Electra Atlantis: Digital Approaches to Antiquity


Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

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November 26, 2014

Tom Gewecke (Multilingual Mac)

OS X: Fixes for Broken Character Picker

If you find that you no longer have the Character Picker (that's the popup menu with accented versions of the key you are holding down), I've seen two fixes that sometimes work: +Use the plus and add buttons in system preferences/keyboard/input sources to add another keyboard like French or Spanish to your list of active keyboard layouts. +Go to system preferences/keyboard and toggle the key

The Signal: Digital Preservation

Collecting and Preserving Digital Art: Interview with Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito

Jon Ippolito, Associate Professor of New Media at the University of Maine

Jon Ippolito, Professor of New Media at the University of Maine

As artists have embraced a range of new media and forms in the last century as the work of collecting, conserving and exhibiting these works has become increasingly complex and challenging. In this space, Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito have been working to develop and understand approaches to ensure long-term access to digital works. In this installment of our insights interview series I discuss Richard and Jon’s new book, “Re-collection: Art, New Media, and Social Memory.” The book offers an articulation of their variable media approach to thinking about works of art. I am excited to take this opportunity to explore the issues the book raises about digital art in particular and a perspective on digital preservation and social memory more broadly as part of our Insights Interview Series.

Trevor: The book takes a rather broad view of “new media”; everything from works made of rubber, to CDs, art installations made of branches, arrangements of lighting, commercial video games and hacked variations of video games. For those unfamiliar with your work more broadly, could you tell us a bit about your perspective on how these hang together as new media? Further, given that the focus of our audience is digital preservation, could you give us a bit of context for what value thinking about various forms of non-digital variable new media art offer us for understanding digital works?

Richard Rinehart, Richard Rinehart, Director of the Samek Art Museum at Bucknell University.

Richard Rinehart, Director of the Samek Art Museum at Bucknell University.

Richard: Our book does focus on the more precise and readily-understood definition of new media art as artworks that rely on digital electronic computation as essential and inextricable. The way we frame it is that these works are at the center of our discussion, but we also discuss works that exist at the periphery of this definition. For instance, many digital artworks are hybrid digital/physical works (e.g., robotic works) and so the discussion cannot be entirely contained in the bitstream.

We also discuss other non-traditional art forms–performance art, installation art–that are not as new as “new media” but are also not that old in the history of museum collecting. It is important to put digital art preservation in an historical context, but also some of the preservation challenges presented by these works are shared with and provide precedents for digital art. These precedents allow us to tap into previous solutions or at least a history of discussion around them that could inform or aid in preserving digital art. And, vice versa, solutions for preserving digital art may aid in preserving these other forms (not least of which is shifting museum practices). Lastly, we bring non-digital (but still non-traditional) art forms into the discussion because some of the preservation issues are technological and media-based (in which case digital is distinct) but some issues are also artistic and theoretical, and these issues are not necessarily limited to digital works.

Jon: Yeah, we felt digital preservation needed a broader lens. The recorded culture of the 20th century–celluloid, vinyl LPs, slides–is a historical anomaly that’s a misleading precedent for preserving digital artifacts. Computer scientist Jeff Rothenberg argues that even JPEGs and PDF documents are best thought of as applications that must be “run” to be accessed and shared. We should be looking at paradigms that are more contingent than static files if we want to forecast the needs of 21st-century heritage.

Casting a wider net can also help preservationists jettison our culture’s implicit metaphor of stony durability in favor of one of fluid adaptability. Think of a human record that has endured and most of us picture a chiseled slab of granite in the British Museum–even though oral histories in the Amazon and elsewhere have endured far longer. Indeed, Dragan Espenschied has pointed out cases in which clay tablets have survived longer than stone because of their adaptability: they were baked as is into new buildings, while the original carvings on stones were chiseled off to accommodate new inscriptions. So Richard and I believe digital preservationists can learn from media that thrive by reinterpretation and reuse.

Trevor: The book presents technology, institutions and law as three sources of problems for the conservation of variable media art and potentially as three sources of possible solutions. Briefly, what do you see as the most significant challenges and opportunities in these three areas? Further, are there any other areas you considered incorporating but ended up leaving out?

Jon: From technology, the biggest threat is how the feverish marketing of our techno-utopia masks the industry’s planned obsolescence. We can combat this by assigning every file on our hard drives and gadget on our shelves a presumptive lifespan, and leaving room in our budgets to replace them once their expiration date has expired.

From institutions, the biggest threat is that their fear of losing authenticity gets in the way of harnessing less controllable forms of cultural perseverance such as proliferative preservation. Instead of concentrating on the end products of culture, they should be nurturing the communities where it is birthed and finds meaning.

From the law, the threat is DRM, the DMCA, and other mechanisms that cut access to copyrighted works–for unlike analog artifacts, bits must be accessed frequently and openly to survive. Lawyers and rights holders should be looking beyond the simplistic dichotomy of copyright lockdown versus “information wants to be free” and toward models in which information requires care, as is the case for sacred knowledge in many indigenous cultures.

Other areas? Any in which innovative strategies of social memory are dismissed because of the desire to control–either out of greed (“we can make a buck off this!”) or fear (“culture will evaporate without priests to guard it!”).

Trevor: One of the central concepts early in the book is “social memory,” in fact, the term makes its way into the title of the book. Given its centrality, could you briefly explain the concept and discuss some of how this framework for thinking about the past changes or upsets other theoretical perspectives on history and memory that underpin work in preservation and conservation?

Richard: Social memory is the long-term memory of societies. It’s how civilizations persist from year to year or century to century. It’s one of the core functions of museums and libraries and the purpose of preservation. It might alternately be called “cultural heritage,” patrimony, etc. But the specific concept of social memory is useful for the purpose of our book because there is a body of literature around it and because it positions this function as an active social dynamic rather than a passive state (cultural heritage, for instance, sounds pretty frozen). It was important to understand social memory as a series of actions that take place in the real world every day as that then helps us to make museum and preservation practices tangible and tractable.

The reason to bring up social memory in the first place is to gain a bit of distance on the problem of preserving digital art. Digital preservation is so urgent that most discussions (perhaps rightfully) leap right to technical issues and problem-solving. But, in order to effect the necessary large-scale and long-term changes in, say, museum practices, standards and policies we need to understand the larger context and historic assumptions behind current practices. Museums (and every cultural heritage institution) are not just stubborn; they do things a certain way for a reason. To convince them to change, we cannot just point at ad-hoc cases and technical problematics; we have to tie it to their core mission: social memory. The other reason to frame it this way is that new media really are challenging the functions of social memory; not just in museums, but across the board and here’s one level in which we can relate and share solutions.

These are some ways in which the social  memory allows us to approach preservation differently in the book, but here’s another, more specific one. We propose that social memory takes two forms: formal/canonical/institutional memory and informal/folkloric/personal memory (and every shade in between). We then suggest how the preservation of digital art may be aided by BOTH social memory functions.

Trevor: Many of the examples in the book focus on boundary-breaking installation art, like Flavin’s work with lighting, and conceptual art, like Nam June Paik’s work with televisions and signals, or Cory Arcangel’s interventions on Nintendo cartridges. Given that these works push the boundaries of their mediums, or focus in depth on some of the technical and physical properties of their mediums do you feel like lessons learned from them apply directly to seemingly more standardized and conventional works in new media? For instance, mass produced game cartridges or Flash animations and videos? To what extent are lessons learned about works largely intended to be exhibited art in galleries and museums applicable to more everyday mass-produced and consumed works?

Richard: That’s a very interesting question and its speaks to our premise that preserving digital art is but one form of social memory and that lessons learned therein may benefit other areas. I often feel that preserving digital art is useful for other preservation efforts because it provides an extreme case. Artists (and the art world) ensure that their media creations are about as complex as you’ll likely find; not necessarily technically (although some are technically complex and there are other complexities introduced in their non-standard use of technologies) but because what artists do is to complicate the work at every level–conceptually, phenomenologically, socially, technically; they think very specifically about the relationship between media and meaning and then they manifest those ideas in the digital object.

I fully understand that preserving artworks does not mean trying to capture or preserve the meaning of those objects (an impossible task) but these considerations must come into play when preserving art even at a material level; especially in fungible digital media. So, for just one example, preserving digital artworks will tell us a lot about HCI considerations that attend preserving other types of interactive digital objects.

Jon: Working in digital preservation also means being a bit of a futurist, especially in an age when the procession from medium to medium is so rapid and inexorable. And precisely because they play with the technical possibilities of media, today’s artists are often society’s earliest adopters. My 2006 book with Joline Blais, “At the Edge of Art,” is full of examples, whether how Google Earth came from Art+Com, Wikileaks from Antoni Muntadas, or gestural interfaces from Ben Fry and Casey Reas. Whether your metaphor for art is antennae (Ezra Pound) or antibodies (Blais), if you pay attention to artists you’ll get a sneak peek over the horizon.

Trevor: Richard suggests that the key to digital media is variability and not fixity which is the defining feature of digital media. Beyond this that conservators should move away from “outdated notions of fixity.” Given the importance of the concept of fixity in digital preservation circles, could you unpack this a bit for us? While digital objects do indeed execute and perform the fact that I can run a fixity check and confirm that this copy of the digital object is identical to what it was before seems to be an incredibly powerful and useful component of ensuring long-term access to them. Given that based on the nature of digital objects, we can actually ensure fixity in a way we never could with analog artifacts, this idea of distancing ourselves from fixity seemed strange.

Richard: You hit the nail on the head with that last sentence; and we’re hitting a little bit of a semantic wall here as well–fixity as used in computer science and certain digital preservation circles does not quite have the same meaning as when used in lay text or in the context of traditional object-based museum preservation. I was using fixity in the latter sense (as the first book on this topic, we wrote for a lay audience and across professional fields as much as possible.) Your last thought compares the uses of “fixity” as checks between analog media (electronic, reproducible; film, tape, or vinyl) compared to digital media, but in the book I was comparing fixity as applied to a different class of analog objects (physical; marble, bronze, paint) compared to digital objects.

If we step back from the professional jargon for a moment, I would characterize the traditional museological preservation approach for oil painting and bronze sculptures to be one based on fixity. The kind of digital authentication that you are talking about is more like the scientific concept of repeatability; a concept based on consistency and reproduction–the opposite of the fixity! I think the approach we outline in the book is in opposition to fixity of the marble-bust variety (as inappropriate for digital media) but very much in-line with fixity as digital authentication (as one tool for guiding and balancing a certain level of change with a certain level of integrity.) Jon may disagree here–in fact we built in these dynamics of agreement/disagreement into our book too.

Jon: I’d like to be as open-minded as Richard. But I can’t, because I pull my hair out every time I hear another minion of cultural heritage fixated on fixity. Sure, it’s nifty that each digital file has a unique cryptographic signature we can confirm after each migration. The best thing about checksums is that they are straightforward, and many preservation tools (and even some operating systems) already incorporate such checks by default. But this seems to me a tiny sliver of a far bigger digital preservation problem, and to blow it out of proportion is to perpetuate the myth that mathematical replication is cultural preservation.

Two files with different passages of 1s and 0s automatically have different checksums but may still offer the same experience; for example, two copies of a digitized film may differ by a few frames but look identical to the human eye. The point of digitizing a Stanley Kubrick film isn’t to create a new mathematical artifact with its own unchanging properties, but to capture for future generations the experience us old timers had of watching his cinematic genius in celluloid. As a custodian of culture, my job isn’t to ensure my DVD of A Clockwork Orange is faithful to some technician’s choices when digitizing the film; it’s to ensure it’s faithful to Kubrick’s choices as a filmmaker.

Furthermore, there’s no guarantee that born-digital files with impeccable checksums will bear any relationship to the experience of an actual user. Engineer and preservationist Bruno Bachiment gives the example of an archivist who sets a Web spider loose on a website, only to have the website’s owners update it in the middle of the crawling process. (This happens more often than you might think.) Monthly checksums will give the archivist confidence that she’s archived that website, but in fact her WARC files do not correspond to any digital artifact that has ever existed in the real world. Her chimera is a perversion caused by the capturing process–like those smartphone panoramas of a dinner where the same waiter appears at both ends of the table.

As in nearly all storage-based solutions, fixity does little to help capture context.  We can run checksums on the Riverside “King Lear” till the cows come home, and it still won’t tell us that boys played women’s parts, or that Elizabethan actors spoke with rounded vowels that sound more like a contemporary American accent than the King’s English, or how each generation of performers has drawn on the previous for inspiration. Even on a manuscript level, a checksum will only validate one of many variations of a text that was in reality constantly mutating and evolving.

The context for software is a bit more cut-and-dried, and the professionals I know who use emulators like to have checksums to go with their disk images. But checksums don’t help us decide what resolution or pace they should run at, or what to do with past traces of previous interactions, or what other contemporaneous software currently taken for granted will need to be stored or emulated for a work to run in the future.

Finally, even emulation will only capture part of the behaviors necessary to reconstruct digital creations in the networked age, which can depend on custom interfaces, environmental data or networks. You can’t just go around checksumming wearable hardware or GPS receivers or Twitter networks; the software will have to mutate to accommodate future versions of those environments.

So for a curator to run regular tests on a movie’s fixity is like a zookeeper running regular tests on a tiger’s DNA. Just because the DNA tests the same doesn’t guarantee the tiger is healthy, and if you want the species to persist in the long term, you have to accept that the DNA of individuals is certainly going to change.

We need a more balanced approach. You want to fix a butterfly? Pin it to a wall. If you want to preserve a butterfly, support an ecosystem where it can live and evolve.

Trevor: The process of getting our ideas out on the page can often play a role in pushing them in new directions. Are there any things that you brought into working on the book that changed in the process of putting it together?

Richard: A book is certainly slow media; purposefully so. I think the main change I noticed was the ability to put our ideas around preservation practice into a larger context of institutional history and social memory functions. Our previous expressions in journal articles or conference presentation simply did not allow us time to do that and, as stated earlier, I feel that both are important in the full consideration of preservation.

Jon: When Richard first approached me about writing this book, I thought, well it’s gonna be pretty tedious because it seemed we would be writing mostly about our own projects. At the time I was only aware of a single emulation testbed in a museum, one software package for documenting opinions on future states of works, and no more conferences and cross-institutional initiatives on variable media preservation than I could count on one hand.

Fortunately, it took us long enough to get around to writing the book (I’ll take the blame for that) that we were able to discover and incorporate like-minded efforts cropping up across the institutional spectrum, from DOCAM and ZKM to Preserving Virtual Worlds and JSMESS. Even just learning how many art museums now incorporate something as straightforward as an artist’s questionnaire into their acquisition process! That was gratifying and led me to think we are all riding the crest of a wave that might bear the digital flotsam of today’s culture into the future.

Trevor: The book covers a lot of ground, focusing on a range of issues and offering myriad suggestions for how various stakeholders could play a role in ensuring access to variable media works into the future. In all of that, is there one message or issue in the work that you think is the most critical or central?

Richard: After expanding our ideas in a book; it’s difficult to come back to tweet format, but I’ll try…

Change will happen. Don’t resist it; use it, guide it. Let art breathe; it will tell you what it needs.

Jon: And don’t save documents in Microsoft Word.

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Some Thoughts on Punkademia

Over the last few weeks I’ve been slowly making my way through Zack Furness’s edited volume Punkademics (2012), which brings together a wide range of academic voices on the influences of punk rock on the “ivory tower.” As a colleague of mine quipped, I like that this book exists. In fact, I wish I had known about while putting together Punk Archaeology; Furness would have been a great contribution to our work.

The book consists of a wide range of essays that, generally, interweave the history of punk with the personal stories from professional and academic life. The contributions are generally readable and a pair of interviews with Alan O’Connor, who studied the punk scene in Toronto, and Milo Aukerman, a research biologist with DuPont who is a member of the Descendents, added to the immediacy of the volume. 

I won’t do a full review, but I do have a few quick, day-before-Thanksgiving, observations:

1. Politics over Aesthetics. One of the key points of this volume is that the punk movement was more than just aesthetic posturing by bored, image-conscious youth (as postulated by, say, Dick Hebdige’s 1979 classic, Subculture: The Meaning of Style), but a legitimate form of political expression. Furness and company paid particular attention to the late 1970s punk scene in the U.K. where bands like Crass brought together left-wing, anarchist sensibilities in their lyrics and approach to performance and the music industry. The devoted less attention to, say, the American version of punk rock which developed in close connection with the New York art scene of the late 1960s and had close ties to, say, Andy Warhol’s Factory. American punk particularly as it developed in New York City had a much greater focus on aesthetic challenges to the increasingly banal world of American consumer culture. This was a critique of consumer culture, suburbia, or even the absurdity of everyday life, but it was less overtly political. 

2. Gender, Race, Orientation, and Community. Furness’s contributors considered the tensions that existed between the attitudes within the punk scene toward women, minorities, and gay and queer participants. These attitudes vacillated between the open and accommodating to the overtly hostile. Even a casual listener to the punk rock music can appreciate the misogynistic sentiments expressed in punk lyrics and the use of insensitive (at best) and intolerant language in the sometimes tense relations between groups and bands. While in some ways, the anarchic and left-leaning politics of punk created a safe place for minorities of all kinds, the aggressive tone of the music and adversarial posturing could sometimes create a hostile environment as extreme political and social rhetoric masked puerile oppositional showboating. 

I was particularly struck by the critique of gender in punk, and it made me very aware that the first, published iteration Punk Archaeology was very much a boys’ club (with the exception of Colleen Morgan, the Patti Smith of the Punk Archaeology movement, Kris Groberg, and Heather Gruber). This was all the more troubling because Mediterranean Archaeology has tended to be an (old) boys’ club in many ways and remains almost exclusively the domain of white folks.

3. Punk Pedagogy. Several authors dealt explicitly with the influence of punk on their classrooms, and it was fun to see some of my approaches to teaching considered to be punk pedagogy. Two particular things stand out. First, I share with punk pedagogy a willingness to cede power to my students, within limits, and to attempt to create a space for radical creativity in my classroom. I think that some of Furness’s authors would see the punk in my experiments in the Scale-Up classroom which drew heavily on the thinking of Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Moreover, I was happy to see that punk teachers shared my deep skepticism of the industrialized academy, but none appeared interested in exploring what a return of a craft approach to higher education might look like (at least in those terms). 

4. DIY. The essays advocate do-it-yourself practices that sought to intentionally undermine our dependence on mass produced consumer goods and practices. Of course, this has become increasingly difficult in an academic setting as the creeping spread of regulations, standards, assessment practices, and corporatized expectations has encroached upon our ability to operate outside of institutionally controlled practices. It was interesting to me that few of the articles spoke to any resistance to DIY practices from institutional concerns. For example, there was considerable outcry surrounding the development of a DIY book scanner, and the increasingly stringent copyright laws which we’re told protect our “intellectual property” often make it more difficult to produce meaningful scholarship or to circulate our works. DIY practices offer a way to subvert, endrun, and defy these policies and practices, but also carry increasing risk as our intellectual and creative autonomy is seen as a threat to those who want to monetize it.

(Some day, I will write about my efforts to start a press at the University of North Dakota.)

5. Punk as Failure. One of the most redeeming things about this book is author’s openness regarding the successes and failures of their efforts to … (continued below)


Ok. I really want to continue this post, but when we woke up this morning our dog looked like this:

IMG 2374

His eyes usually look like this:

IMG 2367

So now I’m going to take him to the vet. I’ll finish this post when I get back.


… integrate a punk ethos into their academic lives. The stories of failed efforts to create a punk infused classroom or to integrate their intellectual and political commitments to the shrill rhetoric of punk performance. The willingness to the contributors to admit and scrutinize the failures of punk to accommodate the academic life and professional world was heartening to me as I look back on my own struggles to bring my most ambitious and personal projects to satisfactory completion. The process of punk is perhaps more important than the product. Or, as my colleague quipped: I’m like that this book exists. 

Have a very punk rock Thanksgiving.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Textbooks and Language Primers

[Most recently updated 26 November 2014]

Open Access Textbooks and Language Primers relating to the ancient world
Additional resources of thus type are accessible through the  Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) Project pages at the University of Minnesota.

And see also Lexicity
And see also  Smarthistory, a "multi-media web-book designed as a dynamic enhancement (or even substitute) for the traditional art history textbook"

Textkit has a huge library of Greek and Latin textbooks

Learn Ancient Greek

Listed below is Textkit’s entire collection of Ancient Greek textbooks. All books are made available for full and free download in PDF format.

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Greek Prose Composition, North and Hillard
Selections from the Septuagint, Conybeare and Stock

Greek Lexicon/Dictionary

Greek Reading Text

Greek Reference Grammars

Greek Grammar, William W. Goodwin
Greek Grammar, Herbert Weir Smyth

Greek Textbooks

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Learn Latin

Listed below is Textkit’s entire collection of Latin textbooks. All books are made available for full and free download in PDF format.

Latin Answer Keys

Latin for Beginner’s Key, Benjamin L. D’Ooge

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    Open Access Monograph Series: Archäologische Berichte

    Archäologische Berichte
    Die Archäologischen Berichte (Arch. Ber.) sind die Monografien der DGUF. Sie erscheinen seit 1987 mit etwa einem Band pro Jahr. Ziel der DGUF bei der Gründung der Reihe war es, unseren Autoren eine Möglichkeit zu bieten, mit hoher Reichweite und wissenschaftsüblicher Qualitätssicherung preiswert und schnell publizieren zu können. Um dieses Ziel noch wirksamer erreichen zu können, erscheinen die Monografien seit Band 25 (2014) hybrid: in einer Druckausgabe und – in Kooperation mit der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg – zusätzlich online im Open Access. Wie unsere Zeitschrift Archäologische Informationen nehmen auch die Monografien seit Band 25 bei Bedarf ergänzende Materialien und Open Data auf.

    In einigen Bänden der Reihe wurden Arbeiten publiziert, die in der DGUF selbst entstanden sind, wie etwa die zweibändige Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Taute (Arch. Ber. 14, 2001) oder die Literaturempfehlungen des DGUF-Arbeitskreises "Archäologie in Schule und Bildung" (Arch. Ber. 21, 2006). Die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bände entsteht jedoch aus guten Examensarbeiten und Dissertationen, die wir hier – kostengünstig für Autoren wie Leser – zeitnah zum Druck bringen. Die Werke erscheinen mit weltweiter Reichweite, gedruckt und im Open Access, samt Verlag und ISBN-Nummer in einer etablierten Reihe: Ein erheblicher Mehrwert gegenüber einer Publikation in Eigenregie, für Autoren wie für Leser.

    Open Access Journal: London Archaeologist

    London Archaeologist
    For anyone interested in the history, heritage or archaeology of the capital, London Archaeologist is essential reading. Published by the London Archaeologist Association since 1968, it is a periodical of record for the London area, covering major archaeological discoveries, events and issues.

    Content includes excavation reports, historical articles, artefact and finds studies, environmental archaeology reports, exhibition reports, book reviews, news and commentary. It has recently been redesigned and expanded to cover interviews, profiles of local societies and museums, previews of forthcoming monographs and other features.

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    Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

    Apa e Ati al Museo di Villa Giulia visita alla mostra e proiezione film in 3D

    apa-etrusco-28novembreVenerdì 28 novembre il Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia organizza una serata di apertura straordinaria - dalle ore 20.00 alle ore 22.00 - dedicata al progetto Apa l’etrusco sbarca a Roma, ideato dal Museo di Roma e da Genus Bononiae - Musei nella Città di Bologna, con un contributo scientifico e tecnologico di CINECA e con il sostegno di Fondazione Bracco.

    November 25, 2014

    Source: Journalism Code, Context & Community

    Introducing MinnPost's Election Night API

    By Tom Nehil, Alan Palazzolo

    Introducing MinnPost's Election Night API

    For the past few years, on general and primary election night, MinnPost has published our Elections Dashboard, where readers can get live data on every single race across all of Minnesota. It’s consistently one of our most viewed pieces of the year. Behind the scenes, the Elections Dashboard has two main parts: the scraper-powered API and the front-end Dashboard.

    We made this because, as a small, non-profit organization, we can’t afford AP or Reuters elections data feeds, and as a state-centric organization, we really want to focus on local, state, and national races in the context of Minnesota—results that aren’t always available in feeds from national organizations. To save money, we designed the app to run on big servers on election nights when traffic is really high but to be hosted cheaply on a third-party service afterward when demand for the data subsides. And finally, we were able to do this because the Minnesota Secretary of State’s Office offers a pretty good feed of data on election night.

    Figuring that other organizations might have similar needs, we decided to use the time provided by the Code Convening to abstract our application to be used by others. Specifically, we focused on the API part of the application and the Election Night API was born. (Yes, its name is really mundane.)

    The Election Night API is a set of tools, configurations, and instructions to collect and serve election results on election night, while still providing an off-season service, and focusing on saving resources as much as possible.

    Data Collection


    The first thing the Election Night API needs is good election data. The API provides a command line utility for data collection. Since each state is different, when and how the data needs to be collected will vary.

    Since we work with it every year, we have good data collection for MN (though it does have to be updated each year as different kinds of elections come up—ranked-choice voting, anyone?). Tom spent most of the Code Convening writing a scraper for Virginia election results as a proof-of-concept. The scraper mostly works, but would need to be fine-tuned by someone with knowledge of local elections to be usable on election night.

    Code snipper:
    # Get all the Virgina results into the database
    $ ena VA results
    # Get the Minnesota question text (separated 
    # out since it not needed to run often on election night)
    $ ena MN questions

    The data collected is very open-ended—only a small number of fields are required. This means you can add on any fields—and even tables—that are needed for your state and election. There is also an easy method to connect to a Google Spreadsheet and use data manually updated by your newsroom. This was useful for managing data related to ranked-choice voting in Minneapolis and St. Paul in 2013.

    We are hoping to expand this tool to other states with help from journalists working in them. We may even be able to use another Code Convening project—Clarify from Open Elections—to more easily get data from states that use Clarity election software.

    The API

    To help keep the costs of running the Election Night API to a minimum, it is designed so that it can be moved from a dedicated server on election night—necessary to cope with high demand from readers—to the low-cost, even free, ScraperWiki platform, a powerful data collection service that provides an open SQL querying HTTP API. This means the API has no specific endpoints besides the query endpoint; for example:

    Code snippet:
    # Selects the last 10 contests
    $ curl http://election-night-api.example.com/?q=SELECT * FROM contests LIMIT 10

    There’s also a local development version of the API built as a Flask application; this should definitely not be used for production.

    On election night, the Election Night API needs to be installed on its own server, specifically something with a significant amount of power (CPU, Memory, and disk I/O). We used AWS’ EC2. There are full instructions provided to get this up and running.

    The Future

    We really hope this can be useful for other newsrooms with similar needs: low cost and local results. The biggest job ahead is creating and maintaining the data collection tools for each state and election.

    We also hope to make the tool easier to use and embrace it fully as a command-line utility; right now it's a command-line tool and and a set of configurations. This would allow for easier instructions and more robust configuration.

    Introducing Clarify

    By Geoff Hing, Derek Willis

    State election results are like snowflakes: each state—often each county—produces its own special website to share the vote totals. For a project like OpenElections, that involves having to find results data and figuring out how to extract it. In many cases, that means scraping.

    But in our research into how election results are stored, we found that a handful of sites used a common vendor: Clarity Elections, which is owned by SOE Software. States that use Clarity genferally share a common look and features, including statewide summary results, voter turnout statistics, and a page linking to county-specific results.

    The good news is that Clarity sites also include a “Reports” tab that has structured data downloads in several formats, including XML, XLS, and CSV. The results data are contained in .ZIP files, so they aren’t particularly large or unwieldy. But there’s a catch: the URLs aren’t easily predictable. Here’s a URL for a statewide page:


    The first numeric segment—15261 in this case—uniquely identifies this election, the 2010 primary in Kentucky. But the second numeric segment—30235—represents a subpage, and each county in Kentucky has a different one. Switch over to the page listing the county pages, and you get all the links. Sort of.

    The county-specific links, which lead to pages that have structured results files at the precinct level, actually involve redirects, but those secondary numeric segments in the URLs aren’t resolved until we visit them. That means doing a lot of clicking and copying, or scraping. We chose the latter path, although that presents some difficulties as well. Using our time at OpenNews’ New York Code Convening in mid-November, we created a Python library called Clarify that provides access to those URLs containing structured election results data and parses the XML version of it. We’re already using it in OpenElections, and now we’re releasing it for others who work in states that use Clarity software.

    Finding the Links

    We began with the idea that people interested in pulling out election results from Clarity-powered sites would already know the URL of the main page for a given election, and that represented an election in a jurisdiction. A jurisdiction could be a state, a county, or a city. Clarify assumes that users are starting with the highest-level jurisdiction available and then drilling down.

    A state’s election summary page

    A state’s election summary page

    A jurisdiction like the Commonwealth of Kentucky has sub-jurisdictions (counties). Each jurisdiction has structured data that aggregates results for the next level of sub-jurisdiction. For example, for each election, a state has a single file that compiles all of the county-level results. Each county has a file that contains precinct-level results for all precincts in that county. Clarify’s Jurisdiction class applies to any of these jurisdictions, but has a level attribute that specifies whether it is a state, county, or city. By supplying a URL and level, users can create an instance:

    from clarify.jurisdiction import Jurisdiction
    url = 'http://results.enr.clarityelections.com/KY/15261/30235/en/summary.html'
    jurisdiction = Jurisdiction(url=url, level='state')

    In addition to providing some details about the results available, including URLs to summary-level structured data in .ZIP files, Jurisdiction objects also provide a way to find the results data for any sub-jurisdictions. This is where we ran into several issues.

    A page that lists counties with available results

    A page that lists counties with available results

    Because the county-specific page URLs needed to be scraped, we had to load and parse the page that lists the state’s counties and then follow the redirects for each of the county pages. Following redirects should be simple, if redirects are implemented using HTTP headers, but that’s not the case with the Clarity sites. In fact, we found two different ways Clarity sites handled redirects: one that put the redirect URL in a meta tag and another that used JavaScript.

    This is an example of a redirect page that uses a meta tag:

    <html><head><META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="0; URL=./27401/en/summary.html"></head></html>

    And here’s an example of a redirect page that uses JavaScript (HTML indented for legibility):

        <script src="./129035/js/version.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
        <script type="text/javascript">TemplateRedirect("summary.html","./129035", "", "Mobile01");</script>

    What this means is that we have to request each of the pages that performs the redirect to the county page in order to determine the final county-page URL. For Kentucky, that’s 120 pages, which is a lot of HTTP requests. After initially loading them sequentially, we opted to parallelize the requests using the requests-futures package, reducing the time it takes to retrieve the pages. For scraping the final URL components from the redirect pages, we used lxml library since we were also parsing XML from the results files.

    With those URL components in hand, we can now provide direct links to the county-structured data files. This allows users to download and unzip those files (here’s an example URL) and have access to precinct-level data. Clarify currently leaves those tasks up to users; we figured that they would be better suited to choosing how to fetch the .ZIP files and extract the data file contained in them. Once an XML results file is unzipped somewhere, Clarify’s parser is available to load the data into Python objects.

    A page that provides links to structured results data. A Jurisdiction instance can provide direct access to the data file URLs.

    A page that provides links to structured results data. A Jurisdiction instance can provide direct access to the data file URLs.

    Parsing Results

    It’s worth repeating here that Clarity sites offer structured data in multiple formats, but that Clarify parses only the XML. That’s because it contains the most detailed data and appeared to be the easiest to parse. That’s not to say that a parser for the CSV or XLS files couldn’t be implemented, though.

    We designed Clarify’s Parser object to mirror the XML schema as closely as possible, which means that an instance of the class has attributes representing the summary vote totals and individual contests, and the results contained therein. The schema handles both candidate elections and those that have Boolean choices, such as ballot initiatives, by referring to each vote option as a “Choice.” Thus, a candidate for a Senate seat and a “Yes” vote on a referendum are both choices. Here’s how a candidate choice looks:

    <Choice key="1" text="Mitch McCONNELL" party="REP" totalVotes="806787">
                <VoteType name="Election Day" votes="806787">
                    <County name="Adair" votes="4900" />
                    <County name="Allen" votes="4410" />
                    <County name="Anderson" votes="5164" />
                    <County name="Ballard" votes="2249" />
                    <County name="Barren" votes="8268" />
                    <County name="Bath" votes="1777" />
                    <County name="Bell" votes="5757" />

    Clarify’s Parser builds out a list of contests containing both choices and results and also a list of results jurisdictions, which contain summary information about a particular political level (typically county or precinct). Finally, Parser objects also have a list of results for quick access.

    Many Elections, One Schema

    Most scraping work is a product of necessity, not convenience, but building Clarify had aspects of both: structured data was available, but we needed to scrape web pages to get at it. While Clarify is a relatively simple idea, building it involved more complexity than we expected. Because we had the luxury of focusing on it for two days together, we wrote tests for our code and were able to deal with unexpected issues like the fact that Clarity provides its institutional users with the ability to “skin” its results template using the styles of their own sites.

    We also had to design Clarify to easily deal with whatever level of political jurisdiction it encountered, which is why it doesn’t have specific objects for states, counties, and precincts. Those are the most common political levels, but Clarity’s schema is flexible enough to be used both by states for statewide elections and separately by counties and by cities like Rockford, IL. We also made it so that Clarify runs under Python 2.7.x and 3.4.x, thanks to the useful six library.

    OpenElections is focused on historical results, not live election-night reporting, but Clarify could be used for news organizations wanting to keep track of results in real time, since Clarity sites typically provide live reporting. If you do use it for that, we’d love to hear about your experience and any pain points you encountered.

    DigPal Blog

    Paid Internship in Manuscripts at the British Library

    I have just seen the following advertisement for what looks like an intersting opportunity at the British Library for a recently-finished PhD student. The e-mail that I received describes the post as follows:

    The British Library is pleased to be able to offer a paid internship in the Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts section of the Western Heritage Department for a doctoral or post-doctoral student in History, History of Art or other relevant subject.

    The intern will be involved in all aspects of the work of the Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts section, including responding to enquiries, providing talks for students and patrons, selecting and presenting manuscripts for display in our exhibition gallery, and cataloguing, thereby gaining insight into various curatorial duties and aspects of collection care.  During the internship at the Library, the intern will enjoy privileged access to printed and manuscript research material, and will work alongside specialists with wide-ranging and varied expertise.

    The primary focus of the internship will be to enhance the online Digitised Manuscripts, http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/, website by creating and supplementing catalogue entries for medieval manuscripts and accompanying images, and assisting with the Library’s Magna Carta exhibition, working under the supervision of the Lead Curator, Illuminated Manuscripts.

    The internship is designed to provide an opportunity for the student to develop research skills and expertise in medieval and Renaissance art and history, and in presenting manuscripts to a range of audiences.


    The programme is only open to students who are engaged actively in research towards, or have recently completed a PhD in a subject area relevant to the study of pre-1600 manuscripts who have a right to work in the UK.

    Hours of Work/Contract Duration:

    • 36 hours [per week] over normal business hours, full time for nine months.
    • The internship will start on 2nd February 2015 or as soon as relevant security checks have been completed.

    Applications are available on the British Library’s website, http://www.bl.uk/careers/index.html.

    Closing Date: 18th December 1014

    Interview Date: 7th January 2015

    The selection process may include questions about the date, origin, and decoration of a particular manuscript to be shown at the interview.

    This post has no connection whatsoever to DigiPal or anyone working on the DigiPal project, so please contact the British Library for any questions or further details.

    Source: Journalism Code, Context & Community

    Introducing Wherewolf

    By Noah Veltman, Jenny Ye

    Introducing Wherewolf

    As part of the OpenNews post-election Code Convening, we put the finishing touches on Wherewolf, a JavaScript library that lets you run a boundary service in a browser.

    What’s a Boundary Service?

    The term “boundary service” comes from the Trib Apps Boundary Service, the granddaddy of them all. It’s a means of comparing a geographic point against a set of districts and finding which district that point is in.

    This sort of scenario comes up when news apps try to provide a personalized view into data. In order to show a user the slice of information that matters to them, you need to know which bin they fall into.

    As an example, consider WNYC’s SchoolBook: we get someone’s school district based on a home address so that we can show them only the schools a child would actually be eligible for. Going from “I live at 123 Broadway” to “That’s in School District 2” is the step Wherewolf is designed to solve.

    Why Wherewolf?

    There are already some great resources out there for running your own boundary service, like django-boundaryservice, based off the Trib Apps version. So why make our own?

    The downside of the existing approach is that it requires you to set up a server for the heavy lifting. The installation and configuration isn’t trivial, and you need enough savvy and patience for the hiccups that inevitably occur when playing sysadmin. We definitely don’t have that patience. We hate running servers. And servers are yet another thing that can break. The last thing we want to worry about on election night is the possibility that our boundary service will crash.

    We wanted a way to have the functionality of a boundary service while avoiding the stress of managing servers. That’s when the full moon came out.

    How Does It Work?

    Using Wherewolf requires three things:

    • A set of districts, as GeoJSON or TopoJSON
    • A latitude and longitude
    • An eagerness to make werewolf puns

    Here’s an example snippet of how it works:

     //Summon a wherewolf
     var wolf = Wherewolf();
     //Add your districts
     wolf.add("Judicial Districts",myGeoJSON)
     //results will contain the properties
     //of the matching judicial district
     var results = wolf.find([longitude,latitude]);

    There are a few other options and nuances, but those three lines of code are the core use case of Wherewolf. As long as myGeoJSON is an existing GeoJSON object of your districts, that snippet is enough. For details on some of the extra options, read the docs.

    OK, but how does Wherewolf really work? How does it know which district the point is in? If you’re curious, skip down to Fun with math.

    Wherewolf for Research

    Wherewolf can also be used for research and analysis, as a Node module:

     npm install wherewolf

    For example, if you have a list of crime reports and you want to categorize them by what city council district each crime is in, Wherewolf can help. Feed it some GeoJSON or TopoJSON of the city council districts and then call .find() on each location the same way you would in a browser.


    One of the concerns going into Wherewolf was: will it be fast enough? Can we rely on a user’s browser to do this heavy lifting instead of a beefy server we control? There are two performance issues to wrestle with: file size and calculation speed.

    File size is an issue because in order to load in your districts as GeoJSON or TopoJSON, you need to load that data from a file first. This is perhaps the one significant downside to the in-browser approach. But in reality, you can get these files down pretty small. A gzipped TopoJSON file of all 3000+ counties in the US is only 78k, about as big as one medium-res JPG image. And there are a few strategies to mitigate any delay for the user that really make this a non-issue (see the Performance and Getting Fancy sections of the docs for details).

    Calculation speed is an issue because the browser has to do a bunch of math (see below) to locate a given point. But it turns out computers are really good at math! We stress tested Wherewolf with an extreme example by locating thousands of random points against sets of thousands of districts. In most cases, it took about 0.07 milliseconds (that’s 70 microseconds). The slowest case was an old phone running Android 2.3.4, which averaged 8.2 milliseconds. Yeah, that seems fast enough.

    Fun with Math

    whiteboard photo

    The Data News whiteboard, mid-Wherewolf

    How does Wherewolf actually determine where a point lies?

    Geographic districts are generally made up of polygons. Nebraska is one polygon.

    whiteboard photo

    The state of Hawaii is 8 polygons (one per island, give or take a few stray volcanic rocks).

    whiteboard photo

    Each polygon can also have holes in it. South Africa is a polygon with a hole polygon cut out of it (the nation of Lesotho).

    whiteboard photo

    So, once we recognize that we are always dealing with a list of polygons, the process of checking looks something like this, in pseudocode:

     For each district...
       For each polygon in the district...
         If the point is in this polygon...
           And it is NOT in any of the holes in this polygon...
             It's inside this district. We're done.

    The relevant section of the Wherewolf code is not actually that much longer.

    So the core problem we now have to solve is: how do we know whether a point is inside a particular polygon? Fortunately, the point-in-polygon problem has been solved many times over. Stand back, we’re going to try geometry.

    The first way you can determine whether a point is inside a polygon is through a technique known as raycasting. We’ll draw a line out from the point in one direction forever (it doesn’t matter which direction), and then we’ll count how many times that intersects with the polygon. The number of intersections is called the crossing number. If it’s an even number, the point is outside the polygon. If it’s an odd number, the point is inside.

    whiteboard photo

    This almost seems too easy, but consider that for any point outside the polygon, that ray will either a) never touch the polygon (0 intersections) or b) for every time it enters the polygon, it will have to exit later (an even number of crossings). The only way to have an exit without an entrance is to have started inside the polygon.

    Try this interactive demo of Wherewolf geometry. Click anywhere around this map of Tennessee and it will go through each congressional district, counting the intersections for that polygon, until it finds one with an odd number:

    In case you aren’t convinced that this will work with any shape, here’s a version with the craggy state of Maryland. Click anywhere to compute that point’s crossing number:

    Wherewolf uses a version of this algorithm, described in detail here and first implemented in JavaScript by substack, that properly handles edge cases like a ray overlapping with an entire line segment.

    Just for fun, let’s talk about another algorithm: the winding number. In this case, we want to count how many times a polygon winds around the point. The standard method for this involves trigonometry and would be much slower to compute, but we can turn this into another sort of raycasting problem with some cleverness, described in detail here.

    We draw a positive x-axis out from the point, and we want to look at the segments that cross this axis. But unlike the crossing number, where we care about the number of intersections, this time we care about the direction of the crossings, following the border around in one direction (either clockwise or counter-clockwise).

    The winding number starts at 0 and then we add 1 for each segment that crosses that x axis going up, and subtract 1 for each segment that crosses going down.

    whiteboard photo

    If the winding number is anything other than 0, we know the point is inside.

    The key here is that if a segment crosses the the positive x axis, a future segment will eventually have to close the loop by crossing again in the other direction. If the polygon winds AROUND the point and crosses on the left side, that will put the point inside. If it crosses to the right of the point, it will cancel out the 1 you added by subtracting 1, bringing the winding number back to 0.

    whiteboard photo

    Here’s an interactive version. Click anywhere to compute the winding number for that point:

    One theoretical advantage of the winding number algorithm is that it works even if the polygon overlaps with itself, but hopefully your city council districts don’t do that. Ultimately we stuck with substack’s crossing number algorithm because it’s proven, used by others, and passed every edge case we threw at it. As far as we know, nobody else has implemented this exact winding number variation in JavaScript before, so we opted not to fix what wasn’t broken with something unproven. (For the curious, our implementation is available in the Wherewolf codebase).

    Appendix: Rejected Name Ideas

    Whereabouts, Borderline, Lodestar, Line Judge, DMZ, Anaximander, Jodeci, Border Patrol, Department of the Interior, PIP-py LatLngStocking, Cadastral, Seward’s Folly, Metternich, Liminal, Terminalia, Bearings, Rebounder, Rodman, Search Party

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    RINAP: The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period

    [First posted in AWOL 16 July 2011. Most recently updated 25 November 2014] 

    The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period
    Esarhaddon Text 98

    Numerous royally commissioned texts were composed between 744 BC and 669 BC, a period during which Assyria became the dominant power in southwestern Asia. Six hundred to six hundred and fifty such inscriptions are known today. The Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period (RINAP) Project, under the direction of Professor Grant Frame of the University of Pennsylvania, will publish in print and online all of the known royal inscriptions that were composed during the reigns of the Assyrian kings Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC), Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), Sargon II (721-705 BC), Sennacherib (704-681 BC), and Esarhaddon (680-669 BC), rulers whose deeds were also recorded in the Bible and in some classical sources. The individual texts range from short one-line labels to lengthy, detailed inscriptions with over 500 lines (2500 words) of text.

    These Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions (744-669 BC) represent only a small, but important part of the vast Neo-Assyrian text corpus. They are written in the Standard Babylonian dialect of Akkadian and provide valuable insight into royal exploits, both on the battlefield and at home, royal ideology, and Assyrian religion. Most of our understanding of the political history of Assyria, and to some extent of Babylonia, comes from these sources. Because this large corpus of texts has not previously been published in one place, the RINAP Project will provide up-to-date editions (with English translations) of Assyrian royal inscriptions from the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 BC) to the reign of Esarhaddon (680-669 BC) in five print volumes and online, in a fully lemmatized and indexed format. The aim of the project is to make this vast text corpus easily accessible to scholars, students, and the general public. RINAP Online will allow those interested in Assyrian culture, history, language, religion, and texts to efficiently search Akkadian and Sumerian words appearing in the inscriptions and English words used in the translations. Project data will be fully integrated into the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI) and the Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus (Oracc).

    The National Endowment for the Humanities awarded the RINAP Project research grants in 2008 and in 2010 to help carry out its work. The publications of the RINAP Project are modeled on those of the now-defunct Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia (RIM) Project and carry on where its Assyrian Periods sub-series (RIMA) ended.

        Open Access Journal: Syria. Archéologie, Art et histoire

         [First posted in AWOL 26 August 2009. Updated 25 November 2014]

        Syria. Archéologie, Art et histoire
        ISSN format papier: 0039-7946
        eISSN: 2076-8435
        Syria, an annual journal, has been published uninterruptedly since 1920 by the French Institute of the Near East (Amman, Beirut, Damascus, Aleppo). The review is dedicated to the history and archaelogy of the Semitic Near East (Cyprus included) from Prehistory to the Islamic conquest. It publishes articles in all the disciplines related to this field of research, archaology, epigraphy, philology, history, art history ; these articles are sometimes gathered together in thematic issues, but usually each issue of Syria tries to give - by means of 12 to 18 articles -, a varied overview of research on the Ancient Near East. The languages in use are French, English, German, Italian, and Spanish. From time to time, the review also publishes topical notes, and normaly devotes in each issue an extensive section to reading notes on books published on the Ancient Near East.
        Syria, qui paraît depuis 1920 sans interruption, est publiée par l’Institut Français du Proche-Orient, en une seule livraison annuelle. La revue se consacre à l’histoire et l’archéologie du Proche-Orient sémitique (y compris Chypre) de la préhistoire à la conquête islamique. Elle publie des articles dans toutes les disciplines de ce champ de recherche, archéologie, épigraphie, philologie, histoire, histoire de l’art ; ces articles peuvent être quelquefois regroupés en dossiers thématiques, mais le plus souvent chaque volume tente de donner, à travers 12 à 18 articles, un panorama varié de la recherche au Proche-Orient ancien. Les langues employées sont le français, l’anglais, l’allemand, l’italien et l’espagnol. Tous les articles sont précédés d’un résumé en français, en anglais et en arabe. La revue publie aussi à l’occasion de courtes notes d’actualité, et consacre dans chaque numéro un épais cahier aux recensions d’ouvrages parus sur le Proche-Orient ancien.

        Available periods  :



        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Le statue di Mont’e Prama in 3D al museo Pigorini di Roma

        monte-prama-3dDal 29 novembre fino al 21 marzo 2015, le Statue di Mont’e Prama saranno presenti in 3D al Museo Nazionale Preistorico Etnografico “Luigi Pigorini” di Roma (Salone delle Scienze, Piazza Guglielmo Marconi, 14), all’interno della mostra: “L’isola delle torri. Giovanni Lilliu e la Sardegna nuragica”.

        Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

        An Introduction to Slow

        I have a few days this week to get work done before the holidays and decided to start work on my part of the introduction to our volume of North Dakota Quarterly dedicated to the Slow Movement. While we’re still putting the final touches on the contributions, the volume obviously requires a few words introducing the topic.

        In particular, I was struck by how most of our contributors fell short of considering the global context for the Slow Movement, and its role in the peculiar narrative of Western progress.  A call for society to slow down and resist the pressures of fast capitalism and late modernity works best for communities who have the political, economic, and social power and freedom to question the dominant narrative. As my introduction suggests, communities who remain enmeshed in the colonial rhetoric of development, progress, and efficiency.

        So, here’s the first draft: 

        Slow: An Introduction

        The Slow Movement began in Italy in 1986 led by Carlo Petrini’s efforts to block the opening of a McDonalds in near the famed Spanish Steps in Rome. He argued that McDonalds’ global brand of fast food was inferior both in terms of taste, but also owing to the social and economic relationships necessary to bring this inferior product to market. In place of fast food, Petrini began a movement that celebrated the intentional pace of a traditional Mediterranean meal as the antithesis to the transnational hurry embodied by processed meals. Simultaneously evoking the twin evils of globalization and the accelerated pace of capitalism, the Slow Food movement that developed around Petrini’s writing championed local cuisine, local ingredients, and the ethical obligations to enjoy the conscientious preparation and consumption of food. Since that time, Slow Foods movement has become a global phenomena and embraced a range of causes centered on local foods, seasonal delicacies, deliberate preparation, and the understanding of meals as places for social interaction.

        The impact of the Slow Foods movement spread far beyond its Italian origins and focus on food. Looking back over its first two decades, Carl Honoré summarized the diverse takes on the idea of “slow” and the benefits of this deliberate approach to life by writing in Praise of Slowness (2004). Honoré saw technology, our increasing fixation on efficiency, and even the rapid pace of our modern “culture” as eroding our ability to savor life and be happy. He urged his readers to slow down, disconnect, and declutter their lives in an effort to regain control over their own experiences.

        The Slow Movement intersects with academic critiques of late-20th century capitalism. For example, Ben Agger’s critique of “fast capitalism” (Agger 1989; 2004) and David Harvey’s “time-space compression” both locate the increased pace of daily life in the dynamics of late capitalism with its endless drive toward efficiency in the movement and production of global capital (Harvey 1989). Contemporary capitalism privileges the ability to adapt, grow, and produce quickly, and this has contributed to a fascination with speed in our society today. In this context, uniformity becomes the norm and locates human experience against a banal reality of non-places (Augé 1995).

        This celebration of slowness, of course, has not provided an escape from capitalism, but has been incorporated into that totalizing system. Today, calls to embrace the slow lifestyle are as likely to come from a luxury car maker as a global coffee company, restaurant chain, or footwear manufacture. By coopting the rhetoric of slow, companies have recognized the appeal of a superficial and popular approach to “slow consumption.” In this context, slow often becomes little more than deliberately driving a Subaru to a Whole Foods store in a suburban strip mall or cruising the Pacific Coast Highway in a Mercedes SUV. The lavishly prepared meal prepared with local foods and filled with animated conversation reflects a distant social reality from the working class who feast on fast food between shifts or survive on the meager, prepackaged offerings at urban, discount grocery stores. It is hardly necessary to observe that subsistence farmers in the global south have different attitudes toward “local” food and the pressures of constant connection has a different meaning to poor and isolated communities that are using mobile devices to access the world of micro-finance, to participate in local and national politics, and to engage with the wider world. In short, the Slow Movement represents an opportunity for affluent Westerners to escape a trap of their own making while still enjoying the fruits of a world that cannot afford to slow down.

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journal: NEWSLETTER des Münchner Zentrums für Antike Welten und der Graduate School Distant Worlds

        NEWSLETTER des Münchner Zentrums für Antike Welten und der Graduate School Distant Worlds
        Das Münchner Zentrum für Antike Welten (MZAW) ist eine Arbeitsgemeinschaft von Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern aus den mit antiken Kulturen befassten Fächern aus sieben Fakultäten der LMU München. Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft fördert die interdisziplinäre Kooperation seiner Mitglieder in Forschung und Lehre. Zu den Aufgaben gehören das Bündeln bestehender und das Initiieren, Planen und Organisieren neuer Arbeitsgruppen und Forschungsprojekte, die Förderung des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses, die Organisation gemeinsamer Veranstaltungen sowie die Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Fächern und Forschungsverbünden der LMU, außeruniversitären Institutionen (Museen, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut) und vergleichbaren Einrichtungen des In- und Auslandes.

        Juan Garcés (Digitised Manuscripts Blog)

        The Phillipps Lectionary: a window into 11th-century Byzantine illumination

        In 2006 and 2007, the British Library acquired five Greek manuscripts that had formerly been on long-term deposit as Loan 36. These manuscripts all once belonged to Sir Thomas Phillipps, the noted manuscript collector of the 19th century. All but one (now Add MS 82951) also belonged to Frederick North,...

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        CNR e Centro Universitario Europeo per i Beni Culturali di Ravello insieme per la tutela e la valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale

        ravello-panoramaE' stato siglato a Roma l'accordo di collaborazione tra il Centro Universitario Europeo per i Beni Culturali (CUEBC) e il CNR per la realizzazione di programmi di ricerca e sviluppo per rispondere ai bisogni sociali ed economici del territorio, alle attività di valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale.

        Robert Consoli (Squinches)

        Mycenaean and other place names in Simpson, 1980

        Richard Hope Simpson's Mycenaean Greece: Steps to a Gazetteer.

        Richard Hope Simpson's Mycenaean Greece[1] gives a map of the Lake Copais region with nineteen Mycenaean sites marked.  I have translated these into a .kmz and a .kml which are available on-line here as 'Simpson 1980.kml'.

        I divide the data  points into four sets, 'Mycenaean', 'Channels', 'Other sites', and 'Natural Features'.  These can be viewed independently of each other.  Each set displays differently.  The 'Mycenaean' set displays as white paddles with a black dot as shown in this illustration:

        Mycenaean sites from R.H. Simpson's Mycenaen Greece, 60.
        Simpson's text describes each of these Mycenaean sites on pp. 61-66.

        I have also mapped other sites from Simpson's map on p. 60.  They are shown as blue paddles like this:

        Classical and other sites from R.H. Simpson's Mycenaean Greece, 60.

        I have not been able to include all the sites indicated on p. 60 of Simpson's text.  Some (e.g. 'Avrokastro') I have not been able to locate with sufficient accuracy.  I will go through this exercise again with Farinetti's disssertation.[2]  Ms. Farinetti lists many more locations.

        I have also listed a number of natural features (many taken from Simpson) which are given green paddles for display.  They look like this:

        Natural Features of the Copais Basin marked with green  paddles.
        Finally, I have included a small number of channels.  Some of these are known fragments of the Mycenaean channel system which drained the lake.  In addition I have included points A, B, and C which Simpson describes on pp. 67-8.  Each of these circular white paddles has a comment embedded.  The channels themselves are depicted in light orange.  It looks like this:

        Known channels marked.
        I believe, from my review, that the Mycenaean channel system is best understood at the eastern end of the Copaic basin but I shall have much more to say about this.  Here I have confined myself to what I could glean from Simpson.

        When all the layers are turned on it looks like this (western Copaic basin centered on Orchomenos):

        Combined layers in the western part of the Copaic basin.

        The .kmz and .kml can be downloaded from Google Drive.

        I believe that this is about the most that can be derived from Simpson's work.  In future posts I'll be presenting the geographic information from [Farinetti 2011].  After that we should be well on our way to a true gazeteer of the Copaic Basin.


        [1] [Simpson 1980] 60.
        [2] [Farinetti 2011] passim.


        [Farinetti 2011] Boeotian landscapes. British Archaeological Reports.  2011.
        It can be downloaded as several .pdfs.  The list is here: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/14500

        [Simpson 1980] Richard Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Greece, Noyes Press, Park Ridge, N.J., 1980.

        November 24, 2014

        Digital Classicist Berlin

        Roman bazaar or market economy?

        Talk: Tom Brughmans (University of Konstanz), “Roman bazaar or market economy? Explaining tableware distribution processes in the Roman East through computational modelling”.

        Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-1780-0000-0024-5022-5

        Date: Tuesday, 25 November 2014

        Time: starting at 17:00 c.t. (i.e. 17:15)

        Venue: DAI, Wiegandhaus, Podbielskiallee 69-71, D-14195 Berlin (map)


        The study of the Roman economy is populated by a large number of sometimes conflicting models. These models are rarely formally compared, and many remain untested due to the limited use of formal hypothesis testing methods in Roman studies and the significant data requirements to enable their use. This paper illustrates how broad patterns in large archaeological datasets allow for aspects of these models to be tested, and suggests agent-based network modelling as a particularly fruitful approach for the study of the Roman economy.

        One of the most robust patterns observed in the collected ceramic tableware data in the Roman East is the variability of distribution patterns of different tablewares (products characterised by a distinct clay fabric and produced in different centres). Some wares such as Eastern Sigillata A were distributed on a supra-regional scale for centuries, others were of somewhat more restricted importance (Eastern Sigillatas B, C, and D), whilst yet other wares were purely produced for local consumption (e.g. Boeotian tablewares). What were the mechanisms that led to these strong differences in the wideness of products’ distribution patterns? A number of hypotheses have been published identifying and coupling possible contributing factors, including the role of social networks in allowing for the flow of information and goods both within and between markets. Most scholars seem to agree that a complex mix of mechanisms working on multiple levels was responsible for the considerable differences in tableware distribution patterns. However, these mechanisms remain untested given the need in Roman studies for workable methods that allow for expressing and evaluating a complex mix of hypothetical processes to better understand archaeologically attested large-scale distribution patterns (Davies 2005; Morris et al. 2007).

        This paper aims to evaluate aspects of two such hypotheses: Bang’s (2008) claim that differences in the distribution of tablewares can be the result of weak market integration, and Temin’s (2013) opposing claim that the markets in the Roman world were well-integrated. It presents an agent-based network model simulating the social networks which enable the flow of information and goods between traders. The model by Jin and colleagues (2001) is modified to create social networks of traders on different markets, where different degrees of market integration can be enforced by modifying the value of one variable. The results of experiments with variable degrees of market integration are subsequently compared to the tableware data collected in the ICRATES database (Bes and Poblome 2008). The results suggest that, contrary to Bang’s hypothesis, limited availability of reliable commercial information from different markets is unlikely to give rise to the large differences in the wideness of tableware distributions observed in the archaeological record. A degree of market integration is necessary (between 12-40% of all transactions according to the model). However, it also emphasises the importance of intra-market transactions (60-88% of all transactions). Moreover, tablewares produced close to large urban centres will have a much higher probability of being distributed to many sites than tablewares produced close to small urban centres. We conclude that agent-based network modelling provides scholars of Roman trade a tool for expressing aspects of their hypotheses and that future work should focus on factors driving market integration against a dominant background of local market-based trade.

        This paper concludes that the study of the Roman economy would very much benefit from embracing computational modelling approaches because (i) it forces scholars to consider the comparability of descriptive models, (ii) it allows comparison of simulated outputs with archaeologically observed outputs, and (iii) it allows to map out the grey zone between extreme hypotheses and refocus our descriptive models away from hypotheses that do not compare favourably with the archaeological record.

        Keywords: roman economy, ceramics, agent-based modelling, network science


        Bang, P. F. (2008). The Roman bazaar, a comparative study of trade and markets in a tributary empire. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

        Bes, P. M., & Poblome, J. (2008). (Not) see the Wood for the Trees? 19,000+ Sherds of Tablewares and what we can do with them. In Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautores Acta 40 (pp. 505–514). Bonn.

        Davies, J. K. (2005). Linear and nonlinear flow models for ancient economies. In J. G. Manning & I. Morris (Eds.), (pp. 127–156). Stanford.

        Jin, E. M., Girvan, M., & Newman, M. E. (2001). Structure of growing social networks. Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, 64(4 Pt 2), 046132.

        Morris, I., Saller, R. P., & Scheidel, W. (2007). Introduction. In W. Scheidel, I. Morris, & R. P. Saller (Eds.), The Cambridge economic history of the Greco-Roman world (pp. 1–12). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

        Temin, P. (2013). The Roman Market Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

        Robert Consoli (Squinches)

        The Boeotian parallel economy, part 2

        Dicaeopolis makes a market.  The Ducks.

        In my previous post I noted that the remarkable speech of the Boeotian merchant in Aristophanes' The Acharnians might give clues as to the nature of the Boeotian economy during times when Lake Copais was flooded. In this post I deal with the ducks.

        νάσσας (This form marked ‘Boeot.’ in LSJ), for νῆττα: duck. The water bird par excellence and highly regarded in the ancient world as a food.[1]

        There are three general types of ducks: the dabblers, or surface feeders, the divers, and the perching ducks.  The domestic duck is descended from a dabbler, the common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); other dabblers have been domesticated [2] 

        Miniature skyphos vase with caricature of duck
        (perh. Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).
        ’Ragusa Group’. (N.P. Goulandris Coll. 756, 757, 758) 6CBC.

        In the holdings of the Museum of Cycladic Art, Athens, Greece.
        Courtesy of SquinchPix.com

        Domestication of the duck probably started during the Bronze Age but it's not clear if they were domesticated under the Mycenaeans. We have evidence that duck raising was well-established in the ancient world by at least the first century B.C. if not long before.[3]  
        Their connection to the water is recognized in Aristotle and in Aelian [4].

        Ducks are also hunted and most of the wild ducks are eagerly sought after as food. The wild ducks in the following table include Greece in at least part of their migratory range. The Copaic basin should be understood to have consisted, at least in part, of an extensive bed of reeds so that from afar it resembled an enormous green field.[5] This series of Boeotian lakes, Copais (Topolia), Hyliki, and Paralimnos are on a major migration flyway. Given the huge size of Lake Copais and its multitude of reed beds we must expect that hundreds of thousands of ducks and other migratory birds stopped there when flying from their breeding places in the north to their summer feeding grounds in Anatolia, Cyprus, Egypt, and points further south in Africa. I think it safe to suppose that, in season, Lake Copais was a paradise for bird hunters.

        The following spread sheet is uploaded to Google Drive and you can download it here.

        Aythya marilaGreater scaupInfo/PictxxxBreeds in marine habitats (fjords, archipelagos) on salt or brackish water, or on freshwater lakes and pools in mountains (birch and willow zones) and tundra. Migratory. Wintering birds gregarious, diving for molluscs on open sea, or are seen along coasts and in bays. 
        Anas acutaNorthern pintailInfo/Pictxx
        Anas clypeataNorthern shovelerInfo/Pictxx"..mud-bottomed marshes rich in invertebrate life are their habitat of choices.","This is a bird of open wetlands, such as wet grassland or marshes with some emergent vegetation."
        Anas creccaCommon tealPicture only:
        Anas discorsBlue-winged tealInfo/Pict
        Anas penelopeEurasian widgeonInfo/Pictxxx
        Anas platyrhynchosMallard ('Wild Duck')Info/Pictx
        Anas querquedulaGarganeyInfo/PictxxTheir breeding habitat is grassland adjacent to shallow marshes and steppe lakes.
        Anas streperaGadwallInfo/Pictx
        Aythya ferinaCommon pochardInfo/Pictxx
        Aythya fuligulaTufted duckInfo/Pictxxxopen, clear, oligotrophic lakes in forested areas; densely vegetated, eutrophic lowland lakes and marshes; along seashores; on tundra pools; slow-flowing rivers; reservoirs; park lakes; etc.
        Aythya nyrocaFerruginous duckInfo/PictxxTheir breeding habitat is marshes and lakes with a metre or more water depth. These ducks breed in southern and eastern Europe and southern and western Asia. 
        Bucephala clangulaCommon GoldeneyeInfo/PictxxxTheir breeding habitat is the taiga. They are found in the lakes and rivers of boreal forests across Canada and the northern United States, Scandinavia and northern Russia. They are migratory and most winter in protected coastal waters or open inland waters at more temperate latitudes. These diving birds forage underwater. Year-round, about 32% of their prey is crustaceans, 28% is aquatic insects and 10% is molluscs. Insects are the predominant prey while nesting and crustaceans are the predominant prey during migration and winter. Locally, fish eggs and aquatic plants can be important foods.
        Clangula hyemalisLong-tailed duck, Info/PictxxxTheir breeding habitat is in tundra pools and marshes, but also along sea coasts and in large mountain lakes in the North Atlantic region, Alaska, northern Canada, northern Europe and Russia. The nest is located on the ground near water; it is built using vegetation and lined with down.  They are migratory and winter along the eastern and western coasts of North America, on the Great Lakes, coastal northern Europe and Asia, with stragglers to the Black Sea. The most important wintering area is the Baltic Sea, where a total of about 4.5 million gather.
        Marmaronetta angustirostrisMarbled duck
        Melanitta nigraCommon ScoterInfo/PictxxBreeds near lakes and rivers in boreal forests (upper coniferous, birch/willow) and close to tundra waters. Migratory, spring migration largely on broad front over land at night, autumn migration diurnal along coasts and over sea. Gregarious, can form very large flocks. Most ♂♂ return S as early as late summer.
        Mergus merganserCommon MerganserInfo/PictpxxM. is a large duck, of rivers and lakes of forested areas of Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America.  In most places, the Common Merganser is nearly as much a salt-water as a fresh-water frequenter. In larger streams and rivers, they float down with the stream for a couple of miles, and either fly back again or more commonly fish their way back, diving incessantly the whole way. In smaller streams, they are present in pairs or smaller groups, and they float down, twisting round and round in the rapids, or fishing vigorously in some deep pool near the foot of some waterfall or rapid. When floating leisurely, they position themselves in water similar to ducks. But they swim deep in water like Cormorants too, especially when swimming upstream.
        Netta rufinaRed-crested pochard
        Somateria mollissimaCommon eiderxxsea-duck that is distributed over the northern coasts of Europe, North America and eastern Siberia. It breeds in Arctic and some northern temperate regions, but winters somewhat farther south in temperate zones, when it can form large flocks on coastal waters


        [1] Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, ix.395.d-e.

        Also see Liber VI, Aëropetes in Apicius.  de Re Coq., vi.II, pars. 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217.  Apicius is online here in translation:

        For the Latin text see:

        Herodotus ii.77.5
        "ὀρνίθων δὲ τούς τε ὄρτυγας καὶ τὰς νήσσας καὶ τὰ μικρὰ τῶν ὀρνίθων ὠμὰ σιτέονται προταριχεύσαντες."   [LCL 117: 364-5]

        "..they also use salt to cure small birds, ducks, and quails.  All the rest of the birds they have in Egypt, except for those designated as sacred, they eat baked or boiled."  [Strassler/Purvis 2009] 150-1

        [2] E.g., the teal and the garganey which are mentioned in Columella On Agriculture, viii.15.1.

        [3] Varro, de Re R., III.11.1-3)  LCL 283: 486-487; "Qui autem volunt greges anatium habere ac constituere nessotrophion, primum locum, quoi est facultas,eligere oportet palustrem, quod eo maxime delectantur; si id non, potissimum ibi, ubi sit naturalis aut lacus aut stagnum aut manu facta piscina.."

        "One who wishes to keep flocks of ducks and build a duck-farm should choose, first, if he has the opportunity, a place which is swampy, for they like this best of all; if this is not available, a place preferably where there is a natural pond or pool or an artificial pond, to which they can go down by steps."

        And similarly in Columella, de Ag., viii.15.1  (LCL 407: 396-397)
        "XV. Nessotrophii cura similis, sed maior impensa est. Nam clausae pascuntur anates, querquedulae, boscides, phalerides,3 similesque volucres, quae stagna et paludes rimantur."

        "XV. A place for rearing ducks requires similar.attention but is more costly. For mallard, teal, garganey and coots and similar birds, which root about in pools and marshes, can be kept in captivity."

        [4] Arist. H. A. vii(viii). iii,   593 b   (LCL 439 108-9)
        "τῶν δὲ στεγανοπόδων τὰ μὲν βαρύτερα περὶ τοὺς1 ποταμοὺς καὶ λίμνας ἐστίν, οἷον κύκνος νῆττα φαλαρὶς κολυμβίς· ἔτι βόσκας ὅμοιος μὲν νήττῃ τὸ δὲ μέγεθος ἐλάττων, καὶ ὁ καλούμενος κόραξ."

        "Among the web-footed birds the heavier ones are by the rivers and lakes, for example swan, duck, phalaris, grebe; also teal, which is like a duck but smaller-sized, and the so-called raven."

        Aelian, Characteristics of Animals, v.33 (LCL 446: 324-325)

         Ἡ νῆττα ὅταν τέκῃ, τίκτει μὲν1 ἐν ξηρῷ, πλησίον δὲ ἢ τῆς λίμνης ἢ τοῦ τενάγους ἢ ἄλλου τινὸς ὑδρηλοῦ χώρου καὶ ἐνδρόσου.

        "When the Duck lays its eggs it lays them on land but close to a lake or shallow pool or some other watery, moist spot."

        [5] [Farinetti] 128.  Referencing [Philippson, 1951] 477-8: "the lake was not a open water surface, and modern travellers (before the drainage) report that, from afar, the basin would present an image of a green meadows, and one would get the sense of it actually being a lake only from very close, when appreciating the presence of the reeds."


        [Balme 1991] D.M. Balme, ed. and trans., Aristotle. History of Animals, Volume III: Books 7-10. Loeb Classical Library 439. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

        [Bowe and DeHart 2011] Partick Bowe and Michael D. DeHart. Gardens and Plants of the Getty Villa. Getty Publications, Los Angeles, Ca. 2011.

        [Dalby 2013] Andrew Dalby, Food in the Ancient World, Routledge, 2013.

        [Farinetti 2008] Emeri Farinetti, “Fluctuating Landscapes: the case of the Copais Basin in ancient Boeotia”, Annuario della Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene LXXXVI, s. III, 8, 2008, pp. 115- 138. Online here.

        [Farinetti 2011] Boeotian landscapes. British Archaeological Reports. 2011. It can be downloaded as several .pdfs. The list is here: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/14500

        [Henderson 1998] Jeffrey Henderson, ed. and trans. Aristophanes. Acharnians. Knights. Loeb Classical Library, no. 178. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

        [Henderson 2000] Jeffrey Henderson, ed. and trans.,  Aristophanes. Birds. Lysistrata. Women at the Thesmophoria.  Loeb Classical Library, no. 179. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

        [Hort 1915]  Arthur F. Hort, trans., TheophrastusEnquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books 1-5.  Loeb Classical Library 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1916.

        [Johnsgard 1978] Johnsgard, P. A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1978.

        [LSJ] Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1940.  Consulted on-line here: http://logeion.uchicago.edu/about.html

        [Macgillivray 1852]  William Macgillivray, A history of British birds, indigenous and migratory, vol. V, William S. Orr and Co., London, 1852

        [Olson 2007] S. Douglas Olson ed. and trans., Athenaeus. The Learned Banqueters, Volume I: Books 1-3.106e.  Loeb Classical Library 204. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

        [Olson 2009] S. Douglas Olson, ed. and trans., Athenaeus  Loeb Classical Library 274. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

        [Philippson 1951] NOT BEEN ABLE TO CONSULT.  Alfred Philippson. Die griechischen Landschaften  eine Landeskunde. Bd.1, Der Nordosten der griechischen Halbinsel. Tiel2, Das Östliche Mittelgriechenland und die Insel EuboeaKlostermannFrankfurt am Main, Germany. 1951.  Philippson lived a remarkable life which the reader may learn about here in section (2c).

        [Storey 2011] Ian C. Storey, ed.  and trans., Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume III: Philonicus to Xenophon. Adespota.  Loeb Classical Library 515. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

        [Strassler, Purvis 2009]  Robert B. Strassler, ed., Andrea L. Purvis, trans., The Landmark Herodotus, The Histories.  Anchor Books, 2009.

        [Thompson 1895] D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Glossary of Greek Birds, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1895.

        [Vehling 1936] J.D. Vehling trans., Apicius, de Re Coquinaria.  Edited by Walter M. Hill (1936) and found on-line here.

        A Guide to Posts about Orchomenos, Thebes, and Lake Copais.

        The following are the posts which I have written to date concerning Boeotia and, in particular, Orchomenos and Lake Copais.

        1. Classical literature citations on Orchomenos.  Contains a spreadsheet that lists 50 citations regarding Orchomenos.

        2. Plants of Lake Copais.  The 'parallel economy' as reflected in Theophrastus, part 1.
        This is a discussion of some of the plants which Theophrastus names in  Enq. Plants, iv.10.1

        3. Lake Copais, Orchomenos, and Thebes.  Zones of influence.  With map .kmz
        This post shows that Lake Copais separated Thebes and Orchomenos and that draining the lake left the two cities open to each other.

        4. The Melas River.  A principal source of Lake Copais.
        The natural channel of the Melas flows the entire length of the Copaic basin and is the principal means by which Lake Copais was drained.

        5. The sinkholes of Lake Copais.
        These limestone fissures are the principal natural regulators of the water level of Lake Copais. With map .kmz

        6. The Boeotian 'parallel economy' as reflected in Aristophanes, part 1.  Plants.  Oregano,  penny-royal, rushes and rush mats, plants used as wicks, plantain.

        7. The Boeotian 'parallel economy' as reflected in Aristophanes, part 2.  Ducks, domesticated and wild.
        Contains a spread sheet on the wild ducks.

        8. Steps to a gazeteer of the Copaic basin.  Place names in Simpson 1980
        With .kmz and .kml files.

        In future posts I expect to write about the following topics:

        a. Place names in the Copais Basin with .kmz and a list with lat/lon pairs

        b. The hydraulic work of the people of Hunza (a review of H. Sidky's Irrigation and State Formation in Hunza).  Sidky has interesting things to say about administrative development in Hunza as a consequence of their hydraulic projects.

        c. The Boeotian 'parallel economy'.  Additional posts dealing with plants, animals, and fish in the Copaic Basin as far as we can learn about them.

        d. Rationale for and description of the Mycenaean drainage of Lake Copais and a map of the fragments of the dike which was built that can still be identified.

        e. Hypotheses about the effect of the Orchomenian hydraulic project on the complexity of Orchomenian society.

        Source: Journalism Code, Context & Community

        Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Elections Scraping

        By Jeremy B. Merrill, Ken Schwencke

        Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Elections Scraping

        From the New York Times' "The Most Detailed Maps You'll See From the Midterm Elections" by Amanda Cox, Mike Bostock, Derek Watkins, and Shan Carter.

        Comprehensive election data is nearly impossible to obtain quickly, accurately, and for free. The typical solution is to buy the data from an organization like the AP, which charges thousands--even hundreds of thousands--of dollars for the feed that powers the maps, charts, and analysis seen on your favorite news site. AP gathers this data in a reliable but old-fashioned way, with people on the ground. These people send the AP a constantly shifting tally as the votes are counted up, which the AP publishes in detail down to the county level.

        What's Missing?

        The important thing to remember about the AP data is what it doesn’t include. Counties aren’t the most granular data available. Data exists down to the precinct level, often your actual polling place, and many states report results that thoroughly, by precinct, on election night or soon after.

        Some of the states that report precinct-level data pay fees in the six figures for a service that manages their data reporting, called Clarity Election Night Reporting. Others use homegrown publication systems, like an FTP server hosting a strangely-delimited series of files (which is, honestly, not much different than the AP’s own solution), or simple HTML tables on little-used state websites.

        Since most don’t use the same publication system, they certainly don’t use the same reporting format. Which makes gathering and collating that data a pain in the ass. And that’s exactly what we did for the 2014 midterm elections.

        Do Try This at Home

        If you’re a local or regional news org, it may be possible to use only your state’s own (free!) data for election reporting by using some of the same techniques we did.

        Thar be dragons in this data. Don’t call us St. George, but we’re going to describe these and share with you how we defeated them. Processing the data isn’t necessarily the hard part, though it is also a battle; the dragon is anticipating errors and catching errors. This isn’t a problem unique to elections data. It applies to data journalism, software engineering generally and… umm… starting wars based on questionable evidence. As that pioneering data journalist Donald Rumsfeld put it, “there are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns--the ones we don't know we don't know.” Just as Rumsfeld warned, it’s the unknown unknowns, the errors, that you’ve got to worry about more than the data cleaning.

        Data Cleaning: Nice to Meet You, Senators Perdue(R) and Perdue (R)!

        There are the data problems you’d expect: As we said, state boards of elections all publish in different formats and in different ways. States that use Clarity report their data in three JSON files per county that you have to join between in order to get the candidate, precinct, and race names, as well to find out whether the precinct is done reporting yet. Minnesota and North Carolina use a dialect of CSV, but Minnesota also requires you to join tables together to get identifiable names, and North Carolina is a giant zip file. Louisiana publishes a massive XML file. Alaska? Let’s not even talk about what Alaska thinks a CSV file should look like.

        But if you could just come up with a Rosetta Stone to standardize that data format, you’d be golden, right? Wrong.

        It shouldn’t surprise you that candidate’s names are spelled and formatted differently on the ballots in different states--maybe Barack H. Obama here and Obama, Barack there. But even within states, the diversity of spellings can reach levels rivalled only by endangered wildflowers.

        Georgia, which uses the commercial service Clarity, is what we have in mind here: they managed to spell their now-senator-elect’s name four different ways in their results: "DAVID A. PERDUE", "DAVID A. PERDUE (R)", "DAVID A. PERDUE(R)", "DAVID PERDUE (R)".

        And bless Iowa’s heart, but their CSV includes trailing spaces at the end of everyone’s name. Why? I don’t know. So “Bob Quast” of the Bob Quast for Term Limits party didn’t get any votes, but “Bob Quast ” did.

        Virginia couldn’t keep from inventing new precincts to put into their data. After 11 p.m. on election night, they were still renaming precincts like “###Provisional” to "###Provisional 05" in Southampton County.

        If you’re too old-school for all this almost-mechanical data-cleaning, don’t worry, there’s phone calls to be made too. Telephone-assisted reporting.

        When a result shows up for the “Chanhassan P-1A” precinct in Minnesota’s Carver County, for example, that’s the complete count for that precinct. Clarity systems report a status--whether the precinct hasn’t started reporting, is done, or if more votes are expected. Determining whether a precinct has started yet isn’t as simple as noting whether all the counts are zero. Especially in low turnout elections like the midterms, a precinct that really recorded zero votes the whole day isn’t impossible.

        But, in North Carolina, there’s no telling. An official in the State Board of Elections told me that results, when reported, should be complete, but “it can happen” that the numbers are changed afterwards: some counties have multiple types of voting machines whose data could be uploaded separately, and “transfer” votes from folks who moved, but didn’t change their registration, could be recorded at the county board of elections but later added to the correct precincts totals. All this informs our graphics and analysis and isn’t clear from the “raw data.”

        We had to tackle these problems both across states--agreeing on a format to dump everything to, creating shared methods to output and upload the data, etc. We also had to tackle these problems within each state.


        We created a flotilla of tiny scrapers to attack each state. They each were scheduled to run every three to ten minutes with a Mac/Linux tool called “cron” for each state once its polls closed, and depending on how often the state promised to update their data. Each state parser existed to deal with the peculiarity of that state’s election system: where the file was, how it was formatted, what variations of a candidate’s name existed. The implementation of how to deal with output, uploading, canonicalizing the names, etc. were all offloaded shared functions.

        Where Edward Tufte likes to talk about “small multiples” of information graphics, we created small multiples of crappy node.js parsers. Just like little maps of the extent of drought in the U.S. each year help you understand its spread, the nine scrapers we wrote helped us understand our code. They each used a roughly similar format of grabbing the input data, stashing it locally, processing it, and writing it. While this is good software engineering practice, it was especially important for a rushed and time-sensitive two-person project in which we both needed to be able to understand and fix each other’s code and be able to make flotilla-wide modifications.

        It was these flotilla-wide shared functions, often made at the last minute, that made the project feasible. Shared functions transformed lists of candidate and race name variants (remember all the Davids Perdue?) into a single output. Another took charge of adding a timestamp to our output JSON, and writing it both locally and to Amazon S3 as a timestamped file, for example NC-18.42.16.json for posterity, and as NC-latest.json for immediate use.

        Managing the Unknown Unknowns

        Processing XML, JSON, or CSVs is easy though, you’re thinking. You’re totally right. It is easy--if you can build for a scenario that mimics real life. We had some sort of base data format for every state: a static dataset representing the most recent election, or a file filled with zeros, or test data for the next election. So, just as St. George had only a lance to fight the dragon, rather than the bazooka he probably would have preferred, we didn’t have any way to test how the data was updated over the course of election night.

        On election night, around 9 p.m. when results started to arrive in earnest, we realized how really bad our logging system was and wished we had built a better one. Each state’s parser printed a message when it started and when it finished. This is the exactly wrong way to approach logging the status of your scrapers. What were we going to do, watch for nine messages to keep track of which didn’t finish, indicating failure? Yes, that’s what Jeremy tried to do, and it didn’t work very well. He got bored quickly, and missed some bugs it took much too long to catch as the night went on.

        A better approach, were we to re-engineer this system, would be to log only things that deserve attention, or modulate their volume with their urgency. We logged some minor exceptions in this way. For states that reported their files with some sort of timestamp (either on the file on an FTP server, or a timestamp on an HTML page), that state’s scraper would log if there was no new data. Sometimes, this was expected: maybe no new precincts had reported their data to the elections board in the three-to-ten minute interim. But, if it kept happening, that might mean something had gone wrong in the scraper, so a human had to watch to make sure this wasn’t happening often.

        Our shared name canonicalizers, too, would log if they had found an unexpected name. This worked fairly well. Usually, that was a problem with the underlying data--either something sporadic, or Virginia deciding to rename a precinct again. These problems weren’t urgent, but did need some human attention to investigate.

        Success of each state ought to have been logged quietly; just an “NC” in the console when NC was done. Failure has to be logged loudly: “NC has failed with error: SomeException”. Intermediate cases, like old data or unexpected results, need a human to be watching occasionally.


        Node was a bad choice, by the way. We used a total of four web request libraries--you know, to do the one thing you’d think Node would be good for--to handle HTTP, HTTPS, HTTP requests that redirected, and FTP requests. We probably tried a good three more that didn’t work right. An upside is that version and package management is fairly well done, so installation is easy.

        Despite the problems with Node, that easy installation came in handy when VPN issues made Jeremy switch to running three states’ scrapers on his personal laptop. Even though Alaska--which, by the way, reports only when it’s all done tabulating precinct results, around 5 a.m. EST--hadn’t reported yet, Jeremy took the scrapers, running on his work laptop, a Mac, home at 3:23 a.m. When he got home at 3:42 a.m. (after the quickest Midtown-to-Brooklyn trip ever), there was a problem: our cloud storage is accessible only within the Times’s network (for security reasons), so he had to be inside the VPN to upload results. But the VPN doesn’t let you access FTP resources. Uh oh. He had to create a new S3 bucket on his personal account to put the data from the FTP states in and run the scrapers for them on his personal laptop. Real fun, but he got to bed at 5 a.m.

        Which is not so bad for election night, especially since we got the data, which our colleagues in graphics turned into some sweet maps.

        Lessons Learned

        What did we learn from this experience? Well, collecting election results is hard. One of our colleagues, Derek Willis, is involved in a project called Open Elections (funded by the Knight Foundation) specifically to help tackle this issue for historic data. There’s a good reason people pay money for nearly-live feeds.

        Also, choose the subset of data you care about. We only cared about US Senate races. If we had been more broad in our scope, our data cleanup efforts would have had to be more thorough. It’s easier to only understand a small piece of the overall election night pie.

        Further, when dealing with many wholly different data sources, devise ways to abstract away the repeating tasks. All of the sources will have to sanitize, output, and upload data in the same way. That leaves you to focus on the task of figuring out the peculiarities in each source. Also, if you go with small single-purpose data ingestors, errors are hopefully localized per data source. For example, if the scraper for Virginia had crashed, we would have still been receiving results for every other state.

        But the best takeaway is that free, live, detailed results are actually possible in some states, and not only that--these free data are the most detailed sources you can get! You should call up your state board of elections and ask about how they report on election night. You just might be able to save your news organization a little money.

        Introducing Whippersnapper

        By Katie Park, Kevin Schaul

        As part of the OpenNews Code Convening held earlier this month, we’re releasing Whippersnapper—an automated screenshot tool to keep a visual history of content on the web. It builds on top of other open source projects to capture and upload screenshots of a web page, giving users creative power to track how the internet visually changes.

        We built an early version of Whippersnapper as part of our midterm elections coverage at the Washington Post. Election-night applications can be volatile, with rapidly changing news and surges in traffic. We knew no matter how much time and thought went into our election results infrastructure, something could still go wrong.

        Our solution? Create a simplified version of our election night maps that pointed to a static version of our in-house API, and automate the process of screenshotting and uploading those map images. Although we had more sophisticated backup systems in place, this tool would ensure that we would have a live results map even in the worst-case scenario.

        election results anigif

        Election results map screenshots, GIF-ed

        While the tool was originally conceived as a last-ditch backup utility, we think it has value beyond election contingency planning. For election night, we considered providing the map images to reporters writing follow-up pieces so they could describe the play-by-play as polls closed and the maps gained color.

        Outside of elections, the tool is a simple means of showing how change occurs on the internet—more efficient and precise than manually taking screenshots. It can be used similarly to PastPages, but run on a custom time interval and pointed at any location on the internet.

        Whippersnapper could also be used to provide static image versions of computationally expensive interactive graphics, serving these images up to older browsers and low-powered mobile devices.

        What We Did

        Two weeks later, OpenNews gave us the opportunity to release this tool out in the open. While we already had a complete, functioning piece of code, we knew it would take an overhaul to make it useful beyond its original purpose. To do so, we focused on the following things:

        • Reassessing the tool’s goal. We removed all references to elections, not wanting to limit the use cases for the tool. We also made the tool more configurable, adding support for multiple screenshot targets and options such as skipping the upload to S3.
        • Refactoring the code. We rewrote sections of the code to be more DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) and modular, rediscovering the powers of a sensible language we don’t use enough in our day-to-day work. We scrutinized the names of our configuration options hoping to make using them as intuitive as possible.
        • Writing documentation. In addition to documenting the tool’s options, we provided detailed installation instructions and asked several people to test installing and using the package. We included a few sample configurations to help get people started with the tool.
        our to-do list on post-its

        Our complex issue-tracking system

        In the process of reworking Whippersnapper, we ran into a few interesting problems. First, we worried that the screenshotter wouldn’t be able to know whether its target had finished loading. Our election maps made Ajax requests for the latest data. If the screenshot tool captured its image before the data request came back, the image would be useless—but the screenshotter would think everything was fine. We overcame this by adding an optional argument to Depict, one of Whippersnapper’s dependencies, to instruct the screenshotter to wait until a PhantomJS-specific function was called. Of course, this solution only works for pages where users have control of the JavaScript.

        Along the same lines, if the tool was sent to an invalid page, it would take a screenshot of the 404 error message. This turned out to be a bug with Depict—it wasn’t checking response codes of its target page. We discovered another Depict bug that prevented the tool’s delay feature from working properly.

        In two days, we turned a quickly written, single-use script into a powerful tool that likely has uses we haven’t thought of.

        How it works

        flight-tracker map anigif

        Flight-tracker screenshots, GIF-ed

        Whippersnapper takes a set of web pages and target CSS selectors, defined in a configuration file. In the simplest case, it cycles through that set, repeatedly capturing images of the targets. The tool saves the images with the current time in the filename, allowing users to revisit them in the future.

        possible names

        Naming: still the hardest thing

        For our usage on election night, we needed to upload these images somewhere on the internet. Given the proper keys, Whippersnapper can store the images on Amazon S3—including a “latest” version, which displays the most recent image snapshot at a fixed URL. On election night we set our homepage to display these latest images (with cache-busting tokens), making it simple to always show users the most current version of the maps.

        Whippersnapper is designed to be a long-running process. It is written in Python, being essentially a script to repeatedly open other programs with the correct arguments. It depends heavily on Depict, a tool to take a single screenshot of part of a web page, which relies on PhantomJS, a headless browser useful for all kinds of automation. (We temporarily considered naming the tool Turducken given the amount of wrapped-up pieces it is made up of.)

        Users can run the tool locally or on a server. For our midterm election backup, we used the tool with Upstart, a process that automates jobs and can handily restart them in case they stop.

        What’s next

        The Code Convening gave us a great opportunity to get feedback on Whippersnapper and how it could be used. Brian Brennan, a developer who was helping out at the event, suggested that the tool check whether the target web page has changed before uploading a screenshot. We’re hoping to add this feature in the interest of efficiency and preserving disk space.

        We’d also like to explore more creative uses for Whippersnapper and how to make the tool more configurable for those uses. If you have ideas for how you can use Whippersnapper—as a reporting tool, backup system or something else—let us know.

        Return of the Code Convenings: Elections and Updates

        By Erin Kissane

        Return of the Code Convenings: Elections and Updates

        Rare photo of news coders working in natural light.

        Earlier this month, we held our third-ever OpenNews Code Convening, and our first one west of Portland, Oregon. Code Convenings are short events that bring together pairs of developers from news organizations to finish, document, and release open source projects they’ve been chipping away at. The idea is simple: block off time for newsroom designers and coders to tie up loose ends and launch great projects, free of the demands of daily newsroom work, and in the encouraging company of their peers from other organizations. And as our first three Convenings demonstrate, our fundamental approach—solicit doable projects, defend developers’ time, feed and caffeinate them, and stay out of the way—works remarkably well.

        The NYC Convening

        The NYC Convening

        Today and tomorrow, we’ll be publishing write-ups on the four projects that took flight at our recent Code Convening, which was hosted with warmth and generosity by the folks at the Brown Institute for Media Innovation, which is housed in a beautiful wing of the Columbia Journalism School here in New York. The NYC Convening focused on elections-related projects, and was attended by eight developers from MinnPost, OpenElections, the Washington Post, and WNYC. Despite the shared theme, four very different projects emerged from the Convening:

        • Clarify, from OpenElection’s Derek Willis and Geoff Hing
        • MinnPost’s Election Night API, from Alan Palazzolo and Tom Nehil
        • Wherewolf, from Jenny Ye and Noah Veltman of WNYC
        • Whippersnapper, from Katie Park and Kevin Schaul at the Washington Post

        Our thanks go out to all the participants, to code-reviewing and morale-boosting volunteer Brian Brennan, and especially to Emily Bell, Mark Hansen, Michael Krisch, and Elizabeth Boylan of the Brown Institute for welcoming us into their space.

        Code in the Wild

        Code in the Wild

        We also took the NYC Convening as a chance to look in on the projects that were produced or launched at the previous two convenings, held in Portland, OR and San Francisco.


        Sisi Wei writes:

        Landline/Stateline will now allow users to pass in customized options to change (1) the basic look and feel of the map and (2) overall map size parameters. For more advanced users, we’ve also made it easier to add and move around custom map shapes. For example, our default demo already places Alaska and Hawaii in the Gulf of Mexico. We’ve also added documentation on how to create a custom county-by-county map. As an example, we created a New York City borough map as the demo (in New York City, each borough is its own county).

        ProPublica actively uses Landline/Stateline to generate our own maps, and as such we’ll update and improve the tool every time we find a new, useful feature.

        Original launch post on Source.


        Alyson Hurt sent us an update:

        Pym.js, our solution for responsive iframes, became a central part of dailygraphics, our toolkit for small-scale projects (e.g., charts, tables and small interactives) that accompany stories on our site. This summer, Tyler Fisher and Christopher Groskopf refactored Pym.js to eliminate a dependency on jQuery and to support generic message passing between the parent and child frames.

        It’s been exciting to see it in the wild, in use at organizations like 538, PBS NewsHour, Texas Tribune, Time and the Investigative News Network.

        Original launch post on Source.

        California Civic Data Coalition

        Ben Welsh reports back with a monster update:

        A new version of our software for downloading campaign finance and lobbying data now supports the popular PostgreSQL database backend, thanks to significant contributions from a new volunteer.

        Version 0.1.0 of django-calaccess-raw-data is now freely available on the Python Package Index and GitHub. Upgrades include Django 1.7 support and fancier logging outputs, as well as numerous bug fixes and small improvements to documentation.

        If you already have it installed, an upgrade is as easy as:

        $ pip install django-calaccess-raw-data --upgrade

        The chief improvement is the ability to load data into the PostgreSQL database. Previous versions only worked with MySQL.

        The new feature was provided by Bill Chambers, a graduate student at the UC Berkeley School of Information.

        “I hope that users of the system, including myself, will be able to unveil key insights about the lobbying and fundraising activities done by our state representatives and associated political groups,” Chambers said. “Fundamentally, this kind of information deeply deserves to be open and accessible.”

        django-calaccess-raw-data is a free and open-source Django app to download, extract and load campaign finance and lobbying activity data from the California Secretary of State’s CAL-ACCESS database.

        It was originally released in August by the California Civic Data Coalition, a loosely coupled team from the Los Angeles Times Data Desk, The Center for Investigative Reporting and Stanford’s Computational Journalism Lab.

        Upstream applications refine and review the source data. They still lack PostgreSQL support. If you’re interested contributing, we’d be thrilled if someone wants to follow Bill’s lead and pitch in.

        Original launch post on Source.


        Erik Hinton sent a brief but awesome check-in:

        PourOver and Tamper have been widely embraced. Currently, PourOver has more than 2,200 stars on GitHub and has been forked more than 100 times, many branches actively updating. Since launch, PourOver has seen several core updates including batch-loading functionality and an optimized event schema. PourOver has been able to integrate continuous-range search, thanks to a pull request combining PourOver with Crossfilter. Tamper has been continually maintained. The community has created the first third-party tamper implementation, a JS encoder.

        Original launch post on Source.


        Our own Ryan Pitts notes what’s changed:

        FourScore creates an interactive chart that lets audience members respond to a question, marking their position on a grid. It's useful for visualizing the interplay of a couple sentiments at a time. For instance, whether an event made you feel happy vs. sad, as well as whether you considered it important or unimportant. (This Osama bin Laden graphic at the New York Times was one of the original inspirations for FourScore.)

        The chart will pull from any custom data source that can generate a JSON feed, or can be configured to use a simple Google spreadsheet as a back end (which also gives you a data entry form for free). An inline template styles the display for individual responses, with an optional minimap showing its relative position on the grid.

        FourScore has popped up alongside other stories since its release. KPCC Southern California Public Radio used it to capture thoughts on parking problems in L.A., and the Financial Review explored people's opinions on government spending cuts.

        Original launch post on Source.

        Coming Soon

        Coming Soon

        We’ll be hosting many more Code Convenings in 2015—follow @opennews on Twitter to catch the announcement of the call-for-proposals for the next one.

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Digital Library at The Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies

        [First posted in AWOL 5 October 2010. Updated 24 November 2014]

        The Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies
        Since its founding by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE, and for a period of over 600 years, Alexandria was the cultural capital of the world, especially during the Ptolemaic period. The Hellenistic period – specifically in Alexandria but also throughout the Mediterranean – witnessed many achievements and contributions in all fields of knowledge that have greatly added to man’s thought and the progress of civilization.
        The Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies, was established as a joint collaboration between the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, the Onassis Foundation, the Vardinoyannis Foundation and the University of Alexandria. The Center is open to scholars from around the world who are keen to obtain diplomas, Masters and Doctorates in Hellenistic studies in particular, in various specializations:
        Art, Archeology and Architecture
        Philosophy and Science
        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 1-2-3-4-5
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 9-10-11
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 12-13-14
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 15-16-17
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 18-19-20
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 21-22-23
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 46
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 6
        Publication Date: 1904
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 40
        Publication Date: 1953
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 41
        Publication Date: 1956
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 42
        Publication Date: 1967
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 43
        Publication Date: 1975
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 44
        Publication Date: 1991
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 45
        Publication Date: 1993
        Language: English
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Subject(s): Archéologie
        Volume: 47
        Publication Date: 2003
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 24
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 27
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 30
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 31
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 32-33
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 34-35
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 36
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 37
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

        Read now

        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 38
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société royale d'archéologie d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: 39
        Publication Date: 1926-1951
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Monuments de l'Egypte gréco-romaine

        Subject(s): Egypt Antiquities - Classical antiquities - Sculpture, Greco Roman Egypt - Sculpture
        Volume: vol. 2 pt. 2
        Publication Date: 1934
        Language: Italian
        Category: Sculpture to ca. 500

        Read now

        Rapport sur la marche du service du musée pendant l'exercice 1929-1921

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Art - Greco-Roman
        Publication Date: 1923
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Rapport sur la marche du service du musée en 1913

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Art - Greco-Roman
        Publication Date: 1914
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: no. 8 1905
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Bulletin de la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie

        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - Archaeology
        Volume: no. 7 1905
        Publication Date: 1898-1925
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world

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        Annuario del Museo Greco-Romano

        Author(s): Adriani, Achille.
        Subject(s): Matḥaf al-Yūnānī al-Rūmānī (Alexandria, Egypt)
        Volume: vol. 1
        Publication Date: 1934
        Language: Italian
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Annuaire du Musée Greco-Romain (1933-34 - 1934-35) : La Nécropole de Moustafa Pacha

        Author(s): Adriani, Achille.
        Subject(s): Art, Greco-Roman
        Publication Date: 1933
        Language: French

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        Annuaire du Musée gréco-romain

        Author(s): Adriani, Achille.
        Subject(s): Greco-Roman
        Volume: vol. 2
        Publication Date: 1940-1952
        Language: Arabic
        Category: Ancient world

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        Annuaire du Musée gréco-romain

        Author(s): Adriani, Achille.
        Subject(s): Greco-Roman
        Volume: vol. 3
        Publication Date: 1940-1952
        Language: Arabic
        Category: Ancient world

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        La côte Alexandrine dans l'antiquité

        Author(s): Botti, Giuseppe
        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities
        Volume: vol. 1
        Publication Date: 1897
        Language: French
        Category: Ancient world

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        Plan de la ville d'Alexandrie à l'époque ptolémaique Monuments et localités de l'ancienne Alexandrie; Mémoire présenté à la société archéologique

        Author(s): Botti, Giuseppe
        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Descriptions et voyages
        Publication Date: 1898
        Language: French
        Category: Africa

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        L'acropole d'Alexandrie et le sérapeum d'apres Aphtonius et les fouilles : mémoire présenté à la Société archéologique d'Alexandrie à la séance du 17 août 1895

        Author(s): Botti, Giuseppe
        Subject(s): Aphthonius - 4th cent - Greece - Acropolis (Athens) - Serapeum
        Publication Date: 1895
        Language: French
        Category: General history of Africa Egypt & Sudan

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        Fouilles à la colonne Théodosienne (1896) : Mémoire présenté à la Société archéologique

        Author(s): Botti, Giuseppe
        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities
        Publication Date: 1897
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Catalogue des monuments exposés au Musée gréco-romain d'Alexandrie

        Author(s): Botti, Giuseppe
        Subject(s): Art - Greek - Roman - Classical antiquities - Catalogs Antiquités gréco-romaines
        Publication Date: 1900
        Language: French
        Category: Galleries, museums, private collections

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        Egitto greco e romano

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Egypt - Antiquities - History - Greco-Roman period, 332 B.C.-640 A.D.
        Publication Date: 1957
        Language: Italian
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Iscrizioni greche e latine

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Inscriptions, Latin - Inscriptions Egypt Alexandria Catalogs - Inscriptions, Greek
        Publication Date: 1911
        Language: Italian
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        La necropoli di Sciatbi

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Egyptian Art - Glassware - Ancient Egypt - Roman Egypt - Tombs - Antiquities
        Volume: vol. 2
        Publication Date: 1912
        Language: Italian
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Alexandrea ad Aegyptum : a guide to the ancient and modern town, and to its Graeco-Roman museum

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt) - Antiquities - History - Matḥaf al-Yūnānī al-Rūmānī - Oudheden - Roman Antiquities - Guid
        Publication Date: 1922
        Language: English
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

        Read now

        Le musée Gréco-Romain, 1925-1931

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Matḥaf al-Yūnānī al-Rūmānī (Alexandria, Egypt)
        Publication Date: 1925
        Language: French

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        Le musée Gréco-Romain, 1931-1932

        Author(s): Breccia, Evaristo
        Subject(s): Matḥaf al-Yūnānī al-Rūmānī (Alexandria, Egypt)
        Publication Date: 1931
        Language: French

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        Mémoire sur l'antique Alexandrie : ses faubourges et environs découverts par les fouilles, sondages, nivellements et autres recherches, faits d'aprés les ordres de son Altesse, Ismaïl Pacha, vice roi d'Egypte

        Author(s): Falakī, Maḥmūd Bāshā
        Subject(s): Egypte - Antiquités - Alexandrie (Egypte)
        Publication Date: 1872
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        L'architecture et la décoration dans l'ancienne Egypte

        Author(s): Jéquier, Gustave - Mestral Combremont, Victor de
        Subject(s): Egypte - Antiquités - Temples - Architecture
        Volume: vol. 3
        Publication Date: 1920-1924
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        L'architecture et la décoration dans l'ancienne Egypte

        Author(s): Jéquier, Gustave - Mestral Combremont, Victor de
        Subject(s): Egypte - Antiquités - Temples - Architecture
        Volume: vol. 1
        Publication Date: 1920-1924
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        L'architecture et la décoration dans l'ancienne Egypte

        Author(s): Jéquier, Gustave - Mestral Combremont, Victor de
        Subject(s): Egypte - Antiquités - Temples - Architecture
        Volume: vol. 2
        Publication Date: 1920-1924
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        City of Alexandria town planning scheme : (projet d'aménagement, d'embellissement et d'extension de la ville d'Alexandrie)

        Author(s): McLean, William Hannah
        Subject(s): Urbanisme Égypte Alexandrie
        Publication Date: 1921
        Language: French
        Category: Area planning (Civic art)

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        L'ancienne Alexandrie : étude archéologique et topographique

        Author(s): Neroutsos, Tassos Demetrios
        Subject(s): Alexandria (Egypt)
        Publication Date: 1888
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Les Grecs en Égypte d'après les archives de Zénon

        Author(s): Préaux, Claire - Zēnōn
        Subject(s): Grecs - Égypte - Antiquité - Civilisation
        Publication Date: 1947
        Language: French
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

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        Pharos, antike, Islam und Occident : ein beitrag zur parchitekturgeschichte

        Author(s): Thiersch, Hermann
        Subject(s): Lighthouses - Egypt - Alexandria
        Publication Date: 1909
        Language: German
        Category: Architecture to ca. 300

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        رسالة عن الاسكندرية القديمة و ضواحيها و الجهات القريبة منها التى اكتشفت بالحفريات و اعمال سبر الغور و المسح و طرق البحث الاخرى

        Author(s): حسين، محمد عواد - الفلكى، محمود احمد حمدى
        Subject(s): الإسكندرية (مصر) - آثار- الآثار اليونانية - الآثار الرومانية - احياء و ضواحى - خرائط
        Publication Date: 1966
        Language: Arabic
        Category: History of ancient world Egypt

        Read now

        Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection of Classical Texts Online

         [First posted in AWOL 26 November 2012, updated 24 November 2014]

        Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection of Classical Texts
        Illinois Harvest / Large-scale Digitization Initiative, University of Illinois
        In 2000, the Classics Library at UIUC received a $85,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to microfilm its Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection of rare, priceless and perishable 19th century European dissertations and other short scholarly works on Latin and Greek literature, history and civilization. The grant was part of a $885,000 NEH grant to the Committee on Institutional Cooperation's (CIC) Center for Library Initiatives. The UIUC Library acquired the private collections of Wilhelm Dittenberger (1840-1906) and Johannes Vahlen (1830-1911) in 1907 and 1913, respectively. Dittenberger's collection consists of 5,600 books and 2,000 pamphlets; Vahlen's consists of 10,000 books and 15,000 pamphlets. Hundreds of the titles in this collection have now been digitized. The collection is a subset of the University of Illinois Digitized Books Collection.
        Until recently this large collection of Universitätsschriften and other short scholarly works on Latin and Greek literature has been accessible only on not widely distributed microfilm. 2,886 items are now accessible in multiple formats with first rate bibliographic metadata.

        Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection in Worldcat

        The Classics Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is continuing to digitize books from it's collection, many but not all of which are also from its Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection. These digital scans were created by the library's Digital Content Creation department.  They will eventually appear in the Dittenberger-Vahlen Collection of Classical Texts, but in the meantime they are accessible at the Internet Archive.  To promote this project, they have created a Tumblr account that features the latest items to have been digitized and added to the Internet Archive:

        With thanks to Mark Wardecker, Acting Classics Librarian, University of Illinois at Urbana, and to Bruce Swann, former Classics Librarian, University of Illinois at Urbana, for making this collection available.

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Mummie animali dell'antico Egitto in 3D da scoprire interattivamente

        chat-egyptienDal 5 dicembre 2014 al 9 marzo 2015 il Museo del Louvre Lens ospiterà la mostra "Degli animali e dei faraoni. Il regno animale nell'antico Egitto".

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journals: i-Medjat (papyrus électronique)

        [First posted in AWOL 19 September 2009. Most recently updated 24 November 2014]

        i-Medjat (electronic papyrus)
        ISSN: 2108-6516
        i-Medjat est une nouvelle revue d'égyptologie éditée par l'Unité de Recherche-Action Guadeloupe (UNIRAG) et disponible, gratuitement, sous forme électronique. En égyptien ancien, le terme Medjat signifie "rouleau de papyrus".

        i-Medjat is a recent egyptological journal edited by the Unité de Recherche-Action Guadeloupe (UNIRAG) and available for free in electronic form. In ancient egyptian, the word Medjat means "papyrus roll". Alain Anselin, founder of the ancient Egyptian lesson at the University of Antilles-Guyane, is the redactor in chief as well as the editor of this journal since its creation in 2008.
        i-Medjat 1 | i-Medjat 2 | i-Medjat 3 | i-Medjat 4 | i-Medjat 5 | i-Medjat 6 | i-Medjat 7 | i-Medjat 8 | i-Medjat 9 | i-Medjat 10 |i-Medjat 11

        Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

        Three Thoughts on the ASOR Annual Meeting

        I spent two, busy days at the American Schools of Oriental Research annual meeting last week. It was great to catch up with old friends and spend some time surveying both recent trends in our field and the state of academic conference. 

        1. Ban Archaeological Site Reports as Conference Papers. I enjoyed most of the papers that I heard last week and invariably learned something from even the most tedious. This is a good thing. At the same time, I got antsy and irritated during archaeological site reports that detailed the results of every trench at a site over the previous one or two field seasons. The level of detail offered in many of these papers made the work difficult to visualize. The absence of clear general research questions (e.g. what are the influences on the development of Cypriot cult in the late Iron Age?) and the preponderance of hyper-specific research questions (e.g. does the north wall continue west?). These questions are interesting, perhaps, from an archaeological perspective, but this rarely translates to an interesting paper.

        I recognize, of course, that there is a tradition of these kinds of site reports in archaeology, so I’m not blaming the authors. I also realize that these reports can provide useful updates to the scholarly community, former volunteers and collaborators, and specialists interested in these sites. Moreover, I get that with funding to attend conferences become more competitive, many scholars feel pushed to give papers of dubious academic value just to get funding to attend. 

        At the same time, I am pretty sure ASOR could publish academic site reports online, perhaps behind a firewall if project’s are concerned about the safety of their sites, and eliminate what is far and away the least intellectually rewarding part of the conference while still providing a venue for the dissemination of detailed information. This would allow conference organizers to present a more focused conference with more substantial papers over a shorter period of time. It does not, of course, resolve the issue of scholars who present less than remarkable papers simply to get funding to attend.  

        2. The Digital Divides. I am becoming more and more alarmed by the divide in archaeology between the digital haves and have nots. As research funding contracts and expenses of fieldwork continue to increase, the presentations documenting significant digital innovation came almost entirely from large, well-funded projects with the backing of large research universities. I recognize that innovation requires funding and that many aspects of this work will “trickle down” into digital tools and technologies available to smaller, more financially ordinary projects, but there was little discussion of how this process will take place or what smaller, less generously funded projects can do to participate in the process of digital innovation (or little discussion that I saw at the panels that I attended).

        The digital divide bothered me because so many of the coolest digital projects seemed far from being sufficiently scalable to have a widespread impact on the field. Moreover, some of the data driven digital initiative seem to require the widespread adoption of their complex platforms to assemble the kind of data required to allow for archaeological “big data” initiatives. The truth behind big data in archaeology, however, is that it derives not from technological innovation alone, but through the combination of technology and social networks (of the human kind) to generate the kind of collaboration necessary to produce significant change in the discipline. 

        The digital divide, then, marks not just the digital “haves” and digital “have nots,” but an approach to digital archaeology that continues to privilege innovation over application. As an archaeologist open to digital tools and techniques, I am far more interested in understanding how innovators can provide access to digital tools and support the meaningful adoption of technology to produce significant bodies of data. In other words, I was impressed by the highest of high tech (e.g. virtual archaeology in immersive 3D environments, dynamic bespoke platforms supporting large-scale collaboration between interrelated projects, and sharks with laser beams who could destroy even the most aggressive archaeocyberpirates), I was much hungrier for digital initiative that had significant adoption rates or that produced meaningful results across multiple projects of different scales and resources. It seems to me that the future of digital archaeology is in collaboration and adoption more than innovation. 

        3. Conferences as Non-Places. Upon returning home, I was shocked to discover that the conference had been in San Diego. The Westin Hotel was fine. The weather was nice from what I could gather from outside the hotel and taxi cab windows (I did notice the absence of blowing snow and sub-zero temperatures). 

        I recognize that part of this was my fault. I could have planned more time for excursions or at least took a cab to a good local restaurant rather than settling for rather ordinary fare available near the conference hotel. At the same time, I felt significant pressure to use my time wisely, attend as many sessions as possible, and be punctual and engaged at various meetings. By my early morning departure, I realized that the location of the conference was almost completely irrelevant.

        The commercial carpeting, Starbucks’ coffee, institutional pastries, familiar hotel rooms, and polite staff all made the experience of attending this conference nearly indistinguishable from any other, and made me all the happier to get home. 

        Corinthian Matters

        Society of Biblical Literature Conference, San Diego, 2014

        I have always been impressed with the enormous output of scholarship directed to understanding biblical literature and backgrounds. In past years, I’ve posted paper titles or abstracts for presentations at the annual and international meetings of the Society of Biblical Literature: Baltimore 2013, Chicago 2012, London 2011, and Atlanta 2010.

        As Thanksgiving week has just begun in the U.S.A., and the annual Society of Biblical Literature conference is wrapping up in San Diego, it seemed appropriate to see what biblical scholars have harvested this year. The following comes from a keyword search on “Corinth” in the Program Book. Not all of the following papers concern Corinth topics, of course, but all of the following sessions have at least some discussion of Corinth or Paul’s Corinthian correspondence. There are presumably other Corinth papers that this keyword search did not reach, but this provides some cross-section of current discussions among New Testament scholars. To read abstracts, search by the paper title.

        Before the list, this word cloud produced in Wordle offers a great way to visualize the content of the paper titles and session abstracts. 



        And the Papers themselves…


        Paul and the Apocalyptic Imagination
        12:30 PM to 5:30 PM
        Room: 300 A (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)
        Across various branches of biblical and theological study, there is a renewed interest in ‘apocalyptic’. This development is seen particularly in the study of Paul’s theology, where it is now widely agreed that Paul pr

        omotes an ‘apocalyptic theology’. However, there is little agreement on what this means. Scholars from different perspectives have, as a result, continued to talk past each other. This special session provides an opportunity for leading Pauline scholars from different perspectives to engage in discussion about the meaning of Paul as an apocalyptic thinker. Indeed, one of the strengths and aims of this event is that different and opposing views are set next to each other. The session will hopefully bring greater clarity to the ‘apocalyptic’ reading of Paul by providing much needed definition to central terms and interpretive approaches and by highlighting both their strengths and weaknesses.

        Session 1
        Jason Maston, Highland Theological College, Presiding
        Jason Maston, Highland Theological College, Welcome (5 min)
        M. C. de Boer, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam – VU University Amsterdam
        Apocalyptic as Eschatological Activity (25 min)
        N.T. Wright, University of St. Andrews
        Apocalyptic as Sudden Fulfilment of Divine Promise (25 min)
        Loren Stuckenbruck, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
        Apocalypticism in Second Temple Judaism (25 min)
        Philip Ziegler, University of Aberdeen
        Apocalypticism in Modern Theology (25 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Break (15 min)
        Session 2
        Ben Blackwell, Houston Baptist University, Presiding
        Michael Gorman, Saint Mary’s Seminary and University
        The Apocalyptic New Covenant and the Shape of Life in the Spirit (25 min)
        Edith Humphrey, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
        Apocalypse as Theoria in Paul: A New Perspective on Apocalyptic as Mother of Theology (25 min)
        Douglas Campbell, Duke University
        Paul’s Apocalyptic Epistemology (25 min)
        Beverly Gaventa, Baylor University
        Romans 9–11: An Apocalyptic Reading (25 min)
        John Barclay, University of Durham
        Apocalyptic Investments: First Corinthians 7 and Pauline Ethics (25 min)
        Discussion (20 min)
        Word of Thanks, Book Promotion, and Adjournment: John Goodrich, Moody Bible Institute


        Institute for Biblical Research
        4:00 PM to 6:00 PM
        Room: 202 B (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Emerging Scholarship on the New Testament
        This session showcases emerging New Testament scholars sponsored by Fellows of the Institute of Biblical Research. All are welcome to attend the session. Summaries of the papers will be read at the session leaving opportunity for discussion. Full papers will be available at the Institute of Biblical Research website: http://www.ibr-bbr.org/ (click on Emerging Scholarship on the New Testament Group) no later than October 1, 2014. For information on this session please contact Ruth Anne Reese (ruthanne.reese@asburyseminary.edu).

        Ruth Anne Reese, Asbury Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Drew Strait, University of Pretoria
        Of Gods and Kings: Early Judaism, Ruler Cults, and Paul’s Polemic against Semasmata in Acts 17:23 (10 min)
        Discussion (20 min)
        Terri Moore, Dallas Theological Seminary
        The Mysteries and 1 Cor 15:29: Comparative Methodology and Contextual Exegesis (10 min)
        Discussion (20 min)
        Luke Tsai, Dallas Theological Seminary
        It’s Affordable: The Cost of Civil Litigation in First-Century Roman Corinth (10 min)
        Discussion (20 min)
        Phillip Strickland, McMaster Divinity College
        “Le style, c’est l’homme”: The Use of Literary Stylistics in the Defense of Lukan Authorship of Hebrews—A Critical Assessment (10 min)
        Discussion (20 min)


        Inventing Christianity
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom P (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Competing Christianities in North Africa

        Laurence Welborn, Fordham University, Presiding
        Outi Lehtipuu, University of Helsinki
        Who Has the Right to Be Called a Christian? The Politics of Inventing Christian Identity in Tertullian’s On the Prescription of Heretics (30 min)
        Patout Burns, Vanderbilt University
        Self-Identity through Competition: The Development of African Ecclesiology (30 min)
        Geoffrey D. Dunn, Australian Catholic University
        Disputed Christian Identities in North Africa: A View of the Current Landscape (30 min)
        Discussion (30 min)
        Business Meeting (30 min)


        Paul and Politics
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Room 31 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Katherine Shaner, Wake Forest University, Presiding
        Ben Dunning, Fordham University
        Paul, Bodily Difference, and the Politics of the Universal: Reading Romans 7 with and against Contemporary Philosophers (25 min)
        Shelly Matthews, Brite Divinity School (TCU)
        ‘Who Really Cares That Paul Was Not a Gender Egalitarian after All?’: Thinking through the Question with the Unveiled Corinthian Women Prophets (25 min)
        Eric A. Thomas, Drew University
        Practicing Porneia: Inappropriating 1 Cor 6:9-20 for Erotic Justice (25 min)
        Anna Miller, Xavier University
        “All the City Was Shaken”: Women’s Speech and Ancient Political Discourse in the Acts of Paul and Thecla and 1 Corinthians (25 min)
        Crystal L. Hall , Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York
        Paul’s Collection and the Body Politics of Empire (25 min)
        Discussion (25 min)


        Pauline Epistles
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 410 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Paul’s Judaism

        R. Barry Matlock, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, Presiding
        Matthew Novenson, University of Edinburgh
        Did Paul Conceive of Such a Thing as Judaism? (25 min)
        Matthew Thiessen, Saint Louis University
        Christ, the Seed of Abraham (25 min)
        William Sanger Campbell, The College of St. Scholastica
        Paul’s Judaism and the Jesus Movement (25 min)
        Tyler A. Stewart, Marquette University
        Fallen Angels, Bastard Spirits, and the Birth of God’s Son: An Enochic Etiology of Evil in Gal 3:19–4:11 (25 min)
        James Ware, University of Evansville
        The Coherence of Paul’s Theology of the Law in Romans 2–3: A New Proposal (25 min)


        Social Scientific Criticism of the New Testament; Meals in the Greco-Roman World; Gender, Sexuality, and the Bible
        Joint Session With: Social Scientific Criticism of the New Testament, Meals in the Greco-Roman World
        9:00 AM to 11:00 AM
        Room: Room 17 B (Mezzanine level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Food in Antiquity

        Zeba Crook, Carleton University, Presiding
        Philip Tite, University of Washington
        Roman Diet and Meat Consumption: Reassessing Elite Access to Meat in 1 Corinthians 8 (25 min)
        Andrew McGowan, Yale Divinity School
        Knowing the Color of One’s Bread: How Forms and Types of Bread Reflected and Created Ancient Social Structures(25 min)
        Break (10 min)
        Alicia Batten, Conrad Grebel University College
        Fish for Thought in the Early Church (25 min)
        Michel Desjardins, Wilfrid Laurier University, Respondent (25 min)
        Discussion (10 min)


        Bible and Popular Culture
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Room 11 A (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Graphic Novels, Punk Rock, and Decolonizing the Bible? Oh My!

        Valarie Ziegler, DePauw University, Presiding
        Paul Robertson, Colby-Sawyer College
        Biblical Myth and “The Encyclopedia of Early Earth” (2013): Modernity and Re-Telling in the Graphic Novel (30 min)
        Jacob D. Myers, Emory University
        Apocalyptic Power; Dystopian Hope: John of Patmos and Paul the Apostle in Conversation with Young Adult Fiction(30 min)
        Elizabeth Rae Coody, University of Denver and Iliff School of Theology
        Punk Rock Paul: The Cross as a ‘Dumb’ Symbol in Comics and Paul’s Epistles (30 min)
        Heidi Epstein, University of Saskatchewan
        My Beloved is a Bass Line: “De-colonial,” Pop Musical Interventions in the Politics of Love as a Cultural Practice (30 min)
        Business Meeting (30 min)


        Biblical Literature and the Hermeneutics of Trauma
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom A (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Hermeneutics of Trauma in Biblical Studies and Theology
        This session includes two theologians and two pastoral theologians presenting on how interpreting biblical texts through the lens of trauma studies benefits theological and pastoral theological work. The session is co-sponsored by the AAR section “Bible, Theology and Post-modernity.”

        Christopher Frechette, Boston College, Presiding
        Peter Yuichi Clark, UCSF Medical Center & American Baptist Seminary of the West (GTU)
        Toward a Pastoral Reading of 2 Corinthians as a Memoir of PTSD and Healing (30 min)
        Philip Browning Helsel, Princeton Theological Seminary
        Shared Bodily Pleasure as a Treatment for Trauma: Modern Body Therapies and Ecclesiastes’ Injunction to Enjoyment (30 min)
        Shelly Rambo, Boston University
        Resurrecting Wounds: John 20:24–29, Trauma Theory, and the Doctrine of Resurrection (30 min)
        Robert Schreiter, Catholic Theological Union
        Reading Biblical Texts through the Lens of Resilience (30 min)
        Discussion (30 min)


        Development of Early Christian Theology
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Room 30 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: The Spirit in the Early Church: Accounts of the Spirit in the Early Church

        Mark Weedman, Johnson University, Presiding
        Ben C. Blackwell, Houston Baptist University
        Irenaeus on the Deification of Believers and the Divinity of the Spirit (25 min)
        Kellen Plaxco, Marquette University
        The Place of the Spirit in Origen’s Taxological Grammar of Participation (25 min)
        Jonathan Morgan, Toccoa Falls College
        Circumcision of the Spirit: Type and Pneumatology in Cyril of Alexandria (25 min)
        David Kneip, Abilene Christian University
        The Spirit and the Bible in Alexandria: Cyril and Didymus (25 min)
        Paul M. Pasquesi, Marquette University
        Reclaiming the Divine Feminine: Re-Reception of the Holy Spirit in the Divine Economy (25 min)
        Discussion (25 min)


        Greco-Roman Religions
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 502 B (Level 5 (Cobalt)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: The Cults of Demeter

        James Hanges, Miami University, Presiding (5 min)
        Teresa Morgan, University of Oxford
        Chippings from the Laughterless Rock: Popular Perceptions of Demeter and Her Cult (25 min)
        Jill E. Marshall, Emory University
        Inscribing Power: Curse Tablets and Temple Building in the Corinthian Sanctuary of Demeter (25 min)
        Nancy Evans, Wheaton College (Massachusetts)
        Demeter as Focal Point; Eleusis as Mirror (25 min)
        Discussion (40 min)
        Business Meeting (30 min)


        Latter-day Saints and the Bible
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Room 24 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Eric Huntsman, Brigham Young University, Presiding
        Avram R. Shannon, Ohio State University
        Mormons and Midrash: Narrative Expansion as Interpretation in Mormonism and Early Judaism (20 min)
        Tod R. Harris, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
        “Taking a Different View of the Translation”: The Illumination of Alternative Meanings in the Bible Translations of Joseph Smith and Meister Eckhart (20 min)
        Jared W. Ludlow, Brigham Young University
        Joseph Smith as a Narrator in the Joseph Smith Translation (20 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Shon D. Hopkin, Brigham Young University
        Deuteronomistic History and the Latter-day Saints (20 min)
        Lynne Hilton Wilson, LDS Stanford Institute
        The Female Rite of Wearing a Veil in 1 Cor 11:2–13 (20 min)
        Robert M. Bowman Jr., Institute for Religious Research
        The Temple Setting of the Sermon on the Mount in the Book of Mormon: A Hermeneutical Key? (20 min)
        Discussion (15 min)


        LGBT/Queer Hermeneutics
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Pauline Letters: A Queer Turn

        Lynn Huber, Elon University, Presiding (2 min)
        Heather White, New College of Florida
        Inventing the “Clobber Texts”: Biblical Interpretation and Modern Sexual Identity (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        David Tabb Stewart, California State University – Long Beach
        Against Nature (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Kjeld Renato Lings, Other Sheep Europe
        Toxic Translations: The Extensive Use of Sexual Anachronisms in 1 Corinthians 6 (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Joseph A. Marchal, Ball State University
        “Queer(ing) Children of God: Sideways Angles on a Pauline Metaphor?” (25 min)
        Discussion (13 min)
        Business Meeting (20 min)


        Rhetoric and the New Testament
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 501 C (Level 5 (Cobalt)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Greg Carey, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Greg Carey, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Introduction (5 min)
        Timothy J. Christian, Asbury Theological Seminary
        Paul and the Rhetoric of Insinuatio: How Paul Raises the Dead in First Corinthians (25 min)
        Isaac Blois, University of St. Andrews
        The Power of a Shared Boast: Paul’s Use of kauchema in Philippians as a Motivation for Ethical Conduct (25 min)
        Oh-Young Kwon, Whitley College
        A Rhetorical Analysis of Paul’s Use of Prolambano and Ekdechomai (1 Cor 11:21, 33) (25 min)
        Troy Martin, Saint Xavier University
        Legitimating Rhetorical Situations in the Epistles of Acts 15:23-29 and First Peter (25 min)
        Todd Penner, Austin College, Respondent (25 min)
        Discussion (20 min)


        Second Corinthians: Pauline Theology in the Making
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 400 A (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: 2 Corinthians 8–9

        Steven Kraftchick, Emory University, Presiding
        Calvin J. Roetzel, Macalester College
        Explorations in the Pluri-significance of the Offering in 2 Corinthians 8 and Related Texts (25 min)
        Thomas A. Vollmer, Cincinnati Christian University and Emmanuel Nathan, Australian Catholic University
        Beyond Expectation (2 Cor 8:5): The Macedonians’ Generosity in light of Paul’s Rhetorical Strategy (25 min)
        Paul B. Duff, George Washington University
        Second Corinthians 9: The Earliest of the Letters Contained in Canonical 2 Corinthians? (25 min)
        Reimund Bieringer, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
        The dikaiosynê of God and the dikaiosynê of the Corinthians (2 Cor 9:9-10) (25 min)
        Edith Humphrey, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Respondent (15 min)
        Discussion (35 min)


        Systematic Transformation and Interweaving of Scripture in 1 Corinthians
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Indigo Ballroom A (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Systematic Use of Scripture in 1 Corinthians 1–4

        Yongbom Lee, Fuller Theological Seminary (Pasadena), Presiding
        Erik Waaler, NLA University College
        Paul and the Prophets: Paul’s Use of Scripture in 1 Corinthians 1–4 (30 min)
        Christopher Stanley, Saint Bonaventure University, Respondent (20 min)
        Discussion (25 min)
        Mark Strauss, Bethel Seminary (San Diego, CA), Respondent (20 min)
        Discussion (55 min)


        Early Christianity and the Ancient Economy
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: 307 (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Economic Aspects of Early Christianity

        David Hollander, Iowa State University, Presiding
        Thomas Schmeller, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
        How to Make a Giver Cheerful: Motivating the Corinthian Believers for the Collection (30 min)
        Michelle Christian, University of Toronto
        Toward an Anthropology of Money in the Gospels (30 min)
        Michael Flexsenhar III, The University of Texas at Austin
        Tying the Knot: Marriage, Economy, and Survival in Early Christianity (30 min)
        Cavan Concannon, Duke University
        Islands in the Corrupting Sea: Mapping Second-Century Christianity (30 min)
        Jeremiah Bailey, Baylor University
        The Occasion of 1 Clement Reconsidered (30 min)


        Gender, Sexuality, and the Bible
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: 311 B (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Gwynn Kessler, Swarthmore College, Presiding
        Geoffrey D. McElroy, University of Texas at Austin
        Warrior-Men and City-Women: The Implications of Military Imagery in the Song of Songs (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Jared Beverly, Chicago Theological Seminary
        Loving Animals: A Queer Zoological Reading of Song of Songs (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Midori E. Hartman, Drew University
        Animalizing Others in 1 Corinthians 5: Gender, Sexuality, and Racial-Ethnic Terms in Paul’s Logic of Exclusion (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Holly Morse, University of Oxford
        A Monster in Paradise (20 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Business Meeting (10 min)


        Texts and Traditions in the Second Century 
        4:00 PM to 6:45 PM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom H (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Christ as Savior in the Second Century

        Michael Bird, Ridley Melbourne, Presiding (2 min)
        David Downs, Fuller Theological Seminary (Pasadena)
        The Pauline Concept of Union with Christ in Ignatius of Antioch (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Joseph Dodson, Ouachita Baptist University
        Universalism and Particularism in the Book of Wisdom, the Gospel of Matthew, and the Epistle of Barnabas (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Janelle Peters, Emory University
        The Christology of the Phoenix in 1 Clement (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Meghan Henning, University of Dayton
        Christ as Savior in the Otherworld: The Harrowing of Hell in the 2nd Century (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Candida R. Moss, University of Notre Dame
        Christ as Cosmic Victor and Emetic: Salvation in the Letter of the Churches of Lyon and Vienne (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Discussion (13 min)


        African Biblical Hermeneutics; Disputed Paulines
        Joint Session With: African Biblical Hermeneutics, Disputed Paulines
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 311 B (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Ephesians from African Perspectives

        Funlola Olojede, University of South Africa, Presiding
        Daniel K. Darko, Gordon College
        What Does It Mean to Be ‘Saved’? An African Reading of Ephesians 2 (30 min)
        Jeff Brannon, Belhaven University
        Another Look at the Principalities and Powers in Paul (30 min)
        Elna Mouton, Stellenbosch University
        Ancient Household Codes as Model for Present-day Communities of Character (in Africa)? (30 min)
        Shelley Ashdown, Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics
        The Armor of God (Eph 6:10-18) in the World View of Ndorobo (30 min)
        Discussion (30 min)


        Performance Criticism of Biblical and Other Ancient Texts
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom L (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Orality and Performance of Ancient Texts

        Lee Johnson, East Carolina University, Presiding
        Kathy R. Maxwell, Palm Beach Atlantic University
        At the Intersection of Written Text and Oral Performance: There and Back Again (30 min)
        Shem Miller, Florida State University
        The Pedagogical Performance of Sapiential Literature in the Ya’ad Movement (30 min)
        James Hanson, Saint Olaf College
        Becoming Paul: Oral Performance and the “Center” of Paul’s Thought (30 min)
        Sherri Brown, Niagara University
        What’s in an Ending? John 21 and the Performative Force and an Epilogue (30 min)
        Reinhard G. Lehmann, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
        Form Follows Function: A Calligraphic Approach to Oral Performance in Northwest Semitic Epigraphs (30 min)


        Ritual in the Biblical World
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 202 B (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Soham Al-Suadi, Universität Bern – Université de Berne, Presiding
        Rodney A. Werline, Barton College
        Ritual, Order, and the Construction of an Audience in 1 Enoch 1–36 (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Jason T. Lamoreaux, Texas A&M University
        Ritual, Media, and Conflict in Pauline Communities (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Stephen McBay, University of Manchester
        Ephesians, Braided Narrative, and Ritual Pattern (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Jade Weimer, University of Toronto
        Una Voce Dicentes: The Ritual Significance of Singing with One Voice in Early Christian Assemblies (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Group Discussion
        Jonathan Schwiebert, Lenoir-Rhyne University, Respondent (30 min)


        Social Scientific Criticism of the New Testament
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Alicia Batten, Conrad Grebel University College, Presiding (5 min)
        Callie Callon, University of Toronto
        Humorous Invective as a Component of Persuasion in Early Christianity (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Ryan Olfert, University of Toronto
        Trouble Getting In: Third John in light of Greco-Roman Associations (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Seungwoo Shim, Brite Divinity School (TCU)
        Evidence of Market Economy and Economic Rationality in the Gospel of Luke: Initial Proposal (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Matt O’Reilly, University of Gloucestershire
        Resurrection or Destruction? Social Identity and Time in Philippians 3 (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Scott Ryan, Baylor University
        Insecurity, Wrath, and the God of Hope: Reading Paul’s Apocalyptic Gospel in the Roman World (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Discussion (15 min)


        Systematic Transformation and Interweaving of Scripture in 1 Corinthians
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 310 B (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Paul and the Law in 1 Corinthians

        Erik Waaler, NLA University College, Presiding
        Brian Rosner, Ridley Melbourne
        Paul and the Law in 1 Corinthians (30 min)
        Frank Thielman, Beeson Divinity School, Respondent (15 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        A. Andrew Das, Elmhurst College, Respondent (15 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Linda Belleville, Grand Rapids Theological Seminary, Respondent (15 min)
        Discussion (45 min)


        Intertextuality in the New Testament
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 204 A (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Varieties of Intertextual Methods

        Erik Waaler, NLA University College, Presiding
        B. J. Oropeza, Azusa Pacific University
        A Covenant Sealed in the Core of Clay Jar: Intertextual Reconfigurations of Jeremiah in 2 Corinthians 1–7 (30 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Liz Myers, Independent Scholar
        Assessing the Direction of Intertextual Borrowing between New Testament Books: A New Methodology and Application to 1 Peter and Hebrews (30 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Joseph Ryan Kelly, Southern Seminary
        A Discipline by Any Other Name? Intertextuality, Inner-Biblical Exegesis, Echoes, and Allusion (30 min)
        Discussion (10 min)


        Pauline Epistles; Paul and Judaism/Paul Within Judaism; Disputed Paulines; Pauline Soteriology; Second Corinthians: Pauline Theology in the Making; Systematic Transformation and Interweaving of Script
        Joint Session With: Pauline Epistles, Paul and Judaism/Paul Within Judaism, Disputed Paulines, Pauline Soteriology, Second Corinthians: Pauline Theology in the Making, Systematic Transformation and Interweaving of Scripture in 1 Corinthians
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom M (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Chan Sok Park, Harvard University, Presiding
        Michael Patrick Barber, John Paul the Great Catholic University and John Kincaid, John Paul the Great Catholic University
        Cultic Theosis in Paul and Second Temple Judaism: A Fresh Reading of the Corinthian Correspondence (18 min)
        David A. Burnett, Criswell College
        “So Shall Your Seed Be”: Paul’s Use of Gen 15:5 in Rom 4:18 in light of Early Jewish Deification Traditions (18 min)
        Pamela Eisenbaum, Iliff School of Theology, Respondent (8 min)
        Ward Blanton, University of Kent at Canterbury, Respondent (8 min)
        N. T. Wright, University of St. Andrews, Respondent (8 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Matthew E. Gordley, Regent University School of Divinity
        Psalms of Solomon and Pauline Studies (18 min)
        Hans Svebakken, Loyola University of Chicago
        Romans 7:7-25 and a Pauline Allegory of the Soul (18 min)
        Pamela Eisenbaum, Iliff School of Theology, Respondent (8 min)
        Ward Blanton, University of Kent at Canterbury, Respondent (8 min)
        N. T. Wright, University of St. Andrews, Respondent (8 min)
        Discussion (25 min)


        Religious Experience in Antiquity
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 303 (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Scott Mackie, Independent Scholar, Presiding
        Lauren K. McCormick, Syracuse University
        Modern Theory, Ancient Statuaries: What Figurine Aesthetics Can Tell Us about Religious Community-Making at Sumer (30 min)
        Daniel K. Falk, University of Oregon
        Liturgical Progression and the Experience of Transformation in Prayers from Qumran (30 min)
        Deborah Forger, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
        The Jewish High Priest: Mediator of the Divine (30 min)
        Sally Douglas, Melbourne College of Divinity
        Why Was Jesus Understood and Proclaimed in the Language and Imagery of Woman Wisdom? An Exploration of the Role of Experience in the Ignition of Wisdom Christology and Wisdom Soteriology in the Early (30 min)
        Ross Ponder, University of Texas at Austin
        Visions of the End: On Death and Animated Dreams in Tertullian and Perpetua (30 min)


        Bible and Practical Theology
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom M (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Intersections of Biblical Interpretation and Practical Theology II

        Denise Dombkowski Hopkins, Wesley Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Michael Koppel, Wesley Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Deborah A. Appler, Moravian College & Theological Seminary and Sharon A. Brown, Moravian College & Theological Seminary
        Strangers in a Strange Land: Creating a Heart-Centered Praxis (35 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Aubrey E. Buster, Emory University
        Memory and Agent Formation in the Psalms (25 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Jin Hwang, Fuller Theological Seminary (Pasadena)
        Storytelling and Spiritual Formation according to Apostle Paul (25 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Lance B. Pape, Brite Divinity School (TCU)
        Paul and the Lord’s Supper in Corinth: A Paradigm for Practical Theological Method (25 min)
        Discussion (10 min)


        Pauline Epistles
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: Room 33 C (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Revisiting Albert Schweitzer’s Mysticism of the Apostle Paul

        Emma Wasserman, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Presiding
        Adela Collins, Yale University
        The Mysticism of Paul (25 min)
        Paula Fredriksen, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
        It’s the End of the World as We Know It: Apocalyptic Eschatology, The Gentile Mission, and the Mysticism of Schweitzer’s Paul (25 min)
        Kathy Ehrensperger, Prifysgol Cymru, Y Drindod Dewi Sant – University of Wales, Trinity Saint David
        ‘To Those Who Are Sanctified in Christ’ (1 Cor 1:2): A Contribution to the ‘in Christ’ Debate (25 min)
        Terence Donaldson, Wycliffe College, Respondent (20 min)
        Magnus Zetterholm, Lunds Universitet, Respondent (20 min)
        Discussion (30 min)


        Second Corinthians: Pauline Theology in the Making
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Thomas Schmeller, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Presiding
        Julien C. H. Smith, Valparaiso University
        The Transforming Image of the Ideal King: Paul’s Apostolic Defense (2 Cor 2:14–4:6) in light of Greco-Roman Political Ideology (30 min)
        Christopher D. Land, McMaster Divinity College
        The Benefits Outweigh the Costs: Human Obedience and Divine Blessing in 2 Cor 6:1–7:2 (30 min)
        Steven Kraftchick, Emory University, Respondent (15 min)
        Discussion (15 min)
        Business Meeting (30 min)


        African Biblical Hermeneutics
        9:00 AM to 11:00 AM
        Room: 206 (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Sexuality, Masculinities, HIV and AIDS, and the Bible in Africa

        Dora Mbuwayesango, Hood Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Madipoane Masenya (Ngwn’a Mphahlele), University of South Africa and Marthe Maleke Kondemo, University of South Africa
        What of the Problematic Norm? Rereading the Book of Ruth within the Mongo Women’s Context (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Alice Yafeh-Deigh, Azusa Pacific University
        Rethinking Paul’s Sexual Ethics within the Context of HIV/AIDS: A Postcolonial Afro-Feminist-Womanist Perspective(25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Kuloba W. Robert, Kyambogo University
        “Homosexuality is Unafrican and Unbiblical”: Examining the Ideological Motivations to Homophobia in Sub-Saharan Africa—The Case Study of Uganda (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)


        Children in the Biblical World
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 311 A (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Childist Interpretation and Children in the New Testament and Its Apocrypha

        Sharon Betsworth, Oklahoma City University, Presiding
        Julie Faith Parker, Andover Newton Theological School
        Click “Add to Dictionary”: Why We Need to Speak of Childist Interpretation (50 min)
        Steven Thompson, Avondale College of Higher Education
        Jesus and Early Life Stages according to Luke: Expressing Jewish Male Formation and Gendering Using Greco-Roman Human Development Terms (25 min)
        Anna Rebecca Solevag, School of Mission & Theology 
        Listening for the Voices of Two Disabled Girls in Early Christian Texts (25 min)
        Carla Swafford Works, Wesley Theological Seminary
        “Babes in Christ”: The Vulnerability of Infancy (25 min)
        J.R.C. Cousland, University of British Columbia
        Born to Be Wild? Jesus in the Infancy Gospel of Thomas (25 min)


        Corpus Hellenisticum Novi Testamenti
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Room 30 E (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: History of Religions School Today-2
        This is the second of two sessions of papers representing new applications of the history-or-religions approach to the study of early Christianity in the broader Hellenistic and early Roman context.

        Clare Rothschild, Lewis University, Presiding
        David G. Monaco, Pontifical College Josephinum
        The Rhetoric of Narrative in Acts 8:26-40: Ramifications of the Baptism of the Ethiopian Eunuch for the Author of Luke-Acts (30 min)
        Mark Reasoner, Marian University (Indianapolis)
        Paul’s God of Peace in Canonical and Political Perspectives (30 min)
        Andrew Langford, University of Chicago and Matthijs den Dulk, University of Chicago
        Polycarp and Polemo: Christianity at the Center of the Second Sophistic (30 min)
        Jeff Asher, Georgetown College
        Missiles, Demagogues, and the Devil: The Rhetoric of Slander in Eph 6:16 (30 min)
        Discussion (30 min)


        Feminist Hermeneutics of the Bible
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Room 28 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Current Topics in Feminist Hermeneutics

        Richard Weis, Lexington Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Colleen Conway, Seton Hall University
        Riding Feminist Waves: Jael in the 20th and 21st Century (30 min)
        Anne Létourneau, Université du Québec à Montréal
        Wartime Rape in Judg 5:28-30: Discussing “Women” as a “Seriality” with Jael, Deborah, and Sisera’s Mother (30 min)
        Ken Stone, Chicago Theological Seminary
        Gender, Animal, Sacrifice: Domestication and the Daughter of Jephthah (30 min)
        Ron Serino, Texas Christian University
        A Sign in the Dark: Moses’s Cushite Wife and Boundary Setting in the Book of Numbers (30 min)
        Jon Mark Reeves, Texas Christian University
        Gender, Ethnicity, and Power: Rethinking the Rhetoric of Paul’s Enslavement to All (30 min)


        Pauline Epistles
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Room 11 A (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Paul and Embodiment

        Caroline Johnson Hodge, College of the Holy Cross, Presiding
        Laura Dingeldein, Brown University
        No Male and Female…in Virtue? Paul on Women’s Moral Development (25 min)
        Diana M. Swancutt, Boston University School of Theology
        Veiled Woman in the Rhetoric of Paul (2 Corinthians 3–4): Gender Slander of Judean Superapostles in Corinth (25 min)
        Stephen L. Young, Brown University
        You Were Effeminate: Paul and the Masculinization of Gentiles in Christ (25 min)
        James Unwin, Macquarie University
        In Honor and Dishonor: Differing Receptions of Paul’s Spectacle Metaphors in 2 Corinthians 4 and 6 (25 min)
        S. Scott Bartchy, University of California-Los Angeles
        Paul’s Unacknowledged Opponents (25 min)


        Book of Acts
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Room 1 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Empowering, Empir-ing or Engaging? Acts in the Discourses of Politics

        Steve Walton, St. Mary’s University, Twickenham, Presiding (5 min)
        Matthew L. Skinner, Luther Seminary
        Who Speaks for (or Against) Rome? Acts in Relation to Empire (30 min)
        Bruce W. Winter, Macquarie University
        Paul and Roman Law: The Luck of the Draw (30 min)
        Warren Carter, Brite Divinity School (TCU)
        Ship Happens: Acts 27 as an Aquatic Display of Navigating the Stormy Roman Imperial World (30 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Mikeal Parsons, Baylor University, Respondent (10 min)
        Barbara Rossing, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, Respondent (10 min)
        Discussion (30 min)


        Cognitive Linguistics in Biblical Interpretation
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Room 7 A (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Bonnie Howe, Dominican University of California, Presiding
        Ellen van Wolde, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
        The Surplus of a Combination of Cognitive Linguistic Approaches to Grammar and Meaning (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Richard A. Rhodes, University of California-Berkeley
        Interpreting the Vocabulary of Commands in Koine (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Timothy A. Brookins, Houston Baptist University
        “Many Members, One Body”: The Stoic Body Metaphor and Conceptual Blending in Paul (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Discussion (40 min)
        Business Meeting (20 min)


        Contextual Biblical Interpretation
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: Indigo Ballroom D (Level 2 (Indigo)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Paul’s Letters and Revelation
        At the session, papers will be summarized and discussed in roundtable format. Papers will be available online ahead of time at http://www.youaregood.com/2014SBL_CBI.htm

        James Grimshaw, Carroll University, Presiding
        Paul’s Letters
        Elsa Tamez, United Bible Societies
        Reading Philippians from the Perspective of a Political Prisoner Waiting for a Sentence to Death (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Bernard Ukwuegbu, Seat of Wisdom Seminary
        The Legitimating Function of the Sarah/Hagar Allegory in Gal 4:21-30: Insights from Social Identity Theory (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Jennifer Houston McNeel, Union Presbyterian Seminary
        Paul and the Mommy Wars: Reading Paul’s Maternal Metaphors in Contemporary American Context (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Eric Bortey Anum, University of Cape Coast
        Collaborative Hermeneutical Reading of 1 Tim 3:1-7 in the Ghanaian Context (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Lynn Huber, Elon University
        John’s Apocalypse and Queer Contextual Interpretation (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)
        Gosnell Yorke, Northern Caribbean University
        A Novel Take on John’s Apocalypse: A Proposed Movement from an Island-inspired Revelation to an Island-Inspired Reading (15 min)
        Discussion (10 min)


        Rhetoric and the New Testament
        1:00 PM to 3:30 PM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Rhetorics of Vision and Visual Rhetorics: Ekphrasis and Beyond I

        Lillian Larsen, University of Redlands, Presiding
        Lillian Larsen, University of Redlands, Introduction (5 min)
        Rebecca Skaggs, Patten University
        The Rhetoric of the Apocalypse of John: Through the Lens of Vision-Reports (25 min)
        Michael Kochenash, Claremont School of Theology
        Cornelius’ Obeisance to Peter (Acts 10:25-26) and the Judea Capta Coins (25 min)
        Robert von Thaden, Jr., Mercyhurst University
        The Power of Pictures: The Somatic Power of Temple Images (25 min)
        Elizabeth Arnold, Gardner-Webb University
        Euripides and Ephesians: Peripeteia and Deus Ex Machina in Eph 2:1-10 (25 min)
        Scott D. Mackie, Independent Scholar
        Seeing a Way in the Wilderness: Visually Oriented Rhetoric in Hebrews 3–4 (25 min)
        Discussion (20 min)


        Pauline Epistles
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: Room 31 B (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Theme: Paul and the Greco-Roman Context

        Caroline Johnson Hodge, College of the Holy Cross, Presiding
        Richard Last, Queen’s University
        The periergazomenoi of Paul’s Thessalonian Christ-Group (2 Thess 3:6-15) (25 min)
        Mitchell Alexander Esswein, Princeton Theological Seminary
        The oikos of Christ and the Church at Corinth: Understanding oikonomos and oikonomia in Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians (25 min)
        Tobias Hagerland, Lund University
        Paul’s Large Letters in the Context of Hellenistic Primary Education (25 min)
        Erin Roberts, University of South Carolina
        Darkened, Senseless, Foolish Minds (25 min)
        Geoffrey Smith, University of Texas at Austin
        Contesting the Gift of Gnosis in 1 Corinthians (25 min)


        Reading, Theory, and the Bible
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Robert Paul Seesengood, Albright College, Presiding
        K. Jason Coker, Albertus Magnus College
        The Corporation of God: Globalization Studies and God’s Basileia (30 min)
        Yvonne Sherwood, University of Kent at Canterbury
        The Mestizo Bible of Diego Durán (30 min)
        Susanne Scholz, Southern Methodist University
        Biblical Studies Is Feminist Biblical Studies, and Vice Versa (30 min)
        Lindsey Guy, Drew University
        Wasting Apocalyptic Time: Queer Temporality as Resistance in 1 Corinthians (30 min)
        Ken Stone, Chicago Theological Seminary
        ‘The Matter of a Dead Animal’: Derrida, Klawans, and the Chimera of Biblical Sacrifice (30 min)


        Speech and Talk: Discourses and Social Practices in the Ancient Mediterranean World
        4:00 PM to 6:30 PM
        Room: Room 7 A (Upper level) – San Diego Convention Center (CC)

        Michal Beth Dinkler, Yale Divinity School, Presiding
        Tilde Bak Halvgaard, University of Copenhagen
        Language Speculation in the Thunder: Perfect Mind (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Jeremy F. Hultin, Murdoch University
        The Sound of His Voice: Jesus’ Voice as Theological Problem (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Daniele Pevarello, Trinity College Dublin
        Polylogia in Matt 6:7 within the Framework of Graeco-Roman and Jewish Discussions on Verbosity (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Cian Power, Harvard University
        “A Nation from Afar, a Nation Whose Language You Do Not Understand”: The Theme of the Alloglot Invader in Biblical Prophecy (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Sin-pan Daniel Ho, Lutheran Theological Seminary, Hong Kong
        Home-building in Christian Worship: A Discourse Analysis of 1 Cor 14:20-25 in light of the Domestic Cultic Practice in Roman Corinth (25 min)
        Discussion (5 min)


        Bible, Myth, and Myth Theory
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: 410 A (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Robert Kawashima, University of Florida, Presiding
        Francis Landy, University of Alberta
        The Mythical and the Mystical: Rivers in Psalm 93 (30 min)
        Noga Ayali-Darshan, Bar-Ilan University
        The Mythologem of the Creation of Mount ?aphon Echoed in Job 26 and Psalm 89 (30 min)
        Robert R. Cargill, University of Iowa
        Swapping Sex for Drugs: Mandrake Mythology and Fertility Drugs in Gen 30:14-24 (30 min)
        Andrew Tobolowsky, Brown University
        The Sons of Jacob and the Sons of Herakles (30 min)
        Jonathan Redding, Vanderbilt University
        Decolonizing Daniel: A Post-Colonial Interpretational Examination (30 min)


        Children in the Biblical World; Gender, Sexuality, and the Bible
        Joint Session With: Children in the Biblical World, Gender, Sexuality, and the Bible
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: D (Level 3 (Aqua)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Children, Gender, and Sexuality in the Biblical World

        Laurel Taylor, Eden Theological Seminary, Presiding
        Stephen M. Wilson, Duke University
        What Makes a Man? The Construction of Biblical Masculinity in Contrast to Boyhood (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Caryn A. Reeder, Westmont College
        Colonized Bodies: The Rape of Children in 4 Ezra, Josephus, and Tacitus (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Break (10 min)
        Robert von Thaden, Jr., Mercyhurst University
        Temple Children: Children, Sex, and the Rhetoric of Sacred Space (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        John Penniman, Fordham University
        “What Flows from the Breast Is Milk, and Milk Is the Food of Babes”: Infancy and Maternity in Gregory of Nyssa’s Homilies on the Song of Songs (20 min)
        Discussion (5 min)
        Discussion (20 min)
        Business Meeting (20 min)


        Ethiopic Bible and Literature
        9:00 AM to 12:30 PM
        Room: 400 B (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Ideology, Sociology, and Literary Formation in the Ethiopic Tradition
        The Ethiopic tradition bears as many marks of originality as it does marks of external influence. Influences come from Christian traditions—like the Greek, Syriac, and Armenian—but also from Jews and Muslims in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopian theologians and community leaders developed their own sense of identity and expressed these in their form of the biblical text (unique in form and extent) and in various works of literature. This session invites a vibrant discussion on these themes.

        Ralph Lee, Holy Trinity Theological College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Presiding
        Steve Delamarter, George Fox University
        The Singular, Dual, and Triple Textual Histories of Ethiopic Old Testament Texts (25 min)
        Daneil Assefa, Capuchin Friary, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
        The Traditional Ethiopian Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse of Enoch (25 min)
        James Prather, Abilene Christian University
        Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining Methods for Ethiopic Textual Criticism (25 min)
        Desta Heliso, Ethiopian Graduate School of Theology
        Canticles and Christology (25 min)
        Yonatan Binyam, Florida State University
        The Ethiopian Alexander: Tracing the Roots of Ethiopic Traditions about Alexander the Great in the Zena Ayhud (25 min)
        Bruk A. Asale, University of KwaZulu-Natal
        The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (EOTC) Canon of Scripture: Neither Open nor Closed (25 min)
        Meron Tekleberhan, Ethiopian Graduate School of Theology
        The Reception and Adaptation of 1 Cor 7:1-16 in Selected Ethiopic Literature: A Study in Biblical Reception History(25 min)
        Alemayehu Gabreil, Saint Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary
        Genesis 3:5 in the Ethiopic Tradition (25 min)


        Paul and Judaism
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom L (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Re-Imagining Paul’s Assemblies Within Judaism

        Magnus Zetterholm, Lund University, Presiding (5 min)
        Michael Cover, Valparaiso University
        Scripture Speaks: The Personification of Scripture as Interpretive Authority in Paul and the School of Rabbi Ishmael(25 min)
        Karin Neutel, University of Groningen
        A Cosmopolitan Community: Paul’s Eschatological Ideal in Its Jewish Context (25 min)
        Break (5 min)
        Genevive Dibley, University of California-Berkeley
        Abraham’s Uncircumcised Children: the Enochic Precedent for Paul’s Program of Gentile Reclamation qua Gentiles(25 min)
        Benjamin D. Gordon, Duke University
        On the Sanctity of Mixtures and Branches: Two Halakhic Sayings in Romans 11 (25 min)
        Discussion (25 min)
        Business Meeting (15 min)


        Polis and Ekklesia: Investigations of Urban Christianity
        9:00 AM to 11:30 AM
        Room: Sapphire Ballroom I (Level 4 (Sapphire)) – Hilton Bayfront (HB)

        Theme: Philippi

        James Harrison, Sydney College of Divinity, Presiding
        Cedric Brelaz, Universite de Strasbourg
        First-Century Philippi: The Social and Political Background of Paul’s Visit (25 min)
        Richard Ascough, Queen’s University
        Associations and the Social Dynamics in the Christ Group at Philippi (25 min)
        Peter Oakes, University of Manchester
        The Imperial Authorities in Paul’s Letter to Predominately Greek Hearers in a Roman Colony (25 min)
        Samuel Vollenweider, Universität Zürich
        Rivals, Opponents, and Enemies: Three Kinds of Theological Argumentation in Philippians (25 min)
        L. White, University of Texas at Austin, Respondent (25 min)
        Discussion (25 min)

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Patrimonio culturale, innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo regionale

        valle-tevere-3dIl 9 dicembre a Roma, nell'aula “Giuseppe Dalla Vedova” Palazzetto Mattei in Villa Celimontana Via della Navicella, 12 in occasione della presentazione del progetto “Museo virtuale della Valle del Tevere” realizzato dal CNR- Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali con il sostegno di ARCUS si svolgerà il workshop Patrimonio culturale, innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo regionale.

        Juan Garcés (Digitised Manuscripts Blog)

        Nine-month Internship in the Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts Section

        The British Library is pleased to be able to offer a paid internship in the Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts section of the Western Heritage Department for a doctoral or post-doctoral student in History, History of Art or other relevant subject. Gorleston Psalter, England (Suffolk), 1310-1324, Add MS 49622,...

        DigPal Blog

        DigiPal at the EPHE

        Although the DigiPal project is formally over, work is still continuing on it, particularly through the six other projects that are now using the framework that we have created. We are also still actively presenting at conferences, including a very interesting-looking workshop at the École Practique des Hautes Études in Paris on issues in regional variation in palaeography across the world's writing systems. The summary from the flier, which is embedded below, reads as follows:

        Le Groupe de recherches transversales en paléographie (GRTP), qui vient d’être créé à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études afin de développer une approche transdiciplinaire de la paléographie, vous invite à participer à une nouvelle journée d’études et de discussions. Après nous être intéressés au paramètre chronologique (journée de juin sur la datation paléographique), nous voudrions examiner cette fois-ci le paramètre spatial dans la forma- tion, le développement et la diversification des écritures.

        La question de l’apprentissage, des modèles et de la transmission des savoirs des scribes est au cœur de cette problématique. Tandis que les grandes aires géo- culturelles sont bien définies, la démarche consistant à définir des typologies plus fines qui permettent de dégager des pratiques différentes au sein d’un même type graphique est inégalement développée d’une paléographie à l’autre. Relativement bien définies par les paléographes des domaines latins, byzantins ou arabes, les spécificités régionales le sont moins pour d’autres cultures. Nous souhaiterions réfléchir sur la genèse de ces diversifications (apprentissage, transmission des pratiques scribales, institutionnalisation dans le cadre des chancelleries ou des scriptoria) et de leur coexistence au sein d’une grande famille typologique. Les travaux de ce groupe sont ouverts à tous.

        The schedule is as follows:

        • Michel Chauveau (EPHE) : démotique
        • Alain Delattre (EPHE, Université Libre de Bruxelles) : copte
        • Lucio Del Corso (Università di Cassino) : grec des papyrus
        • Brigitte Mondrain (EPHE) : grec des manuscrits byzantins
        • Alain Desreumaux (CNRS) : syriaque
        • Marc Smith (ENC-EPHE) : latin
        • Peter A. Stokes (King’s College London) : minuscule anglo-saxonne et paléographie numérique
        • Olivier Venture (EPHE) : chinois
        • Matthew Kapstein (EPHE) : tibétain
        • André Lemaire (EPHE) : écritures ouest-sémitiques
        • Daniel Stökl Ben Ezra (EPHE) : hébreu judéen

        I'm looking forward to what promsies to be a very interesting day, and particularly to the challenges of applying DigiPal to Syriac and demotic!

        An image of the flier advertising the EPHE conference

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Un capolavoro chiamato Italia, presentazione del volume

        capolavoro-chiamato-italiaVenerdì 28 novembre 2014 alle ore 14.30 presso la Sala della Crociera del Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo in Via del Collegio Romano, 27 a Roma si terrà la presentazione del volume "Un capolavoro chiamato Italia. Racconto a più voci di un patrimonio da tutelare, proteggere e valorizzare", nuova iniziativa editoriale della Fondazione Enzo Hruby che entra nel vivo delle esigenze di tutela e di valorizzazione dei beni culturali e delle soluzioni tecnologiche oggi disponibili attraverso i contributi, le proposte e le testimonianze di oltre 30 dei più autorevoli esponenti del panorama culturale italiano.

        Ecco i vincitori di Wiki Loves Monuments Italia 2014

        Chiesa dio padre misericordiosoSi è conclusa a Pompei la cerimonia di premiazione del Concorso fotografico Wiki Loves Monuments Italia giunto quest'anno alla terza edizione. Il concorso nasce per valorizzare il patrimonio culturale italiano con la raccolta di fotogafie destinate ad illustrare le pagine dell'enciclopedia collaborativa Wikipedia. La giuria ha selezionato le foto tra le tantissime caricate su Wikicommons dove resteranno disponibili in licenza CC-BY-SA.

        Robert Consoli (Squinches)

        The Boeotian parallel economy. Part 1.

        In the Acharnians Aristophanes presents an Athenian named Dicaeopolis who is tired of the Peloponnesian War and decides to opt out.  It is the sixth year of the war and our hero is sick, among other things, of the self-aggrandizing politicians who might make peace but don't because it would diminish their self-importance.  So Dicaeopolis arranges a truce between the Spartans and just his family (it costs him eight drachmae).  Having secured his private peace, his first action is to open a market in goods that would otherwise have been contraband.  A Theban merchant furnishes him with delicacies which would usually be embargoed since Boeotia was an ally of the Spartans.  Our Theban cries up his wares with gusto in unmistakable Dorian accents:

        ὅσ᾿ ἐστὶν ἀγαθὰ Βοιωτοῖς· ἁπλῶς ὀρίγανον, γλαχώ, ψιάθως, θρυαλλίδας, νάσσας, κολοιώς, ἀτταγᾶς, φαλαρίδας, τροχίλως, κολύμβως
        καὶ μὰν φέρω χᾶνας, λαγώς, ἀλώπεκας, σκάλοπας, ἐχίνως, αἰελώρως, πικτίδας, ἰκτίδας, ἐνύδριας, ἐγχέλιας Κωπαΐδας.

        “Just everything good that the Boeotians have: marjoram, pennyroyal, rush mats, lamp wicks, ducks, jackdaws, francolins, coots, wrens, grebes.
        I’ve also got geese, hares, foxes, moles, hedgehogs, cats, badgers, martens, otters, Copaic eels.”[1]

        Now not all these products came from Lake Copais (except for the eels) but it is an interesting catalogue nonetheless.  It sheds light on Farinetti’s description of the ‘parallel economy’, that is to say, the economy that would exist in an alternative Boeotia in which Lake Copais hadn't been drained for agriculture.[2]  Let us examine these items of the parallel economy in a little more detail.  I start with the plants.  In a further post I will examine the birds, animals, and the .. eels on Aristophanes' list.

        ὀρίγανον:   Oregano, translated here as ‘marjoram’ to which it is closely related but Aristophanes probably meant the common Origanum vulgare or ‘wild marjoram’.   Marjoram proper is Origanum majorana or 'sweet marjoram’ and is slightly sweeter.     Oregano is an acrid herb and has well-known uses in cooking.  For example, in the Deipnosophists it is mentioned as a spice for cooking conger eels[3].  It was also thought to have medical uses in antiquity.   Oregano is gathered on the hillsides and not commonly found in swampy or marshy areas.  In addition, oregano will grow on any sunny slope including, presumably, those in Attica and so it's not clear why oregano has to come from Boeotia in particular.

        γλαχώ, Dor. for βλήχων.  Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium) also squaw mint, mosquito plant, and pudding grass.  A traditional herb with a long history of uses; the crushed leaves give off the aroma of spearmint.  Used in cooking, for example, in Apicius who names it as an important ingredient in cooking boar, venison, mutton, and pig.[4]

        ψιάθως,  Dor. for ψίαθος.  ‘Rush mats’.  The rush is σχοῖνος which Theophrastus places among the water plants.[5]    The rushes are characterized by round stems and spongy piths[6] and when dried they are suitable for weaving or plaiting; something known to many cultures.  They are common in Greece and so we cannot know for sure which rushes the Greeks thought suitable for weaving into mats but one obvious candidate is Juncus effusus.  This rush, commonly called 'soft rush' is suitable for weaving or twisting (e.g. into rope or cord).  Herodotus gives an example of rushes twisted into a cord for lowering a basket and Plato uses the same word to mean a rope or cord.[7]

        The spongy pith, when dipped in fat or wax and then lit, will make a serviceable illumination.  It is estimated that a 2' section will burn for an hour.[8]  This connects us with the next entry on θρυαλλίς.

        θρυαλλίδας, a dim. of θρυαλλίς, either a wick[9] or a plant from which lamp wicks can be made.  In LSJ θρυαλλίς is defined as "plantain, Plantago crassifolia" or, according to current naming conventions, Plantago crassifolia Forsskal.  This is a member of the Plantaginaceae and, while sometimes called 'plantain' it is not the commonly understood plantain which is the hybrid Musa × paradisiaca.  The habitat of P. crassifolia is ordinarily in brackish marshes, edges of salt marshes, etc.[10]  There are good pictures of it here.

        Wicks are made by twisting a vegetable or animal fiber and, usually, impregnated with a fatty substance like oil or wax.  They can also be made from an unaltered vegetable fiber such as the core of the stem of the rush (previous) or, here, the leaves of P. crassifolia.  Pliny, in the Natural History, makes the explicit connection between θρυαλλίς and lamp wicks.[11]

        Other plausible candidates for θρυαλλίς are Verbascum thapsis (mullein) which is a European native and Verbascum olimpicum which is native to the Peloponnese.   [12]   


        [1] Acharnians 873-880.  In [Henderson 1998] 166-168.

        [2] [Farinetti 2011] App. III, 7.  She says of the swampy areas of the Copais: “In fact, such areas are not simply a pure obstacle to the expansion of cultivation, but in the majority of cases are an ideal place for a parallel economy which can ‘exploit’ the natural conditions, and which coexists with the agrarian economy, and, to a certain degree, can be considered an expansion of it”.

        [3] [Olson 2009] 364-365, Deipnosophists, xiv.662.  Quoting Antiphanes in Philotis (fr. 221).   Also in [Olson 2007] 384-7, Deipii.68.a and b.

        [4] [Vehling 1936] Book VIII (Quadrupeds), sections 332,333, 342, 348, 349, 370, (hare) 386, 388, and many others.  A translation of Book VIII may be found on-line here.  The Latin word used throughout is 'menta'; the original latin text may be consulted here.

        [5]  Theophrastus, Enq. Plants, iv.12.1 in [Hort 1916] 378 ff.   The connection of the rushes to lake margins is common knowledge: "[their habitats] often feature moist areas at forest margins, wet grasslands, wetland margins, lake shores, river banks, and in fen-meadows" in Encyclopedia of Life.  "Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), marshes, meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, wetland margins (edges of wetlands)" in GoBotany.  "It grows in large clumps about 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) tall at the water's edge along streams and ditches, but can be invasive anywhere with moist soil. It is commonly found growing in humus-rich areas like marshes, ditches, fens, and beaver dams" in iNaturalist.  " It is common on the margins of rivers, ponds, lakes and ditches and will occur as scattered stands in open, wet woodland. It apparently avoids base-rich soils and is most characteristic of sandy and peaty substrates, especially open heaths and moors" in the IUCN redlist.

        [6] A good picture showing comparative cross-sections may be found here.

        [7] Hdt.5.16.  "τῶν δὲ πλῆθος ἐστὶ τοσοῦτο ὥστε, ὅταν τὴν θύρην τὴν καταπακτὴν ἀνακλίνῃ, κατιεῖ σχοίνῳ σπυρίδα κεινὴν ἐς τὴν λίμνην, καὶ οὐ πολλόν τινα χρόνον ἐπισχὼν ἀνασπᾷ πλήρεα ἰχθύων"  "..and of fish there is such abundance, that a man opens his trap-door and lets an empty basket down by a line into the lake, and it is no long time before he draws it up full of fish."  [Strassler/Purvis 2009] 373

        Plato in the Timaeus

        (78B): "οἷον σχοίνους κύκλῳ"  "as it were ropes ... in a circle"

        [8] http://www.basketryandbeyond.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Materials-Panels.pdf

        [9]  IPhilyllius frag. 25 [Storey 2011] 36-7.   Also in Aristophanes Wasps: 251 (LCL 488: 252-253); Clouds: 59 (LCL 488: 16-17);  585 (LCL 488 86-89); Acharnians: 826 (LCL 178 160-1);  916, 917, 918, 925 (LCL 178: 172-175) and in Pausanias, Attica, xxvi.7 (LCL 93: 136-137)

        [10] "Inoltre sono presenti habitat importanti come le dune mobili del cordone litorale e nelle zone retrodunale le foreste alluvionali",  http://www2.provincia.campobasso.it/ambiente/banca_dati/saccione.htm

        [11] Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants vii.11.2  (LCL 79: 120-121) identifies thruallis with a plant with a spike. Pliny, Natural History 25, 121 (LCL 393: 224-225) makes the connection to wicks explicit.

        [12] For Verbascum thapsis see [Bowe and DeHart 2011]108.    For a video of the Verbascum olimpicum see this.


        [Bowe and DeHart 2011] Partick Bowe and Michael D. DeHart.  Gardens and Plants of the Getty Villa.  Getty Publications, Los Angeles, Ca. 2011.

        [Farinetti 2011] Boeotian landscapes. British Archaeological Reports.  2011.
        It can be downloaded as several .pdfs.  The list is here: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/14500

        [Henderson 1998]  Jeffrey Henderson, ed. and trans.  Aristophanes. Acharnians. Knights.  Loeb Classical Library, no. 178. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

        [Henderson 2000] Jeffrey Henderson, ed. and trans.,  Aristophanes. Birds. Lysistrata. Women at the Thesmophoria.  Loeb Classical Library, no. 179. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

        [Hort 1915]  Arthur F. Hort, trans., TheophrastusEnquiry into Plants, Volume I: Books 1-5.  Loeb Classical Library 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1916.

        [LSJ] Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1940.  Consulted on-line here: http://logeion.uchicago.edu/about.html

        [Olson 2007] S. Douglas Olson ed. and trans., Athenaeus. The Learned Banqueters, Volume I: Books 1-3.106e.  Loeb Classical Library 204. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

        [Olson 2009] S. Douglas Olson, ed. and trans., Athenaeus. The Learned Banqueters, Volume V: Books 10.420e-11.  Loeb Classical Library 274. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

        [Storey 2011] Ian C. Storey, ed.  and trans., Fragments of Old Comedy, Volume III: Philonicus to Xenophon. Adespota.  Loeb Classical Library 515. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

        [Strassler/Purvis 2009] Robert B. Strassler ed., Andrea L. Purvis, trans., The Landmark Herodotus, The Histories.  Anchor Books, New York, 2009.

        [Vehling 1936] J.D. Vehling trans., Apicius, de Re Coquinaria.  Edited by Walter M. Hill (1936) and found on-line here.

        November 23, 2014

        Michael E. Smith (Publishing Archaeology)

        "Get me off your f_____ mailing list!"

        I'm sure we have all had this sentiment, given the increase in garbage emails inviting us to attend bogus conferences and publish in bogus journals. Fed up with this, two authors created a paper that consists primarily of the phrase "Get me off your f_____ mailing list," repeated several hundred times. They submitted it to the journal, International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology, whose editor accepted the paper!! This is hilarious. See the nice discussion on Scolarly Open Access, and don't neglect to read the comments. There is also some discussion on IFL-Science and elsewhere.

        The discussants at Scholarly Open Access suggest use of the random text generator at Scigen that will create bogus computer science papers, appropriate for bogus conferences and journals. For more humanities-oriented readers, try the Postmodern text generator - every time you access the site, a new postmodern text is generated.

        Thanks to Julie and Rudy for alerting me to this hoax. Wow, it just occurred to me that perhaps some archaeology papers I've seen lately are hoaxes. Hmmmmmm.........

        Stefano Costa (There's More Than Just Potsherds Out There)

        Yet another failure for cultural heritage data in Italy

        This short informative piece is written in English because I think it will be useful for anyone working on cultural heritage data, not just in Italy.

        A few days ago the Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione published an internal document for all offices in the Ministry of Culture (actual name is longer, but you got it), announcing imminent changes and the beginning of a process for publishing all records about cultural heritage items (I have no idea on the exact size but we’re in the millions of records). In short, all records will be publicly available, and there will be at least one image for each record ‒ you’ll get anything from small pieces of prehistoric flint to renaissance masterpieces, and more. That’s a huge step and we can only be happy to see this, the result of decades of cataloguing, years of digital archiving and … some lobbying and campaigning too. Do you remember Beni Culturali Aperti? The response from the ICCD had been lukewarm at best, basically arguing that the new strong requirements for open government data from article 68 of the Codice dell’Amministrazione Digitale did not apply at all to cultural heritage data. So nobody was optimistic about the developments to follow.

        And unfortunately pessimism was justified. Here’s an excerpt from the document published last week:

        Brano della nota prot. n. 2975  del 17/11/2014 dell'Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la DocumentazioneNota prot. n. 2975 del 17/11/2014 dell’Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione

        relevant sentence:

        Le schede di catalogo verranno rese disponibili con la licenza Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA

        that would be

        Catalog records will be made available under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA license

        And that was the (small) failure. CC BY-NC-SA is not an open license. The license makes commercial (= paid!) work with such data impossible or very difficult, at a time when the cultural heritage private sector could just benefit from full access to this massive dataset, with zero losses for the gatekeepers. At the same time when we have certified that open licenses are becoming more and more widespread and non-open licenses like BY-NC-SA are used less and less because they’re incompatible with anything else and inhibit reuse, someone decided that it was the right choice, against all internationa, European and national recommendations and regulations. We can only hope that a better choice will be made in the near future, but the record isn’t very encouraging, to be honest.

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Open Access Journal: Rivista di Diritto Romano

        [First posted in AWOL 6 November 2009. Updated 23 November 2014]

        Rivista di Diritto Romano
        ISSN 1720-3694
        Qualcuno potrebbe chiedersi se, in presenza di numerosi e autorevoli periodici di diritto romano e diritti dell'antichità pubblicati anche e soprattutto in Italia, fosse proprio il caso di metterne in cantiere uno nuovo: se fosse un lettore tendenzialmente benevolo e animato da incrollabile fiducia nel principio della concorrenza, potrebbe forse dare risposta positiva affermando che l'ingresso di un nuovo operatore sul mercato (!) dovrebbe portare a un miglioramento dell'offerta in generale.
        In realtà, una tale prospettiva potrebbe risultare deludente: scopo di questa rivista, infatti, non è certamente quello di togliere spazio alle altre già esistenti, né quello di stimolare una gara per conquistare il primo premio in una improbabile classifica di periodici romanistici. Essa vorrebbe invece in primo luogo colmare una lacuna: manca infatti una rivista di diritto romano pubblicata, prima ancora che sul tradizionale supporto cartaceo, sulla rete di Internet, e quindi in grado di coordinare i non trascurabili vantaggi che tale strumento telematico può fornire alla ricerca romanistica.


        —    Mario Trommino • Struttura e composizione del collegio dei pontefici. Da Liv., urb. cond. 1.20.5 alla lex Ogulnia, una panoramica delle fonti PDF   Mariangela Ravizza Sui rapporti tra matrimonio e «deportatio» in età imperiale PDF    NUOVO    Dario Annunziata “Nomen christianum”: sul reato di cristianesimo PDF    NUOVO    Alfonso Murillo Villar La responsabilidad del banquero por los depósitos de los clientes. Una reflexión desde las fuentes romanas PDF    NUOVO    Antonino Milazzo Statuliber ex die? —    Armando Torrent • El titulo “De publicanis” y el «genus provinciale» (Cic., ad Att. 6,1,15). Reflexiones sobre el “edictum provinciale”

        PDF   Francesco Lucrezi Ancora sul «Senatusconsultum Macedonianum» —    Ferdinando Zuccotti • Vivagni. XIV PDF   Segnalazioni bibliografiche
        PDF   Calendario storico
        See also AWOL's list of Open Access Ancient Law Journals

        Kristina Killgrove (Powered by Osteons)

        Bones - Season 10, Episode 8 (Review)

        The Puzzler in the Pit
        Episode Summary
        Some protestors at a fracking site found a body in the pit. The narrow subpubic concavity and irregularly lipped ventral margin of the pubic symphysis suggests the victim was a man in his 40s. His left ulna was fractured and he had a cast; a piece of fabric with blood on it was found caught in the cast, and there were clues written on it about vengeance. His bones were quite porous for his age. Saroyan and Brennan note that the remains have less flesh than they did when they were found, and Hodgins thinks someone added HCl to the pit. He pours baking soda on the body to stop the tissue decomposition. The entire body has similar pitting save the occipital, because it was a fake bone. Based on that, Angela finds that the victim was Lawrence Brooks, who had a severe injury during a boating accident. Brooks worked as a major national crossword puzzle creator and was known as somewhat of a recluse.

        "Hey, look, I just gave birth to a 2-month-old!"
        Booth talks to Amelia Brooks, his wife.  She didn't report him missing, ostensibly because he often stayed out to work on his puzzles, and suggests that his assistant, Alexis Sherman, may have been responsible. While Alexis was upset that Lawrence hadn't made her co-editor yet, she insists she did not kill him.  She plays a threatening voice mail for Booth and Aubrey and describes a man who came looking for Lawrence on several previous occasions.  Based on Alexis' description, Angela draws the face of Emery Stewart.  Emery was writing a book on Brooks, but his voice does not fit with the threatening phone call.  He suggests Donald McKeon, a one-time friend of Brooks' but more recently bitter rival.  McKeon was staying at the hotel to which Booth traced the threatening call.  He admits to having made the call, but not to killing Brooks.  He insists that Brooks stole one of his puzzles, and he was threatening legal action.

        Back at the lab, Brennan and Daisy find remodelled fractures localized around the pelvis, ribs, ankles, and arms. An x-ray of his femoral shafts shows significantly thinning cortical bone. There is also bone bruising around the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, suggesting he punched someone right before his death. There are also healed avulsion fractures from about two months ago, suggesting someone bent his fingers back. A tox screen of his bone marrow reveals Brooks had been taking a drug for Alzheimer's, and that drug caused the bone issues.

        Booth and Aubrey talk to Amelia Brooks again.  She admits she knew about the Alzheimer's and that she was publishing Brooks' old puzzles, because they needed the money from his job for his treatment. She accidentally published McKeon's puzzle.  She didn't know where Brooks' money went. Angela tracks down Brooks' bank statements and finds he was doing gambling online. Aubrey finds the bookie, who admits to having broken Brooks' fingers but didn't kill him.  Brooks was bankrolling Alexis.  She admits to stealing his money, but did not kill him. 

        Finally, Daisy finds bilateral neural arch fractures on C5, C6, and C7, suggesting cause of death was a broken neck.  Then her water breaks. At the hospital, the team realizes that Saroyan's partial match on the blood in the cast could mean the blood was from a close relative. Aubrey reads Emery's manuscript and realizes that he is Brooks' son.  In college, Brooks got his girlfriend pregnant; the girlfriend died in childbirth, and he gave up the baby. After Emery's parents died in an accident, he learned he was adopted and figured out Brooks was his birth father. He had arranged with Brooks to meet at a cafe to talk, but Brooks didn't show. Emery tracked him to his house, saw Brooks out on a walk, and confronted him.  Brooks claimed he didn't know Emery, and they got into a fist fight. Brooks fell backward down the hill and died. Emery decided to cover up the body.  Aubrey tells him Brooks had Alzheimer's--that's why he didn't remember Emery; he wasn't ashamed of him.

        • Forensic
          • They used the pelvis for age-at-death and sex this episode!  Woo!
          • As usual, I question their ability to find "microfractures" and "bone bruising" all over the place, but especially so since the bones were compromised by acid.
        • Plot
          • It seems odd that someone would bother to reconstruct the EOP and nuchal lines on a fake occipital.  Are skull prostheses really that detailed with respect to anatomy?
          • Amelia knew that Lawrence had Alzheimer's, and she didn't report him missing when he didn't come home?  And she knew that he had Alzheimer's, and she didn't bother to look into their joint accounts to make sure the money was being managed properly?
          • Hodgins was running around the lab with an erlenmeyer flask filled with red liquid.  Not king of the lab safety team, eh?
          • Hahahaha, another TV baby: cute, plump, pink 2-month-old.  And Daisy doesn't have to deliver the placenta.  And the nurse hands her the baby with a light blanket, rather than shoving a tightly-swaddled baby on her boob.  Oh, TV birth.  So funny.  At least it was too late for an epidural; that was realistic.
        • Dialogue
          • "I'm told my people skills are not very well developed." - Brennan
          • "A human being is trying to escape from her vagina." - Angela

        Forensic Mystery - B.  Solid enough mystery.  Some plot quibbles as above.

        Forensic Solution - C. This episode relied on Angela to: find the positive ID, do a forensic artist sketch of the possible killer, and do forensic computing to find bank information. She's always doing crazy things, but this episode was egregious in how many hats they needed her to wear.

        Drama - C+. Some solid pathos at the end from the guy who played Emery.

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Antiquity Online Supplements

        Antiquity Online Supplements
        Antiquity online supplements present supporting data and materials from articles published in Antiquity journal.

        Data and materials are published in recognised web formats wherever possible, but additional plugins and third-party software may be required to view some files.

        Issue 341, Vol 88 - September 2014
        Issue 341, Vol 88 - September 2014
        Issue 341, Vol 88 - September 2014
        Issue 341, Vol 88 - September 2014
        Issue 341, Vol 88 - September 2014
        Issue 340, Vol 88 - June 2014
        Issue 340, Vol 88 - June 2014
        Issue 340, Vol 88 - June 2014
        Issue 340, Vol 88 - June 2014
        Issue 340, Vol 88 - June 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 339, Vol 88 - March 2014
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 338, Vol 87 - December 2013
        Issue 337, Vol 87 - September 2013
        Issue 337, Vol 87 - September 2013
        Issue 337, Vol 87 - September 2013
        Issue 337, Vol 87 - September 2013
        Issue 335, Vol 87 - March 2013
        Issue 335, Vol 87 - March 2013
        Issue 335, Vol 87 - March 2013
        Issue 332, Vol 86 - June 2012
        Issue 331, Vol 86 - March 2012
        Issue 329, Vol 85 - September 2011
        Issue 329, Vol 85 - September 2011
        Issue 327, Vol 85 - March 2011

        Deir el Medine Online: Nichtliterarische Ostraka aus Deir el Medine

        Deir el Medine Online: Nichtliterarische Ostraka aus Deir el Medine
        Die Zahl der im Gebiet der Arbeitersiedlung von Deir el Medine gefundenen Ostraka mit nichtliterarischem Inhalt hat die 10.000 bereits weit hinter sich gelassen und wird möglicherweise auch die 20.000 noch überschreiten. „Deir el Medine online" dient dem Ziel, dieser Textflut mit Hilfe moderner Technologien Herr zu werden.

        Die Ostraka werden in einer heutigen wissenschaftlichen Anforderungen gerecht werdenden Weise bearbeitet und unter Nutzung der technischen Möglichkeiten, die dieses Medium bietet, im Internet publiziert.

        Die Präsentation der einzelnen Texte folgt einem einheitlichen Muster: Sie werden jeweils anhand eines detaillierten, für alle Ostraka gleichen Schemas beschrieben, hieroglyphisch transliteriert, phonetisch transkribiert übersetzt und ausführlich kommentiert. Die Dokumentation wird durch eine farbige Digitalfotografie - bei Bedarf auch durch mehrere - komplettiert. Außerdem erlaubt das System umfassende Recherchemöglichkeiten im gesamten Datenmaterial. Damit kann ein grundlegendes - und durch zusätzliche Daten jederzeit erweiterbares - Instrumentarium für die Arbeit mit diesen Texten zur Verfügung gestellt werden.

        November 22, 2014

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        ASCSA Digital Collections

        ASCSA Digital Collections
        Explore the collections of the American School of Classical Studies by using the sidebar on the left or the search box above.
        To confine your search to a single collection, click on one of the links below.
        Ambrosia: Union Catalog of Libraries
        Corinth Excavations
        Athenian Agora Excavations
        Alison Frantz Photography
        Dorothy Burr Thompson Photography
        Archaeological Photographic Collection
        Photographs from the Historical Archives
        Ion Dragoumis Correspondence

        Sign in to view unpublished material. Material that has been published is made completely available to the public. Material that is unpublished can be viewed only by researchers who have obtained the necessary permission to study the material in person.


        The Scrypt software is a tool for computer-assisted decipherment of ancient alphabetic inscriptions, enabling the user to choose a set of possible readings for each cell of the inscription, and to automatically launch dictionary searches for selected regions of the text in the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew dictionary. The name Scrypt is inspired by a fusion of script (as in “ancient script”), script (a special kind of computer program) and crypt (as in “cryptography”).

        Click on a cell to view (and possibly change) its content, and select a continuous range of cells to launch a dictionary search. Finally, just click on a word among the dictionary results, in order to save it in the "Readings" panel to the right.

        Dig Quest: Israel

        Dig Quest: Israel
        By The Friends of the Israel Antiquities Authority
        Become an archeologist! Use your iPhone or iPad as a tool to tap, dig, and explore Israel’s past. Discover the Dead Sea Scrolls in an ancient cave, and piece them together to reveal their meaning! Dig up the 2,000 year old Lod Mosaic, then uncover its story in a fast-paced quiz game! You’ll need skills, creativity, and smarts to become a great archaeologist and unlock all the rewards.

        • Use your iPhone or iPad as an archaeological tool to brush, tap, and dig for hidden relics
        • Explore an ancient cave and search for the Dead Sea Scrolls then piece 14 of them together in a challenging puzzle game
        • Dig up a 2,000 year old mosaic floor and play a fast-paced quiz game in which you unlock the secrets of the mosaic
        • Grow your own collection of antiquities as you master the games – try to win them all!

        • 30+ levels in two unique games based on world-famous archaeological discoveries
        • 50+ stunning images of real antiquities
        • Amazing historical facts and artifacts
        • Spoken word excerpts from the Dead Sea Scrolls
        • Gabe, your host and team leader, is based on a composite of real archaeologists working in the field

        A UNIQUE APP
        Dig Quest: Israel was created by the Israel Antiquities Authority and features addictive games and puzzles based on world-famous antiquities in the National Treasures. The games in the App are designed around real discoveries and archaeological artifacts and were developed in collaboration with the IAA’s team of pre-eminent archaeologists, scholars and researchers. As they play, kids get a feel for what archaeologists do as they experience the excitement of discovery and the creativity and skills involved in solving mysteries from the distant past.

        The Dead Sea Scrolls are among the oldest biblical manuscripts and are considered the greatest manuscript discovery of the 20th century.

        The Lod Mosaic is one of the largest, best preserved Roman mosaics ever found and is currently touring the world with stops at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Louvre, Waddeson Manor and the Hermitage.

        **FREE for iPhone and iPad

        Tom Gewecke (Multilingual Mac)

        iWork for iCloud Gets Expanded Language Capabilities

        On Nov. 21 Apple updated its iWork web apps -- Pages, Numbers, and Keynote beta for iCloud -- to include 8 new languages: Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, French, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Simpified Chinese, and Spanish. Pages (but not the others) can finally do RTL text input, Arabic and Hebrew. Indic scripts are still not supported.

        The Homer Multitext

        Greek and Latin in an Age of Open Data

        We're pleased to announce that the Homer Multitext project will be presenting two papers at the "Greek and Latin in an Age of Open Data" conference hosted by the Open Philology Project at the University of Leipzig, December 1-4. You can read our papers "A Redefinition of Classical Scholarship" and "Open Access and the Practicality of Citizen Scholarship" from the conference program.

        November 21, 2014

        Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

        The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – opening section of chapter 8

        (I thought that it might be interesting to see how an Arabic Christian writer of the 10th century, Eutychius, also known as Sa’id al-Bitrik, the patriarch of Alexandria, saw the events of the time of Christ.  This is from the Italian translation, via Google translate, plus a certain amount of smartening up.  I think we may all have some fun trying to recognise the names from the Arabic transcriptions!)

        1. In the fourth year of the reign of Cleopatra, there reigned over the city of Rome a king named Ghābiyūs Qaysar for four years.  After him then reigned, over Rome, a king called Yūliyūs Qaysar for three years (1).  After him, there reigned in the city of Rome Awghustus Qaysar son of Mūnarkhus, in the eleventh year of the reign of Cleopatra.

        Caesar Augustus extended his dominion over the world and made kings subject to him.  When Cleopatra heard of Caesar Augustus she was dismayed, and felt a great fear.  She therefore strengthened her kingdom by erecting a wall from Nubia to al-Farama (2), on the east bank of the Nile, and a wall from Nubia to Alexandria on the west bank of the Nile.  Today [that] wall is called “Hayt al-‘Ağūz” (3).  Cleopatra then lived at Alexandria in Egypt and had a lieutenant named Anthony.  Caesar Augustus heard about her and decided to subject her to his dominion.  Then Augustus learned that the Jews of Ūrashalīm had refused obedience to him, and that the kingdom of Judah had not been ruled by the family of David since the time of their deportation at the hands of Bakhtanassar.  The Jews, in fact, do not recognize anyone as their king, even today, unless he is one of the descendants of David.  At that time there was a priest descended from David, named Aristūbal, who ruled the Jews instead of a king.  Augustus sent his general named Bitiyūs (4), who laid siege to Bayt al-Maqdis [Jerusalem] and conquered it.  He bound Aristobulus, priest of the Jews, together with a group of his men, and he sent them to Rome after imposing a personal tribute on the Jews.  Then he went away from them.  Among the Jews there arose serious disorder, and they elected as priest, instead of Aristobulus, his brother called Irqān (5).  Irqān had become friends with a man of Ascalon, named Antibatrus (6).  A native of Cyprus (7), he was a servant of the temple of idols and the father of Hirūdus.

        The priest Hyrcanus appointed Herod, son of Antipater, to hunt down thieves, he being a very rude man.  But some residents of the Ghawr (8) made a raid on Bayt al-Maqdis, captured the priest Hyrcanus and killed Antipater, father of Herod.  The city was thus without an administrator and headless.  Herod ingratiated himself with the Rums [Romans] who resided in Bayt al-Maqdis, and gave them great wealth, thus becoming governor and leader of Bayt al-Maqdis.  Then Herod learned that Caesar Augustus, king of Rum, was on his way to Egypt in search of Cleopatra.  He met him in ar-Ramlah (9) bringing many gifts and he made with him a covenant of friendship.  When he arrived in Egypt, Augustus had Anthony, Cleopatra’s lieutenant, killed, and he went to Alexandria in search of Cleopatra to seize her, and expose her to ignominy and show her at Rum.  When Cleopatra heard that Caesar Augustus had killed her lieutenant Anthony, and had occupied Egypt, fearing to be exposed to mockery, and preferring to die, killed herself to avoid dishonour once she had fallen into his hands.  But she called two of her handmaidens, one named Abra, who combed her hair and made her beautiful, and the other named Mitriya, who cut her nails and dressed her, and commanded them to go into the garden and bring her the snake was called bāsīlidah (10).  That done, she tried it at first on the two maids who, bitten, died instantly.  Seeing that the viper caused death swiftly, [Cleopatra] took the crown, and she put on her head, every ornament of gold and silver, gems, corundum and chrysolido she had, then put on her royal robes, took the snake and pulled it to her left breast, because she knew that the heart is on the left side.  The snake bit her and [Cleopatra] died instantly.  When Caesar Augustus saw her, he was astonished by what she had done, and the fact that she had preferred death to a life of slavery and humiliation. They say that when King Caesar Augustus went in to her, he found her with her left hand grasping the crown, as to not have it fall from the head, and found her seated on a throne.  Others have said that, she wanting to die, injured her arm with a knife, to bring out the blood, and then took some snake venom that she had with her and putting it on the wound, she died instantly.  This took place in the twelfth year of the reign of Caesar Augustus.  Thus ended the reign of Cleopatra.

        To be continued…

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Some Open Access Articles from Chronique d'Égypte

         [First posted in AWOL 5 January 2011, updated 21 November 2014]

        The website of Chronique d'Égypte (ISSN 0009-6067) includes links to a set of open access articles:
        [The following articles are no longer on the official website but remain accessible at the Internet Archive links below]
        Quelques contributions récentes sont disponibles ici en version pdf:
        ·  Herman De Meulenaere, Sculptures dorées d'Abydos (2004) - version pdf
        ·  Jean Bingen, Herman De Meulenaere, Luc Limme et Alain Martin, Arpag Mekhitarian (1911-2004) (2005) - version pdf
        ·  Alain Martin et Marguerite Rassart-Debergh, Tissus coptes des Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire de Bruxelles (don Demulling) (2005) - version pdf
        ·  Jean Bingen, Le contrat de nourrice P.S.A. Athen. 20 = C.P.Gr. I 26 (110 p.C.) (2006) - version pdf
        ·  Georges Nachtergael, À propos d'une épitaphe chrétienne d'Égypte et des graphies du nom Hèrakleidès (2006) - version pdf
        ·  Alain Martin, Dix ampoules de saint Ménas aux Musées Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire (2006) - version pdf
        ·  Marie-Paule Vanlathem, L'iconographie des bronzes du dieu Néferhotep (2007) - version pdf
        ·  Jean Bingen, P.S.A. Athen. 9 + 13 et le dioecète Dioskouridès (2007) - version pdf
        ·  Georges Nachtergael, De quelques comptes d'un grand domaine de Haute-Égypte au IIe siècle p.C. (2007) - version pdf
        ·  Égypte chrétienne - Livres (2007) - version pdf

        Kristina Killgrove (Powered by Osteons)

        Who needs an osteologist? (Installment 21)

        One of my undergraduates pointed out today a Twitter post by Kathy Reichs, the author, of course, of the Temperance Brennan book series on which the TV show Bones is based.*  Reichs' post is a throwback Thursday picture of her working in the lab at the LSJML in Montreal:

        My student noticed that the scapulae, humeri, and tibiae were mis-sided and not laid out in anatomical position.  Surely, she thought, Reichs would not post a picture of herself with bones in weird positions.  I harp on this in class all the time: lay out the bones in anatomical position. They have to be as close as you can get to anatomical position.

        I am well aware that when you're working on a skeleton, bones get out of place and rearranged.  I've absolutely confused myself before by not paying attention and putting bones back in the wrong places, then wondering why there was suddenly a new fracture on the bone.  But Reichs' photo involves practically all of the bones not in anatomical position.  She was looking at the posterior aspect of the arm and shoulder bones? The tibiae got misplaced? Quickly staged photo op? (But how long does it take to lay out 20 large, unbroken bones... 2 minutes tops?)

        So, who needs an osteologist today?  Apparently Kathy Reichs does.

        *Full disclaimer -- as much as I rag on Bones in my reviews, I am a huge fan of Reichs and especially her book series (which is way, way better forensically than the TV show).  And thanks to Jennifer Waters for pointing this out - A+ osteological work!

        Previous Installments of Who needs an osteologist?

        Objects-Building-Situations (Kostis Kourelis)

        Mystical K

        William Penn and Benjamin Franklin have dominated Pennsylvania's historical airwaves. Their no-nonsense Protestant ethic served well the ideology of the nation as it developed into a capitalist empire. It is particularly interesting how the majority of Philadelphia Quakers became Episcopalians in the 19th century, suggesting that Quaker spirituality became increasingly incompatible with the

        Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

        Archimède: Archéologie et histoire ancienne

        Archimède: Archéologie et histoire ancienne
        La revue Archimède. Archéologie et histoire ancienne est une revue liée à l’Unité mixte de recherche 7044 "Archéologie et histoire ancienne : Europe-Méditerranée" (Archimède).

        Double objectif scientifique : 

        • valoriser les productions et expertises du laboratoire 
        • jouer un rôle dans le paysage international de la recherche en archéologie et en histoire (de la Préhistoire à Byzance, Europe-Méditerranée).

        Axes structurants :

        • favoriser les interactions disciplinaires
        • encourager les collaborations avec les acteurs de l’archéologie préventive (INRAP, PAIR, ANTEA)
        • accueillir et favoriser les travaux des historiens et des archéologues croisant les thématiques des sciences sociales et de l’anthropologie culturelle
        • approfondir les collaborations entre historiens, archéologues et spécialistes des sciences de la nature.

        Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

        Friday Varia and Quick Hits

        I’m still hanging out at the American School of Oriental Research annual meeting in sunny and warm San Diego. Unlike some years, I’ve been able to enjoy a full slate of panels. Yesterday the panel on Maritime Archaeology and Object Biography were particularly thought provoking, and today it looks like I could spend about 6 or 7 hours in panels devoted to the archaeology of Cyprus.

        So with the travel and conferencing by quick hits and varia will look a bit thin, but I figure I do owe my readers something!

        IMG 2345

        Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

        Tecnologia LiDAR rivela antiche miniere romane

        lidar-erica-valleyGrazie alla tecnica LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), sistema laser collegato a un aereo, sono state individuate nella zona di Las Médulas in León in Spagna antiche strutture minerarie e il complesso sistema idraulico utilizzato dai Romani nel I secolo a.C. per estrarre l'oro (compresi canali, serbatoi e una doppia diversione del fiume).

        November 20, 2014

        Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

        Severian of Gabala bibliography updated again

        I received an email this evening telling me about four new English translations of homilies by Severian on the ascension; also that De Spiritu Sancto, as published by Migne, is missing the last 10 lines; and that the Clavis Patrum Graecorum Supplement has quite a bit of extra material.  Which, I find, it does.

        I posted my bibliographic notes in this post, so I had better update them again.  These are not scholarly, just derived from whatever I have to hand, as a guide for commissioning translations.  But here they are:

        From my diary

        A new job at the start of November, so I have been rather preoccupied.  But a little progress has been made.

        I’ve commissioned a translation of the fragments of Theodore of Mopsuestia on Genesis.  The main part of this was published by Sachau from the Syriac, but there are also Greek fragments.  The tendency towards a  non-allegorical approach in the Antiochene writers means that what he has to say should be of interest even today.

        I hope to get some translations made of some of the medieval Greek legendary hagiographical material about St Nicholas of Myra – also known as Santa Claus.  It is remarkable that no English translation exists of almost all this material, regardless of its evident lack of historical value.

        It was my intention to do some work on a translation of the 10th century Arabic Christian writer Eutychius.  No time so far!

        A little work has been done on the Mithras site – uploading a couple more monuments, as photographs became available – but nothing significant.

        I’m not clear how much time I shall get at home at Christmas and New Year, but there will be more activity if I get the chance!

        Cultural Heritage Informatics Initiative

        Professional Development for Possibilities Outside the Professoriate Track

        As a doctoral student in rhetoric and writing who came to graduate school with an interest in the connections between the arts, social justice, and community-engaged scholarship and with experience working in various nonprofit settings focused on literacy and arts, I have always kept one eye on non-academic positions and the possibility of seeking out professional development, assistantships, and research opportunities that would situate me well to follow my gaze back to the nonprofit world whence I came. As I get closer and closer to looking the job market in the eye next year, I find myself thinking increasingly about the best ways to market my academic research, teaching, and administrative experiences and skills for the traditional tenure-track professoriate, even as I continue to develop additional skills and experiences. Now is great time to be interested in these types of positions because universities are increasingly attentive to how they can prepare graduate students for these types of jobs, and Michigan State University has many related initiatives, including the Cultural Heritage Informatics Initiative and the CHI Fellowship.

        As someone interested in public humanities, I recently attended a workshop hosted by the MSU Graduate School called “‘Alt-Ac’ and ‘Post-Ac’ Careers in the Humanities: Navigating a Shifting Landscape,” facilitated by Dr. Kristy Rawson, Assistant Director of Graduate Career Development at the University of Chicago, which was introduction to the discourse surrounding career possibilities beyond the traditional tenure-track professoriate. The workshop focused especially on understanding emerging concepts and rhetoric surrounding types of available jobs and emerging terms used to discuss this burgeoning trend.  In this post, I’m going to discuss a few takeaways and share some resources for diving deeper into this conversation.

        Because much of the workshop attended to navigating the shifting rhetoric regarding positions beyond traditional tenure-track professor appointments, the workshop begin with differentiating between “alt-ac” and “post-ac.” According to Rawson, alternative-academy positions, or “alt-ac” as they’ve come to be known, are jobs within the academy that are alternatives the professoriate tenure-track, but frequently emphasize positions that involve doctoral training. Post-academy “post-ac” careers or, on the other hand, involve the public and non-profit sectors such as libraries, presses and publishing houses, museums and cultural centers.

        Rawson recommended a handful of practical steps for a graduate student interested in pursuing alt-ac and post-ac jobs, including:

        •    Develop a portfolio: Count and document everything, Rawson said. I think this is the professional development equivalent of “pics or it didn’t happen.”

        •    Analyze job descriptions: Keep any eye out for position descriptions that interest you. What language do they use? What types of skills and experiences do they call for?  I keep a file I call “Dream Jobs” in which I’ve been compiling job descriptions for a couple years. Not only has this helped me figure out which kinds of jobs align with my skill set, but I also have an increasing sense of how to talk with people across contexts.

        •    Seek out volunteering and internship opportunities: Because if we know there’s one thing grad students and academics have an excess of it’s time, right? Well, no, but these types of experiences can be invaluable in the long run, even if they’re one-off or short-term experiences. Be sure to collect recommendations and evaluations from your experiences for your portfolio.

        •    Conduct informational interviews: Contact professionals holding positions that interest you and ask to meet with them briefly, over coffee or during office hours. Not only will you gain more information about career paths, but informational interviews might also serve as networking and mentoring opportunities.

        •    Think about transferable skills: How can you apply the experiences you have to other situations and settings? Think big and broadly, I know one faculty member who frequently discusses and has published on how her work as a bartender translates to pedagogy.

        These tips only begin to scratch the surface of this topic. If you’re interested in digging deeper to into the discussion of professional development and post-ac and alt-ac jobs, here are some resources for further reading that you might find useful:

        In the comments, I’d love to hear about other resources, conversations, and tips you have for professional development for graduate students interested “alt-ac” and “post-ac” careers.

        Maxim Romanov (al-raqmiyyāt)

        al-Thurayyā Gazetteer Ver. 02

        view in full screen This is our first usable demo of al-Thurayyā Gazetteer. Currently it includes over 2,000 toponyms and almost as many route sections georeferenced from Georgette Cornu’s Atlas du monde arabo-islamique à l’époque classique: IXe-Xe siècles (Leiden: Brill, 1983). The gazetteer is searchable (upper left corner), although English equivalents are not yet included; […]

        Robert Consoli (Squinches)

        The sinkholes of the Copaic Basin

        The height above sea level (a.s.l.) of the surface of Lake Copais has been historically limited by the presence of sinkholes (katavothrai).  These sinkholes have formed in the karstic hills around the lake, particularly on the east side.[1]  These channels have tended to limit the surface of the lake to about  97 m a.s.l. at maximum.  At that height the basin is fully flooded.  The Mycenaeans used the presence of these sinkholes as the crucial part of their drainage project.  How many of these sinkholes are there and where are they located?  

        In 1916 a young researcher named Angelos Ginis toured the eastern end of the lake during which he identified and located 24 of these sinkholes.[2]  I present here the diagram that Ginis created:[3]

        Map of the sinkholes of the eastern Copaic Basin according to Angelos Ginis, 1916.
        I have added numbers in red to aid the reader in locating the numbers in Ginis' scheme.
        The Grand Katavothra, the primary sink in the Mycenaean scheme, is at 8.  Gla is at 10 (I do not know and cannot tell whether Ginis intended to identify a sinkhole at that location or whether he was simply marking the location of Gla itself.)

        I have transcribed Ginis' information onto a Google map.  Some of the locations were known exactly; others may not be quite accurate.  I have not had the opportunity to survey the ground;  I would appreciate corrections from better-informed readers.

        Map of the sinkholes of the Copaic Basin, after Ginis (1917).

        I have placed a .kml and a .kmz of this map on Google Drive here.

        The information for each sinkhole is as follows:

        Ginis number
        Translated Name
        Name as transcribed by Moustakas
        3Not named-38.50227123.160357
        5‘Houses’ Σπιτιών (but 'Spilia' in [Simpson 1981], fig. 6, 60).  'Spitia' in [F. 2011] 128.38.51835623.239332
        8Large KatavothraΜεγάλη Καταβόθρα
        11Pletea 1 ('Ptelea' in [Simpson 1981] fig 6, 60.)Πλαταιών38.47422123.191888
        12Pletea 2 or poss. 'Vrystika' (accdg. to AROURA).  'Pletea'? in Ginis' list.  Not labelled in [Simpson 1981]Πλαταιών
        16Not named-38.42697523.180359
        17Not named-38.42608723.176423
        18Not named-38.42286123.174180
        19Not named-
        20Small KatavothraΜικρή Καταβόθρα38.40381423.168084
        21Kasnetsios (Kasnechi kat.' in [Simpson 1981) fig. 6, 60.Κασνετσίου38.40259623.178890
        22Not named-38.38775923.166135

        *misread by [Moustakas 2012] as Βρυσίτσας.   Ginis' diagram plainly says 'VRISTICA' or 'VRISTIKA'.  Also [Simpson 1981] fig. 6, 60 labels #13 'Vristika kat.'.  But when the AROURA project refers to 'Vrystika' they appear to mean #12 in Ginis' list.[4]

        Pictures of the 'Large Katavothra' (#8) can  be found here.

        Katavothra 12 ("Plataea 2") seems to be the same Katavothra explored by the AROURA project and which is called the 'Vrystika' Katavothra in their literature.  Either they are not calling it by the right name which seems improbable or A. Ginis was mistaken in his naming, applying to #13 the local name for #12.  A Mycenaean channel flowed into the 'Vrystika' of the AROURA project (#12) and, indeed, Google Earth seems to show traces of a canal leading directly to it.[5]

        [Nov. 20, 2014] I am not certain that AROURA identifies #12 with 'Vrisitka' so I've written to Dr.  Lane of AROURA for clarification.

        I think that the following photo shows what AROURA means.  I have joined what appear to be canal features (L) with solid lines (R).

        Hypothetical reconstruction of the canal that leads to Katabothra #12 in Ginis' list.  I believe that this
        Katabothra is the one intended by AROURA when they refer to the Katabothra of 'Vrystika'.


        [1]  [Farinetti 2008] 116.  [Moustakas 2012] section 3.3.

        [2] [Moustakas 2012] section 3.3.2.  He gives his sources as  Ginis, A., “On the drainage and cultivation of Lake Kopais”, Archimedes, 17 (1), 1-7, 1916 and Ginis, A., “On the drainage and cultivation of Lake Kopais”, Archimedes, 17 (2), 13-18, 1916v.

        [3] From[Moustakas 2012] 3.3.3

        [4]  I would appreciate being definitively notified that I am wrong about this and that AROURA really means to identify 'Vristika' with #13 on Ginis' list.  The home page of AROURA is here. AROURA stands for Area Research of Uninvestigated Remains of Agriculture and is "an official collaboration between the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), and the 9th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities ...".  They are exploring the cultivated areas of the Copaic Basin around Gla.  And see this from Chronique des fouilles en ligne which is published by the École Française d'Athenes and the British School at Athens. In particular see fig. 1. The Vrystika sinkhole is at Point M1 in that figure just south of Gla.

        [5] For photographs of the 'Vrystika' Katavothra see this from AROURA photographs 16 and 17.


        [F. 2011] Emeri Farinetti, Boeotian landscapes. British Archaeological Reports.  2011.

        [Farinetti 2008] Emeri Farinetti, “Fluctuating Landscapes: the case of the Copais Basin in ancient Boeotia”, Annuario della Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene LXXXVI, s. III, 8, 2008, pp. 115- 138.  Online here.

        [Farinetti 2011] Emeri Farinetti, Boeotian landscapes. British Archaeological Reports.  2011.

        [Moustakas 2012] Sotiris, Moustakas. “Reconstruction Operation in Ancient Hydraulic Works: Area of Kopais”.  National Technical University School of Civil Engineering.  Department of Water Resources and Environment.  Athens, 2012.   In modern Greek. Online here.

        [Simpson 1981] Richard Hope Simpson,  Mycenaean Greece.  Noyes Press, New Jersey, USA.  1981.