settlement hierarchy and social contexts.
More than 100 dwelling sites with the find material of the X-th- the XI- th cc. were mapped and surveyed in Suzdal Opolie. Most important elements of this network were the «large unfortified settlements» – extensive unfortified sites or site clusters, with the area from 4 to 15 hectare.
Dwelling sites of this category produce evidence of trade, craft production and agrarian activities, as well as of prosperity and high social status of a number of the settlers. Suzdal town, known from the written sources as the main urban center in the region, became noticeable only in the XIth century. There is no evidence of its social and political importance in the X-the c. The rise of Suzdal town didn’t lead to the collapse or decay of the «large settlements». Most of them produce evidence of development and prosperity in the XI-th c.
Large unfortified settlements of Suzdal land have much in common with the sites in different regions of Rus’, which were earlier attributed as proto-urban centers or trading centers on the river routes. The difference is that the former could hardly be regarded as the sites with the «central functions». 10 dwelling sites were concentrated in considerably small area, the distance between the neighboring sites varied from 6 to 14 km. Another important point is that large unfortified settlements couldn’t have been used for the control over the water-routes. They are located on the small rivers, often – on the watersheds.
Field work at the sites of Suzdal Opolie lead to re-evaluation of the interpretation of sites, which were formerly regarded as emporia or proto-urban centers in the Upper Volga, like Timerevo and Sarskoe near Rostov. Their status in the settlement hierarchy probably was overestimated. New investigations reveal, that long-distance trade in the Upper Volga in the Viking age was not monopolized by one single center – it developed through the formation of considerable wide network of sites.

The emergence of Odense, the third largest city of Denmark. Methods, definitions and dynamics

https://youtu.be/ExRhSYHs7nc Author – Dr. Runge, Mads, Odense Bys Museer/Odense City Museums, Odense C, Denmark (Presenting author)
Keywords: Ringfort, Urbanism, Viking Age

The Viking Age and Medieval center of Odense were before the introduction of the systematical archaeology heavily destroyed by development work without prior archaeological excavation. This means that the earliest history of the town rests on fragmentized ground.
An ongoing research project responds to this and has started the chase on the earliest history of Odense. The project is based on a dynamic model for urbanism combined with new analysis on older material, among others new AMS-datings. At the same time new large-scale excavations in the city center brings new possibilities to get the most out of the remaining parts of the city’s past.
Also a new excavation at the ringfort (trelleborg) Nonnebakken is relevant in this aspect. The paper will focus on the following questions: Why is it Odense and not one of the other late iron age central places that becomes the central city? What is the significance of Nonnebakken – the only trelleborg nearby a contemporary city – in relation to the making of Odense? Or is it the ringfort that is placed by the city? May a smaller trade- and crafts area be seen as an urban phenomenon? Or must there be more to it? These questions are essential in the context of Odense, but will be used also to address central points in a principal discussion on methodologically challenges, definitions and dynamics regarding early urbanism.

More than a landing site, less than a vicus. Medieval Gasir in northern Iceland

https://youtu.be/eftKt5B7ZS4 Author – Prof. Vésteinsson, Orri, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (Presenting author)

Co-author(s) – Roberts, Howell, Institute of Archaeology, Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Co-author(s) – Gisladóttir, G , Institute of Archaeology, Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Keywords: Iceland, Medieval, Trade

Gásir is well known from historical records as the main trading site in northern Iceland in the medieval period. The site has extensive ruins and a church and when large-scale excavations began in 2001 it was expected that direct evidence would be found of exchanges between foreign merchants and native Icelanders. 6 years of meticulous excavation failed to identify much evidence for trade taking place at the site, which nevertheless has several of the attributes normally associated with emporia. This has raised questions about the nature of the site and the nature of trade in a marginal economy like Iceland’s.
The paper discusses the evidence unearthed at Gasir and places it in the context of social and economic organization in the medieval North Atlantic.

From late prehistoric harbours to medieval towns in the eastern coast of the Baltic

https://youtu.be/_p_vgwh9fXE Author – Dr. Mägi, Marika, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia (Presenting author)

Keywords: development of towns in the Eastern Baltic, late Iron Age centres, trade and communication

Although several international trade routes run through the Eastern Baltic, Viking Age hill-forts and settlements are predominantly found along Estonian northern and insular coasts, while the number of them along Latvian and Lithuanian coasts was quite modest. The situation changed in the 11th-12th centuries, as several coastal settlements were taken into intensive use. Not all of them developed into medieval towns, and some medieval towns were established in places without any prior settlement. My speech focuses on the predecessors of two present-day Eastern Baltic capitals, Tallinn and Riga. Both of them were founded as medieval towns in the first quarter of the 13th century, however it is at first glimpse the two cities’ differences that stands out. Quite a number of 12th-century archaeological remains have been uncovered in Riga, while in Tallinn no pre-13th century archaeological layer has been demonstrated below streets and walls of the Old Town so far, despite of numerous archaeological excavations. However, settlement remains were recorded a couple of hundred meters away from the Old Town of Tallinn. A closer look also reveals other similarities in the natal phase of Tallinn and Riga, e. g. adjacent hill-forts and the vicinity of probable cultplaces. Their similarities also include topographic location of the those accompanying sites, and their place in an overall culture historical complex. It depends on one’s research methods, favourite theoretical schools and later history how to interpret the sites under present-day Tallinn and Riga. Looking around in the Baltic Rim, parallels can be found for the development of these sites, while comparisons to similar settlements with somewhat different later history may be drawn on Eastern Baltic coasts. Ideas of
the origin and development of prehistoric Riga and Tallinn will accordingly be presented in my speech, placing them in a broader
international context.

 

The rural component in the early urban development of Brussels, Belgium

https://youtu.be/fanirQeWQ8k Author – Dr. Nicosia, Cristiano, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium (Presenting author)
Co-author(s) – Devos, Yannick, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium
Co-author(s) – Vrydaghs, Luc, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium
Co-author(s) – Charruadas, Pablo, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium
Co-author(s) – Degraeva, Ann, Head of the Department of Archaeological Heritage, Bruxelles, Belgium
Keywords: Bruxelles, Geoarchaeology, Urban agriculture

The study of the early development of Brussels, Belgium, has shown to be a challenge. Over the last century historians have heavily debated on the scarce existing – often very questionable – historical sources, trying to explain the emergence of this city situated along a steep slope bordering the Senne river. In the last decades, a new generation of historians underlined the importance of agricultural development and expansion as an important factor for the early development of Brussels (Charruadas, 2011).
Of course the question should be raised whether there are any archaeological data supporting this hypothesis. Despite the many interventions taking place over the last decades in the centre of Brussels, no remains of farmsteads have been recovered. But archaeologists do almost systematically encounter dark earth dating from the 10th-13th century AD, period where the historians situate the early town development.
An interdisciplinary approach has been developed to study these dark earths, involving not only historical research and archaeology, but also geoarchaeological (including soil micromorphology and physico-chemical analyses) and archaeobotanical studies. These studies highlight that several human activities can be hidden behind complex formation processes, some related to the development of an agro-pastoral system (Devos et al., 2009; 2011; 2013; Vrydaghs et al., 2016).
The present contribution will discuss the results of the study of these dark earth units, and demonstrate how they contributed to the understanding of the early town development and the importance of agricultural activities, the location of crop and pasture land, and the cultivated crops.
References:
Charruadas, P., 2011. Croissance rurale et essor urbain bruxelles. Les dynamiques d’une société entre ville et campagnes
(1000-1300) . Académie royale de Belgique, Brussels.
Devos, Y., Vrydaghs, L., Degraeve, A., Fechner, K., 2009. An archaeopedological and phytolitarian study of the “Dark Earth”
on the site of rue de Dinant (Brussels, Belgium). Catena 78, 270-284.
Devos, Y., Vrydaghs, L., Degraeve, A., Modrie, S., 2011. Unravelling Urban Stratigraphy; the Study of Brussels’ (Belgium) Dark
Earth. An Archaeopedological Perspective. Medieval and Modern Matters 2, 51-76.
Devos, Y., Nicosia, C., Vrydaghs, L., Modrie, S., 2013. Studying urban stratigraphy: Dark Earth and a microstratified sequence on
the site of the Court of Hoogstraeten (Brussels, Belgium).
Integrating archaeopedology and phytolith analysis. Quaternary International 315, 147-166. Vrydaghs, L., Devos, Y.,
Charruadas, P., Scott Cummings, L. & Degraeve, A., 2016. Agricultural Activities in the 10th–13th Century CE in Brussels (Belgium):
An Interdisciplinary Approach. In: Retamero, F., Schjellerup, I. & Davies, A. (eds.), Agricultural and Pastoral Landscapes in Pre-
Industrial Society: Choices, Stability and Change. Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp. 221-234. (=Early Agricultural Remnants and
Technical Heritage (EARTH): 8000 Years of Resilience and Innovation, 3).

An agrarian town? – understanding the earliest phase of the medieval town Odense in Denmark

 

https://youtu.be/EKRkYKZPya0 Author – PhD student Haase, Kirstine, Aarhus University, School of Culture and Society, Kolding, Denmark (Presenting author)
Keywords: Medieval archaeology, Urbanization

This paper will discuss how to understand the early development of Odense seen through the archaeological record. Is it possible to see if, how and when the town transformed from agrarian to urban during the 11th to 16th Century? Untill now the evidence of the earliest history of Odense has mainly been based on the sparse remains of a Viking Age ring fortress and written sources testifying to Odense as a place of significance from around 1000 CE. Recent large-scale excavations have offered the opportunity to study this early phase of the town from an archaeological point of view emphasizing the physical remains and change in use of space.
Up to several meters of well-preserved stratigraphy were excavated applying a strictly managed contextual method, reflexive interpretation of the formation of the cultural deposits and sampling for macro botanical, zoo archaeological and micromorphological analysis. With an extensive finds assemblage and well-preserved structures such as booths, houses, byres and stables, latrines, paths, roads, fences, manureheaps and much more the site data forms the basis for addressing the question if certain features can be distinguished as agrarian or urban and how these features change over time.

Craftspeople in emporia – the original cast. Non-ferrous metalworkers in eighth century Ribe

https://youtu.be/mFRR5SDtP-o Author – Prof. Sindbaek, Soren, Aarhus University, H jbjerg, Denmark (Presenting author)

Co-author(s) – Neiss, Michael, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Co-author(s) – Croix, Sarah, Aarhus University, H jbjerg, Denmark
Keywords: 3D laser scanning, Crafts, Urbanism

This paper argues that the organization of crafts had an imperative significance for the emergence of urban environments in early medieval emporia in Northern Europe. This is demonstrated in a re-assesment of a non-ferrous metal workshop from the eighth century excavated in Ribe, Denmark. 3D laser scans are used to classify previously unidentified mould fragments, and new identifications are offered as a result. The results show that the workshop produced a range of items including bits for horse harness, chests with elaborate locks and dress ornaments. In each case the finished product demanded a range of specialized materials, and thus presumably the skills and expertise of a group of craftsmen. This need for collaboration between specialized artisans was a vital reason why permanent communities of an urban character emerged in ports with privileged access to imported materials. This offers the basis of a revised model for the emergence of urbanism in the North Sea region.

Multimetal smithing – An urban craft in rural settings?

https://youtu.be/VYnSo6CoZos Author – Svensson, Andreas, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (Presenting author)
Keywords: Complex metalworking, Multimetality, Urban package

Multimetal smithing should be defined as the use of more than one metal and/or different metalworking techniques within the same crafts-milieu. This complex metalworking has long been linked to centrality, central places and urbanity in Scandinavia. It has been extensively argued that fine casting and smithing, as well as manufacture utilizing precious metals was exclusively undertaken within early urban settings or the “central places” pre-dating these. Furthermore, the presence of complex metal craftsmanship has been used as a driving indicator of the political, social and economic superiority of certain sites, thereby enhancing their identity as “centralities”.
Recent research has come to challenge the universality of this link between urbanity, centrality and complex metalworking as sites in rural settings with evidence of multimetal smithing are being identified. This shows that the relationship between the craft and centrality (urbanity) must be nuanced and that perhaps multimetal craftsmanship should be reconsidered as an urban indicator.
The thesis project “From Crucible and onto Anvil” started in 2015 and focuses on sites housing remains of multimetal craftsmanship dating primarily from 500-1000 AD. Within the project a comprehensive survey of sites will be used to evaluate the presence of multimetal craftsmanship in the landscape. Sites in selected target areas will also be subject to intra-site analysis focusing on workshop organisation, production output, metalworking techniques and chronological variances.
A key aim in the project is to elucidate the conceptual aspects of complex metalworking. The term multimetality is used to analytically frame all the societal and economic aspects of multimetal craftsmanship. Through this inclusive perspective both the craftsmanship and the metalworkers behind it are positioned within the overall socioeconomic framework. The metalworkers, their skills and competences as well as the products of their labour are viewed as dynamic actors in the landscape and on the arenas of political economy of the Late Iron Age.
The survey has already revealed interesting aspects concerning multimetal smithing and urbanity. Although the multimetal sites do cluster against areas of early urban development there are also other patterns emerging. Multimetal craftsmanship – both as practice and concept – was well represented in both rural peripheral settings and urban crafts-milieus. This means that the role of multimetality as part of an “urban conceptual package” is crucial to investigate. Such an approach will have the dual ends of properly understanding the craft and its societal implications, but also further the knowledge of the phenomenon of urbanity as a whole. Was multimetal smithing part of an “urban package” that spread into the rural landscape? Did the multimetality differ between urban and rural crafts-milieus? How does early urbanity relate to the chronology of multimetal craftsmanship?
This paper aims to counter these questions using examples from the survey of multimetal sites conducted within the thesis project. A comparison between selected sites will be presented. The purpose of this is to evaluate the role of multimetality within the “urban package” and discuss the role of complex metalworking in the establishment of urban arenas of interaction in Late Iron Age Scandinavia.

The Trajectory of the Productive Limfjord Region AD 600-1100 – Exploring Changing Economic Patterns

https://youtu.be/oDNOsLVcye8 Author – Christiansen, Torben Trier, Aarhus University, Arden, Denmark (Presenting author)
Keywords: Metal-detector finds, Regional spatial analysis, Socioeconomic change

Until the western exit sanded up in the early 12th century, the Limfjord (Northern Jutland) had played a central marine infrastructural role. Prior to the closing of the western exit, the fjord offered a comfortable shortcut for anyone sailing between the Kattegat and the North Sea, and the significance of the region during the Viking Age is clearly reflected in written sources as well as in the archaeological record. During the late 10th century Aggersborg, the largest of the Danish ring fortresses, was erected at the centre of the Limfjord region; and at approximately the same time the first activity is traceable at what was to become the capital of the region, the town of Aalborg, close to the eastern exit of the fjord. In addition to this, large metal-rich settlements are situated on every hill by the fjord – a dense system of villages that were presumably led by local magnates. However, despite clear signs of high economic activity and increased specialization of some crafts, there is little evidence of a regional settlement hierarchy
and centralization prior to the existence of Aggersborg and the urban development at Aalborg; and parallel to the growth of the latter, activity seems to increase in most of the neighbouring coastal villages. The general impression left by the archaeological record is one of a remarkable regional productivity during most of the first millennium AD and during the following centuries too.
This paper discusses the socioeconomic development of the region and seeks to illuminate the dynamics behind the broad regional productivity during the centuries prior to and parallel to the first urban development. Fresh results from spatial and chronological analysis of a large corpus of metal-detector finds challenge previous notions of settlement continuity and emphasize the presence of distinct regional patterns of socioeconomic change.

No town is an island

https://youtu.be/QdoTASm1HY4 Author – PhD Jessen, Mads Dengs , National Museum of Denmark, Kbh. K, Denmark (Presenting author)

Keywords: Architecture, Aristocracy, Production site

The current paper aims to highlight the differing strata of localities on which the establishment of the network of Viking Age towns rested. This is to be understood as the possible developmental dependency the bigger and perhaps more centrally positioned early towns might have had on the smaller and more resident types of localities. Special attention will be paid to the different kind of production sites which has been registered in South Scandinavia. Quite often these sites are characterized by a special type of archaeological structures and by being topographically interwoven with the more elaborate agenda of the (local) aristocracy.
The newly excavated sites of Toftum N s, Jutland (Denmark), will be presented as case in point, and the special features that have been registered here will be discussed. In particular the conspicuous architecture will figure prominently; a very sturdily built and thus high structure which can only be interpreted as a tower is placed in companion with a succession of larger hall-type buildings, and a possible ritual building. This ‘aristocratic quarter‘ is in direct contact with another area characterized by a larger pit-house cluster of more the a 100 units, and placed in the vicinity of two conjoining streams. The different structures mentioned and their internal, topographical distribution as well as architectural features will be incorporated as the main base for a functional interpretation of and motive behind the buildings and the activities pertaining to the site in general.
The topic of commercial control and what type of influence the aristocracy had on the early development on these types of sites will be included. Furthermore, the structural fluctuation of the site at Toftum N s, and in particular the changes which seems to have taken place during the 7th and 8th century, both at the site in question, but also with regards to the overall development of the Viking Age towns, will be debated in the paper.

Production and Distribution networks in the Diocese of Tuam, West of Ireland, AD 500-1000

https://youtu.be/vsGapGWCSw8 Author – Tighe, John, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Castlebar, Co. Mayo, Ireland (Presenting author)

Keywords: Church/Secular, Economic development, Trade

The discussion of early medieval urban development in Ireland is dominated by the coastal emporia of the Vikings at Dublin, Waterford etc. As vigorous the Vikings were in facilitating broad social and economic change, they were still an ethnic minority in Ireland, so it is imperative to look at sites with little or no Viking connection. There are pre-Viking ‘ports of trade’ which while similar to English wics, although seem to develop slightly earlier and not to have an organised plan.
These include sites such as Doonloughan, a coastal site where exchange happened in the eighth century. The primary mode of the production of crops is thought to have been by buying in the grain, as there is a lack of evidence for on-site production with the grain samples excavated being entirely free of chaff. The site, and possibly others like it were not permanently used, but seems to have been occupied between late spring and early autumn, the very same as the main sailing season for much of Europe.
This form of exchange may have been brought into fruition as increased specialisation of production coupled with increased opportunities to exchange. This may have had a direct impact on the decline of the importance of the cow can be seen as a move away from the type of economy, widespread in pre-Roman Europe, where an items value was bestowed upon it not because of its intrinsic value, like that of the silver economy which the Vikings helped to develop, but in its cultural value. The silver bracelets found at places like Cushalogurt, Co. Mayo and Portumna, Co. Galway could indicate a much richer trade network through peripheral Ireland, or at least a heavier Viking presence in the area than previously thought.
While the terminology of ecclesiastical sites, particularly the use of ‘civitas’ to describe sites such as Kildare, has smudged the idea of what constituted urban in this context, it is clear that these establishments acted as centres of production and distribution, in a way that ringforts could not in the unstable political milieu of the day. This research is focused on the Diocese of Tuam, centred on Tuam, which was a centre of exchange in this period, with a high cross being erected to delineate the boundary of the secular and the ecclesiastical. The role of the church in providing centres of production and manufacture cannot be doubted, especially in the unstable and fragmented political milieu of early medieval Ireland.
While market exchange was seen as primarily an urban phenomenon, sites such as Doonloughan and Tuam have shown that despite the west of Ireland being largely ignored when talking about the Early Medieval Irish economy, its peripheral nature then and now, mitigates the problem of modern urban development that is common, particularly among the environments of formerly Viking emporia. I hope, through this work, to provide a framework for further investigation of the early medieval economy, not only within Ireland, but also for other comparable regions of Europe.

Early medieval urban life in the Low Countries before the 10th-11th c.: approaches and problems

https://youtu.be/nFbE1Q6aIsk Author – Professor Dries, Tys, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium (Presenting author)
Keywords: diversity, Low Countries, Research

The Low Countries were together with Northern Italy the most heavily urbanized regions of the medieval world. The origin and understanding of this phenomenon has been debated in a long and impressive historiographical debate, involving famous scholars like Pirenne, Weber, Verhulst and others.
Today we agree that the take-off of the successful towns can be related to the organisation and stimulus of trade in the context of power in the 10th and 11th centuries. The debate remains however on how to understand the evolution and character of the urban phenomenon before the 10th-11th century. This debate will always tend to suffer from both teleological thinking towards the road of success and the stress on the question of continuity between Roman centres and later towns. The main problem regarding our archaeological understanding of urban life, fabric and functions seems to be that they can have totally different material translations that might be not always be recognisable from the modern perspective. The question is therefor maybe what different forms urban life and functions could have and which methods we need to identify these.

A town in the making – exploring early urbanity of Copenhagen through the study of social practices

https://youtu.be/33P1u5wqVI8 Author – MA Dahlström, Hanna, Aarhus University, Højbjerg, Denmark (Presenting author)
Keywords: iron processing, social practices, urbanity

Classical ways of defining urbanity are ill-matched with the early  phases of a developing town, and indeed often with the archaeological source material at hand. New ways to describe urbanity in a way that is easier to recognize through archaeology are called for. In my PhD-project I explore some new aspects to this problem by studying urbanity through social practices in the first phases of the developing town of Copenhagen, Denmark. One of these areas concerns crafting, specifically iron processing. Through four areas of study, I analyse the material remains of social practices undertaken on the site of Town Hall Square c. AD 1050-1300. This paper will discuss the two questions: What can the study of social practices connected to the iron processing activities, in combination with technical analyses, reveal of urban development, of people and networks involved in the iron handling? And what can the role of iron processing have been for the early development of Copenhagen?

Small town in medieval Russia: the ratio of agricultural, craft and administrative functions

https://youtu.be/Sf1QNpDZZ3o Author – Koval, Vladimir, Institute of archaeology RAS, Voscow, Russian Federation (Presenting author)
Keywords: administrative function, agrarian towns, small towns

Small towns in medieval Russia remains one of the most mysterious phenomena. Unlike the cities of Europe and the Orient, the medieval (11-16 cc.) Rower structures founded towns in Russia primarily as administrative points. Therefore agricultural component of their life was most vital.
However, these towns soon transformed to centers of trade and crafts. If this transformation did not occur, town became unviable died quickly. But the ruralization of life persisted in many towns to the 20th c.


Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Article 50 Solves Europe's Problems with Metal Detecting


Article 50 will be activated by a rabid Tory suicide squad today:


At least that solves Europe's metal detectorist problem. Goodbye ECMD.


Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2017.03.50: Les hommes illustres de la ville de Rome. Collection des universités de France. Série latine, 410

Review of Paul Marius Martin, Les hommes illustres de la ville de Rome. Collection des universités de France. Série latine, 410. Paris: 2016. Pp. xc, 197. €45.00 (pb). ISBN 9782251014708.

2017.03.49: Euripides and the Gods. Onassis series in Hellenic culture

Review of Mary Lefkowitz, Euripides and the Gods. Onassis series in Hellenic culture. New York: 2016. Pp. xviii, 294. $45.00. ISBN 9780199752058.

2017.03.48: Personification and the Feminine in Roman Philosophy

Review of Alex Dressler, Personification and the Feminine in Roman Philosophy. New York: 2016. Pp. xiii, 312. $99.99. ISBN 9781107105966.

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

Bogoyavlensk et ses environs (Enquête historique et archéologique)

I. A. Snytko, V. A. Kas’janovskij (2012) : Богоявленск и его окрестности (историко-археологический очерк) / Bogojavlensk i ego okrestnosti (istoriko-arheologicheskij ocherk), Nikolaïev, [Bogoyavlensk et ses environs (Enquête historique et archéologique)]. Ce petit livre présente l’histoire antique de ce village, absorbé … Lire la suite

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Ανασκαφικά νομίσματα από ένα πανελλήνιο ιερό. Η περίπτωση της Ολυμπίας

April 03, 2017 - 10:47 AM - SEMINAR Αλίκη Μουστάκα (Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης)

Compitum - publications

M. Kulikowski, The Triumph of Empire: The Roman World from Hadrian to Constantine

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Michael Kulikowski, The Triumph of Empire: The Roman World from Hadrian to Constantine, Cambridge [MA], 2016.

Éditeur : Harvard University Press
400 pages
ISBN : 9780674659612
35 $

 

The Triumph of Empire takes readers into the political heart of imperial Rome and recounts the extraordinary challenges overcome by a flourishing empire. Michael Kulikowski's history begins with the reign of Hadrian, who visited the farthest reaches of his domain and created stable frontiers, and spans to the decades after Constantine the Great, who overhauled the government, introduced a new state religion, and founded a second Rome.

Lire la suite...

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Archeometria e Beni Culturali: il contributo delle geoscienze

A Pisa dal 4 al 6 settembre 2017 si terrà il Congresso congiunto della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrografia, Società Geologica Italiana, Associazione Italiana di Vulcanologia e Società Geochimica italiana, dal titolo “Geosciences: a tool in a changing world” .

metaFAD Sistema di gestione integrata dei Beni Culturali

Il 30 marzo presso il Mibact, Sala spadolini, sarà presentato un prodotto open source denominato "metaFAD", un sistema di gestione integrata per i Beni Culturali. A seguire troverà spazio un workshop sulle caratteristiche tecniche della piattaforma.

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Religious processions and memory spaces in Byzantine Constantinople

April 03, 2017 - 8:51 AM - UPPER HOUSE SEMINAR Dr Vicky Manolopoulou (University of Newcastle)

Kristina Killgrove (Forbes)

'Bones' Season 12, Episode 12 Review - The End In The End (Series Finale)

A biological anthropologist reviews Season 12, Episode 12 ('The End in the End') of FOX's 'Bones,' summarizing the episode and looking for errors.

Shawn Graham (Electric Archaeology)

Archaeoglitch: A Bot Glitching Archaeological Photography

You might not have noticed, but it’s conference season for the poor benighted denizens of @tinyarchae, Susan, Anton, Maurizio and the rest. Recently, their horrible dystopia of a project has (as is often the case in archaeology) unleashed various eldritch horrors on the world.

In 2017, we really can’t expect much more, I suppose.

In any event, the pressure is getting to them; you might have heard some maniacal laughter emanating from various quarters of that project. Indeed, it would seem that Bastet, Cthulu, or some other Old One is warping space time, as pieces of the excavation archive (principally the photos) leak onto the webs

 

 

… the end is nigh…

 

~o0o~

Ok, enough with my two-bit awful prose. What’s going on here? I’ve been playing with remixing some of the twitter bots hosted at glitch.com. My bot is at https://brave-insect.glitch.me but that’s just the boring bit facing outwards that doesn’t show you anything. The real action is behind the scenes. Remix the code here and follow this tutorial to get your own bot running (and to understand more of how glitch works).

Now, the thing with my bot is that I wanted it to grab images automagically from Open Context via its api. Eric at Open Context helped me craft a search for fairly innocuous stuff (I didn’t want to mess around with human remains, for instance). The idea was that my bot would grab from the API, then it would glitch the image and then tweet the thing out. This automagic I could not manage.

Instead, I grabbed all the images (just 50 to start with) with wget, and used a small ruby script to do the glitching. You can find that script & a command at the terminal to pass it over every file in the folder here. Then I dragged the images into the ‘assets’ folder at my twitter bot’s glitch page, and hey presto, a twitter bot tweeting pictures of the altered reality of the World of Tinyarchae.

Two last things –

  • I ended up having to drag my images one at a time. Glitch.com is still a work in progress, and I seem to have borked the uploader
  • to get the twitter bot to actually post, you have to load up the forward-facing page as well as the end point. I have a free cron job thingy set up to do that once a day. We’ll see.
  • Ok, I lied. Three things. The first batch of ‘normal’ images I uploaded just to play with the code (leaving the glitching aside, I was) are still in there somewhere, even though I deleted them. They live on, like ghosts, and so keep turning up in the twitter feed. A glitched glitchbot.

Archaeological photography is something I have no skill at whatsoever (but see Colleen’s stuff, for someone who does!). There is a *lot* that goes on, both methodologically and theoretically, in the creation of a photographic record of objects, contexts, etc. Glitching plays with that, and throws up some interesting questions, which I’ll muse about later. Right now, I just wanted to get the damned bot working.


Archaeology Magazine

Assyrian Tomb Discovered in Iraq

ERBIL, IRAQ—A vaulted brick tomb dating to between the ninth and seventh centuries B.C. was discovered by construction workers in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, according to a report in Live Science. The tomb was situated near the ancient city of Arbela, where an important temple of Ishtar, the Assyrian goddess of war, was located. Goran M. Amin of the Directorate of Antiquities in Erbil, the modern name for Arbela, said that two skeletons were found in three ceramic sarcophagi within the tomb, while an additional eight skeletons were found on the ground. More than 40 intact jars of different shapes and sizes were also recovered. Similar tombs, built for elites, have been found in other Assyrian cities such as Nimrud. “Sometimes the tombs have been opened several times, when they wanted to bury new dead members of the family,” added Dishad Marf Zamua of Salahaddin University. To read in-depth about excavations in this area, go to “Erbil Revealed.”

Switzerland Will Return Roman Sarcophagus to Turkey

Turkey sarcophagus repatriation

GENEVA, SWITZERLAND—According to an Associated Press report, a private cultural goods importer has agreed to the return of a Roman sarcophagus to Turkey. The marble sarcophagus, found in a customs-office warehouse in Geneva seven years ago, dates to the second century B.C., and is carved with images of the 12 labors of Hercules. It is thought to have been plundered in the 1960s from Antalya’s ancient town of Perga. The sarcophagus will go on display before it is transferred to the Archaeological Museum in Antalya. To read about a recent discovery in Turkey, go to “Figure of Distinction.”

Cannonballs Uncovered at Pittsburgh Construction Site

Pittsburgh Allegheny ArsenalPITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA—According to a report in The Tribune-Review, at least 20 Civil War–era cannonballs were discovered at a construction site in northeast Pittsburgh, where the Allegheny Arsenal once stood. The first cannonballs were spotted in the bucket of a piece of excavation machinery. “Lo and behold, there were a lot more in the hole,” said Sonya Toler, public safety spokeswoman. She added that there are more cannonballs than can be safely removed at one time, so an officer has been placed on the site to protect it until all of the cannonballs can be removed. “These cannonballs are pretty stable,” Toler explained. “We don’t expect one will be accidentally detonated.” For more on archaeology of the Civil War, go to “Letter from Virginia: Free Before Emancipation.”

March 28, 2017

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

Could we make the Roman Forum better?

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This evening I went to a ‘conversation’ at the American Academy in Rome between Ian Hodder and Andrea Carandini (two titans of archaeology, you might say, but coming from rather different directions).

There were all kinds of interesting things that came up. Hodder was particularly sharp on the issues of digging in a foreign country (what version of colonialism is that? or of multiculturalism for that matter?) and on how you engage local people in any kind of archaeological project (how do you prevent a dig becoming a no go zone for the residents?). Carandini enthused about his discoveries in the Roman Forum (on which we have clashed in the past, and he was very generous).

But one underlying theme was what we thought a ‘heritage site’ could offer to general intelligent visitors. There are all kinds of bad example in every country. To be honest, my last visit to Stonehenge (admittedly several years ago) could not have been much worse. My question at the discussion was: what three things might we do (money no object) to enhance a visit to the Roman Forum?

Carandini talked about having screens in the evening telling the exciting stories of these sites (non invasively). Hodder asked us to wonder about  how far we might let some sites go (can we actually preserve all the bits of the past we excavate? no). One experienced tour guide in the audience suggested putting more gravel down to dampen the dust that got in everyone’s eyes. I thought that it would be good to open the churches that surround the forum, so you could enter them from the site (breaking down, following Hodder, the archaeological zone and reuniting it with the city).

But any ideas, people? How would YOU improve a visit to the Forum? Or are you happy already?

The Tesserae Project Blog

Bigram Co-occurrence Patterns in Latin Authors using PMI

Measuring the co-occurrence patterns of words with pointwise mutual information (PMI) can help identify bigram word-pairs that are unusually represented in the work of a given author. By comparing the PMI values of the Latin epic corpus to the PMI … Continue reading

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Hypnos: Revista do Centro de Estudos da Antiguidade

[First posted in AWOL 15 April 2011. Updated 28 March 2017]

Hypnos: Revista do Centro de Estudos da Antiguidade
ISSN: 2177-5346
http://revistas.pucsp.br/public/site/images/portalrevistas/hypnos.png
A Hypnos é, qualitativa e quantitativamente, uma revista de Filosofia Greco-romana. Busca ampliar, também, o diálogo com outros saberes da Antiguidade Clássica, hoje bem delineados em nossas Universidades: Literatura Clássica, História Greco-romana, História das Religiões, Línguas Clássicas etc. Acreditamos que a cultura Greco-romana deve ser assumida pelos estudiosos em Filosofia com o máximo de abrangência. A Editoria persegue esse objetivo e procurará publicar, sempre que possível, não só os textos sobre Filosofia Greco-romana mas as pesquisas literárias, linguísticas, históricas, psicológicas, antropológicas e outras condizentes com esse período histórico. A extensão da cultura grega e romana antigas faz com que as atuais divisões acadêmicas sejam uma necessidade, mas não uma regra que venha a limitar o investigador, filósofo ou não. Por isso, a Hypnos apresenta largos limites para a recepção desses estudos. Basicamente, esta revista é um veículo de auxílio para a interação dos estudos Greco-romanos brasileiros e não brasileiros.













1996




Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Una mostra in onore di Riccardo Francovich

Il 30 marzo sarà inaugurata una mostra e un ciclo di eventi per ricordare Riccardo Francovich, lo studioso scomparso dieci anni fa fondatore dell’archeologia medievale e precursore dell’utilizzo delle tecnologie informatiche.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open access Journal: Zeitschriften der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft

[First posted in AWOL 21 April 2009. Updated 28 March 2017 (recent content added)]

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
ISSN: 0341-0137
Image result for Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
Die älteste und weltweit bekannteste Veröffentlichung der DMG ist ihre international zitierte Zeitschrift (ZDMG). Der 1. Band erschien 1847 als ein den gesamten deutschen Sprachraum umfassendes Organ der Orientalistik. Unterbrochen wurde das regelmäßige Erscheinen der Zeitschrift nur durch zeitbedingte Wechselfälle der deutschen Geschichte. Von Anfang an nutzten deutsche und ausländische Gelehrte die Zeitschrift, um Ergebnisse ihrer Forschungen darzulegen.

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    “Burned without pity” – the fake quotation taken back to 1930!

    A few weeks ago, I discussed a fake quotation attributed to Pope Innocent III:

    Anyone who attempts to construe a personal view of God which conflicts with church dogma must be burned without pity.

    These kinds of “quotes” are often derived from opinions by modern writers, which someone has then turned into a quote by the object of the opinion.  And so it proved; it was a quote from Peter Tompkins, The Magic of Obelisks.

    But a correspondent then pointed out that the phrase appeared earlier, in the English translation of a book by Frenchman Maurice Magre, in 1931.  The US title was “Magicians, Seers and Mystics”; the UK title “Return of the Magi”, London, 1930.

    This I have now obtained, and as it is public domain, I have uploaded it to Archive.org here.  And indeed this is correct – on p.60, our “quote” appears.

    Three terrible figures dominate the great Albigensian massacre. For the massacre to be possible, it was necessary that an extraordinary genius for violence, for organisation, and for hypocrisy, should take shape in three men, who were all equally devoid of pity and, possibly, equally sincere in their hatred of heresy and love of the Church.

    It was Pope Innocent III who, with obstinate determination, desired and decided on the crusade. The murder of the papal legate Pierre de Castelnau was only a pretext. Historians are unanimous in gloryifing this pope. To them the great men of history are men who do something, who have a powerful will and exert it to attain an aim. It makes no difference whether the aim is sublime or abominable; it is success in attaining the aim which gives the measure of genius.

    As soon as he was elected pope, in all his public utterances Innocent III began to talk of ” exterminating the impious.” It was the dominating idea of his life, and he realised it wholeheartedly. He had a deep-rooted conviction that any man who attempted to build up a personal view of God which conflicted with the dogma of the Church must be burned without pity at the stake.

    Italics mine.

    No reference or source is given for the claim.

    The author appears to be an occultist.  A chapter is devoted to the supposed origins of Rosicrucianism, recited uncritically; another to a biography of Apollonius of Tyana, equally uncritically given.  The prose style of the author is that of a historian; the content is nonsense.

    With luck, this is the final origin of this striking phrase.

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    US State Dept. Halts Press Briefings


     The US State Department has stopped holding press briefings, The Wall Street Journal reported on Monday. Officials told the newspaper that State will not hold video briefings for at least two weeks. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and his agency have been under fire in recent weeks over a lack of press access.

    AIA Fieldnotes

    Jarvie Fest

    Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
    Sponsored by Bureau of Land Management - Vernal Field Office
    Event Type (you may select more than one): 
    nad
    Start Date: 
    Saturday, October 14, 2017

    The Bureau of Land Management invites members of the public to the 2017 Jarvie Fest, a family friendly community event, to be held Oct. 14, 2016 from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. at Daggett County's Brown's Park. 

    Location

    Name: 
    David Christensen
    Call for Papers: 
    no

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Aufzeichnungen von Mark Lidzbarski (1868–1928) : aus den Nachlässen der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft

    Aufzeichnungen von Mark Lidzbarski (1868–1928) : aus den Nachlässen der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft / Autor Ludmila Hanisch ; aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben von Pierre Motylewicz und Ute Pietruschka ; erstellt am Orientalischen Institut der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
    Go to page
    Abstract

    The for the most part unexplored scholarly materials compiled by the renowned scholar of Semitic studies Mark Lidzbarski during his life (1868 – 1928) are part of the valuable collections of the library of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Ludmila Hanisch engaged herself intensively in these materials and presents unpublished sources concerning Lidzbarski. Hanisch’s (1947 – 2015) work focused on Islamic studies and the history of scholarship. She contributed immensely to the understanding of the German oriental studies of the late 19th and early 20th century. The present paper is a posthumously published overview of Lidzbarski’s estate by Ludmila Hanisch.

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Ancient palace complex discovered in Mexican Valley of Oaxaca

    A pair of archaeologists with the American Museum of Natural History has unearthed a palatial...

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Monograph Series: Oriental Institute Seminars (OIS)

    [First posted in AWOL 30 October 2015, updated 28 March 2017]

    Oriental Institute Seminars (OIS)
    ISSN: 1559-2944
    The Oriental Institute yearly appoints a Postdoctoral Fellow for a twenty-four month (non-renewable) appointment. Postdoctoral Fellows are selected from an international pool of applicants, based on their proposals to organize a two-day conference at the Oriental Institute. The conferences address important theoretical or methodological issues in the field of ancient studies — archaeological, text-based, and/or art historical avenues of research. The Oriental Institute encourages cross-disciplinary proposals that deal with the ancient Near East (including Egypt) or that compare the Near East with other cultural areas. The conferences generally have 12–16 participants, and take place annually in the beginning of March during the first year of the Postdoctoral Fellow’s appointment. Following the conference, the Postdoctoral Fellow assembles and edits the proceedings for publication in the Oriental Institute Seminar series. During the second year of the appointment, the Postdoctoral Fellow will assist in organizing a series of faculty seminars at the Oriental Institute and other activities that build interaction and collaboration within the scholarly community. The Postdoctoral Fellow is expected to pursue his or her own research while in residence and to interact closely with the Oriental Institute community. The Postdoctoral Fellow may also, if he or she wishes, teach a course while in residence if approved by the OI/NELC faculty. [Source]

    For an up to date list of all Oriental Institute publications available online see:

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    CJ-Online Review ~ The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature: Volume 1: 800-1558

    The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature: Volume 1: 800-1558. Edited by Rita Copeland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. Pp.xii +758. Hardcover, $235. ISBN 978-0-19-958723-0.

    Reviewed by Kathleen Burt, Middle Georgia State University

    This volume is chronologically first, but fourth to appear, in a series of five volumes intended “to offer a comprehensive investigation of the numerous and diverse ways in which literary texts of the classical world have been responded to and refashioned by English writers.” (ii) Volume 1 covers the years 800 through 1558 ce, and consists of 28 chapters by a variety of established scholars and 7 detailed bibliographies concerning a variety of primary and secondary sources, ancient through humanist. The introduction which makes up the first chapter sets parameters for the collection, and defines key terms and concepts including ‘classical reception’, and ‘reception history’ which are the guiding forces throughout the book. Other assumptions and corollaries consider historical categorizations such as ‘classical’ and ‘antiquity’. Education, medieval Christianity and philosophy, and the emergence of humanism in the late 14th century are introduced as lenses that will appear in later chapters.

    Chapters 2-5, by Rita Copeland, Marjorie Curry Woods, and Winston Black, relate to education, concentrating on the presence of classical authors in the medieval classroom and connections to the seven liberal arts. Chapters 6 and 7, by James Willoughby and Nicolette Zeeman, consider transmission and collections, while Chapters 8 by Rita Copeland discusses how classical authors are presented in medieval prologues (accesus). Chapters 9-12, by Jan M. Ziolkowski, Suzanne Conklin Akbari, Alfred Hiatt, and Winthrop Wetherbee, consider how individual authors (Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, Statius) were preserved and how their works influenced medieval thinkers and writers. Chapters 13-17, by Marilynn Desmond, Ian Cornelius, Charles F. Briggs, Cam Grey, and Ad Putter, examine genres of literature and philosophy in mostly historical terms (Troy, Boethius’ De Consolatione, wisdom literature, historiography-biography, late classical Biblical epics) and Chapters 18 (by Dallas G. Gentry II) and 20-22 (by Alastair Minnis, Andrew Galloway, and Robert R. Edwards) discuss specific medieval authors’ use of classical literature (John of Salisbury and Cicero, Geoffrey Chaucer and classicism, John Gower and Ovid, John Lydgate and classical epic). Chapter 19, by Emily Steiner, presents the presence of classical topics and authors in the distinctly medieval English tradition of alliterative poetry. Chapters 23-24 by Daniel Wakelin and, and James P. Carley and Ágnes Juhász-Ormsby, review general early humanism, while 25-28, by David R. Carlson, Nicola Royan, Cathy Shrank, and James Simpson, discuss a variety of early humanist authors and their classical connections (John Skelton, Gavin Douglas, Sir Thomas Wyatt, Henry Howard).

    The opening chapter (“Introduction: England and the Classics from the Early Middle Ages to Early Humanism” by Rita Copeland) reflects both the attention to detail and the challenges of the collection overall. The overall goal of the volume is to cast “its nets both wide and deep to assess the pervasiveness of classical knowledge in the medieval period and to understand the abiding force of medieval classicisms among early humanists” (2). In this, the collection succeeds. The range of subjects and connections is indeed broad, and each individual essay is a focused, in-depth examination of its particular topic.

    The biggest frustration is the lack of a clear organizing principle for the essays. The introduction uses the guiding question “How did the medieval publics engage seriously and often profoundly with antiquity in ways that exceed the record of translation and other visible forms of literary reception such as imitation?” (5) to set up the initial exploration of the complexities of the concepts to be addressed. Exploring the transmission of knowledge in a variety of forms is a worthwhile and admirable goal, but even as the collection overall accurately reflects and explores the complexities of the question, they also reflect its messy nature. For example, Chapters 16-20 cover historiography and biography from the sixth through twelfth centuries (Ch.16), late classical Biblical epic and Prudentius (Ch.17), John of Salisbury and rhetoric and dialectic in the twelfth century (Ch.18), alliterative English poetry in the late fourteenth century with inspiration and foundations in classical sources (Ch.19), and Chaucer (Ch.20). Chapters 17 and Chapter 20 are out of order in a chronological arrangement, 16 and 19 do not fit into an author-focused pattern, and 18 and 20 don’t fit a scheme organized around genre. The guiding question posed in the introduction and the opening conceptual review fit all of these essays, but the essays are each so focused on their individual area that the shared generality gets muddled.

    This collection is more for advanced students and scholars of medieval English literature than for general reference. Latin is always translated, while older English is translated in some cases, but not in others. For example, David Carlson’s chapter on John Skelton (25) only provides occasional vocabulary glossing, while Emily Steiner’s chapter on alliterative poetry (19) fully translates the Middle English. This difference may be due to Skelton being a later writer and thus using English more likely to be recognized, but without prior understanding of the conventions of early sixteenth century English, his poetry may still pose difficulties.

    Assumptions of conceptual knowledge are similarly geared towards those with backgrounds in medieval English language and literature. For example, the term auctor, which has specific implications in medieval literature, would likely be familiar to a more advanced student or scholar, but the nuances would not be apparent to a general audience as the term goes undefined. On the other hand, accessus is defined in the introduction, and also more specifically explained in Chapter 8. These assumptions would not be a problem for someone with experience with medieval literature, but would be problematic for someone needing a general reference.

    Overall this collection offers a valuable although at times disconnected investigation into the many ways that the mostly Latin classics passed through Anglo Saxon England into the reign of Henry the VIII. Although targeting medievalists and students of English literature, the discussions concerning transmission and reception are valuable to anyone interested in how English literature adapted and engaged with classical literature.


    Posted with permission …

    ©2017 by The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. All rights reserved.

    CJ-Online Reviews Archive


    Thibaud Fournet et al. (Balneorient)

    Dossier « Le hammam en Méditerranée » disponible sur revues.org

    Nous annoncions en oct. 2015 la parution d’un dossier thématique de la revue Insaniyat sur « le hammam en Méditerranée« . Ce riche dossier est désormais entièrement accessible en ligne.

    Présentation du dossier (extrait)

    (Khedidja Adel & Nouria Benghabrit Remaoun)

    Ce numéro d’Insaniyat est consacré au bain communément appelé « hammam » ou « bain-maure ». En l’abordant aujourd’hui, nous mettons au cœur de nos préoccupations la question du patrimoine matériel et immatériel des soins du corps. Microcosme et héritage séculaire de la culture en méditerranée, le hammam n’en est pas moins aussi un vecteur de la mémoire collective. Cette livraison bénéficie, en grande partie, des recherches sur le hammam menées dans le cadre d’un partenariat euro-méditerranéen, piloté par l’Institut viennois du développement durable (Oikodrom). Ce projet « HAMMAM », auquel ont pris part plusieurs partenaires dont le CRASC, visait l’étude de ce lieu controversé dans les deux régions du Maghreb et du Machreq. Il a réuni des chercheurs d’horizons disciplinaires divers, avec comme perspective une analyse du hammam dans son environnement, pour développer des programmes de réhabilitation comme ce fut le cas des hammams : Seffarine (fes), Amounah (Damas) et Tanbali (Le Caire).

    Les contributions portent sur cet espace de sociabilité dans différents contextes géographiques et sociologiques. Au-delà de la question de l’hygiène et de la relation au corps, évoquée par Abdelwahab Bouhdiba, le hammam révèle une certaine conception du monde et des relations sociales. (lire la suite)

    Enseigne du hammam as-Selselah à Damas (Th. Fournet 2009)

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    CJ-Online Review ~ Ovid: A Poet on the Margins

    Ovid: A Poet on the Margins. By Laurel Fulkerson. Classical World Series. London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2016. Pp. xiv + 104. Paperback ISBN 978-1-47253-134-6, 978-1-4752-734-9 and 978-1-4752-317-4.

     
    Reviewed by Jo-Marie Claassen, University of Stellenbosch

     
    The concise format required for Bloomsbury’s Classical World Series offers a unique challenge to any author brave enough to venture a representative introduction to one of the most prolific and versatile, if not slippery, members of the Latin poetic canon. Fulkerson more than meets the challenge, managing to include clear applications of most of the more recent literary theories to the very slipperiness of Ovid’s style and multifaceted versatility. Fulkerson’s Preface explains that she sees Ovid “as animated by a unified set of concerns… rather than as a man destroyed by circumstances” and that the book is more “a study of poetics … than a biography”. All this is pitched, so her Acknowledgements, at a level that will ensure that “normal people might enjoy reading [it]” (xii). Throughout Fulkerson signposts her own arguments with reference to both what went before and what she is to discuss next.

    To the extent that undergraduates and other less initiated students of Latin poetry are also “normal people,” this slight book offers them an ideal introduction to Ovid’s life and works, with emphasis, as the title implies, on all those aspects that set Ovid aside from the “normal” in Roman literature. Three chapters, with subdivisions, cover Ovid’s life story and contemporary historical background, his style (with emphasis on his use of repetition), and his allure as an exemplum of victimization and marginality.

    Chapter 1, “Life on the Margins” (1-27) starts with Ovid’s banishment, working back to a schematic chronology that offers at a glance (4) a complete list of his works set against the major literary and historical events of his time. This is followed by a brief discussion of his literary output that combines brief overviews of content with concise stylistic discussion. Next, the historical context of his poetry is offered through the filter of Ovid’s final status as “an outsider, looking yearningly at Rome” (18). Augustan Rome and the Augustan settlement, including his marriage laws, get due emphasis, ending with a provocative, short comparison between the poet and the prince that points out similarities (both were “shap[ing] the world to [their] own image”) and differences (Ovid served as Augustus’ “negative mirror reflection”) (26).

    Fulkerson’s style is evocative of that of her subject: the chapter ends with a striking apothegm: “Ovid for his part needed both to be understood and to be misunderstood” (27). Such a very Ovidian paradox may puzzle a tyro; a teacher who is also an expert in Ovidian studies will need to guide undergraduates toward fully understanding Fulkerson’s arguments.

    Chapter 2, “Repetition-compulsion and Ovidian excess” (29-58) covers the most salient aspects of Ovid’s style, starting with another paradox as sub-heading: “Now you see him, now you still see him: Ovidian style and metre”. The content is, however, clearly aimed at the non-initiated (the “normal people” of Fulkerson’s Acknowledgements), starting with a concise explanation of ancient poetic conventions (including metrics and generic range) and Ovid’s adaptation of these conventions. Next, Ovid’s style proper is addressed, with due emphasis on his apparent simplicity that hides subtle complexities. Throughout Fulkerson illustrates her various points by reference to, rather than quotations from, the whole range of Ovid’s poetry, both individual elegies and episodes from the Metamorphoses. Ovid’s debt to his own rhetorical training (such as his explorations of alternatives that suggest inconsistency) is duly noted, also salient aspects of modern criticism of his style (for instance, his ubiquitous “absent presences”, a term first coined by Philip Hardie). Discussion includes Ovid’s narrators, narrative transition, his manipulation of readerly perceptions and the intrusion of comment that undercuts what went before.

    The second half of the chapter considers Ovid’s frequent reworking of his own topics and themes as well as the “recycling” (sic, page 49) of the poetry, both words and themes, of others. Discussion of Ovidian revision (explicitly claimed as such, merely mooted, or either noted or just suspected by modern critics) includes his generic adaptation of the same material in, for instance, both the Amores and the Ars, or the Fasti and the Metamorphoses. Fulkerson gives due acknowledgement to feminists’ concern about Ovid’s repetition, with slight differences, of disturbing tales of rape in the earlier books of his epic. Finally, Fulkerson summarises various critical approaches to what she terms “repetition and repetitiveness”, ending with an own considered judgement of the appeal that his poetry has had through two millennia.

    The third and final chapter (59-87) gives due emphasis to what (fortuitously) has been this reviewer’s abiding interest: the universality with which Ovid’s exilic yearning represents the feelings of all those on the margins, with more than a nod also to the concerns of post-colonial literary theory, as implied in its title, “Romans at home and abroad: Identity and the colonial subject”. The first subsection deals with Ovid’s penchant for “narratives of individuals out of place, taken away from the familiar”, either temporarily displaced, or permanently outcast (as he was himself). Refugees of all kinds are considered, such as the innocent Evander in Fasti 1, or the (in some way) “guilty” Dido, Medea and Ariadne of the Heroides. The next subsection treats of “victims and victimizers” and Ovid’s portrayal of loss of speech as a frequent punishment of “female and other victims”. Again the concerns of feminist readers are briefly treated: why would Ovid so often portray women as victims, and why would there be a “disjunction between Ovid’s compassion and his exploitation” of the victims’ pain, as in the gory details in the story of Philomela, Procne and Tereus?

    This section ends with reference to literary theorists’ ideas regarding Ovid’s equation of women with poetic material, his verbal voyeurism and his metaphorical portrayal of women as “unexplored territory”. Criticism of the differences in approach to pleasing the opposite sex between Ars 1-2 and 3 (where women are advised to become complaisant in their own victimisation) leads to a further consideration of Ovid’s apparent concern with status-based relationships at Rome. Fulkerson notes the suggestion that elite males’ anxiety about erosion of their own power under Augustus may have served as “one of the wellsprings of elegy” (75). Next Fulkerson returns to Ovid’s portrayal of “victims that become villains”, such as Procne and Philomela, or Daedalus in his treatment of his own nephew, from which she turns to speculation about the degree to whichOvid saw himself less as victim of injustice than as some form of perpetrator.

    Her final subsection illustrates the joint topics of empire and colonialism with reference to Ovid’s own view of himself as loyal Roman, his apparently guileless celebration of Roman civic life and politics, but also the way in which his own undercutting (or not?) of his professed loyalty has led critics to wonder about his attitude to Augustus. Fulkerson ends with two observations: that Ovid and Augustus “each intruded into the sphere of the other” (86), and that “each generation creates its own Ovid to suit its particular concerns” (87). For her, the twenty-first century is very “Ovidian” in its suspicion of authoritarian power-relations.

    Fulkerson’s list for “Further reading[s]” (89-92) is necessarily short in such a slight volume, as are her “Glossary of proper names and Latin terms” (93-9) and brief Index of topics (with page references, 101-4). The latter two rubrics could perhaps have been combined, but not much space would have been saved. In all, this is an admirable first guide to Ovid that also rewards reading by more advanced Ovidian scholars for the breadth of topics Fulkerson covers.


    Posted with permission …

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    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Updates from The Digital Press: Digital Infrastructure

    One of the biggest challenges for The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota is developing (or more properly discovering) the digital infrastructure necessary to support robust and persistent digital context to complement the traditional books. As long as books are just volumes distributed via Amazon in paper or made available as PDFs, a relatively simple system works. 

    The challenges get bigger when it comes to coordinating media that exists as both a book – either in paper or in some simple digital form. As a mid-sized institutions going through some pretty significant budget cuts, we don’t have the resources to support an in-house repository (yet!), as a result, I need to use services and resources already available on the open web. Sorting this all out will be particularly significant in the next few weeks as two nearly completed projects require supplemental material. 

    My instinct is to use the Internet Archive to support my relatively modest needs. For example, I am almost ready to announce that I will be publishing Corinth Excavations’ Archaeological Manual. This will be the first major, published excavation manual from a project in the Mediterranean published in the last 40 years (probably since the last edition of Dever and Lance’s A Manual of Field Excavation in the early 1980s). The book will include a digital supplement which includes the forms the the Archaeological Manual recommends using in the field. These will be reproduced in the slim book (around 170 pages), but at a size appropriate for the rather narrow (8.5 x 5.5) volume. In the supplemental material, we will make them available at full size to download. Since the entire volume will be CC 4.0-By, the plan is to put the supplemental material up in the Internet Archive for download with the idea that the Internet Archive can produce a persistent URL. But I obviously want to make sure that this will all work how I think it will work so when I include the link in the paper and digital volume, it will work for years to come.

    Oh, and I started working on the cover. Corinth is a pretty conservative place and the Archaeological Manual is a pretty technical, specialist book, so I wanted to convey something of the conservative, technical nature of the work. I really like Gil Sans for the title, and think that anything bolder would look overwhelming. I used Times New Roman for the author’s names. There are a lot of authors on this manual so that was tricky.

    CEM Cover 01

    A similar issue faces my work with Micah Bloom’s Codex project. The book (about books… check out the link) also includes a video. The original plan was to archive the video in our newly minted institutional repository, but my instinct is that we won’t have this up and running by the time that the book needs to be produced in early May. So, like the supplemental material for the Corinth Archaeological Manual, I need a place to post the video that will provide a persistent link so that we can embed connect the book and the video. I’m hoping the Internet Archive can provide this.

    With the SAAs beginning this week, I decided to create a little landing page for folks who are checking out The Digital Press for the first time. Just for fun, I’m embedding live views of the books from the Internet Archive. It’s not an ideal layout, but fun and dynamic way to show off The Digital Press’s archaeology catalogue. Here’s a preview

     

    Finally, yesterday I mentioned that my graduate historiography class is working on a project relating to the humanities, history, and the UND budget crisis. Just for fun, I designed a book cover or a poster for the project. If figure it might help promote their work when we release it for local and then public comment. 

    It’s nothing that’ll win a design award, but I like it: 

    DefendingHistoryCover 01

    As you can probably guess, this post is partly a cry for help, but also a little update on recent projects. If you can help, please do! If you’re curious about getting an advanced copy of forthcoming publications, do drop me a line! If you just want to insult my design skills, do that as well!


    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #classicaltwitter ~ March 27, 2017 (ii)

    http://twitter.com/rogueclassicist/status/846494419696209922


    #classicaltwitter ~ March 27, 2017 (i)


    CJ-Online Review ~ War and Society in Early Rome: From Warlords to Generals

    War and Society in Early Rome: From Warlords to Generals. By Jeremy Armstrong. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Pp. xiv + 317. Hardcover, £64.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09357-7.

    Reviewed by Carsten Hjort Lange, Aalborg University, Denmark

     
    Armstrong’s new book on warfare in early Rome (c. 570-338 bce) presents us with a much appreciated opportunity to revisit discussions on the significant impact of warfare on (early) Roman society. In six chronological chapters, Armstrong presents his thesis: Roman society from the 6th to the 4th centuries bce transformed from a coalition of warlords into a civic society with an army fighting for common goals. He rejects old hellenocentric models (esp. 10-11), instead relying heavily on van Wees highly revisionist 2004 book (Greek Warfare: Myth and Realities). A metanarrative approach is suggested (16), focusing on the big themes (17: a new paradigm).

    Chapter 1 focuses on the evidence. A section on the methodology for the literary evidence (36-39) sets out the principles for his approach: the amount of reliable information cannot exceed what can have been reliably transmitted from the past. The documentary evidence, viz. lists of magistrates, wars, treaties etc. of each year seems to have been transmitted relatively intact. The more narrative aspects of Rome down to the 4th century probably originated in oral traditions and certain core aspects may have been maintained (cf. Cornell 1995, The Beginnings of Rome). This seems a sensible approach. The chapter ends with a brief overview of the archaeological evidence.

    Chapter 2 gives an overview of the 8th to the 6th centuries. Armstrong argues for the emergence of a regional aristocracy of “proto-patricians”, mobile with an extra-urban identity, and dominating the region’s warfare and of a “settled, community-based population of the lower socio-economic classes” of “proto-plebeians” (54). The rex was typically a powerful member of the gentilicial elite, supported by his clan etc. (59). Armstrong unsurprisingly concludes that the role of the rex was largely confined to warfare, religion and justice (62). Warfare during the period was dominated by the regions clans (69-72), even if there were community-based regulations.

    Chapter 3 on Rome’s regal army focuses on the Servian reforms, emphasizing a shift- or rather operating side by side-from the curial organization associated with the proto-urban/plebeian population, to the centuriate assembly, a new administrative structure designed to include and give power to the gentes who were increasingly settling in and around the city (82-86). Armstrong suggests that the ‘Servian’ centuriate system was only instituted after the establishment of the Republic (84-85), in what seems an arbitrary piece of rewriting. The period also sees a continued presence of independent, warlike clans, led by so called condottieri (86-93). Armstrong rejects the traditional model of the Roman hoplite phalanx (111-126). He concludes that warfare in this period-continuing low-level raiding-remained largely the preserve of the region’s clans led by mobile aristocrats, not the communities.

    Chapter 4 focuses on the fall of the Roman rex and the rise of Rome’s aristocratic Republic. The war duties of the rex are shared out among praetores et al. At the same time there is a continuing power of the archaic warband (136-146: mobile clan warlords: Porsenna, Tarquin in exile, Coriolanus, Attus Clausus, Herdonius etc.). Raiding for plunder is still the principal motive for war, but there is a shift to land rather than portable wealth. We also see the emergence of a landed aristocracy (157-163), with evidence for individual clan leaders defending parcels of land (Tarquins, Attus Clausus, Cincinnatus, Fabii), as well as the emergence of community-based military forces (163­-171), with the plebs gradually coming to have some involvement in warfare (166-167 on imperium; 170-171 on ager publicus). In the early 5th century bce the existing urban political structure began to realign itself in opposition to Rome’s new gentilicial regime.

    Chapter 5 concentrates on state formation and the incorporation of the plebs (185-211). The period sees the first steps in integrating the gentilicial and urban communities: the Twelve Tables, standardizing social/economic relations between the two groups, the Valerio-Horatian laws, and the institutions of the military tribunes, consular tribunes, and the censorship. The period also sees a continuation of the warband ethos (210-211). Armstrong accepts that a primitive system of state payment for military service introduced in late 5th century. This is the beginning of the state taking over patronage of military service. There is a shift in this period away from raiding to conquest of territory and strategic dominance over the region.

    Chapter 6 focuses on the Gallic sack-with only slight destruction- and its aftermath. There was now consular tribunate in every year, bringing to an end the archaic state. There is further integration of patricians and plebs, with a gradual rise of patrician/plebeian aristocracy. There was willingness after the Tumultus Gallicus to commit resources to common defence (257-260: the Servian Walls). The expansion of the citizen body, all increasing Rome’s military might, resulted in an end of the archaic warband and the small independent central Italian community.The result is the new Roman citizenship, dependent on indicated political affiliation (255-256). The period sees an increasing state control of warfare.

    Armstrong is to be recommended for this stimulating and provocative book, even if, at least to this reviewer, it was felt at times that he was pushing some of his interpretative lines too far beyond the ancient evidence. He presents what, at times, are highly conjectural reconstructions of the development of the Roman state and society. Gentilicial theories are fashionable, and the notion that warlords were an important feature of archaic Roman society has now become accepted consensus, but Armstrong pushes it all to the point where a unified Roman state and society does not emerge till the 5th/4th century bce. Despite these objections, this book is undoubtedly bound to stimulate much further debate and reflection.


    Posted with permission …

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    CJ-Online Review ~ Latin of New Spain

    Latin of New Spain. By Rose Williams. Mundelein, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishing, 2015. Pp. xx + 280. Paper, $19.00. ISBN 978-0-86516-833-6.

     

    Reviewed by Tom Garvey, The Meadows School

     

    Despite the fact that the overwhelming majority of extant Latin derives from later than, and not infrequently from places geographically outside, the historical core of the Roman Empire, the study of Latin is far too often confined to works from authors on a narrow list of canonical classical authors. Williams seeks to combat this trend by making available a well-rounded selection of Latin written about, and even sometimes in, the territories comprising a more recent empire, namely New Spain.

    Three genres are represented in the volume: Erasmian prose (with selections from Jesuit José de Acosta, Columbus, and Cortés); epic poetry (Jesuit Rafael Landívar and Francisco José Cabrera); and dialogue (Francisco Cervantes de Salazar). Supplementary materials include a map of Columbus’s voyages, 36 generally well-chosen illustrations, and five separate appendices. Appendix 1 is comprised of 15 pages of background notes on significant persons, places, and terms ranging from Aristotle to Lactantius to Lake Texcoco. Appendix 2 is a historical timeline including what the author considers benchmark dates and events in both Europe and the Americas germane to the texts included in the volume. Especially helpful, appendix 3 provides concise definitions of 24 common figures of speech encountered in the text’s selections. Appendix 4 (on rhythm and meter in poetry) expands, perhaps unnecessarily, beyond the scope of what is immediately useful to the actual selections in the text, which are exclusively dactylic hexameter. Appendix 5 is a master list of Latin neologisms coined by the primary authors. There are also a 34-page Latin-to-English glossary and a short bibliography.

    Each set of selections is prefaced by a biography of its author, and each individual Latin selection preceded by an introductory paragraph designed to provide the context necessary to allow the reader to dive directly into the text. Separate sections with vocabulary, neologisms, grammar and word use questions, comprehension questions, and poetry questions (for the verse selections) follow the Latin text, though not every Latin selection contains all of these. The introductory paragraphs and the Latin text always begin on the left-side page, but there seems to be precious little uniformity of formatting beyond that. When the text is longer than would fit on a single page, it sometimes continues on the facing right-side page, but sometimes picks up again on the next left-side page, with vocabulary for the first page of text facing it on the right instead. For shorter selections, the vocabulary can even begin on the selfsame page as the Latin text itself, though apparently not in order to maximize efficient use of space. (There are countless large blank spots throughout the edition.)

    Unfortunately, predicting where exactly it will be relative to the Latin text is the least problematic aspect of the vocabulary section. As is true also (and perhaps most especially) of the ‘Grammar and Word Use Questions,’ the vocabulary section evinces a less-than-clear/-unified picture of the entire edition’s target audience (supposedly an intermediate reader, if the introduction is to be trusted). The words chosen for glossing beside/below the text don’t seem to have been chosen by any set of established criteria, but rather at the whimsy of the author. Very often, individual vocabulary sections will simultaneously contain one or more words that no intermediate reader should need, while conversely omitting many others that they are unlikely to know (quam and ut are glossed, e.g., but not improbare meaning “disprove” [22-23]; pater but not egregius [36-37]; eo and indigenus, but not vehemens [45]; praeeo and vinculum, but not ostrum or crista [52-53]; factum and foveo, but not vexare meaning “inspire” or the “indeclinable” frugi [58-59]; etc.).

    And while most words used in the Latin text can be found in the master glossary at the back, several words (such as advento [67] and partio [82]) cannot be found there either. And while not often, occasionally a vocabulary word will be placed in the section before or after the one it belongs in (as with fluito [91]). I also noticed that an archaic dat./abl. ending in quercubus [91] was misconstrued as a nominative singular (despite being contextually impossible) and granted its very own dictionary entry as a 2nd-declension noun. More generally frustrating, the system of dots used to separate stems from endings is often misleading, representing not actual stems, but simply the point in the word up to which all forms are spelled identically (as tru·x -cis [67]). Questionable also is the choice to gloss a single case of a word rather than its standard dictionary entry, as with the genitive uniuscuiusque [passim]. Several of these choices seem to overlook, if not outright prevent, opportunities for learning.

    Perhaps the single biggest frustration this reviewer found was with the lack of grammatical help/notes. While still somewhat useful, the ‘Grammar and Word Use Questions’ section often feels like a “now find this,” hunt-and-peck scavenger hunt. Many questions are asked, obviously, but without the direct guidance/oversight of a teacher, many (if not most) intermediate students will feel lost without confirmation that their answers are or aren’t right. Of much more use would be (even very short) explanations of exactly what is happening syntactically. Not all intermediate students will be able to follow the leading questions to the logical conclusions to which the author seeks to guide them. And to be completely honest, sometimes there aren’t even leading questions when you want them. Several constructions (especially the ones idiosyncratic to later Latin) for which there is little-to-no specific help will be outside even the more advanced high-school student’s ken. In brief, the bar is simply set too high for the alleged target audience.

    In the end, Latin of New Spain’s major contribution to the field-and this is not to be underestimated-will be the access it grants large audiences to various texts that would most likely otherwise remain inaccessible. While this reviewer would hesitate to recommend the edition to students wanting to hack through the texts on their own, any teacher willing to put together a not-insignificant “grammatical notes” section will find herein a solid skeleton upon which to flesh them out.


    Posted with permission …

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    CJ-Online Reviews Archive


    #classicaltwitter ~ March 26, 2017

    http://twitter.com/rogueclassicist/status/846137573521215488


    CJ-Online Review ~ The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion

    The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion. Edited by Esther Eidinow and Juilia Kindt. Oxford University Press, 2015. Pp. xxii + 708. Hardcover, $150.00. ISBN 978-0-19-964203-8.

     
    Reviewed by Corey Hackworth, The University of Iowa
     

    This handbook contains 43 chapters, each a free-standing piece of scholarship, accompanied by its own brief bibliography. They range widely in topic, demonstrating the multi-faceted nature of the study of ancient Greek religion. Staples such as sacrifice and myth are discussed, but the diverse and interesting subject matter also includes areas such as papyrology, hero cult, healing, and the influences of the ancient Near East.  The overall quality of the chapters is quite high, striking a balance between accessibility and the necessary level of detail required to explore the ‘problems’ in each sub-field (e.g. the hazards of relying on etymology as genealogy when discussing the origins of the gods).

    Most, but not all, chapters offer a concise history of scholarship and theory in each sub-field, with significant works of scholarship foregrounded for the reader. This discussion often includes a considered critique of prior methods/assumptions, culminating in an expressed need for future work using new approaches. Knowledge and critique of earlier scholarship is of utmost importance, as the contemporary state of the field is one of reaction:challenging the centrality of sacrifice, reconsidering the largely artificial category of lex sacra, and re-examining the lines drawn between prayer, cursing, and magic. It has become trendy (but also quite necessary) to wonder if Greek and Religion are the right words to be using at all.

    Chapters typically include several brief illustrative case-studies, demonstrating the sort of work that is currently being done by outstanding scholars in their respective areas of interest; in these sections, readers are exposed to a rich trove of materials that have often lain neglected (e.g. Hellenistic cult in Bactria, India, and the Bosporos). The best chapters provide an excellent summative document that would serve well as a starting point on any given topic, provided that the reader is willing also to familiarize themselves with fundamental works-both those that established/represent the dominant critical theories, as well as any Greek primary sources and materials under discussion. Herein, I think, lies the greatest weakness (likely unavoidable) of this handbook, and indeed any handbook-there is no room for this material, and the reader must supplement to a degree dependent upon his or her prior expertise.

    It might be helpful to think of each chapter as a sort of pro-seminar on a given topic. The value of the handbook lies here, in that it offers a fantastic resource for anyone needing to teach a graduate course on Greek Religion, or to bring their personal knowledge of the field up to date. Many university libraries will have access to Oxford’s online collection of handbooks, allowing for easy class assignment of specific content. Specialists will find themselves familiar with much of what they read-but the sheer breadth of content and diversity of approaches will surely bring awareness of new materials and suggest innovative theoretical models (e.g. the use of network theory to describe the dissemination and transfer of new cult).

    On a more theoretical note, the chapters are grouped into nine roughly delineated sections: “What is Ancient Greek Religion?” “Types of Evidence,” “Myths? Context and Representations,” “Where?” “How?” “Who?” “When?” and “Beyond?” Question marks have been appended to most sections, adroitly reminding the reader that much of scholarship is an act of interpretation-a search for answers and explanations. We should begin by querying our questions, seeing as the nature and character of our search has significant impact upon our findings. It is noteworthy that the single section devoted to evidence, both textual and material, lacks this gesture, and the section on myth signals an intrinsic degree of ambiguity as to its nature. Much of the scholarship in this handbook calls for a questioning of our interpretive practices and assumptions, responding to issues raised and explored in Kindt’s recent and important work, Rethinking Greek Religion,[1] et alia. There is concern that the grand theories for ‘explaining’ ancient Greek Religion have been too successful for their own good. The Introduction and first set of chapters directly engages with this matter.

    Models do us the service of helping to interpret the data we observe, but they run the risk of pre-determining which data we choose (or are able) to see. They certainly shape our conclusions. When we move from description to explanation, we need models, but we must refrain from allowing them to normalize our observational and interpretive practices. Therefore, it is not a matter of whether or not we should employ, say, the polis religion model, the sequence of three-step initiation, a structuralist interpretation of pantheons and myths, the shared guilt of ritual sacrifice, a political-geographical rational for sanctuary location, etc. These models have been, and are, productive and useful; however, they prevent us from asking whole sets of questions, and they privilege certain kinds of evidence or data over others.

    It is necessary to ask, “How Else?” How else can we theorize and approach our materials? Eidinow and Kindt remind us that we must continue to search out other ways with which we might visualize and imagine this ‘thing’ that we are in the habit of calling Greek Religion. We need more models-not just different, but more. This is the theme of the handbook.

    [1] Kindt, Juilia. Rethinking Greek Religion. Cambridge University Press (2012).


    Posted with permission …

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    CJ-Online Review ~ Der Neue Poseidipp

    Der Neue Poseidipp. Edited by Bernd Seidenticker, Adrian Stähli, and Antje Wessels. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2015. Pp. 444. Hardcover, €79.95. ISBN 978-3-534-24356-3.

    Reviewed by Paul Ojennus, Whitworth University

    Fifteen years after the first complete publication of P. Mil. Vogl. VIII 309 (hereafter “The New Poseidippus”), Seidensticker, Stähli, and Wessels present a full-length commentary on the book of epigrams. The purpose of the new commentary is two-fold: first, to synthesize the prolific scholarship on the recently discovered poems, and, second, to present as far as possible texts readable by non-specialists with the contexts necessary for understanding and appreciation. To facilitate the timely accomplishment of these ends, the editors relied on a team of scholars, each assigned one of the ten divisions of the epigram book, with the exception of the long section Epitymbia (“Epitaphs”) which was divided among four scholars. A series of workshops sponsored by the Sonderforschungsbereichs 626 Ästhetische Erfahrung im Zeichen der Entgrenzung der Künste of the Freie Universität Berlin helped coordinate the work on the commentary, so that the scope and detail of the commentary are consistent across the sections and related discussions are appropriately cross-referenced. Der Neue Poseidipp is an impressive work of scholarship that will serve as a basic reference for those working on the epigram book and as a point of entry for non-specialists.

    The editors’ introduction discusses briefly the few known facts of Poseidippus’ life and the textual history of his epigrams preserved outside of The New Poseidippus, but focuses on identifying overarching issues of the papyrus and its contexts that will be discussed in detail later, such as Poseidippus’ authorship and Ptolemaic context, and the arrangement of the book. Poseidippus’ relationship with Callimachus is also introduced here, both in that Poseidippus is named as one of Callimachus’ opponents in the Florentine Scholia on Aetia fr. 1, and that Callimachus provides the best parallel for understanding Poseidippus as a court poet of the Ptolemies. The editors take an agnostic stance on Poseidippus’ relationship to Callimachean poetics, given the lack of directly programmatic passages in the epigram book, but note that the poems engage typically Hellenistic concerns, such as philology and cultural history, the cultural programs of the Ptolemaic court, and ecphrasis and judgment of the visual arts. The introduction also raises the issues of whether Poseidippus himself arranged the epigrams in the form we have and what principles of arrangement can be discerned, and, further, whether the epigrams are universally actual inscriptions, or whether some should be read as purely literary creations. The editors do not take a strong stance on these issues, and note that authors of individual chapters will present their own views there.

    Chapters on individual sections of The New Poseidippus (Lithika, Oionoskopika, etc.) begin with an introduction that typically focuses on the literary context and qualities of the section, for example that the epigrams on stones (Lithika) represents a virtually unique extension by Poseidippus of ecphrases of works of art in epigram, or that the epigrams on those lost at sea (Nauagika) are organized on a principle of alternating between epigrams on cenotaphs and on tombs proper. Individual epigrams are presented with a brief description, the Greek text, a thorough critical apparatus, translation, line-by-line commentary, a suggested reconstruction (and translation), and discussion. The comments, often of necessity, tend to focus on matters of textual criticism, identifying textual difficulties and weighing the merits of various emendations and supplements. The suggested reconstructions are meant to present a readable text that provides a handle for non-specialists, completing the likely sense of the epigram, but whose supplements lack textual support or continue to be the subject of dispute. The discussions are varied, often focusing on the literary qualities of the epigram, such as imagery, internal structure, or place within the organization of the section. A wide range of other topics are introduced or developed here also, such as philology (e.g. use of Homeric language or dialectical forms), political context (especially relations to the Ptolemaic court), or social context (e.g., comparing the epigrams on cures (Iamatika) to their non-literary counterparts from Epidaurus and other sites).

    Final matters include appendices with text and translation of “The Old Poseidippus”, i.e., the epigrams and fragments known before the discovery of the Milan Papyrus, and an essay on literary geography in Poseidippus, e.g., how the organization of the stones described in the Lithika by their provenience suggests a movement from Asia, to Greece, and finally to Egypt, reflecting a Ptolemaic projection of the route of imperial power. A list of abbreviations, bibliographies of editions and literature on The New Poseidippus, and biographies of the authors, but no index, conclude the volume.

    Der Neue Poseidipp is a monumental work that should serve as the authoritative text and commentary for this generation. The scholarship is thorough and extensive, and coordination between the individual authors is exemplary, so that the scope, quality, and cross-referencing in the individual chapters is consistent throughout the commentary. The primary focus of the commentary is on textual criticism, as is to be expected, but ample attention is given to literary matters, especially Poseidippus’ place in and development of the genre and the question of arrangement, and to historical context, especially Poseidippus’ relations with the Ptolemaic court. The approach to the text tends to be (appropriately) conservative, as the authors focus on evaluating emendations and supplements already set forth, only occasionally offering their own suggestions, and make a clear distinction in only accepting those with solid textual support into their texts, but admitting others that reflect the likely sense if not necessarily the original phraseology into the suggested reconstructions.


    Posted with permission …

    ©2017 by The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. All rights reserved.

    CJ-Online Reviews Archive


    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

    Θουκυδίδης Δραματικός:Το Θέατρο του Πολέμου

    April 03, 2017 - 3:24 PM - ΕΣΠΕΡΙΔΑ ΜΕ ΟΜΙΛΙΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΡΑΣΤΑΣΗ

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #classicaltwitter ~ March 25, 2017

    http://twitter.com/rogueclassicist/status/845712193740046336


    CJ-Online Review: The Museum of Augustus: The Temple of Apollo in Pompeii, the Portico of Philippus in Rome, and Latin Poetry

    The Museum of Augustus: The Temple of Apollo in Pompeii, the Portico of Philippus in Rome, and Latin Poetry. By Peter Heslin. Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2015. Pp. xiii + 350. Hardcover, $65.00. ISBN 978-1-60606-421-4.
    Reviewed by Christina Kraus, Yale University
    This fascinating, beautifully produced book is a terrific read putting forward detailed and sophisticated arguments that will certainly provoke productive discussion.  Disclaimer: I am not an art historian or archaeologist-but neither is Heslin.  All the more remarkable, then, that he has produced such an intriguing, archivally rich study, with a methodology combining close reading of architectural and archaeological drawings, ancient artistic representations, and poetry with historiographical research into the excavations of the Temple of Apollo in Pompeii and the area of the Portico of Philippus in Rome. He reveals his method in his preface (xi): “Most of the research for this book was … done online rather than in museums, at sites, and in archives”; he also relies on enlargements-only possible digitally-of scanned drawings, reconstructions, and photographs of his sites and paintings.  He was fortunate in his publisher, who has reproduced quantities of these in fantastic clarity. (Paradoxically, this is a book that is very much a physical pleasure to handle and to read.) Heslin, an expert on the possibilities raised by the digital revolution, is certainly right that his method of research in this project is one of the best ways forward, not only for scholars who cannot travel to see the sites themselves, but also in cases such as this one where the on-site material has been degraded past legibility, or destroyed altogether.

    Heslin begins with a detailed analysis of the drawings and reconstructions made by early visitors to Pompeii, after the frescoes in the Temple were uncovered (1817) and before they were irretrievably damaged by exposure; he also makes heavy use of the mid-19th century cork model of the city. He then moves via a study of copies of the more popular paintings in private Pompeian houses to an analysis of the now-lost Portico of Philippus, including a lucid investigation of its development from the Republican Aedes Herculis Musarum. (This was physically incorporated into the later, larger complex erected by Augustus’ stepbrother and uncle, L. Marcius Philippus.) He wants both to decipher the original fresco cycle and to show that the Apolline temple decorations in Pompeii were based on-if not copies of-Theorus’s cycle of frescoes in the Portico. Heslin’s real target is that Roman cycle which-together with the Portico itself and the other art it contained-was “the public justification in the language of Roman architecture of Augustus’s patronage of poetry … his importation of the Museum of Alexandria into a Roman context” (2). Augustus in fact, Heslin argues, separated the Alexandrian Museum complex into two: as a rebuilding of the Aedes, the Portico continued its longstanding tradition as a prestigious meeting place for the guild of poets, while Apollo-a god less congenial to the Romans, who did not build a temple to him in Republican times-received his own home on the Palatine, with the new libraries, trumpeting Augustus as the principal patron of the arts (187).

    I have by necessity vastly oversimplified Heslin’s argument, the beauty and challenge of which is in the details, from readings of the Marble Plan to the Tabulae Iliacae to 19th century German engravings. For literary scholars, the payoff will come in his final chapter, “Imaginary Temples,” on the poets who responded to this art. Heslin looks closely at the poems that clearly refer to the Aedes Herculis Musarum: Vergil’s prologue to Georgics 3, Propertius (though the promised discussion of 3.4-5 is missing [300]), Horace’s Odes, and-most intriguingly to me-the decorations on Juno’s temple in Aeneid 1.
    I would especially like to believe the thesis that Aeneas is misreading those paintings not (as we have long recognized) because he sees glory for the Trojans where the Carthaginians must be celebrating their slaughter, but because, having only his own, subjective experience of the war to go by, he simply misidentifies the people represented. What Aeneas describes can be mapped onto the cycle of paintings that Heslin reconstructs, but he gets the names wrong: so, e.g., when Aeneas sees the tide of battle being turned by a person he identifies as Achilles (instaret curru cristatus Achilles, 1.468), Heslin suggests that Aeneas recognizes the armor because he has seen Achilles in it, but that because he has not read the Iliad, he does not know that it is in fact Patroclus wearing Achilles’ armor who turns the tide in Book 16. If Heslin is right (and he has many other examples), then the depth of the effect of art on the reader(s) in the Aeneid-and the map of misreadings we can construct around it-is even more remarkable than has previously been understood.
    But that’s a big ‘if’. Heslin disregards too much recent scholarship on the Aedes (especially the important work of Alexander Hardie), and he is at times overly reductive. So, for example, in his treatment of pattern books (143), which is a mixture of assertion (“there is no evidence at all” for them-but then why do archaeologists appeal to them?) and oversimplification: assuming that local artists used pattern books “reduces [them] to more or less competent robots, slavishly attempting to imitate artistic forms that they scarcely understood”. Either the books existed or they did not; but (1) if they did, then one could profitably look at studies of 19th-century architectural pattern book use, which demonstrate that robotic copying is far from what was going on; and (2) if they did not, then this is simply a straw man, related to the straw men on whom Heslin depends far too much, of the art historian who looks at all Roman art as copies of Greek “originals,” hand in hand with the literary scholar who ignores material culture.  Both of those creatures are on their way out; Heslin doesn’t need them. Better to direct scholars to works like the new book by Vibeke Goldbeck, Fora Augusta, on the reception of the Forum Augustum in the West, including Pompeii; that book came out too late for Heslin to take account of, but it and similar studies support his strong argument that the Pompeian cycle was part of the imitatio Vrbis, a reinterpretation of a complex and influential building program at Rome.


    Posted with permission …

    ©2017 by The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. All rights reserved.

    CJ-Online Reviews Archive


    CJ-Online Review: Stealing Helen: The Myth of the Abducted Wife in Comparative Perspective.

    Stealing Helen: The Myth of the Abducted Wife in Comparative Perspective. By Lowell Edmunds. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2016. Pp. xvii + 430. Hardcover, $49.50. ISBN 978-0-691-16512-7

    Reviewed by Henry V. Bender, St. Joseph’s University, Philadelphia

    Fascination with the name, the person, and the myth of Helen is epic and universal. Inspirations, derivations, and adaptations abound in literally every medium from Mycenaean and Minoan artifacts through modern art and cinema. How did this “story” begin? Annually facing this query, professors and teachers of classical mythology invariably offer an unavoidable conundrum response. But that was before Edmonds’ extraordinary volume. Covering every possible substantive comment relevant in the slightest way to the subject of this work, the thirty-six page reference bibliography (in 10 point type) constitutes a lifetime of scholarly reading, reflection, and research. The vast variety of topics that comprise the book’s five chapters-each handled with great precision and depth-exceed the scope of this review. The paragraph numbering and titles of the subsets which constitute each chapter signal their thought lines. Throughout this review I have preserved their numbered sequence to convey to the reader the enormous breadth and depth of this book.

    The Introduction traces the many cycles of analysis which have evolved throughout the study of the Helen myth. Edmonds is careful to distinguish between langue and parole (terms introduced by Saussure), the former to denote the most initial oral rendering of the myth or folktale, and the latter to denote its written re-performances. Relating this inquiry to the problems that attend the perception of and realization of oral tradition and written text traditions, Chapter 1 is composed of 15 numbered essays bearing titles which unfold a sequential exposition of the “The Abduction of the Beautiful Wife” as International Tale.”

    The meticulously arranged, content revealing titles include: Typology in Folktale Studies (1), The Concept of Type (2), The Motif (3), The Emic and Etic (4-5), The Deconstructive Point of View (6), Variant and Version (7), The Ontological Point of View (8), and The Historical Basis of an Ontology of the Type (9). Consideration of How Old are Folktales? (10), leading into Proverb and Fable: Oral Wisdom Literature in Antiquity (10.1), informs Morphology and Structuralism (11). Typological Status of “The Abduction of the Beautiful Wife” (12) presages Motifs of “The Abduction of the Beautiful Wife” (13) which itself includes 8 subsets: Birth or Origin (13.1), The Swan Maiden (13.1.1), Childhood and Marriage (13.2), Perilous Beauty of the Wife (13.3), Abductor (13.4), Abduction (13.5), Recovery (13.6), Fate of the Abductor (13.7), Reunion of Husband and Wife (13.8), and Orpheus (13.8.1). Edmunds concludes with The Syntagma (14) and Methodological Reflections (15) in which he treats “hybrids not as curiosities of folklore but in order to establish a larger typological or perhaps metatypological context for defining the differentiae of “Abduction”.” (60).The extraordinary, tightly woven analyses of Chapter 1 are further augmented by an exhaustive Appendix 1 (247-301). This catalogues all text examples of “The Abduction of the Beautiful Wife” originating from Africa, Eurasia and Asia, Europe and Iceland, and North America.

    Chapter 2, Dioscuri has ten subsets as it examines the myths involving the brothers of Helen and the different versions involving them in bride theft. Following an Introduction (1), Edmunds treats The Abduction of Helen by Theseus and Perithous (2) and Indo Europaean Cognates (3) as well as those in The Caucasus (4) and The Baltic Egg (5). He then examines Cults of Helen and the Dioscuri (6), and presents an interesting discussion on The Name Helen and The Nature of Names (7),  An Indo-Europaean “Abduction” (8) is further subdivided into The Abduction in Indo-Europaean Epic (8.1) and The Three Functions of Georges Dumezil and the Trojan Myth (8.2). Considerations of The Indo-Europaean “Abduction” and the Question of Origins (9) introduces a summary of the chapter’s findings, Conclusion (10).

    Chapter 3 Helen Myth, asserts that in spite of its ubiquitous nature, the myth is really about her “life” story.  The multiple variants must receive attention in any effort to handle the literary sources such as Helen in Homer, Helen in Epic Cycle, Helen in Lyric as well as representations in media such as pottery, paintings and sculpture. The 14 subsets begin with Parentage, Birth, Siblings (1) and Childhood (2). An engaging discussion on Wooing of Helen and Marriage to Menelaus (3) is augmented by a brief comment on Helen’s Motherhood (4) and a transition to the core consideration of Helen’s interactions with Paris (5). The treatment of Helen’s Abduction (6) is expanded by a full discussion of her Abduction in Art (6.1). Following a brief commentary on Consequences in Sparta of Helen’s Abduction (7), Edmunds presents variants on Helen’s alleged Stay in Egypt and Eidolon (8) before treating the topic of Helen at Troy (9). Recovery of Helen by Menelaus (10) consists of six subsets including The Trojan Horse (10.1), Helen’s Role in her Recovery (10.2), Menelaus’s Happy and Unhappy Reunions with Helen (10.3), Helen Bares her Breasts (10.4), Himation (10.5), To the Ships, with His hand on Her Wrist (10.6), and lastly Reflections on the Reunions (10.7). Edmunds then turns to the topic of the Return of Menelaus and Helen to Sparta (11) and follows up with reflections on After the Return (12) and the Death of Helen (13). The Chapter ends with a Comparison of Myth of Helen with “Abduction” Type (14). This reviewer found Chapter 3 to be most informative, particularly because of frequent illustrations of art objects well integrated with text commentary. Appendix 2, coordinated with the subset titles throughout the chapter, lists objects, dates, places of find, episode and notes for all objects considered in the text.

    Chapter 4, Hypostases of Helen, explores the literary and material evidence for the existence of Helen as a goddess. Citing various sources, Edmunds discusses The Cult at Patanistas (1) and that on the island of Rhodes, Helen Dendritis (2). Each sanctuary featured a special tree venerated in her honor, Back in Sparta, there was also the Cult at Therapne(3) explicitly referenced by Herodotus, Pausanias and others, and to which belong several artifacts inscribed with Helen’s name. A brief treatment, Herodotus’s Designation of Helen: “the goddess” (3.1), is followed by summary, Conclusion on Cults (4), and discussion of The Cults and the Indo-Europaean Goddess (5). Rooted inthe forgoing analysis, Helen as Pictorial (6) essentially addresses the question of how does a real Helen become a fictional Helen and vice versa. In the belief that epic poetry did not create Herlen but essentially preserved her memory, Edmunds further notes in The Discovery of a Real Helen (7):  “For ancient Greeks, however, down to a certain point in time, Helen was a real person who lived in the days of the Trojan War, whereas for the modern scholar Helen is the creation of poetry (or of poetic traditions)…”  (189). These points receive extended attention in Self Ancient and Modern (7.1) and The discovery of the Personality of Helen (7.2) with summary comments appearing in Conclusion (8).

    Chapter 5 Helen in the Fifth Century and After does what it sets out to do. Opening with Helen in the Fifth Century (1), Edmunds examines commentary from Herodotus (1.1), Thucydides (1.2), Pindar (1.3), and discusses Helen in Spartan Charter Myth (1.4). Such recollectionsgenerate Consequences of Social Memory (1.5). Helen is then looked upon both as a Figure of Reference (1.6), and thereafter as a Figure of Song (1.7). The second half of Chapter 5, Helen from the Fourth Century to Goethe (2), critiques Eustathius’ observations on Helen, Pythagorean Helen (2.1). An informative discussion, Simon Magus (2.2), demonstrates how a mixture of magic and sophistication informs Simon’s Helen. One of the most engaging and stimulating essays in the book, Faust (2.3), meticulously unfolds Helen’s reappearance in Georg Faust’s writings of 1540, and subsequently its impact on Goethe’s Helen. Roman Reception of the Helen Myth and the First Fictional Helen (3) has three subsets: The Origin of Fiction in Antiquity (3.1), The Fictive and the Fictional (3.2), and A Fictive Helen: Ovid Heroides 16-17 (3.3). After Fictive Helen (Lucian, True History 2) and a Fictive Hermione (Colluthus) (4), Edmunds offers a summary Conclusion.

    This comprehensive, holistic, well organized book is clearly a significant advance in scholarship on myth. Procedurally challenging, but rigorously engaging on multiple levels, all scholars, professors of mythology or comparative literature will find in this volume and indispensable companion to any serious study of the story of Helen.  Edmund’s informative scholarship packaged with his vigorous writing style has truly made it possible “to trace a narrative constant, persisting with remarkable tenacity, that could generate many new Helens” (xiii).


    Posted with permission …

    ©2017 by The Classical Association of the Middle West and South. All rights reserved.

    CJ-Online Reviews Archive


    #classicaltwitter ~ March 24, 2017


    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Ancient Assyrian Tomb with 10 Skeletons Discovered in Iraq

    Construction workers accidentally discovered a vaulted tomb dating back to the time of the Assyrian...

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    Life of the Coptic Patriarch Isaac (686-689 AD) by Anthony Alcock

    Anthony Alcock has kindly translated for us all a Bohairic Coptic account of the life of the Coptic patriarch Isaac (686-689 AD), which he has sent to me for publication.  The PDF is here:

    Isaac does appear in the History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church, but only briefly – this Life is much longer, but also hagiographical.  It is translated from the text in the Patrologia Orientalis 11 (1914).

    Our thanks to Dr. Alcock for making this accessible!

    Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

    Students excavate Second Temple site used by Bar Kokhba rebels

    <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/lEcByc8INWk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Door to Door Existentialism

    Click through to read the rest of this comic strip from Existential Comics.

    Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

    The Talmud on happiness and national mourning

    <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/2xG4Zdq8uw8" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Was Herod great, terrible, or both?

    <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/aMFow9XbYvk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Review of Reif and Egger-Wenzel (eds.), Ancient Jewish Prayers and Emotions

    <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/DAVwpFNijW8" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Neutal on ancient masculinity

    <img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/blogspot/ABNx/~4/K4tEWslwAhI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

    Τα Σχέδια Αρχιτεκτονικής στην Ελληνική και Ρωμαϊκή Εποχή

    March 30, 2017 - 11:25 AM - LECTURE Antonio Corso (Δρ. Αρχαιολόγος, Πανεπιστήμιο Πάδοβας)

    Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

    Il ruolo del digitale nella prevenzione del rischio in caso di calamità naturali

    In un incontro presso l’Accademia di Belle Arti di Napoli verrà messo a fuoco il ruolo dell’innovazione digitale e della “cooperazione” tra le banche dati MiBACT nel fronteggiare l’emergenza post-terremoto dello scorso anno.

    Bryn Mawr Classical Review

    2017.03.47: Sophokles. Elektra. Griechische Dramen

    Review of Thomas A. Schmitz, Sophokles. Elektra. Griechische Dramen. Berlin; Boston: 2016. Pp. ix, 271. $70.00. ISBN 9783110188240.

    2017.03.46: Early Greek Hexameter Poetry. Greece & Rome. New surveys in the classics. 43

    Review of Peter Gainsford, Early Greek Hexameter Poetry. Greece & Rome. New surveys in the classics. 43. Cambridge: 2015. Pp. x, 150. $29.99 (pb). ISBN 9781316608883.

    2017.03.45: A History of Pythagoreanism

    Review of Carl A. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism. Cambridge: 2014. Pp. 530. $118.00. ISBN 9781107014398.

    2017.03.44: L'encyclopédie du ciel: mythologie, astronomie, astrologie. Bouquins

    Review of Arnaud Zucker, L'encyclopédie du ciel: mythologie, astronomie, astrologie. Bouquins. Paris: 2016. Pp. 1,202. €30.00 (pb). ISBN 9782221097908.

    2017.03.43: Bridge of the Untiring Sea: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity. Hesperia Supplement, 48

    Review of Elizabeth R. Gebhard, Timothy E. Gregory, Bridge of the Untiring Sea: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity. Hesperia Supplement, 48. Princeton, NJ: 2015. Pp. xxi, 386. $75.00 (pb). ISBN 9780876615485.

    2017.03.42: Teagene di Reggio rapsodo e interprete di Omero. Syncrisis, 2

    Review of Francesca Biondi, Teagene di Reggio rapsodo e interprete di Omero. Syncrisis, 2. Pisa; Roma: 2015. Pp. 144. €48.00 (pb). ISBN 9788862277167.

    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

    Bare Bones to Bodies: Embodying Social Diversity in Late Bronze Age Greece

    April 03, 2017 - 10:30 AM - FITCH-WIENER LABS SEMINAR Kaitlyn Stiles (Malcolm H. Wiener Laboratory Research Associate, University of Tennessee)

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    Bode Coin Thieves Went for Bling, not History


    The huge Canadian million-dollar coin that was stolen from the Bode Museum in Berlin last night was just next to their portrait denier of Charlemagne and an important Valentinianus/Valens gold medallion, and quite a few other coins, seal matrices, and medallions whose value is not in their bullion. These were not taken. 

    Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

    Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: March 28

    Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. If you are looking for free copies of my books, you can find links to all of them here: Fables, Proverbs and Distichs — Free PDFs.

    HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem quintum Kalendas Apriles.

    MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Scylla, and there are more images here.


    TODAY'S MOTTOES and PROVERBS:

    TINY MOTTOES: Today's tiny motto is: Sorte contentus (English: Content with my fate).

    3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word verb-less proverb is Historia magistra vitae (English: History is the teacher of life)

    AUDIO PROVERBS: Today's audio Latin proverb is Dimittis pullos sub custodia vulpis (English: You're leaving the chickens in the care of the fox). To read a brief essay about this proverb and to listen to the audio, visit the Latin Via Proverbs blog.

    ERASMUS' ANIMALS: Today's animal proverb from Erasmus is Asinus stramenta mavult quam aurum (English: The donkey prefers straw to gold; from Adagia 4.8.38... and like the rooster who prefers a barleycorn to a gemstone, you can decide if that donkey is foolish or wise).

    BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Virtus. Click here for a full-sized view.


    And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:



    Discamus veluti simus de tempore tuti.
    Let us learn as if we were safe from time.

    Messe tenus propria vive.
    Live within your harvest.

    TODAY'S FABLES:

    FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Mercurius, Homo, et Formicae, a story about how everything is relative (this fable has a vocabulary list).

    MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Mus et Montes, a fable about "fake news."

    Mons Parturiens (2)

    Freebookapalooza: Classics. Here is today's free book online: Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.




    Archaeology Magazine

    Mice May Have Lived With Humans Long Before Farming

    mouse human settlements

    ST LOUIS, MISSOURI—Lior Weissbrod of the University of Haifa and Fiona Marshall of Washington University in St. Louis examined 272 mouse molars from 14 archaeological sites in Israel dating to between 200,000 and 10,000 years ago, according to a report in Gizmodo. They identified the long-tailed house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and its wild relative the short-tailed Macedonian mouse (Mus macedonicus) among the remains, and compared the size of the populations to those of mice living among today’s mobile Maasai herders. The study suggests that the house mouse first appeared in hunter-gatherer settlements some 15,000 years ago, and their populations rose and fell based upon how often the people moved to new locations. “After the initial pulse of establishment of house mice in sedentary human settlements of the early Natufian period, there is a return of the ‘wild’ mouse with displacement of the house mouse … during a short phase when humans reverted back to mobility,” Weissbrod explained. The researchers added that house mice made up 80 percent of the mouse population at the onset of farming in the Neolithic period. Weissbrod thinks the house mice may have had flexible dietary needs, and may have been more agile, making them better able to cope with the stress of living with humans. For more on hunter-gatherers, go to “The First Casus Belli.”

    Medieval Jewish Graves Unearthed in Rome

    Rome Jewish cemeteryROME, ITALY—Haaretz reports that 38 graves were unearthed in a section of a medieval Jewish cemetery labeled on historic maps as the “Field of the Jews.” Located near Rome’s Trastevere neighborhood, where Jews first arrived in the second century B.C., the cemetery was used from the mid-fourteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century. Pope Urban VIII decreed in 1625 that Jews should be buried in unmarked graves and ordered pre-existing tombstones to be destroyed. During the recent renovation of a palazzo courtyard, the excavators discovered a fragment of a tombstone with a few letters in Hebrew in a “layer of destruction” above the simple burials that helped make the identification. Archaeologist Daniela Rossi said that two gold rings were found on one woman’s fingers, and part of a scale was recovered from a man’s grave, “perhaps as a reference to his profession, or a sign that he was a just person,” Rossi said. The skeletons also exhibit signs of malnutrition, and a lack of protein in the diet, which may reflect the harsh conditions for Jews living in the medieval city. The remains will be reburied. To read about a Jewish section of Krakow, Poland, go to “Off the Grid.”

    March 27, 2017

    AIA Fieldnotes

    Mongolian Archaeology: New Discoveries, New Concerns

    Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
    Sponsored by UC Berkeley Mongolia Initiative Smithsonian Institution
    Event Type (you may select more than one): 
    conference
    Start Date: 
    Monday, April 3, 2017 - 9:30am

    Conference: “Mongolian Archeology: New Discoveries, New Concerns"

    Monday, April 3, 9:30 AM-6:00 PM

    Location: 180 Doe Library, UC Berkeley 

    Website: http://ieas.berkeley.edu/events/2017.04.03.html

    Location

    Name: 
    Caverlee Cary
    Telephone: 
    510-643-6492
    Call for Papers: 
    no

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    The International Greek New Testament Project (IGNTP)

    The International Greek New Testament Project (IGNTP)
    The IGNTP began in 1948, following on from the Critical Greek Testament project of 1926. It consists of a committee of textual scholars from numerous countries who oversee editorial work and contribute their own expertise to the projects. The first output of this collaborative project was the IGNTP edition of The Gospel according to St Luke in 1984 (vol. 1) and 1987 (vol. 2), an extensive critical apparatus of the variant readings preserved in witnesses to the New Testament, not just in Greek but in a variety of early translations and other secondary sources. 

    Since then, work has proceeded on the Gospel according to John, with editions published of the papyrus and majuscule witnesses. Following an agreement made in March 2005 with the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (INTF), the IGNTP has taken on responsibility for the Novum Testamentum Graecum, Editio Critica Maior edition of John. In 2016, the IGNTP formally began work on the edition of the Pauline Epistles, which is expected to take around two decades to produce.
    Project Publications Online
    An online edition of the majuscule manuscripts of John, featuring full transcriptions and a critical apparatus, is available at www.iohannes.com
    Individual transcriptions from the IGNTP edition of John are available for download as XML files from the University of Birmingham Institutional Repository; for a full listing, see the Transcriptions page, or search the repository.
    The IGNTP has also produced a complete electronic transcription of Codex Bezae (Cambridge UL, Nn.2.41) sponsored by Cambridge University Library. Further information is available here. The transcription can be viewed alongside the manuscript in the Cambridge Digital Library or downloaded from the University of Birmingham Institutional Repository: Greek textLatin text

    Archaeology Magazine

    3,800-Year-Old Intact Tomb Found in Egypt

    Egypt Shemai coffinASWAN, EGYPT—According to a report in Ahram Online, an intact tomb dating to the 12th Dynasty has been discovered in the necropolis at Qubbet El-Hawa by the Spanish Archaeological Mission. Alejandro Jiménez-Serrano of the University of Jaen said that the tomb’s mummy, covered with polychrome cartonnage, collars, and a mask, is well preserved. The tomb also contained pottery, wooden models representing funerary boats and scenes of daily life, and an outer and inner coffin, both made of cedar. Inscriptions on the coffins identify the deceased as Shemai, son of Satethotep and Khema, the governor of Elephantine under Amenemhat II. Shemai’s eldest brother, Sarenput II, also served as governor of Elephantine, under the rule of Senwosret II and Senwosret III. The burials of 14 members of this ruling family had previously been found in Qubbet El-Hawa. For more on archaeology in Egypt, go to “A Pharaoh’s Last Fleet.”

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    An American Conscience: The Reinhold Niebuhr Story

    I was delighted to attend the screening of the new movie An American Conscience: The Reinhold Niebuhr story at Butler University this evening. The venue was packed! Daniel Meyer from the Center for Faith and Vacation introduced the event. Rev. Charles Allen from the Grace Unlimited campus ministry then spoke, talking about the values of [Read More...]

    AIA Fieldnotes

    Local Chapters

    Sponsoring Institution/Organization: 
    Sponsored by Wyoming Archaeological Society, Inc
    Event Type (you may select more than one): 
    lecture
    education

    While Wyoming celebrates archaeology with Wyoming Archaeology Month in September, each local chapter hosts guest lecturers in October to recognize Internation Archaeology Day.

     

    Location

    Name: 
    Carolyn M Buff
    Telephone: 
    307-234-5424
    Call for Papers: 
    no

    ArcheoNet BE

    Graven onder de Waaslandhaven: bezoek de prehistorische site!

    Altijd al willen weten hoe onze prehistorische voorouder leefde? Of graag eens een archeologische steentijdopgraving van dichtbij meegemaakt? Vanaf de paasvakantie kunnen alle geïnteresseerden het grootschalige steentijdonderzoek op het toekomstige Logistiek Park Waasland in Verrebroek (Beveren) bezoeken. Je maakt er niet enkel kennis met het archeologisch onderzoek, maar kunt er ook in de tijdscapsule stappen en ontdekken hoe het er 10.000 jaar geleden uitzag.

    Je vindt alle informatie over de bezoeken op gravenonderdewaaslandhaven.com

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Монеты Боспора - Coins of Bosporus

    Монеты Боспора

    Каталог-архив "Монеты Боспора" – это некоммерческий открытый для свободного доступа проект, основной целью которого является:
    • создание динамично обновляющегося электронного каталога.
    • создание наиболее полного архива всех известных монет античных городов Боспора;
    • создание базы монет, доступных для коллекционеров, исследователей и научных работников;
    • создание базы штемпелей и штемпельных пар подлинных монет;
    • популяризация нумизматики и истории Боспора 


    Catalog-archive "Coins of Bosporus" is a non-commercial open for free access project, the main purpose of which is:
    • Creation of a dynamically updated electronic catalog.
    • The creation of the most complete archive of all known coins of the ancient cities of Bosporus;
    • The creation of a coin base accessible to collectors, researchers and scientists;
    • The creation of a base of stamps and stamp pairs of genuine coins;
    • Popularization of numismatics and the history of the Bosporus.

    Propylaeum-DOK: Digital Repository: Ancient History

    Propylaeum-DOK: Digital Repository: Ancient History
    http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/images/propylaeumdok_header_label_en.gif
    Jump to: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | J | K | L | M | P | R | S | T | V | W | Z
    Number of items at this level: 265.

    A

    Andreae, Bernard ; Flashar, Hellmut (1977) Strukturäquivalenzen zwischen den homerischen Epen und der frühgriechischen Vasenkunst. In: Poetica, 9 (1977), pp. 217-266
    Assmann, Jan (2010) Globalization, Universalism, and the Erosion of Cultural Memory. In: Assmann, Aleida ; Conrad, Sebastian (Hrsgg.): Memory in a Global Age. Discourses, Practices and Trajectories, Palgrave Macmillan Memory Studies. New York 2010, pp. 121-137
    Assmann, Jan (2000) Körper und Schrift als Gedächtnisspeicher. Vom kommunikativen zum kulturellen Gedächtnis. In: Csáky, Moritz ; Stachel, Peter (Hrsgg.): Speicher des Gedächtnisses. Teil 1: Absage an und Wiederherstellung von Vergangenheit, Kompensation von Geschichtsverlust. Wien 2000, pp. 199-213

    B

    Borg, Barbara (2004) Introduction. In: Borg, Barbara (Hrsg.): Paideia: The World of the Second Sophistic. Berlin 2004, pp. 1-10

    C

    Chaniotis, Angelos (1988) Μίνωτκα Ευρηματα απο τον Αγίο Μυρωνα σε ενα Τουρκίκο εγραφο. In: Kretika Chronika, 28/29 (1988), pp. 58-63
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1990) Μία Αγηωστη πηγη γία τη Λατρία στο Ιδαίο αντρο στην Υστατη Αρχαίοτητα. In: Acts of the 6th Cretological Congress [Pepragmena tou 6. Diethnous Kretologikou Synedriou], Bd. A2. Chania 1990, pp. 393-401
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2000) Ονειροκρίτες Αρεταλογοί και προσκυνητες: Θρησκευτικες Δραστηρίοτητες Κρητων στην Ελληνιστικη Αίγυπτο. In: Karetsou, A. (Hrsg.): Crete – Egypt. Cultural Links of Three Millenia. Athen 2000, pp. 208-214
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1998) Το χρονικο της Ανακαλυψηξ μίας Ελληνίστίκης Πολης στην καρια 8Bucakköy; Συνετα). In: Deltion tou Kentrou Mikrasiatikon Spoudon, 12 (1998), pp. 13-41
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Akzeptanz von Herrschaft durch ritualisierte Dankbarkeit und Erinnerung. In: Ambos, Claus ; Hotz, S. ; Schwedler, G. ; Weinfurter, Stefan (Hrsgg.): Die Welt der Rituale. Von der Antike bis heute. Darmstadt 2005, pp. 188-204
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1988) Als die Diplomaten noch tanzten und sangen. Zu zwei Dekreten kretischer Städte in Mylasa. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 71 (1988), pp. 154-156
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1992) Amnisos in den schriftlichen Quellen: Die Testimonien. Die Geschichte von Amnisos von Homer bis zur Eroberung Kretas durch die Türken. Amnisos von den Dunklen Jahrhunderten bis zum Ende der Kaiserzeit. Amnisos als ein Problem der historischen Geographie. In: Schäfer, J. (Hrsg.): Amnisos nach den archäologischen, historischen und epigraphischen Zeugnissen des Altertums und der Neuzeit. Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1992 51-127; 287-322; 350-355
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) Bemerkungen zu christlichen Inschriften aus Kreta und Kleinasien. In: Tekmeria, 7 (2002), pp. 157-162
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1996) Bemerkungen zum Kalender kretischer Städte in hellenistischer Zeit. In: Tekmeria, 2 (1996), pp. 16-41
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Das Bankett des Damas und der Hymnos des Sosandros: Öffentlicher Diskurs über Rituale in den griechischen Städten der Kaiserzeit. In: Harth, Dietrich ; Schenk, G. (Hrsgg.): Ritualdynamik. Kulturübergreifende Studien zur Theorie und Geschichte rituellen Handelns. Heidelberg 2004, pp. 291-304
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1987) Das Ehrendekret für Diophantos (IOSPE I2 352) und die Geschichtsschreibung. In: Fol, A. ; Zhivkov, V. ; Nedjalkov, N. (Hrsgg.): Acta Centri Historiae Terra Antiqua Balcanica, Bd. 2. Sofia 1987, pp. 233-235
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2000) Das Jenseits: Eine Gegenwelt? In: Hölscher, Tonio (Hrsg.): Gegenwelten zu den Kulturen der Griechen und der Römer in der Antike. München - Leipzig 2000, pp. 159-181
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2003) Der Kaiserkult im Osten des Römischen Reiches im Kontext der zeitgenössischen Ritualpraxis. In: Cancik, H. ; Hitzl, K. (Hrsgg.): Die Praxis der Herrscherverehrung in Rom und seinen Provinzen, Akten der Tagung in Blaubeuren vom 4. bis zum 6. April 2002. Tübingen 2003, pp. 3-28
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Der Tod des Lebens und die Tränen des Peneios: Eine thessalische Grabelegie. In: Hornung, A. ; Jäkel, C. ; Schubert, W. (Hrsgg.): Studia Humanitatis ac Litterarum Trifolio Heidelbergensi dedicata. Festschrift für Eckhard Christmann, Wilfried Edelmaier und Rudolf Kettemann. Frankfurt 2004, pp. 39-43
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2007) Die Entwicklung der griechischen Asylie: Ritualdynamik und die Grenzen des Rechtsvergleichs. In: Burckhardt, L. ; Seybold, K. ; Ungern-Sternbert, J. von (Hrsgg.): Gesetzgebung in antiken Gesellschaften. Israel, Griechenland, Rom. Berlin 2007, pp. 233-246
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2006) Die hellenistischen Kriege als Ursache von Migration: Das Beispiel Kreta. In: Olshausen, E. ; Sonnabend, H. (Hrsgg.): Migrationen in der antiken Welt. Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums 8, 2002. Stuttgart 2006, pp. 98-103
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1996) Die kretischen Berge als Wirtschaftsraum. In: Olshausen, E. ; Sonnabend, H. (Hrsgg.): Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums 5, 1993, Gebirgsland als Lebensraum. Amsterdam 1996, pp. 255-266
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1994) Die sylan-Klausel im Vertrag zwischen Lyttos und Malla (Staatsverträge III 511). In: Savigny-Zeitschrift für Rechtsgeschichte, 111 (1994), pp. 421-424
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1990) Drei kleinasiatische Inschriften zur griechischen Religion. In: Epigraphica Anatolica, 15 (1990), pp. 127-133
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2001) Ein alexandrinischer Dichter und Kreta: Mythische Vergangenheit und gegenwärtige Kultpraxis bei Kallimachos. In: Böhm, S. ; Eickstedt, K.-V. von (Hrsgg.): Ithake. Festschrift für Jörg Schäfer. Würzburg 2001, pp. 213-217
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1993) Ein diplomatischer Statthalter nimmt Rücksicht auf den verletzten Stolz zweier hellenistischer Kleinpoleis (Nagidos und Arsinoe). In: Epigraphica Anatolica, 21 (1993), pp. 33-42
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Ein mißverstandenes Ritual der griechischen Diplomatie: Geschichte als Argument. In: Ambos, Claus ; Hotz, S. ; Schwedler, G. ; Weinfurter, Stefan (Hrsgg.): Die Welt der Rituale. Von der Antike bis heute. Darmstadt 2005, pp. 106-109
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1987) Ein neuer genealogischer Text aus Milet. In: Epigraphica Anatolica, 10 (1987), pp. 41-44
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1986) Eine neue Ehreninschrift für Sabina aus Lyttos. In: Kretika Chronika, 26 (1986), pp. 82-88
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1985) Eine neue lateinische Ehreninschrift aus Knosos. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 58 (1985), pp. 182-188
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1989) Eine spätantike Inschrift aus dem kretischen Lyttos. In: Tyche, 4 (1989), pp. 25-31
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1999) Empfängerformular und Urkundenfälschung: Bemerkungen zum Urkundendossier von Magnesia am Mäander. In: G. Khoury, R. (Hrsg.): Urkunden und Urkundenformulare im Klassischen Altertum und in den orientalischen Kulturen. Winter, Heidelberg 1999, pp. 51-69
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1986) Enteleia: Zu Inhalt und Begriff eines Vorrechtes. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 64 (1986), pp. 159-162
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1991) Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 1987. In: Kernos, 4 (1991), pp. 187-311
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1992) Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 1987-1988. In: Kernos, 5 (1992), pp. 265-306
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1993) Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 1987-1989. In: Kernos, 6 (1993), pp. 309-342
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1994) Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 1990. In: Kernos, 7 (1994), pp. 287-354
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Epigraphic evidence for the philosopher Alexander of Aphrodisias. In: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 47 (2004), pp. 79-81
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1999) The Epigraphy of Hellenistic Crete. The Cretan Koinon: New and Old Evidence. In: Atti del XI Congresso Internazionale di Epigrafia Greca e Latina, Bd. 1. Rom 1999, pp. 287-300
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2006) Familiensache: Demonstration von Zusammengehörigkeit im altgriechischen Grabritual. In: Reichmann, R. (Hrsg.): “Der Odem des Menschen ist eine Leuchte des Herrn”. Aharon Agus zum Gedenken, Heidelberg (2006), pp. 205-209
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) Foreign soldiers - native girls? Constructing and crossing boundaries in Hellenistic cities with foreign garrisons. In: Chaniotis, Angelos ; Ducrey, P. (Hrsgg.): Army and Power in the Ancient World. Stuttgart 2002, pp. 99-113
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) From communal spirit to individuality: the epigraphic habit in Hellenistic and Roman Crete. In: Creta Romana e Protobizantina. Atti del Congresso Internazionale, Iraklion, 23–30 settembre 2000. Padua 2004, pp. 75-87
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1991) Gedenktage der Griechen: Ihre Bedeutung für das Geschichtsbewußtsein griechischer Poleis. In: Assmann, Jan (Hrsg.): Das Fest und das Heilige. Religiöse Kontrapunkte zur Alltagswelt . Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1991, pp. 123-145 (Studien zum Verstehen fremder Religionen ; 1)
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Griechische Rituale der Statusänderung und ihre Dynamik. In: Steinicke, M. ; Weinfurter, Stefan (Hrsgg.): Griechische Rituale der Statusänderung und ihre Dynamik. Köln-Weimar 2005, pp. 43-61
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1988) Habgierige Götter - habgierige Städte. Heiligtumsbesitz und Gebietsanspruch in den kretischen Staatsverträgen. In: Ktema, 13 (1988), pp. 21-39
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1996) Hamarties, arosties kai gaitries ste Mikra Asia stous protous metachristianikous aiones. In: Deltion tou Kentrou Mikrasiatikon Spoudon, 11 (1996), pp. 13-44
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2001) Heiligtum und Stadtgemeinde im klassischen und hellenistischen Kreta. In: Kyriatsoulis, A. (Hrsg.): Kreta und Zypern: Religion und Schrift. Altenburg 2001, pp. 319-328
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2006) Heiligtümer überregionaler Bedeutung auf Kreta. In: Freitag, K. ; Funke, Peter ; Haake, M. (Hrsgg.): Kult - Politik - Ethnos. Überregionale Heiligtümer im Spannungsfeld von Kult und Politik. Stuttgart 2006, pp. 196-209
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2000) Hellenistic Lasaia (Crete): A Dependent Polis of Gortyn. New Epigraphic Evidence from the Asklepieion near Lasaia. In: Eulimene, 1 (2000), pp. 55-60
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1995) Illness and Cures in the Greek Propitiatory Inscriptions and Dedications of Lydia and Phrygia. In: Hormannshoff, H.F.J. ; van der Eijk, Ph..J. ; Schrijvers, P.H. (Hrsgg.): Ancient Medicine in its Socio-Cultural Context. Papers Read at the Congress Held at Leiden University, 13-15 April 1992, Bd. 2. Amsterdam-Atlanta 1995, pp. 323-344
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Inscribed instrumenta domestica and the economy of Hellenistic and Roman Crete. In: Archibald, Z.H. ; Davies, J.K. ; Gabrielsen, V. (Hrsgg.): Making, moving, and managing. The new world of ancient economies. Oxford 2005, pp. 92-116
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1998) Inscriptions from Bucak Köyü (Ancient Syneta?). In: American Journal of Archaeology, 102 (1998), pp. 248-250
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) The Jews of Aphrodisias: new evidence and old problems. In: Scripta Classica Israelica, 21 (2002), pp. 209-242
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Justifying territorial claims in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. The beginnings of international law. In: Harris, E.M. ; Rubinstein, L. (Hrsgg.): The law and the courts in ancient Greece. London 2004, pp. 185-213
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1987) Klassiki kai ellenistiki Kriti. In: Panagiotakis, N.M. (Hrsg.): Kriti: Istoria kai Politismos (Kreta: Geschichte und Kultur). Heraklion 1987, pp. 173-284
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1986) Kleine Beiträge zu kretischen Inschriften. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 62 (1986), pp. 193-197
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1995) Kretische Inschriften. In: Tekmeria, 1 (1995), pp. 15-36
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2003) Livia Sebaste, Iulia Sebaste, Caius Caesar Parthikos, Domitian Anikeitos Theos: Inofficial titles of emperors in the early Principate. In: Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 43 (2003), pp. 341-344
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Macht und Volk in den kaiserzeitlichen Inschriften von Aphrodisias. In: Urso, G. (Hrsg.): Popolo e potere nel mondo antico. Atti del convegno internazionale Cividale del Friuli, 23-25 settembre 2004. Pisa 2005, pp. 47-61
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1999) Milking the Mountains: Economic Activities on the Cretan Uplands in the Classical and Hellenistic Period. In: Chaniotis, Angelos (Hrsg.): From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders. Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete. Steiner, Stuttgart 1999, pp. 181-220
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Mobility of persons during the Hellenistic wars: state control and personal relations. In: Moatti, C. (Hrsg.): La mobilité des personnes en Méditerranée, de l\'Antiquité à l\'époque moderne. II. La mobilité négociée. Procédures de contrôle et documents d\'identification. Rom 2004, pp. 481-500
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1990) Neue Fragmente des Preisedikts von Diokletian und weitere lateinische Inschriften aus Kreta. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 80 (1990), pp. 189-202
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1992) Neue Inschriften aus dem kaiserzeitlichen Lyttos, Kreta. In: Tyche, 7 (1992), pp. 27-38
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1991) Neue lateinische Inschriften aus Knosos. In: eitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 89 (1991), pp. 191-195
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1997) New Inscriptions from Old Books. Inscriptions of Aigion, Delphi and Lesbos copied by Nicholas Biddle and Stavros Táxis. In: Tekmeria, 3 (1997), pp. 7-21
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) New inscriptions from Aphrodisias (1995-2001). In: American Journal of Archaeology, 108 (2004), pp. 377-416
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1994) Oi Archanes sta istorika chronia, 1000 p.Ch.-100 m.Ch. In: Archaiologia, 53 (1994), pp. 68-74
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) Old wine in a new skin: tradition and innovation in the cult foundation of Alexander of Abonouteichos. In: Dabrowa, E. (Hrsg.): Tradition and Innovation in the Ancient World (Electrum 6). Krokow 2002, pp. 67-85
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1987) Plutarchos, praeses Insularum (Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire I Plutarchus 4). In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 68 (1987), pp. 227-231
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1995) Problems of 'Pastoralism' and 'Transhumance' in Classical and Hellenistic Crete. In: Orbis Terrarum, 1 (1995), pp. 39-89
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1997) Reinheit des Körpers - Reinheit des Sinnes in den griechischen Kultgesetzen. In: Assmann, Jan ; Sundermeier, Th. (Hrsgg.): Schuld, Gewissen und Person . Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1997, pp. 142-179 (Studien zum Verstehen fremder Religionen ; 9)
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2007) Religion und Mythos in der hellenistischen Welt. In: Weber, G. (Hrsg.): Kulturgeschichte des Hellenismus. Von Alexander dem Großen bis Kleopatra. Stuttgart 2007, pp. 448-454
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Ritual dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: case studies in ancient Greece and Asia Minor. In: Harris, W.V. (Hrsg.): Rethinking the Mediterranean. Oxford 2005, pp. 141-166
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) Ritual dynamics: the Boiotian festival of the Daidala. In: Horstmanshoff, H.F.J. ; Singor, H.W. ; Straten, F.T. van (Hrsgg.): Kykeon. Studies in Honour of H.S. Versnel. Brill, Leiden-Boston-Köln 2002, pp. 23-48
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2006) Rituals between norms and emotions: rituals as shared experience and memory. In: Stavrianopoulou, Eftychia (Hrsg.): Ritual and Communication in the Graeco-Roman World. Liège 2006, pp. 211-238
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1995) Sich selbst feiern? Städtische Feste des Hellenismus im Spannungsfeld von Religion und Politik. In: Zanker, Paul ; Wörrle, Michael (Hrsgg.): Stadtbild und Bürgerbild im Hellenismus. München 1995, pp. 147-172
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2002) Some Cretan bastards. In: Cretan Studies, 7 (2002), pp. 51-57
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1989) Some More Cretan Names. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 77 (1989), pp. 67-81
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1998) Sources épigraphiques / Epigraphical Sources, 1986-1997. In: Motte, A. ; Wathelet, P. (Hrsgg.): Mentor 2. 1986-1990. Guide bibliographique de la religion grecque, (Kernos, Supplément 6. Liège 1998, pp. 38-44
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1997) 'Tempeljustiz' im kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien: Rechtliche Aspekte der Sühneinschriften Lydiens und Phrygiens. In: Thür, G. ; Vélissaropoulos-Karakostas, J. (Hrsgg.): Symposion 1995. Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte (Korfu, 1.-5. September 1995). Böhlau, Köln, Weimar, Wien 1997, pp. 353-384
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2007) Theatre rituals. In: Wilson, P. (Hrsg.): The Greek Theatre and Festivals. Documentary Studies. Oxford 2007, pp. 48-66
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1997) Theatricality Beyond the Theater. Staging Public Life in the Hellenistic World. In: Le Guen, B. (Hrsg.): De la scène aux gradins. Thêatre et représentations dramatiques après Alexandre le Grand dans les cités hellénstiques. Actes du Colloque, Toulouse 1997 (Pallas, 41). Toulouse 1997, pp. 219-259
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2007) Thynnara: Ein neuer karischer Ortsname. In: Fellmeth, U. ; Guyot, P. ; Sonnabend, H. (Hrsgg.): Historische Geographie der alten Welt. Grundlagen, Erträge, Perspektiven. Festgabe für Eckart Olshausen aus Anlass seiner Emeritierung. Hildesheim 2007, pp. 83-85
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Under the watchful eyes of the gods: divine justice in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. In: Colvin, S. (Hrsg.): The Greco-Roman East. Politics, Culture, Society (Yale Classical Studies 31). Cambridge 2004, pp. 1-43
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2005) Victory' verdict: the violent occupation of territory in Hellenistic interstate relations. In: Bertrand, J.-M. (Hrsg.): La violence dans les mondes grec et romain. Paris 2005, pp. 455-464
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1991) Vier kretische Staatsverträge. Verträge zwischen Aptera und Kydonia, einer ostkretischen Stadt und Melos, Olus und Lyttos, Chersonesos und Rhodos. In: Chiron, 21 (1991), pp. 241-264
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1988) Vinum Creticum excellens: Zum Weinhandel Kretas. In: Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte, 7 (1988), Nr. 1. pp. 62-89
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2003) Vom Erlebnis zum Mythos: Identitätskonstruktionen im kaiserzeitlichen Aphrodisias. In: Schwertheim, E. ; Winter, E. (Hrsgg.): Stadt und Stadtentwicklung in Kleinasien. Bonn 2003, pp. 69-84
    Chaniotis, Angelos (2004) Von Ehre, Schande und kleinen Verbrechen unter Nachbarn: Konfliktbewältigung und Götterjustiz in Gemeinden des antiken Anatolien. In: Pfetsch, F. R. (Hrsg.): Konflikt (Heidelberger Jahrbücher 48), Bd. 48. Heidelberg 2004, pp. 233-254
    Chaniotis, Angelos (1991) Von Hirten, Kräutersammlern, Epheben und Pilgern: Leben auf den Bergen im antiken Kreta. In: Siebert, G. (Hrsg.): Nature et paysage dans la pensée et l. De Boccard, Paris 1991, pp. 91-107
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    Malitz, Jürgen (1987) Die Kalenderreform Caesars. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte seiner Spätzeit. In: Ancient Society, 18 (1987), pp. 103-131
    Malitz, Jürgen (1987) Die Kanzlei Caesars - Herrschaftsorganisation zwischen Republik und Prinzipat. In: Historia. Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 36 (1987), pp. 51-72
    Malitz, Jürgen (2000) Globalisierung? Einheitlichkeit und Vielfalt des Imperium Romanum. In: Schreiber, W. (Hrsg.): Vom Imperium Romanum zum Global Village. \"Globalisierungen\" im Spiegel der Geschichte. Neuried 2000, pp. 37-52
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    Malitz, Jürgen (2006) Rom, Athen und Jerusalem: Kaiser Hadrian auf Reisen. In: Schreiber, W. ; Gruner, C. (Hrsgg.): Von den Olympischen Spielen bis zur Potsdamer Konferenz. Standardthemen des Geschichtsunterrichts forschungsnah. Eichstätter Kontaktstudium zum Geschichtsunterricht. Band 6. Neuried 2006, pp. 125-162
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    This list was generated on Mon Mar 27 01:35:23 2017 CEST.

    ASOR Blog (American Schools of Oriental Research)

    Do You Get to Keep What You Find?

    There is one question that I am asked all the time, which has a short answer but is long on associated implications. The question is simply “Do you get to keep what you find?” [...]

    The post Do You Get to Keep What You Find? appeared first on The ASOR Blog.

    ArcheoNet BE

    Restauratie oudste IJslandvaarder gaat van start

    In Antwerpen is de vzw Werkvormm gestart met de restauratie van de ‘François Musin’, de oudste nog overblijvende IJslandvaarder van België. De stalen geklonken zijslagtreiler werd in 1948 gebouwd op de Oostendse scheepswerf Beliard-Crighton. De boot is sinds 2011 beschermd als varend erfgoed.

    Turkish Archaeological News

    Kırkkaşık Bedesten in Tarsus

    Kırkkaşık Bedesten in Tarsus

    Kırkkaşık Bedesten, literally translated as the Bazaar of Forty Spoons, is a covered market in Tarsus. Its history is closely related to the Grand Mosque of Tarsus, standing next to it. The bedesten is not only a historical attraction to the tourists who visit Tarsus, but it also plays a commercial role as a famous shopping centre.

    ArcheoNet BE

    SARO-advies over evaluatie nieuwe regelgeving onroerend erfgoed

    Het agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed bereidt op vraag van minister Geert Bourgeois de eerste evaluatie van de nieuwe regelgeving inzake onroerend erfgoed voor. Voor het zomerreces van 2017 zal deze evaluatie worden voorgelegd aan de Vlaamse Regering. Proactief formuleerde de Strategische Adviesraad voor Ruimtelijke Ordening en Onroerend Erfgoed (SARO) een advies met enkele aandachtspunten.

    De SARO vindt het positief dat, twee jaar na de inwerkingtreding van de regelgeving, werk wordt gemaakt van een evaluatie van de onroerenderfgoedregelgeving. De raad vraagt echter dat bij de evaluatie wordt uitgegaan van een duidelijke evaluatiemethodiek. Tot op heden bestaat er onduidelijkheid over het evaluatietraject en de reikwijdte van het evaluatierapport.

    Ook heeft de SARO vragen bij de betrokkenheid van de relevante actoren, en wordt aandacht gevraagd voor duidelijk uitgewerkte en correcte datasets, die de basis zullen vormen voor de evaluatie. Het is voor de SARO evident dat de evaluatie rekening houdt met de door de Vlaamse overheid beoogde principes inzake de optimalisatie, doelmatigheid en efficiëntie van het (bestuurlijk) beleid.

    Als essentiële knelpunten wijst de SARO op het ontbreken van een robuuste beleidsvisie en de nood aan een samenhangend kader inzake inventarissen, een onderbouwd en doelmatig beschermingsbeleid, een coherent archeologiebeleid, een coherent en stabiel financieel kader, en samenhang met het omgevingsbeleid.

    Download het volledige advies (pdf)

    The Archaeology News Network

    Giant ancient palace unearthed in Mexico

    The remains of an ancient palace complex dating back 2,300 years have been unearthed Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca. It is the oldest royal building excavated to date in the area, providing some of the earliest evidence of early states' emergence in Mesoamerica. El Palenque royal palace has been excavated [Credit: Elsa M. Redmond & Charles Spencer]Finding evidence for the emergence of early state societies is a major challenge for...

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    Stone Age caves found in Odisha

    A civilisation of the Stone Age has been discovered during a research by the Archaeological Survey of India in Chandaka Sanctuary on the outskirts of Odisha’s capital. An Archaeological Survey of India officer points at artworks inside a cave, which belonged to the Stone Age, in Chandaka, Odisha [Credit: The Asian Age]A team led by ASI’s Bhubaneswar circle deputy superintendent D.B. Garnaik revealed that there was human habitat in the...

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    Using Latin to analyse other languages

    Bochum-based philologist Prof Dr Reinhold Glei has figured out why Latin still turned up in many documents in the 17th to 19th centuries, even though it had not been a spoken language for a long time. During that period, Latin served as an instrument for translating languages that had hitherto been little known in Western culture. The Latin translation next to the Arabic text helps represent the grammar and contents structure of the...

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    Mouse in the house tells tale of human settlement

    Long before the advent of agriculture, hunter-gatherers began putting down roots in the Middle East, building more permanent homes and altering the ecological balance in ways that allowed the common house mouse to flourish, new research in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences indicates. Temporary Maasai homesteads, such as this one from southern Kenya, have relatively little  long-term environmental impact [Credit:...

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    Compitum - événements (tous types)

    « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui »

    Titre: « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui »
    Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 18.04.2017 - 12.05.2017
    Heure: 17.30 h - 19.30 h
    Description:

    À l'occasion de la parution de la nouvelle édition des présocratiques, qu'il a publiée avec André Laks, Glenn W. Most, professeur de philologie grecque à la Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, est invité à l’École normale supérieure par le Labex TransferS, du 15 avril au 15 mai 2017. Il donnera dans le cadre de cette invitation quatre séminaires (le 18/04, le 28/04, le 5/05 avec A. Laks, le 12/05) autour du thème « Éditer les Présocratiques aujourd’hui ». Le programme détaillé de ces séminaires est consultable sur le site du Labex TransferS à l'adresse : www.transfers.ens.fr/glenn-w-most

    The Archaeology News Network

    Students unearth a 2,000 year old Jewish settlement near Bet Shemesh

    Some 240 eleventh-grade students from Jerusalem’s Boyer High School have discovered an original and rewarding way of reducing their travel costs to Poland: Working for an entire week on archaeological excavations at Ramat Beit Shemesh, far from their computers and air-conditioned classroom. Boyer High School in Jerusalem will fund most of its youth delegation’s visit to Poland  by working at archaeological digs [Credit: Assaf...

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    Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

    G7 della Cultura: da Firenze una strategia per lotta al traffico illecito dei Beni Culturali

    La lotta al traffico illecito dei Beni Culturali come fonte di finanziamento per le organizzazioni terroristiche occupa un posto di primo piano nel dibattito del primo G7 della Cultura che si terrà a Firenze il 30 e 31 Marzo.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Propylaeum-DOK: Digital Repository: Ancient Near Eastern Studies

    [First posted in AWOL 10 December 2013, updated 27 March 2017]

    Propylaeum-DOK: Digital Repository: Ancient Near Eastern Studies
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    Number of items at this level: 400.

    D

    Dohmann-Pfälzner, Heike ; Pfälzner, Peter (2000) Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in der zentralen Oberstadt von Tall Mozan/ Urkes. Bericht über die in Kooperation mit dem IIMAS durchgeführte Kampagne 1999. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 132 (2000), pp. 185-228

    F

    Faist, Betina (2005) C. Zaccagnini (Hrsg.), Mercanti e politica nel mondo antico, Roma, 2003. In: Die Welt des Orients, 35 (2005), pp. 232-235
    Faist, Betina (2008) Clelia Mora - Mauro Giorgieri, Le lettere tra i re ittiti e i re assiri ritrovate a Hattuša. History of the Ancient Near East, Monographs, 7. Padova, S.A.R.G.O.N. Editrice e Libreria, 2004 [2005]. In: Orientalia, 77 (2008), pp. 418-424
    Faist, Betina (2001) Die Handelsbeziehungen zwischen Assyrien und Anatolien in der zweiten Hälfte des 2. Jt.s v. Chr., unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Metallhandels. In: Klinkott, H. (Hrsg.): Anatolien im Lichte kultureller Wechselwirkungen. Akkulturationsphänomene in Kleinasien und seinen Nachbarregionen während des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends v. Chr. Tübingen 2001, pp. 53-66
    Faist, Betina (2002) Die Rechtsordnung in Syrien nach der hethitischen Eroberung: Wandel und Kontinuität. In: Blum, H. ; Faist, Betina ; Pfälzner, Peter ; Wittke, A.-M. (Hrsgg.): Brückenland Anatolien? Ursachen, Extensität und Modi des Kulturaustausches zwischen Anatolien und seinen Nachbarn. Tübingen 2002, pp. 129-146
    Faist, Betina (2001) Die Tontafeln der Kampagne 1999. In: Finkbeiner, U. (Hrsg.): Emar 1999 – Bericht über die 3. Kampagne der syrisch-deutschen Ausgrabungen, Baghdader Mitteilungen 32, Bd. 32. 2001 103
    Faist, Betina (2009) An Elamite deportee. In: Galil, G. ; Geller, M. ; Milard, A. (Hrsgg.): Homeland and Exile. Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honour of Bustenay Oded, Vetus Testamentum Supplement 130. Leiden / Boston 2009, pp. 59-69
    Faist, Betina (2002) Emar. Eine syrische Stadt unter hethitischer Herrschaft. In: und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Kunst- (Hrsg.): Die Hethiter und ihr Reich. Das Volk der 1000 Götter, Ausstellungskatalog, hrsg. von der Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bonn 2002, pp. 190-195
    Faist, Betina (2011) Galil, Gershon: The Lower Stratum Families in the Neo-Assyrian Period. Leiden, Boston: Brill 2007. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 103 (2011), pp. 22-23
    Faist, Betina (2006) Itineraries and travellers in the Middle Assyrian Period. In: State Archives of Assyria Bulletin, XV (2006), pp. 147-160
    Faist, Betina (2003) J. G. Westenholz, Cuneiform Inscriptions in the Collection of the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem. The Emar Tablets, Groningen, 2000. In: Die Welt des Orients, 33 (2003), pp. 185-195
    Faist, Betina (2010) Kingship and institutional development in the Middle Assyrian period. In: Lafranchi, Giovanni B. ; Rollinger, Robert (Hrsgg.): Concepts of Kingship in Antiquitiy. Proceedings of the European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop ; held in Padova, November 28th - December 1st, 2007. Padua 2010, pp. 15-24
    Faist, Betina (2008) La organización política asiria. In: Justel, Josué-Javier ; Vita, Juan-Pablo ; Zamora, J..A. (Hrsgg.): Las culturas del Próximo Oriente Antiguo y su expansión mediterránea. Zaragoza 2008, pp. 21-34
    Faist, Betina (2005) Porter, Barbara Nevling: Trees, Kings, and Politics. Studies in Assyrian Iconography, Fribourg/Göttingen, 2003. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 100 (2005), pp. 424-429
    Faist, Betina (2000) Roland Lamprichs: Die Westexpansion des neuassyrischen Reiches: eine Strukturanalyse. Kevelaer: Butzon und Bercker; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verl., 1995 (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Bd. 239),452 5.,37 Abb., 2 Karten. ISBN 3-7666-9976-8 (Butzon und Bercker), ISBN 3-7887-1533-2 (Neukirchener Verl.), DM 156,-. In: Die Welt des Orients, 31 (2000), pp. 236-240
    Faist, Betina (2005) S. Jakob, Mittelassyrische Verwaltung und Sozialstruktur: Untersuchungen, Leiden/Boston, 2003. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 51 (2005), pp. 329-331
    Faist, Betina (2008) Scribal traditions and administration at Emar. In: Alfono, L. d' ; Cohen, Y. ; Sürenhagen, D. (Hrsgg.): The City of Emar among the Late Bronze Age Empires. History, Landscape, and Society, Münster, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 349. Münster 2008, pp. 195-205
    Faist, Betina (2003) Sprachen und Schriften in Assur. In: Salje, B. ; Marzahn, Joachim (Hrsgg.): Wiedererstehendes Assur. 100 Jahre deutsche Ausgrabungen in Assyrien. Mainz 2003, pp. 149-156
    Faist, Betina (2004) V. Donbaz – S. Parpola, Neo-Assyrian Legal Texts in Istanbul, (Studien zu den Assur-Texten 2) Saarbrücken: SDV, 2001. XXI, 267 S., 9 Taf. 30,2 x 21,2 cm , ISBN 3-930843-64-1. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, 94 (2004), pp. 122-131
    Faist, Betina (2011) Zum Gerichtsverfahren in der neuassyrischen Zeit. In: Renger, Johannes (Hrsg.): Assur - Gott, Stadt und Land : ...18. - 21. Februar 2004 in Berlin. Wiesbaden 2011, pp. 251-266 (Colloquien der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft ; 5)
    Faist, Betina (2006) Zur Häusertypologie in Emar. Archäologie und Philologie im Dialog. In: Ess, M. van ; Faist, Betina ; Dittmann, R. (Hrsgg.): „Es ist schon lange her. Das freut uns um so mehr“. Vorderasiatische Beiträge für Uwe Finkbeiner, Baghdader Mitteilungen 37, Bd. 37. 2006, pp. 471-480
    Faist, Betina ; Justel, Josué-Javier ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2003) Bibliografía de los estudios de Emar. In: Ugarit-Forschungen, 35 (2003), pp. 191-230
    Faist, Betina ; Justel, Josué-Javier ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2005) Bibliografía de los estudios de Emar (2). In: Ugarit-Forschungen, 37 (2005), pp. 329-340
    Faist, Betina ; Justel, Josué-Javier ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2007) Bibliografía de los estudios de Emar (3). In: Ugarit-Forschungen, 39 (2007), pp. 141-160
    Faist, Betina ; Justel, Josué-Javier ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2009) Bibliografía de los estudios de Emar (4). In: Ugarit-Forschungen. Internationales Jahrbuch für die Altertumskunde Syrien-Palästinas , 41 (2009), pp. 181-191
    Faist, Betina ; Klengel-Brandt, Evelyn (2010) Die Siegel der Stadtvorsteher von Assur. In: Dönmez, Şevket (Hrsg.): Veysel Donbaz'a sunulan yazılar. DUB.SAR É.DUB.BA.A. Studies presented in honour of Veysel Donbaz,. Istanbul 2010, pp. 115-134
    Faist, Betina ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2008) Der Gebrauch von ašar in den akkadischen Texten aus Emar. In: Welt des Orients, 38 (2008), pp. 53-60
    Faist, Betina ; Vita, Juan-Pablo (2010) angurinnu. In: Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires, Nr. 1 (2010), pp. 6-8
    Fuchs, Andreas (1995) B. Kienast unter Mitwirkung von W. Sommerfeld: Glossar zu den altakkadischen Königsinschriften. Freiburger Altorientalische Studien, Band 8. Stuttgart 1994. In: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 145 (1995), 459.
    Fuchs, Andreas (2008) Der Turtan Šamši-īlu und die große Zeit der assyrischen Großen. In: Welt des Orients, 38 (2008), pp. 61-145
    Fuchs, Andreas (2010) Die Darstellung von Räumen und Orten in neuassyrischen Königsinschriften. In: Gertz, Jan Christian (Hrsg.): Ort und Bedeutung: Beiträge zum Symposion "Die Darstellung von Orten; von der Antike bis in die Moderne" am 20. und 21. Juni 2008 in Heidelberg. Kamen 2010, pp. 69-92
    Fuchs, Andreas (2003) Die Heeresmassen Assurs. In: Damals, 35 (2003), pp. 38-44
    Fuchs, Andreas (2003) Ein Inschriftenfragment Tiglatpilesers III. In: Eretz-Israel 27, Festschrift für Miriam und Hayim Tadmor. Jerusalem 2003, pp. 49-54
    Fuchs, Andreas (1998) Festschrift für Hans Hisch zum 65. Geburtstag gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern. Wien: Selbstverl. des Instituts für Orientalistik 1996. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 93 (1998), pp. 301-304
    Fuchs, Andreas (1998) Grayson, A. Kirk, Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC II (858-745 BC). (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Assyrian Period. Vol. 3). University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1996. In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, 55 (1998), pp. 189-192
    Fuchs, Andreas (2010) Gyges, Assurbanipal und Dugdamme/Lygdamis: Absurde Kontakte zwischen Anatolien und Ninive. In: Rollinger, Robert (Hrsg.): Interkulturalität in der Alten Welt: Vorderasien, Hellas, Ägypten und die vielfältigen Ebenen des Kontakts. Wiesbaden 2010, pp. 409-427
    Fuchs, Andreas (1997) Mario Liverani (Hrsg.), Neo-Assyrian Geography. Quaderni di Geografia Storica, 5. Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Scienze storiche, archeologiche e antropologiche dell'Antichità, Rom 1995. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 44/45 (1997), pp. 404-409
    Fuchs, Andreas (2000) Māt Habhi. In: Marzahn, Joachim ; Neumann, Hans (Hrsgg.): Assyriologica et Semitica. Festschrift für Joachim Oelsner. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 252. Münster 2000, pp. 73-94
    Fuchs, Andreas (2010) Neuassyrische Festesfreuden - leicht gedämpft.
    Fuchs, Andreas (2009) Niew-asssyrische Feestvreugde – Licht gedempt. In: Phoenix, 55 (2009), pp. 76-91
    Fuchs, Andreas (2001) Periodisierung: Überlegungen zur sumerischen Eigenbegrifflichkeit. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, Bd. 48/49. 2001, pp. 309-310
    Fuchs, Andreas (2002) Shigeo Yamada, The Construction of the Assyrian Empire. A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) Relating to His Campaigns to the West. Culture and History of the Ancient Near East Vol.3, Leiden; Boston; Köln 2000. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 122 (2002), Nr. 3. pp. 594-597
    Fuchs, Andreas (1998) Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients: Register zu den Karten / Generalindex. 3 Bde. Wiesbaden 1994. In: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 118 (1998), pp. 87-89
    Fuchs, Andreas (1997) Walter Mayer, Politik und Kriegskunst der Assyrer. Ugarit-Verlag, Münster, 1995. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 44-45 (1997), pp. 409-417
    Fuchs, Andreas (2005) War das assyrische Reich ein Militärstaat? In: Meißner, B. ; Schmitt, O. ; Sommer, M. (Hrsgg.): Krieg – Gesellschaft – Institutionen. Beiträge zu einer vergleichenden Kriegsgeschichte. Berlin 2005, pp. 35-60
    Fuchs, Andreas (2009) Waren die Assyrer grausam? In: Zimmermann, Martin (Hrsg.): „Extreme Formen von Gewalt in Bild und Text des Altertums“. München 2009, pp. 65-119
    Fuchs, Andreas (2003) Waters, Matthew W.: A Survey of Neo-Elamite History. (State Archives of Assyria Studies 12). Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2000. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 93 (2003), pp. 128-137
    Fuchs, Andreas (2008) Über den Wert von Befestigungsanlagen. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, 98 (2008), pp. 45-99

    K

    Krebernik, Manfred (2003) Altbabylonische Hymnen an die Muttergöttin (HS 1884). In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 50 (2003), pp. 11-20
    Krebernik, Manfred (2005) Altoriental(ist)ische und biblische Schöpfungsmythen. In: Manger, K. (Hrsg.): Jenaer Universitätsreden. Philosophische Fakultät. Antrittsvorlesungen VII. Jena 2005, pp. 143-169
    Krebernik, Manfred (2002) Anhang: Kollationen zu HS 2009 + 2985 (Su-Sin; Zeilenzählung nach RIME 3/2). In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 92 (2002), pp. 131-134
    Krebernik, Manfred (1988) Black, Jeremya A.: Sumerian grammar in Babylonian theory ( = Studia Pohl, Series Maior, 12). Rom: Pontifico Istituto Biblico 1984. In: Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 78 (1988), pp. 282-285
    Krebernik, Manfred (2007) Buchstabennamen, Lautwerte und Alphabetgeschichte. In: Rollinger, Robert ; Luther, A. ; Wiesehöfer, J. (Hrsgg.): Getrennte Welten? Kommunikation, Raum und Wahrnehmung in der Alten Welt. Frankfurt a. M. 2007, pp. 108-175
    Krebernik, Manfred (1986) Die Götterlisten aus Fara. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 76 (1986), pp. 161-204
    Krebernik, Manfred (1990) Die Testfunde aus Tall Bi'a. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 122 (1990), pp. 67-87
    Krebernik, Manfred (1992) Die Textfunde der 9. Kampagne (1986). In: Hrouda, B. (Hrsg.): Isin - Isan Bahriyat IV. München 1992, pp. 102-144
    Krebernik, Manfred (2005) Dietz Otto Edzard. 28.8.1930-2.6.2004. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 95 (2005), pp. 1-6
    Krebernik, Manfred (2003) Drachenmutter und Himmelsrebe? Zur Frühgeschichte Dumuzis und seiner Familie. In: Sallaberger, W. ; Volk, Konrad ; Zgoll, A. (Hrsgg.): Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke (Orientalia Biblica et Christiana 14). Wiesbaden 2003, pp. 151-180
    Krebernik, Manfred (1994) Ein Keulenkopf mit Weihung an Gilgames im Vorderasiatischen Museum, Berlin. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 21 (1994), pp. 5-12
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Ein Lautwert šarx des Zeichens NE in Ebla? In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 74 (1984), pp. 168-169
    Krebernik, Manfred (2001) Ein ki-dutu-Gebet aus der Hilprecht-Sammlung. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 91 (2001), pp. 238-252
    Krebernik, Manfred (2004) Ein sumerischer Brief aus dem Kunsthandel. In: Waetzoldt, H. (Hrsg.): Von Sumer nach Ebla und zurück. Festschrift Giovanni Pettinato zum 27. September 1999 gewidmet von Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient 9. Heidelberg 2004, pp. 101-104
    Krebernik, Manfred (2005) Elamisch. In: P. Streck, Michael (Hrsg.): Sprachen des Alten Orients. Darmstadt 2005, pp. 159-182
    Krebernik, Manfred (1996) Fragment einer Bilingue. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 86 (1996), pp. 170-176
    Krebernik, Manfred (1997) Frayne, Douglas: Old Babylonian period (2003-1595 BC) (= The royal inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Early periods, Volume 4). University of Toronto Press, Toronto/Buffalo, London 1990. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 87 (1997), pp. 122-141
    Krebernik, Manfred (1991) Gelb, I.J. und B. Kienast: Die altakkadischen Königsinschriften des Dritten Jahrtausends v. Chr. (=Freiburger Altorientalistische Studien 7), Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, 1990. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 81 (1991), pp. 133-143
    Krebernik, Manfred (1994) Green, M.W., und Hans J. Nissen: Zeichenliste der archaischen Texte aus Uruk. Unter Mitarbeit von Peter Damerow und Robert K. Englund. Berlin, Gebr. Mann (1987). In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 89 (1994), pp. 380-385
    Krebernik, Manfred (1985) Hermann Behrens und Horst Steible, Glossar zu den altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften. Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1983, Freiburger Altorientalische Studien, Band 6. In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, 42 (1985), pp. 642-643
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Horst Steible, unter Mitarbeit von Hermann Behrens, Die altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften. Teil I: Inschriften aus ,Lagas'. Teil II: Kommentar zu den Inschriften aus ,Lagas'. Inschriften ausserhalb von ,Lagas'. Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1982; Freiburger Altorientalische Studien, Band 5. In: Bibliotheca Orientalis, 41 (1984), pp. 642-646
    Krebernik, Manfred (1993) Ignace J. Gelb, Piotr Steinkeller und Robert M. Whiting, Jr., Earliest Land Tenure Systems in the Near East: Ancient Kudurrus, Chicago 1991. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 40/41 (1993), pp. 88-91
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Lemaire, André - Durand, Jean-Marie: Les inscriptions araméennes de Sfiré et l'Assyrie de Shamshi-ilu. Préface de Maurice Sznycer, Directeur d'Etudes à la Section (Ecole pratique des Hautes-Etudes. IVe Section, Scienes historiques et philologiques. II, Hautes Etudes orientales, 20). Librairie Droz, Genf-Paris, 1984. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 74 (1984), pp. 156-160
    Krebernik, Manfred (1985) Loretz, Oswald: Habiru — Hebräer. Eine sozio-linguistische Studie über die Herkunft des Gentiliziums \'ibrî vom Appellativum habiru (= Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 160). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/ New York, 1984. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 75 (1985), pp. 150-152
    Krebernik, Manfred (1995) M. Weinfelds Deuteronomiumskommentar aus assyriologischer Sicht. In: Braulik, G. (Hrsg.): Bundesdokument und Gesetz. Studien zum Deuteronomium. Herders Biblische Studien 4. Freiburg 1995, pp. 27-36
    Krebernik, Manfred (1992) Mesopotamian Myths at Ebla: ARET 5, 6 and ARET 5, 7. In: Fronzaroli, Pelio (Hrsg.): Literature and Literary Language at Ebla. Florenz 1992, pp. 63-149 (Quaderni di Semitistica ; 18)
    Krebernik, Manfred (1996) Milano, Lucio (ed.): Drinking in ancient societies. History and culture of drinks in the Ancient Near East. Papers of a symposium held in Rome, May 17 - 19, 1990 (= History of the Ancient Near East/Studies V I). Sargon srl, Padova 1994. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 86 (1996), pp. 285-287
    Krebernik, Manfred (2001) Neues zu den Eponymen unter Jasmah-Addu. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 28 (2001), pp. 1-7
    Krebernik, Manfred (2006) Neues zu den Fara-Texten. In: Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires, (2006), 13-14 Nr. 15.
    Krebernik, Manfred (1988) Prefixed verbal forms in personal names from Ebla. In: Archi, A. (Hrsg.): Eblaite Personal Names and Semitic Name-Giving. Papers of a symposion held in Rome, July 15-17, 1985. Archivi Reali di Ebla, Studi 1. Rom 1988, pp. 45-69
    Krebernik, Manfred (1991) Schriftfunde aus Tall Bi'a 1990. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 123 (1991), pp. 41-70
    Krebernik, Manfred (1993) Schriftfunde aus Tall Bi'a 1992. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 125 (1993), pp. 51-60
    Krebernik, Manfred (1990) Sigrist, Rene Marcel: Les šattukku dans l\'Ešumeša durant la periode d\'Isin et Larsa. Malibu/Calif.: Undena Publications 1984. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 85 (1990), pp. 410-412
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Starr, Ivan: The Rituals of the Diviner, (= Bibliotheca Mesopotamica 12). Undena Publications, Malibu, 1983. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 74 (1984), pp. 290-292
    Krebernik, Manfred (1994) Tall Bia 1993: Die Schriftfunde. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, 126 (1994), pp. 33-36
    Krebernik, Manfred (1993) Verbalformen mit suffigierten n-Morphemen im Ugaritischen. Überlegungen zur Morphologie des Energikus im Ugaritischen und in anderen semitischen Sprachen. In: Irsigler, H. (Hrsg.): Syntax und Text. Beiträge zur 22. Internationalen Ökumenischen Hebräisch-Dozenten-Konferenz 1993 in Bamberg, Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament 40. St. Ottilien 1993, pp. 123-150
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Verbalnomina mit prä- und infigirtem t in Ebla. In: Studi Eblaiti, 7 (1984), pp. 191-211
    Krebernik, Manfred (2002) Vielzahl und Einheit im altmesopotamischen Pantheon. In: Krebernik, Manfred ; van Oorschot, J. (Hrsgg.): Polytheismus und Monotheismus in den Religionen des Vorderen Orients, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 293. Münster 2002, pp. 33-51
    Krebernik, Manfred (2002) Von Zählsymbolen zur Keilschrift. In: Greber, E. (Hrsg.): Materialität und Medialität von Schrift. Bielefeld 2002, pp. 51-71
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Walter Sommerfeld: Der Aufstieg Marduks. Die Stellung Marduks in der babylonischen Religion des zweiten Jahrtausends v.Chr., Verlag Butzon & Bercker, Kevelaer/Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1982. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 74 (1984), pp. 141-142
    Krebernik, Manfred (2008) „Wo einer in Wut ist, kann kein anderer ihm raten." Zum göttlichen Zorn im Alten Orient. In: Kratz, R.G. ; Spieckermann, H. (Hrsgg.): Divine Wrath and Divine Mercy in the World of Antiquity. Forschungen zum Alten Testament II/33. Tübingen 2008, pp. 44-66
    Krebernik, Manfred (2004) Wörter und Sprichwörter: der zweisprachige Schultext HS 1461. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 94 (2004), pp. 226-249
    Krebernik, Manfred (1982) Zu Syllabar und Orthographie der lexikalischen Texte aus Ebla.Teil I. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 72 (1982), pp. 178-236
    Krebernik, Manfred (1983) Zu Syllabar und Orthographie der lexikalischen Texte aus Ebla.Teil II (Glossar). In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 73 (1983), pp. 1-47
    Krebernik, Manfred (2001) Zu den georgischen Bezeichnungen der Himmelsrichtungen. In: Georgic, 24 (2001), pp. 74-76
    Krebernik, Manfred (1985) Zur Entwicklung der Keilschrift im III. Jahrtausend anhand der Texte aus Ebla. Ein Vergleich zwischen altakkadischem und eblaitischem Schriftsystem. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 32 (1985), pp. 53-59
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) Zur Lesung einiger frühdynastischer Inschriften aus Mari. In: Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, 74 (1984), pp. 164-167
    Krebernik, Manfred (2002) Zur Struktur und Geschichte des älteren sumerischen Onomastikons. In: Streck, M.P. ; Weninger, S. (Hrsgg.): Altorientalische und semitische Onomastik (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 296). Münster 2002, pp. 1-74
    Krebernik, Manfred (2001) Zypern im III. und II. Jahrtausend aus altorientalischer Sicht. In: Kyriatsoulis, A. (Hrsg.): Kreta und Zypern: Religion und Schrift. Altenburg 2001, pp. 169-185
    Krebernik, Manfred (1984) hbrk bcl in den phönizischen Karatepe-Inschriften und 'à-ba-ra-gú in Ebla. In: Die Welt des Orients, 15 (1984), pp. 89-92
    Krebernik, Manfred (1996) The linguistic classification of Eblaite: Methods, problems, and results. In: Cooper, J.S. ; Schwartz, G.M. (Hrsgg.): The Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-First Century. The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference, Winona Lake. Winona Lake 1996, pp. 233-249
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    Neumann, Hans (1998) Altorientalistik in der DDR (1986-1990) und ihre inhaltlich-strukturelle Umgestaltung in den neuen Bundesländern (1990/91-1995). In: Krauth, W.-H. ; Wolz, R. (Hrsgg.): Wissenschaft und Wiedervereinigung. Asien - und Afrikawissenschaften im Umbruch. Berlin 1998, pp. 165-268
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    Neumann, Hans (1994) Beer as a means of compensation for work in Mesopotamia during the Ur III period. In: Milano, L. (Hrsg.): Drinking in ancient societies. History and culture of drinks in the ancient Near East. Papers of a symposium held in Rome, May 17-19 1990. Padua 1994, pp. 321-331
    Neumann, Hans (1987) Bemerkungen zu Ehe, Konkubinat und Bigamie in neusumerischer Zeit. In: Durand, J.-M. (Hrsg.): La femme dans le Proche-Orient antique. XXXIIIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 7-10 juillet 1986). Paris 1987, pp. 131-137
    Neumann, Hans (1992) Bemerkungen zum Problem der Fremdarbeit in Mesopotamien (3. Jahrtausend v.u.Z.). In: Bemerkungen zum Problem der Fremdarbeit in Mesopotamien (3. Jahrtausend v.u.Z.), 19 (1992), pp. 266-275
    Neumann, Hans (1989) Bemerkungen zur Freilassung von Sklaven im alten Mesopotamien gegen Ende des 3. Jahrtausends v.u.Z. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 16 (1989), pp. 220-233
    Neumann, Hans (2005) Der Beitrag Mesopotamiens zur Rechtsgeschichte - Bürgschaft und Pfand als Mittel der Vertragssicherung. In: Barta, H. ; Mayer-Maly, Th. ; Raber, F. (Hrsgg.): Lebend(ig)e Rechtsgeschichte. Beispiele antiker Rechtskulturen: Ägypten, Mesopotamien und Griechenland. Wien 2005, pp. 181-204
    Neumann, Hans (1996) Der sumerische Baumeister (sidim). In: Veenhof, K.R. (Hrsg.): Houses and households in ancient Mesopotamia. Papers read at the 40e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, July 5-8, 1993. Istanbul 1996, pp. 153-169
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    Neumann, Hans (1993) Die Keilschrifttexte in der Sammlung des Archäologischen Museums Zagreb. In: Vjesnik Arheoloskog Muzeja u Zagrebu, 3, Ser (1993), pp. 125-144
    Neumann, Hans (2002) Die sogenannte Oikos-Ökonomie und das Problem der Privatwirtschaft im ausgehenden 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. in Mesopotamien. Bemerkungen zu J. Renger: Wirtschaftsgeschichte des alten Mesopotamien. Versuch einer Standortbestimmung. In: Hausleiter, A. ; Kerner, S. ; Müller-Neuhof, B. (Hrsgg.): Material Culture and Mental Spheres. Rezeption archäologischer Denkrichtungen in der Vorderasiatischen Altertumskunde, Internationales Symposium für Hans J. Nissen. Münster 2002, pp. 273-281
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    Neumann, Hans (1992) Ein Brief an König Sulgi in einer späten Abschrift. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 19 (1992), pp. 29-39
    Neumann, Hans (1980) Ein Ur III-Brief aus der Sammlung des Archäologischen Museums der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 7 (1980), pp. 269-272
    Neumann, Hans (2003) Ein Ur III-Text aus Münsteraner Privatbesitz. In: Blöbaum, A. ; Kahl, Jochem ; Schweitzer, Simon (Hrsgg.): Ägypten - Münster. Kulturwissenschaftliche Studien zu Ägypten, dem Vorderen Orient und verwandten Gebieten. Wiesbaden 2003, pp. 213-214
    Neumann, Hans (1997) Ein neuer mu-iti-Text aus einer Berliner Privatsammlung. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 24 (1997), pp. 31-34
    Neumann, Hans (1981) Eine Inschrift des Königs Lugalkisalsi (VA 4855). In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 8 (1981), pp. 75-82
    Neumann, Hans (2007) Einheimische Tradition und interkulturell bedingter Wandel in den babylonischen Rechtsverhältnissen der hellenistischen Zeit. In: Rollinger, Robert ; Barta, H. (Hrsgg.): Rechtsgeschichte und Interkulturalität. Zum Verhältnis des östlichen Mittelmeerraums und \"Europas\" im Altertum. Wiesbaden 2007, pp. 117-134
    Neumann, Hans (1988) Einige Erwägungen zu Recht und Gesellschaft in Mesopotamien in frühstaatlicher Zeit. In: Vavrousek, P. ; Soucek, V. (Hrsgg.): Papers on the Ancient Near East, International Conference of Specialists of Socialist Countries (Prague, Sept. 30 - Oct. 3, 1986). Prag 1988, pp. 211-224
    Neumann, Hans (1991) Forschungen zur altorientalischen Geschichte in der DDR (1980-1990). In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 18 (1991), pp. 346-370
    Neumann, Hans (1989) "Gerechtigkeit liebe ich...". Zum Strafrecht in den ältesten Gesetzen Mesopotamiens. In: Das Altertum, 15 (1989), pp. 13-22
    Neumann, Hans (2007) "Gib mir mein Geld zurück!" Zur rechts- und wirtschaftsgeschichtlichen Bedeutung keilschriftlicher Privatarchive des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr. In: Wilcke, C. (Hrsg.): Das geistige Erfassen der Welt im Alten Orient. Beiträge zu Sprache, Religion, Kultur und Gesellschaft. Wiesbaden 2007, pp. 281-299
    Neumann, Hans (1997) Gläubiger oder Schuldner? Anmerkungen zu einem neuassyrischen Privatbrief. In: Pongratz-Leisten, B. ; Kühne, Hartmut (Hrsgg.): Ana sadî Labnani lu allik. Beiträge zu altorientalischen und mittelmeerischen Kulturen. Festschrift für Wolfgang Röllig. Kevelaer -Neukirchen-Vluyn 1997, pp. 281-293
    Neumann, Hans (2001) Goldverzierte Schuhe für die Königin. In: Richter, Thomas ; Prechel, D. ; Klinger, J. (Hrsgg.): Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalistische Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag. Saarbrücken 2001, pp. 285-289
    Neumann, Hans (1999) Grundpfandbestellung und Feldabgabe unter rechts- und sozialvergleichendem Aspekt. In: Klengel, H. ; Renger, J. (Hrsgg.): Landwirtschaft im Alten Orient. Ausgewählte Vorträge der XLI. Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Berlin, 4.-8.7.1994. Berlin 1999, pp. 137-148
    Neumann, Hans (2008) Göttliche Gerechtigkeit und menschliche Verantwortung im alten Mesopotamien im Spannungsfeld von Norm(durch)setzung und narrativer Formulierung. In: Barta, H. ; Rollinger, Robert ; Lang, M. (Hrsgg.): Recht und Religion. Menschliche und göttliche Gerechtigkeitsvorstellungen in den antiken Welten. Wiesbaden 2008, pp. 37-48
    Neumann, Hans (1979) Handel und Händler in der Zeit der III. Dynastie von Ur. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 6 (1979), pp. 15-67
    Neumann, Hans (2000) Historische Keilschrifttexte im Kestner-Museum Hannover I: Gudea, Lipit-Estar, Sanherib. In: Graziani, S. (Hrsg.): Studi sul Vicino Oriente antico dedicati alla memoria di Luigi Cagni II. Neapel 2000, pp. 783-795
    Neumann, Hans (2000) Historische Keilschrifttexte im Kestner-Museum Hannover II: Nebukadnezar II. In: Marzahn, Joachim ; Neumann, Hans (Hrsgg.): Assyriologica et Semitica. Festschrift für Joachim Oelsner anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages am 18. Februar 1997. Münster 2000, pp. 319-330
    Neumann, Hans (2008) Keilschrifttexte aus kleineren deutschen Sammlungen I. Die Ur III-Texte im Kestner-Museum Hannover. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 35 (2008), pp. 238-245
    Neumann, Hans (1992) Nochmals zum Kaufmann in neusumerischer Zeit: Die Geschäfte des Ur-DUN und anderer Kaufleute aus Nippur. In: Charpin, D. ; Joannès, F. (Hrsgg.): La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idées dans le Proche-Orient ancien. Actes de la 38e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Paris, 8-10 juillet 1991). Paris 1992, pp. 83-94
    Neumann, Hans (1987) Politik und Religion in Mesopotamien zur Zeit der Entstehung von Stadt- und Territorialstaat (3. Jahrtausend v.u.Z.). In: Klio, 69 (1987), pp. 297-307
    Neumann, Hans (2004) Prozeßführung im Edubba'a. Zu einigen Aspekten der Aneignung juristischer Kenntnisse im Rahmen des Curriculums babylonischer Schreiberausbildung. In: Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschicht, 10 (2004), pp. 71-92
    Neumann, Hans (2006) Schuld und Sühne. Zu den religiös-weltanschaulichen Grundlagen und Implikationen altmesopotamischer Gesetzgebung und Rechtsprechung. In: Hengstl, J. ; Sick, U. (Hrsgg.): Recht gestern und heute. Festschrift zum 85. Geburtstag von Richard Haase. Wiesbaden 2006, pp. 27-43
    Neumann, Hans (2000) Staatliche Verwaltung und privates Handwerk in der Ur III-Zeit: Die Auftragstätigkeit der Schmiede von Girsu. In: Bongenaar, A.C.V.M. (Hrsg.): Interdependency of Institutions and Private Entrepreneurs. Proceedings of the Second MOS Symposium (Leiden 1998). Leiden 2000, pp. 119-133
    Neumann, Hans (1999) Ur-Dumuzida and Ur-DUN. Reflections on the relationship between state-initiated foreign trade and private economic activity in Mesopotamia towards the end of the third millennium BC. In: Dercksen, J.G. (Hrsg.): Trade and finance in ancient Mesopotamia. Proceedings of the First MOS Symposium (Leiden 1997). Leiden 1999, pp. 43-53
    Neumann, Hans (2004) Weitere Ur III-Texte aus dem Sammlungsbestand der Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. In: Waetzoldt, H. (Hrsg.): Von Sumer nach Ebla und zurück. Festschrift Giovanni Pettinato zum 27. September 1999 gewidmet von Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern. Heidelberg 2004, pp. 211-215
    Neumann, Hans (2001) Zu den Buchungseinträgen in den neusumerischen Handwerkerpräsenzlisten aus Ur. In: Høyrup, J. ; Damerow, P. (Hrsgg.): Changing views on ancient Near Eastern mathematic. Berlin 2001, pp. 37-51
    Neumann, Hans (1993) Zu den Geschäften des Kaufmanns Ur-Dumuzida aus Umma. In: Altorientalische Forschungen 20, 20 (1993), Nr. 1. pp. 69-86
    Neumann, Hans (2002) Zu einem rechtshistorisch bedeutsamen Passus in der altakkadischen Urkunde OAIC 10. In: Loretz, O. ; Metzler, K.A. (Hrsgg.): Ex Mesopotamia et Syria Lux. Festschrift für Manfried Dietrich zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 6.11.2000. Münster 2002, pp. 511-515
    Neumann, Hans (1990) Zu einer Kopie der Inschrift Naramsîn 2 aus Babylon. In: Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 42 (1990), pp. 202-210
    Neumann, Hans (1993) Zum Problem der privaten Feldpacht in neusumerischer Zeit. In: Zablocka, J. ; Zawadzki, St. (Hrsgg.): Sulmu IV. Everyday Life in Ancient Near East. Papers Presented at the International Conference Poznan, 19 - 22 September 1989. Poznan 1993, pp. 223-233
    Neumann, Hans (1987) Zum Problem des privaten Bodeneigentums in Mesopotamien (3. Jt. v.u.Z.). In: Das Grundeigentum in Mesopotamien, Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte Sonderband 1987. Berlin 1987, pp. 29-48
    Neumann, Hans (1999) Zum Publizitätsakt beim Immobiliarkauf in der altakkadischen Rechtsüberlieferung. In: Böck, B. ; Cancik-Kirschbaum, E. (Hrsgg.): , Munuscula Mesopotamica. Festschrift für Johannes Renger. Münster 1999, pp. 355-361
    Neumann, Hans (1996) Zum privaten Werkvertrag im Rahmen der neusumerischen handwerklichen Produktion. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 23 (1996), pp. 254-264
    Neumann, Hans (1992) Zur Problematik des subjektiven Faktors im Prozeß politischer Umwälzungen in Mesopotamien gegen Ende des 3. Jahrtausends v.u.Z. In: Archív Orientální, 60 (1992), pp. 234-250
    Neumann, Hans (1991) Zur geplanten Publikation von Keilschrifttexten aus kleineren Sammlungen. In: Klengel, H. ; Sundermann, W. (Hrsgg.): Ägypten - Vorderasien - Turfan. Probleme der Edition und Bearbeitung altorientalischer Handschriften. Tagung in Berlin, Mai 1987 (= Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients 23). Berlin 1991, pp. 66-72
    Neumann, Hans (1988) Zur privaten Geschäftstätigkeit in Nippur in der Ur III-Zeit. In: deJong Ellis, M. (Hrsg.): Nippur at the Centennial: Papers Read at the 35e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Philadelphia 1988. Philadelphie 1988, pp. 161-176
    Neumann, Hans ; Hruska, Blahoslav (1994) Die Ur III-Texte aus der Sammlung des Altorientalischen Seminars der Karlsuniversität Prag. In: Die Ur III-Texte aus der Sammlung des Altorientalischen Seminars der Karlsuniversität Prag, 62 (1994), pp. 227-249
    Neumann, Hans ; Marzahn, Joachim (1995) Eine altsumerische Urkunde aus Girsu über Silberzahlungen. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 22 (1995), pp. 110-116
    Novák, Mirko (2005) Architektur und Stratigraphie der seleukidischen und parthisch-römischen Siedlung auf der Zitadelle. In: Kühne, Hartmut (Hrsg.): Magdalu / Magdala – Der Tall Seh Hamad von der postassyrischen Zeit bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall Seh Hamad / Dur-Katlimmu 2. Berlin 2005, pp. 59-90
    Novák, Mirko (1999) C. Castel, M. Al-Maqdissi, F. Villeneuve (eds), Les maisons dans la Syrie antique du IIIe millénaire aux débuts de l'Islam. Pratiques et représentations de l'espace domestique. Actes du Colloque International, Damas 27-30 juin 1992 (BAH 150) , Ifapo-Beyrouth (1997). In: TOPOI, 9 (1999), Nr. 1. pp. 439-445
    Novák, Mirko (2000) Das "Haus der Totenpflege". Zur Sepulkralsymbolik des Hauses im Alten Mesopotamien. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 27 (2000), pp. 132-154
    Novák, Mirko (2005) Das islamische Heiligtum des Šēh Hamad und der rezente Friedhof auf der Kuppe des Tall Šēh Hamad. In: Kühne, Hartmut (Hrsg.): Magdalu / Magdala – Der Tall Seh Hamad von der postassyrischen Zeit bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Berichte der Ausgrabung Tall Seh Hamad / Dur-Katlimmu 2. Berlin 2005, pp. 355-360
    Novák, Mirko (1996) Der Landschaftsbezug in der orientalischen Palastarchitektur. In: Altorientalische Forschungen, 23 (1996), pp. 335-379
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    Novák, Mirko (2004) Die Religionspolitik der aramäischen Fürstentümer im 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. In: Hutter, M. ; Hutter-Braunsar, S. (Hrsgg.): Offizielle Religion, lokale Kulte und individuelle Religiosität. Akten des religionsgeschichtlichen Symposiums „Kleinasien und angrenzende Gebiete vom Beginn des 2. bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. v. Chr.“, Alter Orient und Altes Testament 318. Münster 2004 319
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    Novák, Mirko (1994) Eine Typologie der Wohnhäuser von Nuzi. In: Baghdader Mitteilungen, 25 (1994), pp. 341-446
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    Novák, Mirko (2007) Florian Janoscha Kreppner: Die Keramik des „Roten Hauses " von Tall Seh Hamad / Dür-Katlimmu. Eine Betrachtung der Keramik Nordmesopotamiens aus der zweiten Hälfte des 7. und aus dem 6. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Mit Beiträgen von Malgorzata Daszkiewicz, Ewa Bobryk und Gerwulf Schneider. Berichte der Ausgra©bung Tall Seh Hamad / Dür-Katlimmu (BATSH) Band 7. Harrasowitz Verlag Wiesbaden 2006. In: Die Welt des Orients, 37 (2007), pp. 214-220
    Novák, Mirko (1997) Forsberg, Stig: Near Eastern Destruction Datings as Sources for Greek and Near Eastern Iron Age Chronology. Archaeologicaland Historcical Studies. The Cases of Samaria (722 B.C.) and Tarsus (696 B.C.). Uppsala: Uppsala University 1995. 106 S. m. Abb. 4 = Boreas. Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilizations. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 92 (1997), pp. 518-522
    Novák, Mirko (2006) Fundamentierungstechniken im Palast von Qatna. In: Czerny, Ernst ; Hein, I. ; Hunger, Hermann ; Melmann, Dagmar ; Schwab, A. (Hrsgg.): Timelines. Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak Bd. 3, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 149. Leuven 2006, pp. 63-71
    Novák, Mirko (2004) Hilani und Lustgarten. Ein »Palast des Hethiter-Landes« und ein »Garten nach dem Abbild des Amanus« in Assyrien. In: Novák, Mirko ; Prayon, F. ; Witte, A.-M. (Hrsgg.): Die Außenwirkung des späthethitischen Kulturraums. Tagungsberichte der 2. Forschungstagung des Graduiertenkollegs ‘Anatolien und seine Nachbarn’ der Universität Tübingen. Münster 2004, pp. 335-372 ( Alter Orient und Altes Testament ; 323)
    Novák, Mirko (2008) Individuum oder Kollektiv? Zur kulturgeschichtlichen Stellung der Königsgruft von Qatna. In: Kümmel, C. ; Schweizer, B. ; Veit, U. (Hrsgg.): Körperinszenierungen – Objektsammlung – Monumentalisierung: Totenritual und Grabkult in frühen Gesellschaften. Münster 2008, pp. 207-232
    Novák, Mirko (1999) K. R. Veenhof (Hrsg.), Houses and Households in Ancient Mesopotamia, Papers read at the 40th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, July 5-8, 1993. Paperback, VIII, 326 pp. Leiden, Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, 1996. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 46/47 (1999), pp. 301-306
    Novák, Mirko (2005) Mamoun, Fansa, Stefan Burmeister (Herausgeber): Rad und Wagen. Der Ursprung einer Innovation im Vorderen Orient und Europa. Wissenschaftliche Beischrift zur Sonderausstellung vom 28. März bis 11. Juli 2004 im Landesmuseum für Natur und Mensch in Oldenburg (= Beiheft der Archäologischen Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland Nr. 40). Mainz: Philipp von Zabern 2004. In: Die Welt des Orients, 35 (2005), pp. 280-284
    Novák, Mirko (2007) Mittani empire and the question of absolute chronology: Some archaeological considerations. In: Bietak, M. ; Czerny, Ernst (Hrsgg.): he Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. III. Proceedings of the SCIEM 2000 – 2 ndEuro Conference. Wien 2007, pp. 389-401
    Novák, Mirko (2005) Rezension: Ellen Rehm, Waffengräber im Alten Orient Zum Problem der Wertung von Waffen in Gräbern des 3. und frühen 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr. in Mesopotamien und Syrien (BAR Int. Ser. 1191). In: Die Welt des Orients, 35 (2005), pp. 285-287
    Novák, Mirko (2002) The artificial paradise: programme and ideology of royal gardens. In: Parpola, S. ; Whiting, R.M. (Hrsgg.): Sex and Gender in Ancient Near East, Compte rendu de la ...e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale 47. Helsinki 2002 443–460
    Novák, Mirko (2004) The chronology of the Bronze Age palace of Qatna. In: Ägypten und Levante, 14 (2004), 299–317.
    Novák, Mirko ; Elsen-Novák, Gabriele (2006) Der „König der Gerechtigkeit“ – Zur Ikonologie und Teleologie des ‘Codex’ Hammurapi. In: Baghdader Mitteilungen, 37 (2006), pp. 131-155
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    Novák, Mirko ; Pfälzner, Peter (2005) Ausgrabungen in Tall Mišrife - Qatna 2003. Vorbericht der deutschen Komponente des internationalen Kooperationsprojektes. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 137 (2005), pp. 57-78
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    Pfälzner, Peter (2008) Das Tempeloval von Urkeš. Betrachtungen zur Typologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der mesopotamischen Ziqqurrat im 3. Jt. v. Chr. In: Zeitschrift für Orient-Archäologie, 1 (2008), pp. 396-433
    Pfälzner, Peter (2011) Das systemische und das archäologische Inventar der Königsgruft von Qaṭna und seine Interpretationsmöglichkeiten. In: Pfälzner, Peter (Hrsg.): Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Königsgruft von Qaṭna. Wiesbaden 2011, pp. 39-52 (Qaṭna-Studien ; 1)
    Pfälzner, Peter (2011) Die Chronologie der Königsgruft von Qatna. In: Pfälzner, Peter (Hrsg.): Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Königsgruft von Qatna. Wiesbaden 2011, pp. 55-67 (Qatna-Studien ; 1)
    Pfälzner, Peter (1990) Die Keramik vom Tell Hwēš. In: Berytus, 38 (1990), pp. 137-154
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    Pfälzner, Peter (1988) Die glasierte Baukeramik. In: Damaszener Mitteilungen, 3 (1988), pp. 180-184
    Pfälzner, Peter (1998) Eine Modifikation der Periodisierung Nordmesopotamiens im 3. Jtsd. v. Chr. In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 130 (1998), pp. 69-71
    Pfälzner, Peter (1984) Eine archäologische Geländebegehung im Gebiet des Wadi 'Agig/Ostsyrien. In: Archiv für Orientforschung, 31 (1984), pp. 178-185
    Pfälzner, Peter (2011) Goldplaketten und andere prestigehaltige Einzelobjekte aus Gold, Silber und Bernstein aus der Königsgruft von Qatna im Kontext von Bestattung und Ritual. In: Pfälzner, Peter (Hrsg.): Interdisziplinäre Studien zur Königsgruft von Qatna. Wiesbaden 2011, pp. 137-190 (Qaṭna-Studien ; 1)
    Pfälzner, Peter (2001) Haus und Haushalt: Wohnformen des dritten Jahrtausends vor Christus in Nordmesopotamien. In: Damaszener Forschungen, Bd. 9 (2001). Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2001
    Pfälzner, Peter (2012) How did they bury the kings of Qatna? In: Pfälzner, Peter ; Niehr, Herbert ; Pernicka, Ernst ; Wissing, Anne (Hrsgg.): (Re-)Constructing funerary rituals in the ancient Near East. proceedings of the First International Symposium of the Tübingen Post-Graduate School “Symbols of the Dead” in May 2009. Wiesbaden 2012, pp. 205-220 (Qaṭna Studien: Supplementa ; 1)
    Pfälzner, Pet