Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

Tom Elliott (

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February 27, 2020

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Smuggled Ife Statue Returned from Mexico

The customs agency of Mexico's Tax Administration Service, in coordination with the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Culture, returned a bronze Ife sculpture of the Yoruba people to Nigeria ('The Government of Mexico Returns a Bronze Sculpture to Nigeria Foreign Ministry - INAH Joint Press Release')
The sculpture was discovered by customs officials at the Mexico City International Airport when the buyer tried to get it into the country. The sculpture and its provenance were authenticated by experts and agencies of both countries, with the participation of specialists from the National Institute of Anthropology and History. It had been exported illegally. Mexico strongly opposes illicit trafficking in cultural property. By returning it to Nigeria, the government shows its commitment to protecting cultural heritage. International monitoring and cooperation are essential for complying with current laws, including the 1970 UNESCO Convention. [...] The illicit trafficking of cultural property is one of the main causes of the impoverishment of cultural heritage. It deprives the world of valuable information about the origin, context and nature of these objects.

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Two Books on Discourse and Cognitive Linguistics

Two volumes that I find myself relying upon heavily for an article on discourse and 2 Thessalonians are: […]

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Fire breaks out at Sambor Prei Kuk archaeological site

Fire at Sambor Prei Kuk. source: Khmer Times 20200225via Khmer Times, 25 February 2020: Fire was related to agricultural clearing, and it looks like none of the ancient monuments were affected.

Black rice fossils found to date from at least 900 years

Black rice fossils from Stung Treng. Source: Phnom Penh Post 20200223via Phnom Penh Post, 23 February 2020: The rice fossils from this site in Stung Treng are dated to 900 years ago and is the oldest secure dates thus far, but rice cultivation in general is older in this region.

The search for Japanese war graves in Papua

Japanese marker in Papua. Source: Liputan6, 20200224via, 24 February 2020: In commemoration of the opening of the Japanese Cave Museum in Papua, the Japanese ambassador also took the opportunity to ask for assistance in finding the remains of Japanese soliders left behind in World War II. Article is in Bahasa. Thanks to Hari Suroto for the link.

Archaeology Magazine

New Thoughts on Indonesia’s Prehistoric Volcano Eruption

India Stone ToolsJENA, GERMANY—Cosmos Magazine reports that humans may not have been as severely impacted by the eruption of Mount Toba in Indonesia some 74,000 years ago as had been previously thought. Researchers had suggested the eruption triggered a “volcanic winter” that cooled Earth’s surface for a period of 1,000 years, resulting in the near-extinction of hominins. In this scenario, members of a small populuation of modern human survivors in Africa were thought to have migrated along the coast of the Indian Ocean and repopulated Asia some 60,000 years ago. But, according to J.N. Pal of the University of Allahabad, stone artifacts unearthed in northern India’s Middle Son River Valley indicate the region has been continuously inhabited for the past 80,000 years. The artifacts are similar to tools found in Arabia that date to between 100,000 and 47,000 years ago, and 65,000-year-old tools uncovered in Australia. The tools could therefore be linked to the dispersal of early modern humans out of Africa, added Chris Clarkson of the University of Queensland. The researchers explained that the evidence for thriving modern human populations at the time of the eruption also supports fossil and genetic evidence for the modern human migration out of Africa and intermixing with other species of hominins more than 60,000 years ago. To read about how the Toba eruption is contributing to advances in archaeological dating, go to "Pinpoint Precision."

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Boac Cathedral declared as Important Cultural Property

via Manila Bulletin News, 22 February 2020: The Boac Cathedral in Marinduque province is declared an Important Cultural Property, a level below National Cultural Treasure recognition.

February 26, 2020

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Monograph Series: Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique

[First posted in AWOL 3 August 2018, updated 26 February 2020]

Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique
As part of the agreement signed on 12 November 2015 between the Hardt Foundation and the Swiss National Library, the series of Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique (since 1952) has been digitised and is now accessible online with a moving wall of three years on the platforms and E-Helvetica Access.
Detailed list of published volumes
LXVI. Psychologie de la couleur dans le monde gréco romain, 2019 (to be published in August 2020)
LXV.  Formes et fonctions des langues littéraires en Grèce ancienne, 2018 (2019)
LXIV. La nuit : imaginaire et réalités nocturnes dans le monde gréco-romain, 2017 (2018)
LXIII. Economie et inégalité : ressources, échanges et pouvoir dans l’Antiquité classique, 2016 (2017)
LXII. La rhétorique du pouvoir. Une exploration de l’art oratoire délibératif grec, 2015  (2016)
LXI. Cosmologies et cosmogonies dans la littérature antique, 2014 (2015)
LX. Le jardin dans l’Antiquité, 2013 (2014)
LIX. Les Grecs héritiers des Romains, 2012 (2013)
LVIII. L’organisation des spectacles dans le monde romain, 2011 (2012)
LVII. Entre Orient et Occident : la philosophie et la science gréco-romaines dans le monde arabe, 2010 (2011)
LVI. Démocratie athénienne – démocratie moderne : tradition et influences, 2009 (2010)
LV. Eschyle à l’aube du théâtre occidental, 2008 (2009)
LIV. Sécurité collective et ordre public dans les sociétés anciennes, 2007 (2008)
LIII. Rites et croyances dans les religions du monde romain, 2006 (2007)
LII. La poésie épique grecque : métamorphoses d’un genre littéraire, 2005 (2006)
LI. L’apologétique chrétienne gréco-latine à l’époque prénicénienne, 2004 (2005)
L. Sénèque le tragique, 2003 (2004)
XLIX. Galien et la philosophie, 2002 (2003)
XLVIII. Callimaque, 2001 (2002)
XLVII. L’histoire littéraire immanente dans la poésie latine, 2000 (2001)
XLVI. La révolution romaine après Ronald Syme. Bilans et perspectives, 1999 (2000)
XLV. Hermann Diels (1848-1922) et la science de l’Antiquité, 1998 (1999)
XLIV. La biographie antique, 1997 (1998)
XLIII. Médecine et morale dans l’Antiquité, 1996 (1997)
XLII. Les littératures techniques dans l’Antiquité romaine : statut, public et destination, tradition, 1995 (1996)
XLI. Pausanias historien, 1994 (1996)
XL. La philologie grecque à l’époque hellénistique et romaine, 1993 (1994)
XXXIX. Horace : l’œuvre et les imitations : un siècle d’interprétations, 1992 (1993)
XXXVIII. Aristophane, 1991 (1993)
XXXVII. Le sanctuaire grec, 1990 (1992)
XXXVI. Sénèque et la prose latine, 1989 (1991)
XXXV. Hérodote et les peuples non grecs, 1988 (1990)
XXXIV. L’Eglise et l’Empire au IVe siècle, 1987 (1989)
XXXIII. Opposition et résistances à l’Empire d’Auguste à Trajan, 1986 (1987)
XXXII. Aspects de la philosophie hellénistique, 1985 (1986)
XXXI. Pindare, 1984 (1985)
XXX. La fable, 1983 (1984)
XXIX. Sophocle, 1982 (1983)
XXVIII. Eloquence et rhétorique chez Cicéron, 1981 (1982)
XXVII. Le sacrifice dans l’Antiquité, 1980 (1981)
XXVI. Les études classiques aux XIXe et XXe siècles : Leur place dans l’histoire des 
idées, 1979 (1980)
XXV. Le classicisme à Rome aux Iers siècles avant et après J.-C., 1978 (1979)
XXIV. Lucrèce, 1977 (1978)
XXIII. Christianisme et formes littéraires de l’Antiquité tardive en Occident, 1976 (1977)
XXII. Alexandre le Grand. Image et réalité, 1975 (1976)
XXI. De Jamblique à Proclus, 1974 (1975)
XX. Polybe, 1973 (1974)
XIX. Le culte des souverains dans l’empire Romain, 1972 (1973)
XVIII. Pseudepigrapha I. Pseudopythagorica – Lettres de Platon. Littérature pseudépigraphique juive, 1971 (1972)
XVII. Ennius, 1971 (1972)
XVI. Ménandre, 1969 (1970)
XV. Lucain, 1968 (1970)
XIV. L’épigramme grecque, 1967 (1969)
XIII. Les origines de la république romaine, 1966 (1967)
XII. Porphyre, 1965 (1966)
XI. La « Politique » d’Aristote, 1964 (1965)
X. Archiloque, 1963 (1964)
IX. Varron, 1962 (1963)
VIII. Grecs et Barbares, 1961 (1962)
VII. Hésiode et son influence, 1960 (1962)
VI. Euripide, 1958 (1960)
V. Les sources de Plotin, 1957 (1960)
IV. Histoire et historiens dans l’Antiquité, 1956 (1958)
III. Recherches sur la tradition platonicienne, 1955 (1957)
II. L’influence grecque sur la poésie latine de Catulle à Ovide, 1953 (1956)
I. La notion du divin depuis Homère jusqu’à Platon, 1952 (1954)

Open Access Monograph Series: Studies in the history of the ancient Near East

Studies in the history of the ancient Near East

Open Access Monograph Series: Eckley B. Coxe Junior expedition to Nubia

Eckley B. Coxe Junior expedition to Nubia

See AWOL's Alphabetical List of Open Access Monograph Series in Ancient Studies

Compitum - événements (tous types)

The final chapter of On the Sublime

Titre: The final chapter of On the Sublime
Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 13.03.2020
Heure: 16.30 h - 18.30 h

Information signalée par Jean Trinquier

Cycle de conférences du professeur Casper de Jonge, Ancient literary criticism


Casper C. DE JONGE
(Leiden University)
Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 1 : Friday, February 28th, 10:00-12:00 | Salle de séminaire (Centre d’Etudes Anciennes)
Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 2: Friday, February 28th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Sappho

Seminar 3: Friday March 6th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition

Seminar 4: Friday March 13th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
The final chapter of On the Sublime

Pour toute information supplémentaire, voir

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Ecole normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005
Organisation : Jean Trinquier
Contact : jean.trinquier[at]

Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition

Titre: Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition
Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 06.03.2020
Heure: 16.30 h - 18.30 h

Information signalée par Jean Trinquier

Cycle de conférences du professeur Casper de Jonge, Ancient literary criticism


Casper C. DE JONGE
(Leiden University)
Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 1 : Friday, February 28th, 10:00-12:00 | Salle de séminaire (Centre d’Etudes Anciennes)
Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 2: Friday, February 28th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Sappho

Seminar 3: Friday March 6th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition

Seminar 4: Friday March 13th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
The final chapter of On the Sublime

Pour toute information supplémentaire, voir

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Ecole normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005
Organisation : Jean Trinquier
Contact : jean.trinquier[at]

Sublime Sappho

Titre: Sublime Sappho
Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 26.02.2020
Heure: 16.30 h - 18.30 h

Information signalée par Jean Trinquier

Cycle de conférences du professeur Casper de Jonge, Ancient literary criticism


Casper C. DE JONGE
(Leiden University)
Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 1 : Friday, February 28th, 10:00-12:00 | Salle de séminaire (Centre d’Etudes Anciennes)
Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 2: Friday, February 28th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Sappho

Seminar 3: Friday March 6th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition

Seminar 4: Friday March 13th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
The final chapter of On the Sublime

Pour toute information supplémentaire, voir

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Ecole normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005
Organisation : Jean Trinquier
Contact : jean.trinquier[at]

Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism

Titre: Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism
Lieu: ENS Ulm / Paris
Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
Date: 28.02.2020
Heure: 10.00 h - 12.00 h

Information signalée par Jean Trinquier

Cycle de conférences du professeur Casper de Jonge, Ancient literary criticism


Casper C. DE JONGE
(Leiden University)
Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 1 : Friday, February 28th, 10:00-12:00 | Salle de séminaire (Centre d’Etudes Anciennes)
Aristotle’s History of Literature and its Influence on Ancient Literary Criticism

Seminar 2: Friday, February 28th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Sappho

Seminar 3: Friday March 6th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
Sublime Synthesis: Longinus on Composition

Seminar 4: Friday March 13th, 16:30-18:30 | Salle F
The final chapter of On the Sublime

Pour toute information supplémentaire, voir

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, Ecole normale supérieure, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005
Organisation : Jean Trinquier
Contact : jean.trinquier[at]

Cassiodore, les "Variae" et l'Italie ostrogothique

Titre: Cassiodore, les "Variae" et l'Italie ostrogothique
Lieu: Université Paris IV-Sorbonne / Paris
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 28.03.2020
Heure: 09.30 h - 13.00 h

Information signalée par Valérie Fauvinet-Ranson

Cassiodore, les "Variae" et l'Italie ostrogothique. Quoi de neuf ?

Samedi 28 mars 2020, de 9h30 à 13h

Alexandra de Varax (doctorante, EPHE, Paris) :
Imposer l'autorité royale par les monnaies : le rôle politique et symbolique de la monnaie sous les Ostrogoths
Massimiliano Vitiello (University of Missouri – Kansas City) : Maximianus of Ravenna in Constantinople: the mystery of the Anonymus Valesianus II ?
Pierfrancesco Porena (Université Roma Tre) :
De Ravenne à Constantinople : les deux vies de Cassiodore
Anna-Lena Körfer (Université de Mayence) :
The Rhetoric of Going and Being Gone. Varietas as a Reading Principle in Cassiodorus´ Letters of commeatus (3.21, 4.48, 7.36) + présentation du projet Cassiodorus
Nicolas Michel (doctorant, Université de Namur), la réception des "Variae" :
La figure politique de Cassiodore au Moyen-Âge : autour de la collection épistolaire des "Variae"

Lieu de la manifestation : Paris, La Sorbonne, amphithéâtre Cauchy
Organisation : Valérie Fauvinet-Ranson, pour l'association THAT
Contact : Valérie Fauvinet-Ranson

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Excavations at Corinth in Hesperia

I really like Hesperia. It’s the journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The quality of production and editing is outstanding and I can find something interesting in almost every issue that appears. I’ve submitted a few articles to Hesperia over my career, in part, because my work fits their remit, but also because the results are such fine quality. I know that they treat even the most modest contribution to the journal with the same care and attention that they lavish on the most dynamic, important, or sophisticated article.

This past issue had a long article on recent excavations at Corinth, “Corinth, 2018: Northeast of the Theater” by the project’s new director Chris Pfaff. The article is over 65 pages and I’d guess about 20,000 words of text plus another 10,000 of notes and bibliography; by my count, the article clocked in at just under 35,000 words. It was pretty amazing, and I keep going back to it. Unlike many Hesperia articles, Pfaff’s article lacks a clear thesis. It’s not an argument. And what makes it most wonderful to me is that it doesn’t even have a conclusion. In fact, it just ends after the description of some kind of early modern or medieval ditch that cut across part of the site. That’s it. A “Diagonal Ditch.”

Here’s the final paragraph:

The purpose of the diagonal ditch remains unknown. No masonry of any kind was found within it to support the idea that it served as a founda­tion trench for a built structure. Its great length would be consistent with a ditch to accommodate a drain or pipeline, but no drain tiles or pipes came to light in the fill. In general, the finds from the fill, including an equine cranium, can be characterized as refuse that has no association with the original function of the ditch.

This isn’t the say that the article was pointless, of course. Part of me suspects that this article represents a throwback to a tradition of reporting on the annual work at a site. When we started our project on Cyprus, for example, we published short descriptive annual reports in the Report of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus that we hoped would let folks know that a particular site existed, give them a sense for what we found, and announce ourselves as serious archaeologists doing serious work. They were provisional and preliminary, and, to my mind, a fine thing for a junior scholar to write when starting work on their first project.

This logic, of course, does not apply to Corinth. Chris Pfaff is a senior scholar and nothing in the report would strike someone casually familiar with Corinth as surprising. Most of the material is Late Roman in date, most of it derives from secondary contexts as one would expect at a continuously occupied site, and none of the results would challenge long held views or announce some distinct, new aspect in the history of the city.

Instead, the article simply runs up the flag that work is ongoing. It appears, from what I can tell, to be continuing in the same vein as excavations over the last 20 years. The article lacks much in the way of a formal catalogue, assemblages are only presented in a summary way, the architecture and features consist primarily of walls, roads, and known buildings (like the Late Antique “Good Seasons” mosaic and the course of the Late Roman (perhaps 6th century?) fortification wall). None of these features is published in enough detail to be considered a final publication. It’s nice to know that they are still there though and to know someone cares.

What’s great about this article is its attention to description. Rather than present some sweeping conclusion, launch into some theoretically overwrought article, or attempt some kind of exhaustive review of past literature, this article simply describes things. In other words, in its unusual way, it takes things seriously, even when these things are a “diagonal ditch” with the skull of a horse and some early 20th century artifacts in it. By putting aside, at least explicitly, the need for a formal thesis, Pfaff’s article refuses to reduce the “things” of archaeology to the status of evidence in the service of an argument. Even the occasional objects in the article that received more careful description floated against an ambiguous background and often lacked fully developed archaeological context. At best they represent types of evidence as if to say that the excavators have this kind of thing and this kind of thing can speak to chronology, function, or context. But at no point do they unpack the entire context of a strata or an assemblage. They do, as one would expect, locate the objects within a context, but this remains hard to understand to a reader because most contexts are not fully described. Thus this treatment of things alludes to a context, but also avoids becoming unduly burdened by it. The photographs of the objects against a white background reinforce their independence and integrity.

Pfaff 2020 hesperia pdf  page 25 of 67 2020 02 26 07 32 44

This image of iron hobnails(?) could inspire a volume of essays.

Pfaff 2020 hesperia pdf  page 28 of 67 2020 02 26 07 38 34

It’s also worth noting that this article also lacks people. Some of the previous excavators are present: Henry Robinson and Charles Williams make cameos to personify their interpretations and work, but the 2018 excavations largely occurred without human intervention. There are no decisions presented and the descriptions of features and things stand on their own. This is both bracing and just a bit disconcerting. A generation of reflexive practices and methodological preoccupation which have so frequently sought to diminish the significance of things in the name of relationships with humans is refreshingly absent.

In the end, this article is provocative. I calls into question the goals of archaeological publication. Surely, it is not meant to be a definitive “final” publication. As I’ve said, it’s also not meant to be a preliminary report. No one needs to 30,000+ to know that Corinth has a prosperous and complex Roman and Late Roman phase. It doesn’t offer enough detail or context for regular citation. The objects represented throughout are generally of a type that is known both at Corinth and more broadly in Southern Greece and the Peloponnesus.

Instead, the purpose of this article appears to be simply to present these things, features, and lightly sketched contexts. Hesperia’s typically fine and careful style allows the things to stand on their own and largely to speak for themselves and, in some way, speak to themselves (rather to other things or to some kind of abstract notion of argument, assemblage, or context). As such the article is both a step backward in time to a day when such reports regularly appeared in scholarly journals to let far flung colleagues know about “the work of the School” as well as a step forward in a practice of presenting things in a disconcertingly discrete way.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

No nose picking! 15th-century guide taught kids how to mind their manners

A 15th-century book on manners, newly digitized by The British Library, is filled with rules that...

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

#Thelxinoe ~ Classics News for February 26, 2020

Hodie est a.d. IV Kal. Mart. 2772 AUC ~ 3 Anthesterion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

In the News

In Case You Missed It

Classicists and Classics in the News

Public Facing Classics

Fresh Bloggery

Fresh Podcasts

Quibus vestimentis indutae, filiae meae pompam spectaverint.

A revision podcast designed to help you revise for the OCR Classical Civilisation GCSE – with revision for the Myth and Religion and Homeric World papers.

Spartacus is an epic historical film based on the life of a Roman gladiator who led a slave rebellion against Rome in the 1st C BCE. In this episode we’ll take a fond look at this cinematic classic, in memory of its leading man, Kirk Douglas. Guest: Associate Professor Rhiannon Evans (Classics and Ancient History, La Trobe University)

Caligula suspects a grand conspiracy against his person and the sword falls on a variety of people – including the commander in Gaul, his two surviving sisters and his best friend / lover, Lepidus.

Dramatic Receptions

Professional Matters


‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

If it thunders today, it portends hot weather and a shortage of water, and scabs on bodies (scabies?).

… adapted from the text and translation of:

Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

A Look Forward at the Study of the Mind in the Past

This part of my series of posts on conference presentations, that I have filmed. This is another one from the TAG conference:

Session Info

The views and approaches for conducting mind-related research in archaeology have gone through a number of transformations over the past few decades – enough to give us pause to see that the field of cognitive archaeology in particular has come full circle. Cognitive archaeology emerged in part as a response to the logical positivist claim that the mind could not be studied by scientific-inclined archaeologists. Underlying the positivist claim was behaviourism which explained away a role for the mind; at most, the mind was envisaged as a simple, rational response system that was universally employed. With the most recent trend in cognitive archaeology, which advocates radical enactivism and envisions human engagement with the material world as affordances and cognitive scaffolding, we seem to have returned to a position that is effectively similar to behaviourism in certain key respects. Having the benefit of hindsight and utilizing what we have learned over the past few decades, this session seeks to rediscover the mind’s role in the past by revisiting tried-and-true approaches, as well as exploring new approaches by which the mind can be revealed to archaeologists.

Organiser: Marc A. Abramiuk (California State University Channel Islands)

Space: The final frontier?

Spatial cognition may be one of the most intuitive avenues for studying the prehistoric mind. Archaeologists are accustomed to studying human behaviour in a spatial context. Furthermore, landscape archaeology has accustomed us to thinking about how humans perceive(d) the landscape and conversely, how the landscape shapes (or has shaped) human perception. This paper explores what the archaeological record can tell us about human perception of the landscape in the past and how this informs us about spatial cognition.

Ariane Burke (Universite de Montreal)

Cognitive Archaeology and the Evolution of Geometric Cognition

Philosophy of mathematical practice proposes a triple approach regarding the genesis and development of knowledge: cognitive, pragmatist and historical. Summing up, it depends on biological and cultural constraints, it is oriented to human actions, and its historical essence is assumed. To understand the cognitive abilities that helped the development of geometric thought, we need to take back our analysis to the material archaeological record, cognitively interpreted. There is a huge amount of material record that has to do with proto-geometry, such as cave art, personal ornament, constructions with a special relationship with the landscape – like buildings that have some relation with timekeeping and some kind of proto-astronomy and so on. All these practices foment in some way the improvement of our cognitive abilities related to our geometric thinking and, thus, a systematic analysis of these practices would have to be carried out.

Manuel J. Garcia-Perez (University of Seville)

In the Mind of the Maker: Using lithic reduction sites to trace the development of planning and forethought in the human evolutionary past

This paper explores the use of lithic reduction sites and their assemblages as markers of the progression of forethought and planning, in particular mental time travel (MTT), throughout the Palaeolithic. MTT is the ability to move backwards and forwards in time through engagement of episodic and prospective memories. As a field, cognitive archaeology often fails to unite cognitive evolution models, such as MTT, with Palaeolithic research. The significance of forethought and planning is widely discussed but little attention is actually given to their development. A novel approach was trialled in a diachronic pilot study of two lithic case sites. Each site was analysed through its specific chaîne opératoire and each stage was placed in a distinct planning level. The results were then compared to determine if any progression of forethought and planning could be traced. The findings of one case site are presented here. These results, when placed in a wider archaeological and cognitive context show the nuance of cognitive evolution. It is clear when layered with cognitive models; the approach developed is sensitive to cognitive subtleties. By using this approach, we can move away from the traditional ‘has or has not’ understanding of forethought and planning capabilities of toolmaking hominins.

Esther Fagelson (University of York)

Mind over Matter, and Matter over Mind: An archaeology of object attachment

From a precious wedding ring to an old battered teddy bear, it is widely accepted that humans are capable of forming strong emotional bonds with objects which can last a lifetime. This phenomenon should be of great interest to archaeology, a field based around the study of material culture. Yet, current archaeological analyses demonstrate little, if any, understanding of the emotional significance of everyday objects, giving the impression that past populations had no emotional connection to material culture. However, by drawing on recent work in psychology and neuroscience, we can gain fascinating insights into the relationship between the mind, emotion and material culture. This paper will discuss the cognitive mechanisms of object attachment, explaining why we grow attached to certain objects and why this is an important avenue of research for archaeologists. It will focus on the impact of object attachment upon human prosociality and exploration, as well as discussing how an object attachment framework might be incorporated into existing approaches to material culture. An understanding and appreciation of object attachment provides a new way of studying the mind in the past, realising the complicated emotional nature of our attachments to objects.

Taryn Bell (University of York)

Middle Stone Age Problem Solving: Examining the evidence for working memory in the development of projectile weaponry

The development of projectile technology is hailed as a marker of modern human behaviour; however, despite extensive research its origins remain unresolved. This study aims to demonstrate the role of the mind in the development of projectile weaponry. Working memory, a psychological term that describes the processes by which problems are solved, can be viewed in the archaeological record using conigrams (Haidle 2010). Understanding the cognitive process of problem solving allows us to examine artefacts as solutions, shifting the focus onto what circumstances required the development of new technology. If projectile technology was the solution, what were the problems encountered by early humans that led to its development? To explore this, the Still Bay and Howiesons Poort sequences at two MSA sites, Blombos Cave and Sibudu Cave, are reviewed. Links between the lithic assemblages and Palaeoenvironmental evidence indicate humans at this time were subjected to extreme climate pressure and demographic change. This paper explores the possibility that the emergence of projectile technology at these sites was the result of the application of working memory to environmental pressures. The concept of working memory provides a new angle to the origins of projectile technology debate, and demonstrates the need for cognitive consideration in archaeological investigation.

Charlotte Burnell (UCL)

American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

Ελληνικοί πάπυροι από τη συλλογή του Πανεπιστημίου του Όσλο

February 26, 2020 12:00 - WORKSHOP Αναστασία Μαραβέλα, Καθηγήτρια  του Πανεπιστημίου του Όσλο

Jim Davila (

Burrell, Cushites in the Hebrew Bible

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Bellingham Detecting Con

In September 2018, we were assured by the PAS after the horrible pictures of irresponsible hoard hoiking by metal detectorists that everything is OK at Bellingham ... so ... I am a trifle puzzled why, two years on, there are only six finds in the PAS database, seal matrix, a finger ring, a thimble, a buckle, a key, and a "Roman mount", three of them were found in 2013. But the two coins handed in during the dig are not there, let alone the rest of the hoard that the FLOs assured us they had secured. What is going on? Andy Agate, can you tell us?

There was a rally there, 200 detectorists. And just three finds actually handed in - but only put in the database in 2019. What kind of "responsible detecting" is that?

The Bellingham Detecting Con

We have been informed that after a recent event employing heavy machinery, seriously undisciplined hoiking and idiots, (PACHI Wednesday, 26 September 2018: 'Bellingham, PAS: "Don't worry, it's all in hand". Really?', it is interesting to see this on Andy Fudge's dodgy diggers' Facebook page

"The organisers realise that things could have been...better planned, and have learned a lot from this process. Appropriate advice, and guidance has been given, and despite the best efforts of some individuals, there's a good relationship between the PAS and the organisers".
Jolly good. So on July 24th-6th we can expect to see on the internet some videos showing model examples of PAS-approved and PAS-aided 'citizen archaeology' North of the Tyne. We look forward to seeing what PAS can achieve with their "good relationship". We will be watching closely.

Two years ago

EAGLE News: Europeana Network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Individual’s fee reduced and more advantages in 2020 for the IDEA members

Starting from this year, the membership fee for individuals has been reduced to 50€, whereas the contribution for under 35 scholars has been confirmed and it is still of 20€. The latter has been introduced last year in order to meet the needs of many scholars who may encounter financial difficulties in paying the fee and we hope it will be well received by all the members of IDEA.

To join the Association please fill out the form available here.

We take this opportunity to remind that all members of IDEA will have the possibility to participate in the two calls for proposals that will be launched in Spring and in Autumn 2020. The Directorial Committee has in fact decided to allocate also for this year 2.000 euros to fund small projects in digital epigraphy that are coherent with the scope of IDEA’s activities.

In addition, up to 500 euros will be devoted in 2020 to sustain publications which are in line with the scope of the Association, by contributing to cover the publication costs. People who are interested can send an application to and the Board will give a response in three weeks. Only IDEA’s members are eligible for this financial support.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Grace, Works, Faithfulness, and Jesus

Jesus obeys, therefore God highly exalted him. This is what Paul says in Philippians 2:6-11. How does this relate to his frequent assertions that God accepts human beings on the basis of grace and not works? Does it lend support to the interpretation that Paul’s focus is not in fact good works or obedience as […]

Javier Andreu (Oppida Imperii Romani)


Fue en agosto de 2009 cuando Oppida Imperii Romani se detuvo por primera vez en Santa Criz de Eslava en el afán de este espacio por acompañar a viajeros apasionados por el mundo romano. Entonces, el yacimiento era objeto de trabajo e investigación por Pilar Sáez de Albéniz, Rosa Armendáriz y Txaro Mateo. Santa Criz era, entonces, una ciudad más -cierto que especial- de las que salpicaron hace 2.000 años el territorio de los antiguos Vascones, siempre especialmente presentes en este blog. En septiembre de 2016, tras la magnífica puesta en valor -entonces recién inaugurada- tuvimos la oportunidad de volver a visitar el yacimiento dejando constancia del ejemplar trabajo realizado en dicha adecuación en un segundo post. Fue poco después, en febrero de 2017, que el Ayuntamiento de Eslava contactó con quien escribe estas líneas para encauzar, desde la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Navarra -que había puesto ya en marcha entonces su Diploma de Arqueología- los actos de celebración del centenario de la primera noticia científica sobre Santa Criz de Eslava dada por el P. Juan Castrillo en 1917 y que pronto pasó a la erudición de la época. El hermanamiento con la ciudad romana de Los Bañales y con la uilla romana de Liédena, promovido por el Ayuntamiento de Liédena en septiembre de ese año, y el convenio firmado, aun vigente, entre el Ayuntamiento de Eslava y la Universidad de Navarra, fueron el primer hito de una nueva trayectoria para la ciudad romana que, es indiscutible, la ha puesto en el mapa, ha generado, en torno a los trabajos llevados a cabo en ella, un notable seguimiento mediático aunque, también, ha despertado no pocos recelos y sospechas con argumentos, desde luego, nada científicos ni, tampoco, originales.

En el pasado otoño, a petición del grupo parlamentario de Navarra Suma, la Comisión de Cultura, Deporte y Juventud del Parlamento de Navarra visitó Santa Criz de Eslava. Allí los representantes de la sociedad navarra conocieron el proyecto que se ha llevado a cabo en estos últimos años y, también, el indudable mérito de las excavaciones realizadas por el equipo arriba citado. En este mes de febrero el Parlamento, gracias a una moción del grupo parlamentario de EH Bildu-Nafarroa, aprobó una dotación presupuestaria de 80.000 euros para dar continuidad a los trabajos de los últimos años en Santa Criz. Estos trabajos han tenido, de manera evidente, tres pilares propios de lo que ha dado en llamarse "arqueología pública": investigación (porque sin ella no se genera conocimiento que de sentido a los otros dos pilares), viralización (acercando Santa Criz al gran público de manera constante y comprometida, apasionada) y dinamización (convirtiendo a Santa Criz, posiblemente, en la ciudad romana "de moda" en Navarra).

En síntesis, lo que se ha hecho en esos tres ámbitos puede glosarse como sigue (para más información, con material gráfico, seguimos remitiendo a las diapositivas de una charla que, sobre el proyecto, dictamos en Sangüesa ahora hace un año):

[1] Investigación. Aunque existían, efectivamente, interesantes trabajos sobre Santa Criz de Eslava publicados por Rosa Armendáriz, Txaro Mateo y Pilar Sáez (sirva como base éste, meritorio, publicado en Trabajos de Arqueología Navarra, 28, 2016 donde se citan los anteriores disponibles, también, en las páginas personales en dialnet de sus autoras) la ciudad romana era, y puede decirse sin paliativos, una perfecta desconocida en el circuito investigador. En apenas dos años se han publicado dos estudios preliminares sobre su repertorio epigráfico y su foro (Príncipe de Viana, 272, 2018 y Trabajos de Arqueología Navarra, 30, 2018), se ha editado una monografía, completa, que recopila, ordena, relee, y reinterpreta el soberbio caudal epigráfico de la ciudad romana (Epigrafía romana de Santa Criz de Eslava, Faenza, 2019) y está en prensa, para ver la luz en fechas próximas, un completo estudio estructural del foro de la ciudad romana -financiado por un acuerdo UNED de Pamplona/Fundación Caja Navarra y Obra Social "La Caixa"- que se publicará en la prestigiosa revista SPAL. Prehistoria y Arqueología, de la Universidad de Sevilla una de las pocas revistas españolas de Antigüedad con sello de calidad FECYT. Además, la cultura material procedente de las excavaciones ha sido ordenada en un sencillo catálogo, de alta divulgación, que ha subrayado el carácter de "reflejo de Roma" que Santa Criz de Eslava, tuvo, en el corazón del territorio vascón (Santa Criz de Eslava, reflejos de Roma en territorio vascón, Pamplona, 2019) y que ha acompañado a la muestra arqueológica instalada en Eslava con ese mismo título, posible en el marco de un PDR, e los dos de los que ha disfrutado desde 2016 el yacimiento, gestionado por Cederna Garalur y con fondos Leader del Departamento de Desarrollo Rural y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Navarra

[2] Viralización. Un yacimiento arqueológico no puede estar de espaldas a la sociedad y más si, como ha sido, y es el caso, recibe fondos públicos. Por eso, en este tiempo, se han abierto los perfiles en redes sociales -Facebook y Twitter- de Santa Criz de Eslava, se ha dinamizado el canal de vídeos del yacimiento en YouTube, se ha mantenido activa su página web, se ha constituido un completo Museo Virtual -que arrancó gracias a la colaboración con la UNED de Tudela- para acercar parte del patrimonio arqueológico mueble recuperado en al ciudad al gran público y, por último, se ha gestionado adecuadamente la entrada sobre Santa Criz en la Wikipedia facilitando al internatua espacios desde los que acceder a información sobre el lugar. Pero, obviamente, esa viralización no se ha quedado sólo en la red, ha pasado también al "cuerpo a cuerpo" atrayendo, constantemente, a visitantes al yacimiento y aportando información sobre el lugar con un nuevo folleto de mano y empleando los canales informativos de Turismo Reyno de Navarra. En este tiempo se ha atendido con entusiasmo (basta con echar un vistazo a las reseñas que, sobre Santa Criz, hay en Google) a 130 grupos y asociaciones -en torno a 5.100 visitantes- y más de 1.550  personas, desde julio de 2019, han pasado por la exposición arqueológica instalada en Eslava. En esa viralización se ha prestado especial atención a colectivos estratégicos que pueden dar a conocer la ciudad romana en su entorno contribuyendo a multiplicar la cifra de visitantes: gestores turísticos, periodistas, asociaciones juveniles y de mayores, profesores, colegios y asociaciones de padres y madres -con diseño específico de material pedagógico para ellos por parte de la Facultad de Educación y Psicología de la Universidad de Navarra-, investigadores y expertos arqueólogos e historiadores de toda Europa -no en vano Santa Criz ha acogido ya, en estos dos últimos años, dos reuniones científicas internacionales, una en 2017 y otra el pasado 2019- y, por supuesto, se ha puesto en el centro a los propios habitantes de la Comarca de Sangüesa, y del propio municipio de Eslava que, desde luego, han empezado a comprender qué fue Santa Criz de Eslava hace 2.000 años y qué puede llegar a ser hoy.

[3] Dinamización. Desde luego, un enclave arqueológico, cualquier atractivo patrimonial, sólo es realmente útil socialmente si se le da vida, si se le gestiona culturalmente. Manteniendo siempre, en el centro, el respeto a las estructuras conservadas y a la sostenibilidad del lugar, al margen de las visitas guiadas, el volumen de actividades que se han organizado en Santa Criz de Eslava en sólo dos años ha sido bastante notable, casi vertiginoso: se ha participado anualmente -ya con tres ediciones y con centenares de asistentes- en las Jornadas Europeas de Patrimonio que organiza el Gobierno de Navarra cada otoño, se ha innovado con el yacimiento en técnicas de recreación y ambientación virtual, Santa Criz ha acogido conciertos y representaciones teatrales, y ha sido, también, espacio para la innovación educativa en la línea del ahora denominado "Aprendizaje-Servicio" en una línea que, seguro, aun habrá de generar mucha actividad en el futuro. Todo con un objetivo claro y primordial: dar vida a Santa Criz y convertirlo en un polo de desarrollo para el territorio. El volumen de visitantes que han ido atrayendo al yacimiento estas iniciativas -y, en particular la exposición "Santa Criz de Eslava, reflejos de Roma en territorio vascón"- han demostrado que, efectivamente, el patrimonio arqueológico puede ser, y lo está siendo en Eslava, motor de desarrollo como glosaba no hace mucho, en un excelente reportaje de José A. Perales, Diario de Navarra

Queda, sin embargo, mucho por hacer. Aunque, efectivamente, nos gustaría acometer nuevas actuaciones arqueológicas en campo hay una serie de trabajos previos que -contemplados en el Plan de Actuación que entregamos al Servicio de Patrimonio Histórico de Gobierno de Navarra el pasado otoño- reclamarán, antes, nuestra atención y que, aunque resulten aparentemente menos atractivos, serán igualmente dinamizadores como lo han sido todos y cada uno de los que se han llevado a cabo en este último tiempo pues seguirán presididos por esos tres valores que hemos anotado más arriba. Urge seguir trabajando por ubicar Santa Criz de Eslava en el lugar que, por su potencial, merece en el marco de la Arqueología hispanorromana, es necesario realizar un ordenamiento -para que resulte útil al investigador y genere, de verdad, conocimiento- de todo el material arqueológico recuperado en las excavaciones históricas, ha de darse a conocer su singular repertorio escultórico, de decoración arquitectónica y pictórica -como se ha hecho con el epigráfico-, Santa Criz necesita una profunda y rigurosa monografía de investigación que la convierta en una ciudad romana de referencia en la Tarraconense, se hace necesario seguir explorando fórmulas para hacer de Santa Criz un atractivo destino turístico incentivando, si cabe, la atención a las visitas guiadas y consiguiendo prorrogar la muestra arqueológica que ha generado una fórmula de diálogo entre el yacimiento -aislado en el campo- y el municipio de Eslava que, desde luego, ha recuperado mucha vida con este proyecto y, también, con el muy meritorio paseo megalítico promovido por los incansables Amigos de Eslava. Hay que avanzar en nuevas herramientas de mediación patrimonial que hagan, además, accesible el yacimiento a cualquier tipo de público y que, sobre todo, lo hagan suficientemente inteligible también para el visitante que acude al lugar por su cuenta. Hay, en definitiva, que seguir dando vida a Santa Criz, que es lo que se ha hecho en estos dos años y medio de trabajo y lo que esperamos seguir haciendo en esta próxima anualidad, con nuevos recursos.

¡Se avecina una época totalmente apasionante para esta nueva Santa Criz de Eslava que es, desde luego, ya, patrimonio de todos los navarros! ¡Santa Criz de Eslava también eres tú, no lo olvides!

Compitum - publications

Isidore de Séville, Étymologies Livre I


Isidore de Séville, Étymologies Livre I. La Grammaire. Texte établi, traduit et commenté par Olga Spevak, Paris, 2020.

Éditeur : Les Belles Lettres
Collection : Auteurs latins du Moyen Âge
CLVIII-474 pages
ISBN : 9782251450537
65 €

La grande encyclopédie d'Isidore de Séville intitulée les Étymologies s'ouvre sur le premier des sept arts libéraux : la grammaire. Après un bref exposé sur la discipline et les arts libéraux, l'auteur traite des lettres, pour passer à la grammaire et à ses parties constitutives, en suivant l'enseignement de l'Ars Maior de Donat. Il étudie ensuite les classes des mots pour enchaîner avec la matière concernant la prosodie : syllabe, pieds métriques, accents et signes de ponctuation. Puis il aborde des sujets qui ne font pas partie de la grammaire de Donat : signes critiques (avec des chapitres sur les systèmes d'abréviation, notamment dans les domaines juridique et militaire, mais aussi les notes tironiennes, l'écriture cryptée ou la communication à l'aide des doigts), orthographe et méthodes d'analyse (analogie, étymologie, différence et glose). Après quoi il revient à la tradition de l'enseignement grammatical pour étudier les barbarismes, les solécismes, les défauts, les métaplasmes, les figures et les tropes. Les derniers chapitres sont consacrés aux genres littéraires : prose, mètres et genres poétiques, fable et histoire.

Lire la suite...

Trafficking Culture

Brodie and Yates speaking at Expert Conference “Fostering European Cooperation for Heritage at Risk”, Dubrovnik, 26–28 Feb

Drs Neil Brodie and Donna Yates will be speaking at a conference hosted by the Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union and the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia. They will discuss the results of their recent European Commission-funded report focused on the illicit trafficking of antiquities in Europe.

More details about the event are available here:

“The topic of the conference aims to generate discussion on an expert theoretical level about the methodology of research and assessment of all types of risks in order to facilitate the decision-making process in preservation and use of cultural heritage, and the optimal use of resources.

The topics of each panel will be focused on the discussions on methods of identification, analysis and targeting of risk priorities, and especially of a better understanding of potential risks, importance of monitoring and adaptation processes.
The speedy recovery from damages, sustainable preservation after restoration and identification of possibilities of participatory management through stimulating cooperation of all stakeholders will also come into focus.”

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Interview with a museum curator in Myanmar

Daw Nu Mra Zan of the National Museum, Myanmar. Source: Facebook 20200220via Facebook, 20 February 2020: Interview with Daw Nu Mra Zan, former director of the National Museum in Yangon and current museum consultant. in English with Myanmar subtitles

Archaeology Magazine

Lidar Study Reveals Towns Along Sacred Maya Road

Mexico Maya RoadMIAMI, FLORIDA—According to a statement released by the University of Miami, archaeologist Traci Ardren conducted a lidar survey of the ancient 60-mile road that connects the Maya cities of Cobá and Yaxuná on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. Known as a sacbe, or sacred road, the highway was engineered to be a flat surface made of stone and covered in white plaster that may have glowed at night. Analysis of the data found more than 8,000 structures along the route, and determined that the road does not follow a straight line, as had been previously thought. Ardren said the survey also detected towns and cities that predate the road along its route. She and her colleagues suggest the road was built by Lady K’awiil Ajaw, the ruler of Cobá at the turn of the seventh century A.D., to connect Cobá and Yaxuná and the settlements situated along the way. Lady K’awiil Ajaw may have even built the road in an effort to expand her power and invade Yaxuná. Ardren said her team plans to examine household goods in the two cities to see if they are similar to each other. To read about ritual objects found in an underground cave system at Chichen Itza, go to "Maya Subterranean World," one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2019.

Additional 5,000-Year-Old Game Pieces Unearthed in Turkey

İZMİR, TURKEY—Hurriyet Daily News reports that some additional pieces of a game set first unearthed in 2012 at Başur Mound in southeastern Turkey have been recovered by a team of researchers led by Haluk Sağlamtimur of Ege University. The game is thought to have been an ancestor of chess that was played in a cemetery at the site some 5,000 years ago. “This is probably a grave gift,” Sağlamtimur said. “This game set does not seem to be played too much; there is no wear on it.” Similar figurative game pieces have been found in Egypt, he added. The game board, which would have provided clues as to how the game was played, has not been found and probably disintegrated. “When we consider the shapes and numbers of the stones, we estimate that the game is based on number four,” Sağlamtimur explained. To read about amulets left throughout the first millennium B.C. at a mountaintop sanctuary in southeastern Turkey, go to "How to Pray to a Storm God."

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Painted pottery found in Chaiyaphum province

Painted ceramics from Chaiyaphum. Source: Matichon, 20200220via Matichon, 20 February 2020: Discovery of painted pottery, dated around 2,500 years in Chaiyaphum province in Thailand. Article is in Thai.

Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: February 25

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

HODIE: ante diem quintum Kalendas Martias

Domi leones, foris vulpes.
Lions at home, foxes in public.

Tolle moras ut agas animo quod es ante paratus;
Quodque malum est fugias ut bene tolle moras.

Amicus est tamquam alter idem.
A friend is like another self.

Vino tempera.
Keep your drinking under control.


Panthera et Rustici
Latin version and English version(s)

Cicada et Noctua


Ovid: The Heroides
translated by Tony Kline

Thirty More Famous Stories
retold by James Baldwin

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

[Talk] Documenting & Recording the History, Culture & Memory of Malay Martial Arts Groups in Singapore

Dr EffendyReaders in Singapore may be interested in this talk at the Malay Heritage Centre by Dr. Mohamed Effendy on 7 March 2020.

Ancient Cambodian ceramics part of World Anthropology Day celebration

Cambodian ceramics at UH. Source: University of Hawaii News 20200221via University of Hawaii News, 21 Feb 2020: Students in the US get the opportunity to examine Cambodian ceramics up close as part of World Anthropology Day.

Angkor Wat Owes Its Existence to Catastrophe

Angkor. Source: Smithsonian Mag, 20200221via The Smithsonian Magazine, 21 February 2020: Feature story based on the recent paper in Georarchaeology about the failed water management system in Koh Ker. Features some of my good friends and colleagues!

February 25, 2020

Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

US State Department Approves MOU with Yemen's Saudi Backed Government

The U.S. State Department has approved another MOU, this time with Yemen's Saudi backed government which stands accused of complicity in human rights abuses and the intentional bombing and shelling of Yemeni cultural sites.

Effective Feb. 5, 2020, import restrictions have been imposed under the MOU  on a wide variety of Yemeni archaeological and ethnological artifacts, including coins and books and manuscripts, which would cover religious artifacts of Yemen's displaced Jewish population.

The list of coins is extensive.  It includes:

9. Coins—A reference book for ancient, pre-Islamic material in Yemen is M. Huth, Coinage of the Caravan Kingdoms: Ancient Arabian Coins from the Collection of Martin Huth, New York, 2010, pp. 68-152. A reference book for Islamic coinage to A.D. 1750 is S. Album, Checklist of Islamic Coins, Santa Rosa, 2011, pp. 116-127. Some of the best-known types are described below:

a. Ancient—In gold, silver, and bronze/copper, with units ranging from tetradrachms down to various fractional levels.
i. Earliest coins from Yemen are imitations of silver tetradrachms from Athens; feature a bust of Athena on the obverse and an owl on the reverse. The style of these imitations is distinctive, and they are usually marked with Arabian monograms or graffiti. Approximate date: 500 B.C. and later.
ii. Minaeans produced schematic imitations of the Athenian coinage; these coins have angular shapes, often triangular. Style is distinctive with monograms with Arabian letters. Approximate date: 200 B.C.
iii. Sabaeans struck distinctive local imitations of Athenian tetradrachms, with or without monograms, often with the curved symbol of Almaqah to the right of the owl, and of smaller units than previously. In the 1st century A.D., the head of Athena is replaced with a male bust resembling Augustus; owl on the reverse continues, as do monograms and the curved symbol. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D., a beardless male head appears on the coins with the curved symbol, and a facing bucranium (a bull's head) appears on the reverse with the curved symbol and monograms. Approximate date: 400 B.C.-A.D. 300.
iv. Himyarite coins feature beardless male heads on the obverse coupled with bearded male heads on the reverse. Various South Arabian monograms appear on the coins. Rulers include Yuhabirr, Karib'il Yehun`im Wattar, Amdan Yuhaqbid, Amdan Bayan, Tha'ran Ya`ub, Shamnar Yuhan`am, and unknown kings. Approximate date: 110 B.C.-A.D. 200.
v. Qatabians produced imitations of Athenian coins also in 2nd-4th century B.C., with or without monograms; distinctive style. From the 2nd century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D., head of Athena is replaced with male ruler portraits, including those of Yad'ab Dhubyan Yuhargib, Dhub, Hawfi`Amm Yuhan`am III, Shahr Yagul, Waraw'il Ghaylan, Shahr Hilal, Yad`ab Yanaf, and various unknown rulers. Reverses of early types have the owl, while later types have a second portrait on the reverse. Approximate date: 400 B.C.-A.D. 200.
vi. Bronze coins from Hadramawt have radiate male portraits in a circle on the obverse and a standing bull on the reverse; Arabian symbols appear. Approximate date: A.D. 200-400.
vii. Various South Arabian types imitate Athenian coins, Hellenistic Alexander tetradrachms with a head of Herakles on the obverse and Zeus seated on the reverse, and Ptolemaic coins with a cornucopia on the reverse. Style is distinctive; designs are accompanied by Arabian monograms.
b. Islamic Period—In gold, silver, and bronze, and including anonymous mints in Yemen, and coins of unknown rulers attributed to Yemen. Non-exclusive mints are the primary manufacturers of the listed coins, but there may be other production mints.
i. `Abbasid coins struck in gold, silver, and bronze, at non-exclusive mints San`a, Zabid, `Adan, Dhamar, `Aththar, and Baysh mints. Approximate date: A.D. 786-974.
ii. Coins of the Amirs of San`a, struck in gold, at the mint of San`a. Approximate date: A.D. 909-911.
iii. Rassid (1st period) coins struck in gold and silver at Sa`da, San`a, Tukhla', and `Aththar. Approximate date: A.D. 898-1014.
iv. Coins of the Amirs of Yemen, struck in silver, at an uncertain mint. Approximate date: A.D. 1000-1100.
v. Coins of the Amirs of `Aththar, struck in gold, at the mint of `Aththar. Approximate date: A.D. 957-988.
vi. Tarafid coins, struck in silver, at the mint of `Aththar. Approximate date: A.D. 991-1004.
vii. Ziyadid coins, struck in gold and silver, at non-exclusive mint Zabid. Approximate date: A.D. 955-1050s.
viii. Khawlanid coins, struck in silver, at the mint of San`a. Approximate date: A.D. 1046-1047.
ix. Najjahid coins, struck in gold, at the mints Zabid and Dathina. Approximate date: A.D. 1021-1158.
x. Sulayhid coins, struck in gold and debased silver, at non-exclusive mints Zabid, `Aththar, `Adan, Dhu Jibla. Approximate date: A.D. 1047-1137.
xi. Zuray'id coins, struck in gold, at the mints of `Adan and Dhu Jibla. Approximate date: A.D. 1111-1174.
xii. Coins of Mahdid of Zabid, struck in silver, at the mint of Zabid. Approximate date: A.D. 1159-1174.
xiii. Rassid (2nd period) coins, struck in gold and silver, at non-exclusive mints Zufar, San`a, Sa`da, Huth, Dhirwah, Kahlan, Muda', `Ayyan, Bukur, al-Jahili, and Dhamar. Approximate date: A.D. 1185-1390.
xiv. Ayyubid coins, struck in gold, silver, and bronze, at the mints of Zabid, `Adan, Ta`izz, San`a, al-Dumluwa, Bukur, and Mayban. Approximate date: A.D. 1174-1236.
xv. Rasulid coins, struck in gold, silver, and bronze, at non-exclusive mints `Adan, Zabid, al-Mahjam, Ta`izz, San`a, Tha'bat, and Hajja. Approximate date: A.D. 1229-1439.
xvi. Tahirid coins, struck in silver, at the mint of `Adan. Approximate date: A.D. 1517-1538.
xvii. Rassid (3rd period) coins, struck in silver and bronze, at the mints of San`a, Zafir, and Thula. Approximate date: A.D. 1506-1572.
xviii. Ottoman coins, struck in gold, silver and bronze, at the mints of Zabid, San`a, `Adan, Kawkaban, Ta`izz, Sa`da, al-Mukha, and Malhaz. Approximate date: A.D. 1520-1750.

(Ironically, both Martin Huth and Stephen Album's firm have expressed concerns about import restrictions on coins to the Cultural Property Advisory Committee (CPAC) in the past.  Yet, here their scholarly works on these coins are being cited as a basis for the restrictions!)

What's All the Fuss About?

The archaeological lobby supporting import restrictions have pitched them as  a "consumer protection" measure designed to keep U.S. collectors from buying recently looted material.   Yet, they must know that import restrictions are controversial to the trade and collectors because, as construed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, they embargo all undocumented items of types on designated lists imported after the effective date of the regulations, not just items illegally exported from a UNESCO State party after the effective date of import restrictions as required under Cultural Property Implementation Act (CPIA), 19 U.S.C. §§ 2601, 2604, 2606, 2610. Such regulatory actions have converted CPIA import restrictions into embargoes of all objects of restricted types rather  than targeted, prospective import restrictions that do not impact the purchase of artifacts from the legitimate marketplace abroad.

Import restrictions have been particularly hard on coin collectors and the small businesses of the numismatic trade because most collector's coins (which typically are of limited value) lack detailed provenance histories necessary for legal import. This has greatly damaged the legitimate trade in such items with fellow collectors, especially from within the E.U.

Jewish groups will feel particularly aggrieved by the State Department's treatment of their concerns.  As has been the case with other MOU's made by the Obama and Trump State Departments on behalf of other authoritarian MENA regimes, import restrictions authorized by the MOU with Yemen contain no explicit exemption for artifacts once owned by Yemen's displaced Jewish population.  That means the restrictions on books , manuscripts and other archaeological and ethnological artifacts also apply to Torahs and other personal property (like jewelry) that had to be abandoned when Yemeni Jews were forced from the country.  As these groups see it, this is tantamount to U.S. State Department recognition  of the rights of Yemen and other authoritarian Arab regimes to their  personal and communal religious property.

 There also is the obvious question about whether this MOU is really about "cultural property protection."  Pursuant to the CPIA, any artifacts U.S. Customs and Border Protection seize will be sent to Yemen, a country involved in a multi-party civil war, and be given over to the custody of a  government which itself has been accused of complicity in bombing cultural sites.

Finally, there is an important issue of process.  The short comment period allowed before the CPAC meeting to address the MOU with Yemen (which encompassed important Jewish Holidays) raised suspicions at the time whether the decision was already a "done deal."  Certainly, there was plenty of evidence of lobbying by the Antiquities Coalition, an archaeological advocacy group with ties to authoritarian MENA regimes in support of the MOU.  Moreover, just recently, the U.S. Embassy in Jordan seems to have confirmed what Cultural Property Observer has long feared- that the State Department bureaucracy views CPAC as a mere rubber stamp for an agreement already worked out in advance among  the archaeological lobby and the State Department and source country bureaucracies.  Hopefully, going forward, CPAC's new Chairman and its new members will do their utmost to instead ensure CPAC sticks to its mandate to offer the State Department decision maker useful advice on whether or not to agree to a MOU based on inputs from all stake holders-- not just those associated with the archaeological lobby who already have strong relationships with the State Department Cultural Heritage Center.

Certainly, CPAC and Trump Administration political appointees need to ask themselves whether the State Department is providing a good example to MENA governments about what good governance and democracy mean.  They also need to consider how the actions of the State Department are impacting ethnic and religious minorities, American small business owners, museum professionals and collectors, all of whom will be voting in the upcoming Presidential election.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Greek papyri in the British Museum 1-3

Greek papyri in the British Museum vol. 1
Author: Kenyon, Frederic G. (Frederic George)Sir, 1863-1952Bell, H. Idris (Harold Idris), 1879-1967Crum, W. E. (Walter Ewing), 1865-1944
Publisher: British Museum
Place of Publication: London
Date of Publication: 1893-

Greek papyri in the British Museum vol. 2

Author: Kenyon, Frederic G. (Frederic George)Sir, 1863-1952Bell, H. Idris (Harold Idris), 1879-1967Crum, W. E. (Walter Ewing), 1865-1944
Publisher: British Museum
Place of Publication: London
Date of Publication: 1893-

Greek papyri in the British Museum vol. 3

Author: Kenyon, Frederic G. (Frederic George)Sir, 1863-1952Bell, H. Idris (Harold Idris), 1879-1967Crum, W. E. (Walter Ewing), 1865-1944
Publisher: British Museum
Place of Publication: London
Date of Publication: 1893-

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

GeoSLAM ZEB Horizon: acquisizione dei Mercati di Traiano

In occasione del Technology for ALL tenutosi a Roma dal 4 al 6 dello scorso dicembre, MicroGeo ha sperimentato diversi strumenti tra cui l’innovativo ZEB Horizon dell’azienda GeoSLAM.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: THIASOS: Rivista di archeologia e architettura antica - Journal of archaeology and ancient architecture

 [First posted in AWOL 20 September 2013, updated 25 February 2020]

THIASOS: Rivista di archeologia e architettura antica - Journal of archaeology and ancient architecture
ISSN: 2279-7297
Thiasos è un’iniziativa editoriale on-line, collegata alla pubblicazione di volumi monografici, in formato digitale e cartaceo, per i tipi della Quasar Edizioni. Si tratta di un progetto volto a incrementare e migliorare il dialogo sui temi di ricerca delle culture antiche, nella consapevolezza della loro attualità.

La partecipazione si intende aperta a tutti coloro che intendono collaborare con contributi scientifici, proposte, informazioni, secondo gli schemi dell’implementazione libera e collettiva degli spazi della rete, da condividere non solo come fruitori. L’unico filtro ritenuto necessario è quello della qualità scientifica e dell’impegno, che vengono valutati dal comitato scientifico in prima istanza e poi da referee esterni, italiani e stranieri, sia per i testi a stampa che per quelli presentati on-line...

Thiasos is an on-line editorial initiative, connected to the publication of monographs, edited both in electronic and paper version, for Quasar Publisher. The project aims to increase and to improve the discussion concerning scientific research on ancient cultures, that are still nowadays a topical subject.

Participation is open to everyone wishing to contribute with scientific papers, proposals, information, in accordance with the free and collective implementation schemes of on-line spaces, to be used not only as beneficiaries. The sole participation criteria are scientific quality and commitment, that are evaluated firstly by the scientific committee and subsequently by external referees, Italian and foreign ones, with regard both to paper version and on-line version texts.
V. Santoro, Il Santuario ellenistico romano di Agrigento: ragioni, principi e metodi per una proposta di anastilosi, pp. 3-20;
P. Baronio, Note per la ricostruzione del portico a sigma della basilica episcopale di Parthicopolis (Sandanski, Bulgaria), pp. 21-44;
R. Brancato, Paesaggio rurale ed economia in età ellenistica nel territorio di Catania (Sicilia orientale), pp. 45-75;
Biblioteca virtuale
è un repertorio di edizioni rare o di difficile reperimento, relativo alle tematiche della rivista.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Human populations survived the Toba volcanic super-eruption 74,000 years ago

In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the...

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Classics in the Classroom

Classics in the Classroom
As part of the extensive outreach and public-engagement programme of the Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology of the University of Birmingham, the project aims to provide teachers with educational materials which will be closely related to the content of the OCR Classics specifications and will be freely available online. The first pack of materials presented here is dedicated to the Late Roman Republic, a subject covered in both the A-Level Classical Civilisation syllabus and the A-Level Ancient History syllabus, and has been prepared by Dr Hannah Cornwell and Ben Salisbury (PhD Candidate), both experts in the field. The pack contains a series of videos as well as notes to teachers, slides and workbooks for pupils, all of which are downloadable and ready to use in the classroom. 
What is unique with this initiative is that the content of the material was not only designed for teachers, but also decided by teachers. Talking into account a large number of answers given by Ancient History and Classical Civilisation teachers to an online questionnaire, Dr Cornwell and Mr Salisbury created educational materials suited specifically to the teachers’ needs and purposes. It is with great enthusiasm therefore that we now publicly share this material. We are hopeful that it will be of use to both teachers and pupils!

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ancient inscription reveals lost civilization in Turkey that may have defeated King Midas

Last winter, a local farmer in southern Turkey stumbled upon a large stone half-submerged in an...

The Archaeology News Network

Human populations survived the Toba volcanic super-eruption 74,000 years ago

In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History's Department of Archaeology, together with international partners, have presented evidence that Middle Palaeolithic tool users were present in India before and after the Toba super-eruption 74,000 years ago. The findings support arguments that Homo sapiens was present in South Asia prior to major waves of human...

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Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

TimeTravelRome (Mobile App)

Cover art
TimeTravelRome is dedicated to the history, architecture and literature of the Ancient Roman Empire. It is a history / travel mobile app that finds and describes every significant ancient Roman city, fortress, theater or sanctuary - in Europe, Middle East as well as across North Africa. TimeTravel Rome includes hundreds of ancient texts. TimeTravel Rome is made with passion for travelers to Rome, history geeks, classics teachers, students and anyone fascinated by the ancient Roman history and its culture.

Time Travel Rome can be used as a Travel Guide to Rome and to other places of the Ancient Roman Empire: it contains 200 articles about Rome alone, making it a complete archaeological Rome travel guide. Besides, TimeTravel Rome travel guide also includes thousands of articles about monuments in Pompeii, Herculaneum, Carthage, Jerash, Trier, Nîmes and all other important sites of the Ancient Roman Empire.

History information about Rome and other sites is complemented by ancient history and litterature texts written by Cicero, Augustus, Julius Cesar, Virgil, Horace, Appian, Pliny, Plutarch, Tacitus and many other famous classic authors, making the app suitable for use by Classics teachers and students.

TimeTravel Rome combines up-to-date travel guide description of Rome and a rich collection of Ancient Rome texts, which makes it an ultimate ancient history app dedicated to the Ancient Roman Empire.

What's New

Timetravelrome offers a description for 4500 ancient sites and monuments across the Roman Empire, a gallery of 8000 photos, and a library of 300 ancient texts. The new version offers improved search features; it also adds new content and photos for hundreds of ancient sites.

Additional Information

February 24, 2020
Current Version
Requires Android
4.0.3 and up
Content Rating
In-app Products
$5.99 - $9.99 per item
Offered By
Pavla S.A.
23 Riga Fereou str.144 52 Metamorfossis Athens, Greece

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Teaching and Time

It’s Mardi Gras. It is one of the few days of the year when the average person becomes aware of the liturgical calendar and the transition from pre-Lent to Lent. Because the liturgical calendar does not align with our solar calendar the date of Easter and Lent shifts each year through out the spring. Even if one is not particularly observant, this intersection of religious and secular time is a nice reminder that there are a number of different rhythms in the world and these rhythms happen simultaneously.

This has been helpful this week because we encountered a little challenge in my one-credit class designed around engaging and documenting a building on campus that will soon be demolished. Unbeknownst to me, the building, Montgomery Hall, is scheduled to begin asbestos mitigation next Monday morning. This will involve removing carpets, flooring, and, in some cases walls. In many cases this will make the original fabric of the building more visible and this is a good thing.

The downside is that we have to be out of the build for all of March. I had ideally hoped that we could be in the building for most of March and April. Not it appears that we will have to be out of the building for at least half that time. The students, of course, we understanding and can shift their attention to work in the University Archives in Special Collections where they have formulated some intriguing research questions and projects. At the same time, it taught them a useful lesson that when you’re dealing with the real world there are always going to be challenges and unexpected events that disrupt the steadier rhythms of the academic calendar.

Over the last few years, as editor of North Dakota Quarterly and publisher at The Digital Press, I’ve wanted to include students more fully in the publishing process. The biggest challenge is, however, that the publishing process does not sync neatly with the academic calendar. NDQ, for example goes the publisher on October 1 and March 1 and a good bit of the work happens in a great flurry of effort at the start of each semester. This means that there would be very little time to ease students into a project and a good bit of dead time at the end of the semester when the issue is sent off to press. This, of course, is not insurmountable, but it does demonstrate the occasional incompatibility between the rhythm of the semester and the rhythm of, say, publishing.

The challenge gets more complex when dealing with The Digital Press because in this case you not only are dealing with the rhythm of the semester, but also the work habits of copy editors, typesetters, and individual authors. Ideally, students feel a sense of ownership over a project because they can see it through from manuscript to completion, but since this rarely follows the course of a semester, it is difficult in practice to achieve this. Moreover, the rhythm of semester life often makes it hard for students to even think about projects that run across semester breaks. This is reasonable, of course, from the perspective of students who often have tightly scheduled time commitments around other course work, jobs, and personal lives. 

It does make it hard, though, to give students a taste of the real world without the kind of contingency and commitments that life in the real world often involves.  

ArcheoNet BE

Stevig draagvlak voor onroerend erfgoed bij Vlaamse bevolking

De meerderheid van de Vlaamse bevolking vindt het behoud van ons onroerend erfgoed belangrijk. Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek van het agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed. Voor 8 op de 10 Vlamingen staat een bezoek aan een monument minstens één keer per jaar op het programma. Velen kijken voor belangrijke taken in de erfgoedzorg naar de overheid, maar tegelijk wenst meer dan de helft meer inspraak.

Vlamingen appreciëren de diversiteit van ons onroerend erfgoed en menen dat dit behouden moet worden
De Vlaming vindt het belangrijk dat verschillende categorieën van onroerend erfgoed worden behouden. Het gaat dan in de eerste plaats om burchten, kastelen en landhuizen (88%); landschappen (85%); parken en tuinen (80%); stads-en dorpsgezichten (80%); historische plekken (76%); archeologische sites (73%), …

Burgers rekenen op de overheid voor het behoud van onroerend erfgoed
68% van de bevolking rekent voor het behoud van onroerend erfgoed op de overheid. In mindere mate verwacht men dat de overheid deze monumenten en landschappen restaureert (53%) en openstelt (46%). Voor het beslissen over wat we erfgoed noemen (35%) of het geven van premies voor restauratiesen voor opgravingen (30%) kijken de burgers minder naar de overheid.

De burger vraagt inspraak
Voor iets meer dan de helft van de respondenten (57%) is het belangrijk mee te kunnen beslissen over wat we beschermen; twee derde (66%) vindt het belangrijk te mogen meedenken over erfgoed dat verwaarloosd wordt of leegstaat.

De Vlaming is actief betrokken bij het onroerend erfgoed
Vier vijfde (81%) bezocht minstens eenmaal per jaar een historisch gebouw of monument. Ook waardevolle landschappen of parken trekken veel bezoekers (73%). De meesten bezoeken erfgoed omdat ze het mooi vinden (70%), of omdat ze informatie over het verleden zoeken (68%). Grote evenementen zoals Open Monumentendag zijn bekend (91%), al wordt er minder aan deelgenomen (26%).

“De monumenten, cultureel-historische landschappen en archeologische sites zijn een grote troef voor Vlaanderen. Ze zijn van ons allemaal en bepalen mee onze eigenheid,” besluit het agentschap. “Het aanzienlijke draagvlak dat uit deze studie blijkt, is belangrijk om gezamenlijk in te staan voor een duurzame erfgoedzorg. “

Download het volledige rapport op

The Archaeology News Network

Scientists find new 110-million-year-old plant gum

A remarkable new treasure has been found by scientists from the University of Portsmouth - the first fossil plant gum on record. The beautiful, amber-like material has been discovered in 110 million year old fossilised leaves. The fossilized leaves belonging to the Welwitschiophyllum plant [Credit: University of Portsmouth]University of Portsmouth PhD student Emily Roberts, made the discovery while examining fossilised leaves of the...

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Jim Davila (

Conference on Magic in Late Antiquity in Jerusalem

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David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

#Thelxinoe ~ Classics News for February 25, 2020

Hodie est a.d. V Kal. Mart. 2772 AUC ~ 2 Anthesterion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

In the News

In Case You Missed It

Classicists and Classics in the News

Greek/Latin News

Public Facing Classics

Fresh Bloggery

Fresh Podcasts

Qui sint mores Veronensium minus vituperandi.

It’s time for Rome’s fourth King, Ancus Marcius to come into the spotlight. I discuss what he did and didn’t build as well as play detective in a murder mystery. Spoiler alert, he probably did it.

Book Reviews

Professional Matters


‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

If it thunders today, it portends a reversal of fortune for the wealthy as well as wars and a serious storm.

… adapted from the text and translation of:

Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

Lawrence H. Schiffman

Lecture: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the History of Judaism

Great Isaiah Scroll

Great Isaiah Scroll, photo by Ardon Bar-Hama for the Israel Museum

The Sisterhood and Men’s Club of Congregation L’Dor V’Dor Presents

Dr. Lawrence H. Schiffman

New York University Judge Abraham Lieberman Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies & Director of the Global Institute for Advanced Research in Jewish Studies

The Dead Sea Scrolls and the History of Judaism

Sunday, March 29th 10:30 a.m.

Congregation L’dor V’Dor
49-10 Little Neck Parkway
Little Neck, NY 11362


The post Lecture: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the History of Judaism appeared first on Prof. Lawrence H. Schiffman.

Jim Davila (

New BAR issue imminent

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

1000-year-old biblical manuscript recovered in Egypt

<img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

The Archaeology News Network

Wildfire Cycles and Climate Change

Wildfire, a natural phenomenon, existed on the Earth over 400 Ma. However, the mechanisms underlying wildfire-climate interactions are not clear. Wildfire forcing has long been underestimated or overlooked in climate change studies. Credit: Stock Photos (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); A study led by AN Zhisheng from the Institute of Earth Environment (IEE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences revealed a linkage...

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Lava flows tell 600-year story of biodiversity loss on tropical island

A natural experiment created by an active volcano gives new insight into the long-term negative impacts of human colonisation of tropical forest islands. The findings are published in the British Ecological Society journal, Journal of Ecology. Aerial photo of the lowland caldera, Reunion island, shows a mosaic of vegetation established on lava flows of very different ages [Credit: Herve Douris]Researchers from the University of...

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Hosni Mubarak

Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak has died, according to state TV. Mubarak was president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011, when he was ousted following mass protests against his rule.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Latin and Arabic: Entangled Histories

Latin and Arabic: Entangled Histories
Daniel G. König (Ed.)  
Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality
  Latin and Arabic
As linguistic systems comprising a large variety of written and oral registers including derivate “languages” and “dialects,” Latin and Arabic have been of paramount importance for the history of the Euromediterranean since Antiquity. Moreover, due to their long-term function as languages of administration, intellectual activity, and religion, they are often regarded as cultural markers of Europe and the (Arabic-)Islamic sphere respectively. This volume explores the many dimensions and ramifications of Latin-Arabic entanglement both from macro-historical as well as from micro-historical perspectives. Visions of history marked by the binary opposition of “Islam” and “the West” tend to ignore these important facets of Euromediterranean entanglement, as do historical studies that explain complex transcultural processes without giving attention to their linguistic dimension.
Table of Contents
Daniel G. König
Part I: Latin and Arabic: Macro-historical Perspectives
Benoît Grévin
1. Comparing Medieval “Latin” and “Arabic” Textual Cultures from a Structural Perspective
Daniel G. König
2. Latin-Arabic Entanglement: A Short History
Part II: Latin and Arabic: Case Studies
Daniel Potthast
3. Diglossia as a Problem in Translating Administrative and Juridical Documents: The Case of Arabic, Latin, and Romance on the Medieval Iberian Peninsula
Benoît Grévin
4. Between Arabic and Latin in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy
Katarzyna K. Starczewska
5. Beyond Religious Polemics: An Arabic-Latin Qurʾān Used as a Textbook for Studying Arabic.
Jan Scholz
6. Cicero and Quintilian in the Arab World? Latin Rhetoric in Modern Arabic Rhetorical and Homiletical Manuals
About the Authors

The Archaeology News Network

Researchers discover unique non-oxygen breathing animal

Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have discovered a non-oxygen breathing animal. The unexpected finding changes one of science's assumptions about the animal world. TEM image of H. salminicola mitochondrion-related organelle with few cristae [Credit: American Friends of Tel Aviv University]A study on the finding was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by TAU researchers led by Prof. Dorothee Huchon of...

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Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Some Detectorists Expect to get Access and Taking Rights for Free

A comment on "Social media has destroyed the hobby hasn't it :("... Seen on a farming social media portal:

Note no mention of signing anything giving title to collectable finds.... 

The Life of a Commercial Artefact Hunting Rally Organiser in the UK

Lynda Abertson of ARCA spotted this and thought the whole thread might interest PACHI's readers. Its a complaint against commercial artefact hunting rallies and the number of people organising them and taking part in them. This is a whole aspect of the current shape of the hobby (those 'citizen achaeologists') that the PAS and its supporters stubbornly refuse to talk about at length in a pretence that the hobby is still in its 1990s form:
Shaun McNamara You have been caught red handed Zoe, and not just by me. Pink Wellies Metal Detecting has become a byword for rip off digs, no amenities whatsoever, not even a toilet on a VERY hot early Autumn day. You and your little gang of helpers have been well and truly found out.
Oh, one piece of advice, if you are going to post up fake pictures of things SUPPOSEDLY found on your digs, it might be better if you didn’t loot (sic PMB) those pictures from places like Ebay, as these are easily traced back to source. Which is exactly what happened [emoticon] [emoticon] [another twenty emoticons]
To be honest, you are not even particularly good at being a rip off merchant, i suspected you were a shyster before i had even attended your shoddy event. Your whole modus operandi, your banter etc, it all clearly speaks of someone who is after a fast buck at the expense of others [just seven emoticons this time]
Please pass on my best wishes to ‘the dynamic duo’, those two clueless middle class tarts who you employ to pretend they have made finds on your digs. I might name and shame them on here a bit later, but the night is young, as it were... [emoticon], [emoticon], [emoticon].Some of my own permissions are pretty barren, some have been battered for decades, but your best sites make the worst of my permissions seem positively productive. Perhaps i should thank you for, on some level, reinvigorating some of my crappier sites [emoticon]
I am surprised you had the neck to come on here and attempt to defend yourself, but i am very glad that you have, all very amusing because let’s face it, you lack the intelligence, charm and wit to have done anything other than further publicise your own shady practices [emoticon], [emoticon], [emoticon].
I await your next pithy rejoinder with glee... [emoticon], [emoticon], [emoticon].
Oh, i almost forgot... when you drove away from that dig in September, was there a slight whiff of pee pee in/on your car? Asking for a friend [emoticon], [emoticon],[another six assorted emoticons].
There is no doubt at all in my mind from the language used which way that individual voted in the Brexit referendum. There is a whole thread of this over there. The point of a commercial artefact hunting rally organiser pretending that exciting things were found on a site where they were not of course is to establish their reputation in the community for 'finding good land' and encouraging more people to pay up and come next time. But of course planting finds simply irresponsibly distorts the archaeological record. Having said that, in the whole thread there is not a single piece of documentation offered that said "Zoe" and her "middle class tarts" (sic) had claimed finds that Shane and his mates had in fact located on eBay, just a lot of emoticons, resentment and misogyny.

Note that Indignant Shaun is well aware that repeated artefact hunting makes an archaeological site or assemblage barren of collectable artefacts ("battered"). Yet, he sees nothing wrong with battering it, and other areas, more and more. Now there is "responsibility" and entitlement for you.

The Archaeology News Network

Gene loss more important in animal kingdom evolution than previously thought

Scientists have shown that some key points of animal evolution—like the ones leading to humans or insects—were associated with a large loss of genes in the genome. The study, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, compared over 100 genomes to investigate what happened at the gene level during the evolution of animals after their origin. Credit: University of Bristol (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); During...

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ArcheoNet BE

Een archeologische kijk onder de Dendermondse binnenstad

Op vrijdag 6 maart organiseert de IOED Schelde-Durme een lezingenavond over recent archeologisch onderzoek in het centrum van Dendermonde. Bert Heyvaert (Monument Vandekerckhove) neemt eerst een archeologische kijk onder het middeleeuwse stadhuis en zijn omgeving. Daarna duikt Olivier Van Remoorter (BAAC Vlaanderen) onder het Zwartzusterklooster op de Vlasmarkt, waar verrassend genoeg de eerste stadsversterking aan het licht kwam. Deze activiteit vindt plaats om 19u30 in Belgica Bis (Kerkstraat 115, Dendermonde). Schrijf nog snel in via, want de avond is bijna volzet!

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

UK Detectorist Entitlement

DIG THIS! Metal Detecting and History Group, a [Facebook] group for detectorists run by detectorists, with no hidden agendas and away from the wannabe detecting celebrities and YouTubers seeking detecting stardom.

Discussion on commercial artefact hunting rallies. Started by group administrator Iain Crozza (February 17 at 10:19 PM): "There seems to be an increase in "fly by night" - "get rich quick" merchants approaching land owners especially in Norfolk and Suffolk as well as nationwide [...] these large get rich quick digs [...] are going to totally ruin this hobby in the long run for both individuals and established genuine clubs". Reading the thread, you can see why. It seems that Britain's artefact hunters not only want the land for themselves and the organisations they themselves belong to, but they do not want landowners learning of the value of the material they take from the land. It seems that "proper metal detectorists" ("doing it for the love of the hobby") expect to get on the land for free, take away what they want for free, unless its a treasure item, in which case they recognise that they will have to share the proceeds of the sale (to the state) with the actual landowner.
Les Barratt [punctuation original] Our club lost a load of land 18 months ago as some prick [sic] got permision off [sic] one of our farmers and went back to him a couple of days latter [sic] with a gold coin and said if ime [sic] finding stuff like this whats that club not showing you. so the farmer kicked our club off the bloke that did this has done this to quite a few farms and got people kicked off so he can then move in and take people on ripping them off. it makes my blood boil.
Obviously, the landowner had their own suspicions about the honesty of the club. Another member seems a bit confused about whose land they are on, and the landowner's right to know the true value of the items removed by artefact hunters. So....
Kim Horigan I have returned to detecting after a break of 4 decades, I found it utterly shocking and offensive to see clubs offering farmers 100's of pounds or more to detect on their land even on local FB pages! What chance does a person have to get a permission now, back in the day it was a solitary hobby with no internet bragging! I'm not sure things have changed for the better...
'Shocking and offensive' for a property owner to get something of the value back of the objects they are allowing artefact hunters to remove from their property? Think of the entitlement hiding behind that comment for a moment (and referring to a landowner as merely "farmer"). And the problem for the Luddite obviously is this new-fangled technology:
Iain Crozza Kim Horigan you're totally right, I couldn't agree more! Social media has destroyed the hobby hasn't it [sic] [emoticon]

Fred Gibby establishes his authority by an appeal to seniority, a whacking big Union Jack and 'Brexit English':
Fred Gibby I have been doing this since 1979 ok first few years was only a bit here and a bit there... but since the mid 80s i have been fairly active and its only since this social media has come along that this hobbie [sic] has been turned into a money making machine.… i seen [sic] people start offering digs for x amount of money and giving the farmer even less than the x amount they Have took [sic] and withing [sic] months they have new machines new cars.. i use to go [sic] to some of these digs but once i found out they are conning the farmers i dont go... little club digs do me and most of the clubs i belong to give all the money to the farmer.. the sad thing is little clubs have had to put on digs just to keep its members because of these other digs and then that has a knock on affect [sic] and makes it even harder for the lone detectorist to get permission.
For free, of course. This is followed by Kim Horigan commenting on "just too many people now chasing a permission, flashing big money to farmers" and Iain Crozza agreeing and conservatively bemoaning change in the hobby: "its killing it mate isn't it. I reckon in 10 years the hobby will be non existant [sic] to individuals and genuine clubs". Stephen Reynolds agrees with Mr Crozza:
I'm out there a lot. Yes it's terrible. To be honest I dont come across club sites very often. Mainly group sites where sole detecting rights are secured through a wad of cash. Sometimes I've found individuals have secured the land in the same way. Cash! I've met lads who just go on where they want because they cant get permission anywhere. I've met people who concentrated on building sites near villages and had a spanner to open the fencing to gain access. Ive met grown men wanting to fight because you got a yes from the farmer on ' their permission'. And I've met people like me who have been doing it a long time and just want a day out. Going out and trying to get on as an individual is almost impossible. Being a bit stubborn though I dont give up easily..if ever! Thanks for the initial post. Good to know Its not just me!
So, just note what he's saying about the spanners (for unbolting fences), he has "met" men who just go where they want 'because they cant get permission anywhere'. They are artefact hunting illegally because they cannot get legal access. That's like not being able to afford to buy one, but wanting to drive one, so they steal my neighbour's Porsche. If Porsches were more readily available and access to them not a privilege, car theft would be down. And when Mr Reynolds has "met" a nighthawk, what does he do as "a responsible detectorist"  about it? The same as if he saw a bloke breaking into a neighbour's garage to nick the Porsche?
hat tip: Lynda Albertson ARCA

Jim Davila (

Linguistic dating of biblical Hebrew?

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James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)


I’ll be presenting on the subject of Open Educational Resources (OERs for short) at Butler University this Thursday, together with one of our librarians, Jennifer Coronado. She has not only been an active supporter of OERs and open access scholarship in general, including in conjunction with the PALNI (Private Academic Library Network of Indiana) Affordable […]

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Dealer with Close Links with the Council for British Archaeology Sells Silver Artefact

Dealer 'denant'  (Den of Antiquity Int Ltd  - Simon Shipp, Cambridge CB25 9WJ United Kingdom ) flogging off a (one presumes, disclaimed - but why not say so?) Treasure item for GBP 1,250.00
Date: C. 10th century
Information: A fine example of a silver hooked tag with two pierced lobe attachment points, and depicting a quadruped to central panel with an interlaced ribbon design and niello inlay. Condition: Hook a little bent otherwise intact and of a good size with excellent detail. Size: 23mm x 28mm Please note:- Any questions regarding this object/s will be answered ASAP during office hours 09.00-17.00 GMT Monday to Friday, excluding national holidays/bank holidays. Thank you.
How about just putting the information there upfront, without anyone having to ask a dealer openly flogging off such a thing? Where was it found? When? What was its Treasure Case number and when was it disclaimed? What is its number in PAS database, I could not find it mentioned there. It also says in the sales offer:
Items offered by denant (Den of Antiquity Int Ltd) are unconditionally guaranteed to be authentic. Certificate of Authenticity, Invoice upon request. Antiquities Dealers Association and British Numismatics Trade Association member and as such abide by their code of conduct. The BNTA has become an effective force in the fight against forgery, theft and other criminal activities, thus establishing a benchmark for the highest ethical standards in the domestic coin trade. Members receive early warning notices of counterfeit coins and stolen property. ADA’s Code of Conduct binds its members to ensure that to the best of their knowledge and belief all objects sold are genuine and as described. The Association is a Corporate Member of the Museums Association, is represented on the executive of the British Art Market Federation and has close links with the Council for British Archaeology.
But as such, what assurance is conspicuously absent in the above? May well be authentic, but is that the only measure of legitimacy in the UK antiquities market?

Archaeology Magazine

Scientists Analyze Early Farmers’ Salmonella Genomes

Skull Salmonella GenomeJENA, GERMANY—According to a report in Science Magazine, population geneticists Felix Key and Johannes Krause and bacterial genomicist Alexander Herbig of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History developed a technique to detect DNA from disease-causing bacteria in ancient remains. The researchers were able to reconstruct eight Salmonella enterica genomes after screening samples taken from the teeth of more than 2,500 people who had been buried in Europe, Russia, or Turkey more than 6,500 years ago. Two of the genomes, found in the remains of hunter-gatherers who lived in what is now Russia, are from strains of the pathogen that cause miscarriages in horses and sheep. The other six genomes, recovered from ancient farmers and pastoralists, include the progenitor of a rare strain of bacteria that can now be deadly to humans, but in the past would have caused a milder form of illness in both humans and animals. The analysis also suggests that early farmers picked up Salmonella enterica from an unknown animal host, rather than from domesticated pigs some 4,000 years ago, as had been previously thought. To read about the identification of Salmonella enterica in the remains of victims of a 1545 epidemic in Mexico, go to "Conquistador Contagion."

Inscribed Stone in Turkey Offers Clue to Lost Iron Age City

Turkey Luwian StoneCHICAGO, ILLINOIS—According to UChicago News, James Osborne of the university’s Oriental Institute and Michele Massa of the British Institute at Ankara identified an inscribed stone discovered by a farmer in an irrigation canal in southern Turkey as a document from a lost Iron Age kingdom. Osborne said the text, written in Luwian hieroglyphs in the late eighth century B.C., contained a special mark indicating the message came from a king named Hartapu, and that his still unidentified kingdom at the site of Türkmen-Karahöyük had defeated the kingdom of Muska, which is also known as Phrygia. Osborne said the king’s name has also been found on an inscription located about ten miles to the south of where the new stone was discovered. To read about the sudden destruction of the Bronze Age settlement of Zincirli in southeastern Turkey, go to "The Wrath of the Hittites."

Girl Scouts Assist With Excavation at Founder’s Birthplace

Georgia Gordon HouseSAVANNAH, GEORGIA—Savannah Now reports that nearly 100 Girl Scouts from Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina assisted archaeologist Rita Elliott with an investigation of the garden areas at Savannah’s Juliette Gordon Low Birthplace ahead of a landscaping project. The house, built for the mayor of Savannah in 1821, was purchased by Juliette Gordon Low’s grandparents in 1831. Low, who was born in 1860, founded the Girl Scouts organization in 1912 while staying in the home. The property was registered as a National Historic Landmark in 1965. Artifacts recovered at the site date back to the eighteenth century and include marbles, pottery, handmade nails, and a doll’s arm. To read about archaeology on Georgia's Ossabaw Island, go to "Off the Grid."

Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Penang denies it is building multi-storey car park at Fort Cornwallis

Fort Cornwallis. Source: FMT 20200220via FMT, 20 February 2020: A small furore in Penang last week when some people thought a multi-storey car park was being built beside Fort Cornwallis, part of the Unesco World Heritage property of Penang. The Penang administration has since clarified that this has never been the case.

Elephant fossil found in East Java

Elephant fossil from Madiun. Source: Kemdikbud 20200220via the East Java Cultural Preservation Center, 20 February 2020: Report of an elephant fossil discovered in Madiun, East Java. The find raises potential for finding other fossils in the area. Article is in Bahasa.

Sukhothai’s new dawn

Sukhothai. Source: Bangkok Post 20200220via Bangkok Post, 20 February 2020: Sukhothai's new designation as a Unesco Creative City brings new light to its handicrafts and traditional foods, augmenting what is already a great archaeological site.

New Bangkok Museum Dedicated for King Taksin at ICONSIAM

Zheng Zhao junk, Icon Siam. Source: FTN News 20200218via FTN News, 18 February 2020: The floating museum at Bangkok's newest mall, ICONSIAM has been refurbished to celebrate the legacy of King Taksin of the Thonburi kingdom.

February 24, 2020

ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

Book reviews, February 2020

A few Greek book reviews have been published this month: two from Bryn Mawr Classical Review and one […]

ArcheoNet BE

Over massagraven en knekelmuren: onderzoek in de Sint-Baafskathedraal

Een jaar geleden startten archeologen van Ruben Willaert bvba met een opgraving in en rond de Sint-Baafskathedraal in Gent, en dit naar aanleiding van de realisatie van een nieuw bezoekerscentrum voor het Lam Gods en de restauratie van de kranskapellen. Het onderzoek kwam onlangs nog uitgebreid in het nieuws door de unieke vondst van een aantal 15de-eeuwse knekelmuurtjes. Eerder kwamen al een groot aantal skeletten aan het licht. Wie alles wil weten over de resultaten van het lopende onderzoek, vindt verschillende nieuwsbrieven op De achtste nieuwsbrief behandelt de recente vondst van de knekelmuurtjes.

Bezoek vrijdag de opgravingen op de site Molenkouter in Merelbeke

Archeologen van Ruben Willaert bvba voeren momenteel onderzoek uit op de site van het nieuwe sportcomplex Molenkouter in Merelbeke. In het verleden werden ten noorden van het terrein sporen van een nederzetting en een grafveld uit de vroege middeleeuwen aangetroffen. Op vrijdag 28 februari kunnen geïnteresseerden de opgravingen bezoeken. Er worden drie rondleidingen georganiseerd: om 13u30 (volzet), 15u en 16u15. Gelieve in te schrijven via of 09/362.87.19. Opgelet: aangepast schoeisel is een must!

Stad Herentals zoekt expert cultureel erfgoed

De stad Herentals is momenteel op zoek naar een expert cultureel erfgoed (m/v). Hij/zij geeft mee vorm aan een geïntegreerd erfgoed- en collectiebeleid en aan een intergemeentelijk groeitraject. Bovendien ontwikkelt hij/zij een participatieve en inspirerende publiekswerking. Solliciteren voor deze voltijdse functie (niveau B) kan nog tot en met 13 maart. Je vindt de volledige vacature op

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Palaeolexicon: Word study tool for ancient languages

Palaeolexicon: Word study tool for ancient languages

About Palaeolexicon

Palaeolexicon is a tool for the study of ancient languages. Its name derives from the Greek words palaeo meaning 'old' and lexicon meaning 'dictionary'. If you're interested of the ancient world and its languages, then this is a site for you. It is a place for people who love historical linguistics and ancient history.


Palaeolexicon started as a project in December 2008 and its aim was to provide a searchable index of Mycenaean Greek glosses. During the early development stages, it was decided that Phrygian should be docked in as well. Then languages of the greater Balkan and Anatolia area followed.

Language support

The Palaeolexicon database contains public and partial dictionaries that in turn contain thousands of words. The difference between a public and partial dictionary, is that a public dictionary is available for browsing, while a partial dictionary will return results corresponding the search criteria of a user.

Palaeolexicon has currently the following public dictionaries:
  • Avestan
  • Cappadocian Greek
  • Carian
  • Cypriot Syllabic Script
  • Early Proto-Albanian
  • Eteocypriot
  • Etruscan
  • Hattic
  • Hittite
  • Linear B
  • C. Luwian
  • Lycian
  • Lydian
  • Old Norse
  • Palaic
  • Phrygian
  • Pre-Celtic
  • Pre-Greek toponyms
  • Proto-Altaic
  • Proto-Indo-European
  • Proto-Kartvelian
  • Proto-Semitic
  • Proto-Turkic
  • Safaitic
  • Thracian
  • Tocharian A
  • Tocharian B
  • Urartian
The partial dictionaries include the following languages:
  • Aeolic Greek
  • Ancient Macedonian
  • Arcado-Cypriot Greek
  • Armenian
  • Attic Greek
  • Basque/Euskara
  • Doric Greek
  • Greek
  • Hurrian
  • Ionic Greek
  • Latin
  • Lemnian
  • Mitanni
  • Old Persian
  • Ossetian (Iron)
  • Pr.Indo-Iranian
  • Proto-Anatolian
  • Proto-Celtic
  • Proto-Italic
  • Proto-Tungus
  • Proto-Uralic
  • Sanskrit

    Liddell, Scott, Jones Ancient Greek Lexicon (LSJ) Wiki

    [First posted in AWOL 10 My 2013, updated 24 February 2020]



    This project consisted originally in the conversion into mediawiki format of Liddell, Scott, Jones' A Greek–English Lexicon, which is more commonly known as LSJ. The data have been provided by the Perseus Project with a Creative Commons Sharealike / Non-Commercial / Attribution license. And it was launched on February 2013.
    Since then a number of other sources (Ancient Greek/Latin to and from other languages) have been added. For example:
    • Diccionario Griego-Español (DGE)
    DGE is and Ancient Greek to Spanish Dictionary produced at the Instituto de Lenguas y Culturas del Mediterráneo y Oriente Próximo (ILC) of the Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales (CCHS) of the CSIC (Madrid) under the direction of Francisco R. Adrados and Juan Rodríguez Somolinos. The online version (about 60,000 entries) contains lemmata from α through ἔξαυος and is the work of this amazing team. Work on this dictionary has been sponsored by the Greek Leventis Foundation among others and it is offered under a non-commercial creative commons license.
    • Anatole Bailly, Dictionnaire Grec-Français abrégé as digitized by Chaeréphon


    Apart from making accessible a variety of sources, the objective is to improve upon them. Many of the works are old and apart from antiquated language there are also numerous errors. Hence the work being carried out on editing those sources and producing reverge language versions (i.e. from other languages into Ancient Greek).

    Attribution Required

    According to the above license, if you copy text from this site you are required to provide attribution with a link to the page you used. To be clear as to what attribution means, you have to:
    Hyperlink directly to the original page on the source site of the specific article you quote from (e.g. ἀγάπη)
    “Directly”, means that each hyperlink must point directly to this domain in standard HTML visible even with JavaScript disabled, and not use a tinyurl or any other form of obfuscation or redirection. Furthermore, the links must not be nofollowed.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Oldest reconstructed bacterial genomes link farming, herding with emergence of new disease

    The Neolithic revolution, and the corresponding transition to agricultural and pastoralist lifestyles, represents one of the greatest cultural shifts in human history, and it has long been hypothesized that this might have also provided the opportunity for the emergence of human-adapted diseases. A new study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution led by Felix M. Key, Alexander Herbig, and Johannes Krause of the Max Planck...

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    American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Events

    “The Early Ottoman Peloponnese – A Study in the Light of an Annotated Edition Princeps of the TT10 – 1/14662 Ottoman Taxation Cadastre (ca. 1460 – 1463).”

    February 24, 2020 19:00 - BOOK LAUNCH Prof. Francis Robinson (Royal Asiatic Society) Prof. Paraskevas Konortas (University of Athens) Prof. Georgia Katsouda (Academy of Athens) Dr Alexis Alexandris (former Consul General of Greece  in Istanbul; Ambassador-Representative of Greece to UN, Geneva) and the author Dr Georgios Liakopoulos (Max Planck Institute)

    Old News from Arcadia? The Arkadikon Coinage revisited

    February 24, 2020 19:00 - SEMINAR David Weidgenannt (Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main)

    He has a wife you know

    Kings of Rome. Ancus Marcius.

    It’s time for Rome’s fourth King, Ancus Marcius to come into the spotlight. I discuss what he didn, and didn’t build as well as play detective in a murder mystery. Spoiler alert, he probably did it.

    Music by Brakhage (Le Vrai Instrumental)

    Check out this episode!

    The Archaeology News Network

    Ancient DNA from Sardinia reveals 6,000 years of genetic history

    A new study of the genetic history of Sardinia, a Mediterranean island off the western coast of Italy, tells how genetic ancestry on the island was relatively stable through the end of the Bronze Age, even as mainland Europe saw new ancestries arrive. The study further details how the island's genetic ancestry became more diverse and interconnected with the Mediterranean starting in the Iron Age, as Phoenician, Punic, and eventually...

    [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

    Modern technology reveals old secrets about the great, white Maya road

    Did a powerful queen of Coba, one of the greatest cities of the ancient Maya world, build the longest Maya road to invade a smaller, isolated neighbor and gain a foothold against the emerging Chichen Itza empire? Built at the turn of the 7th century, the white plaster-coated road that began 100 kilometers to the east  in Coba ends at Yaxuna's ancient downtown, in the center of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula [Credit: Traci Ardren...

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    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Animales salvajes en Mesopotamia: los grandes mamíferos en el tercer milenio a. C.

    Animales salvajes en Mesopotamia: los grandes mamíferos en el tercer milenio a. C.
    Author: Lladó Santaeularia, Alexandra
    Director/Tutor: Molina Martos, Manuel
     Los animales han tenido siempre una gran repercusión en la Historia del ser humano. Durante el Paleolítico eran cazados como fuente de alimento para complementar una dieta pobre en proteínas. Más tarde, la domesticación de algunas especies fue uno de los principales motores de la revolución neolítica, convirtiéndolos en un recurso económico de gran importancia. Además de la carne y las pieles, se empezaron a explotar otros productos secundarios como la leche o la lana, y algunos animales fueron empleados como fuerza de trabajo agrícola y medio de transporte terrestre. Pese a estos cambios trascendentales, los animales salvajes siguieron teniendo una importante presencia en la sociedad. Los depredadores eran una amenaza constante para las personas y sus rebaños, mientras que los herbívoros seguían siendo cazados por necesidad o por entretenimiento. El caso de Mesopotamia no es distinto. A lo largo de toda su historia encontramos multitud de referencias a los animales salvajes tanto en las fuentes escritas como en las representaciones figurativas, demostrando que su importancia, al menos simbólica, era parecida a la de los animales domésticos. Incluso algunos de ellos tuvieron cierta trascendencia en actividades económicas. En este contexto, la presente tesis analiza la presencia de fauna salvaje en la Mesopotamia del tercer milenio a. C. y su relación con la sociedad de la época, centrándose en el caso concreto de los grandes mamíferos. Para ello, se propone un enfoque multidisciplinar que incluye el estudio de los restos faunísticos, las representaciones figurativas y las fuentes escritas (lexicográficas, literarias y administrativas), con el objetivo de tener una visión lo más completa posible sobre la situación concreta de cada una de estas especies en el periodo estudiado.
    Animals have always had quite a large repercussion on humans’ history. In the Paleolithic, they were hunted as feeding source to complement a low-protein diet. Later on, the domestication of some species facilitated the Neolithic revolution as animals became an important economic resource. Apart from consuming their meat and using their furs, other secondary products such as milk and wool started to being exploited. Some others were used as working animals in agriculture and for terrestrial transportation. Even though all these transcendental changes, wild animals still had an important presence in society. Predators were a constant threat for people and herds, while herbivores were hunted because of necessity or as entertainment. Mesopotamian case was not different. Throughout all its history, numerous references to wild animals in textual sources as well as figurative representations can be found, what demonstrates that their importance was similar to the domestic animals’, at least in a symbolic way. Some of these wild animals even had a certain transcendence in economic activities. In this context, the aim of this dissertation is to analyse the presence of wild fauna in Mesopotamia during the third millennium BC and its relationship with the society of the period, focusing on the specific case of big mammals. To achieve such a goal, an interdisciplinary approach is proposed, which includes the study of faunal remains, figurative representations and written sources (lexical, literary and administrative) to provide a general picture of the status of the animal world in the third millennium BC.

    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Long Late Antiquity on Cyprus

    This week I’m shifting gears from working on archaeology of contemporary America and returning to Late Antique Cyprus to prepare a paper for a conference in March on Cyprus and the Long Late Antiquity.

    The abstract for my paper is here. As with so many conferences, I wrote my abstract in June 2019 for a paper in March 2020 and over the past 9 months reconsidered my paper significantly. This was in no small part to the paper that I wrote for a conference at Dumbarton Oaks on islands in the Byzantine period (you can read that here). At this conference, a number of the participants unpacked the notion of insularity (my review of that conference is here) along political, cultural, social, and economic lines. The result was a group of papers that explored whether the concept of insularity served to describe the definitive feature of islands in the Byzantine world. My paper proposed that Cyprus in Late Antiquity was sufficiently diverse that the concept of insularity was not particularly useful at least within the constraints of our existing archaeological knowledge.

    My current plan is to expand these arguments into the realm of the “long late antiquity” by looking more closely at the situation at ancient Arsinoe in the village of Polis in the Chrysochous Valley. My plan today is work on the introduction. I have this idea that I’ll start with our work at Pyla-Koutsopetria and then move to the west to the site of Arsinoe. 

    Here’s what I have so far:

    Late Antiquity has been getting longer. This historiographic narrative is well known to the individuals in this room. Over the last 60 years, scholars of the Late Roman world have reconsidered the significance of catastrophic political or military events as the definitive markers in our chronological schemes. This, in turn, has discouraged view of Late Antiquity as a period of crisis that ultimately led to this or that catastrophic event. In the place of crisis or decline, scholars argue that Late Antiquity was a period of transition or dynamic transformation and have increasingly blurred the lines that describe our conventional periodization schemes. The ancient world, it would seem, did not end, but simply faded away.

    Archaeology, of course, has played no small role in these changing attitudes. The ever later drift of our ceramic chronologies bolstered by the steadily expanding body of carefully published excavations and surveys from across the Mediterranean world has sought to detach archaeological narratives from political or military events. In Greece, for example, the Slavic invasion of the late 6th century no longer represents a catastrophic break and any number of urban and rural sites appear prosperous or at least viable into the mid-7th century. The evidence for the Islamic conquests of the 7th century in the Levant, as another example, remain uneven with some areas showing a rapid decline in the number of settlements, whereas other regions show little change or even expansion. In many cases, the material culture that plays such a key role in assessing the date and function of sites changes far more slowly than political or military events. On Cyprus, as this conference presupposes, the firm dates associated with the Arab Raids of the mid-7th century or the supposed depopulation of the island for the founding of Nea Justinianoupolis in 691 no longer mark a clear break in the material culture of the island.

    This is not to suggest that the 7th and 8th centuries did not see significant changes on the island. Indeed, part of the challenge in dealing with the long late antiquity on Cyprus involves the wide range of situations on the island during these centuries. As Marcus Rautman has shown, the countryside appears to have endured significant depopulation by the middle years of the 7th century. At the same time, urban centers appear to have continued with Paphos showing signs of an Arab population in the 7th century, Soloi preserving signs of recovery after the Arab raids, Kyrenia remained an important port of the Byzantine fleet, and Salamis-Constantia and its neighborhood continued and rebuilt, and so on. Megaw argued that Kourion was abandoned after a late-7th century earthquake, Amathus’s decline was more graduate with the site continuing to produce coins, seals, and ceramics into the early-8th century, Kition remains largely unknown at the end of antiquity. Between the countryside and cities, ex-urban sites like the still lately unpublished Ay. Georgios-Peyias appear to have declined in the 7th century.

    Another ex-urban site of Pyla-Koutsopetria, which Maria Hadjicosti excavated in the 1990s and a team that I co-directed with Scott Moore and David Pettegrew surveyed and excavated further in from 2005-2012, also appears to have declined in the 7th century. Our work can add a bit more nuance and detail to the diverse narratives of change present on the island and provide a bit of context for our recent work at the site of Arsinoe in Western Cyprus.

    The Archaeology News Network

    Anonymous no more: combining genetics with genealogy to identify the dead in unmarked graves

    In Quebec, gravestones did not come into common use until the second half of the 19th century, so historical cemeteries contain many unmarked graves. Inspired by colleagues at Barcelona's Pompeu Fabra University, a team of researchers in genetics, archaeology and demography from three Quebec universities (Universite de Montreal, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi and Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres) conducted a study in which they...

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    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Video of conference presentations: Neo-Paleography: Analysing Ancient Handwritings in the Digital Age

    Basel, 27-29 January 2020
    Venue: Kollegienhaus, Regenzzimmer 111, Petersplatz 1, 4001 Basel

    Click here for directions.
    Click here to download the programme.
    Click here to download the abstracts.
    Click here for the presented posters.
    Click here for the conference videos.


    Monday 27 January


    Tuesday 28 January


    Wednesday 29 January

    9:00Marie Beurton-Aimar, Cecilia Ostertag in abs. (Bordeaux): Re-assembly Egyptian potteries with handwritten texts
    9:30Vincent Christlein (Nuremberg): Writer identification in historical document images 
    10:00Imran Siddiqi (Islamabad): Dating of Historical Manuscripts using Image Analysis & Deep Learning Techniques 
    10:45Coffee break
    11:00Tanmoy Mondal (Montpellier): Efficient technique for Binarization, Noise Cleaning and Convolutional Neural Network Based Writer Identification for Papyri Manuscripts
    11:30Andreas Fischer (Fribourg): Recent Advances in Graph-Based Keyword Spotting for Supporting Quantitative Paleography
    12:30Coffee break
    14:00Vlad Atanasiu, Peter Fornaro (Basel): On the utility of color in computational paleography
    Visit of the Digital Humanities Lab and the papyrus collection in the University Library

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #Thelxinoe ~ Classics News for February 24, 2020

    Hodie est a.d. VI Kal. Mart. 2772 AUC ~ 1 Anthesterion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

    In the News

    … a slow day

    In Case You Missed It

    Public Facing Classics

    Fresh Bloggery

    Fresh Podcasts

    I, Podius ain’t your daddy’s I, Claudius-based podcast! On Episode 2 hosts John Hodgman and Elliott Kalan recap “Waiting in the Wings” and take a special dispatch from the empire from listener Leah.

    Book Reviews

    Dramatic Receptions

    Professional Matters

    ‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

    Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

    If it thunders today, it portends good health for human beings but destruction for fish and reptiles.

    … adapted from the text and translation of:

    Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Epigraphica Anatolica: Zeitschrift für Epigraphik und historische Geographie Anatoliens

    [First posted in AWOL 2 November 2009. Updated 24 February 2020]

    Epigraphica Anatolica: Zeitschrift für Epigraphik und historische Geographie Anatoliens

    Jahrgang 38 (2005)

    Jahrgang 37 (2004)

    Jahrgang 35 (2002)

    The Archaeology News Network

    One billion-year-old green seaweed fossils identified, relative of modern land plants

    Virginia Tech paleontologists have made a remarkable discovery in China: one billion-year-old micro-fossils of green seaweeds that could be related to the ancestor of the earliest land plants and trees that first developed 450 million years ago. A photo of a green seaweed fossil dating back 1 billion years. The image was captured using a microscope as the fossil itself is 2 millimeters long, roughly the size of a flea. The dark color...

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    Jim Davila (

    Ancient Sicilian Judaism

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Daniel 10-11: angels and a vision of history

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    The Archaeology News Network

    Scientists document surprising evolutionary shift in snakes

    In the animal kingdom, survival essentially boils down to eat or be eaten. How organisms accomplish the former and avoid the latter reveals a clever array of defense mechanisms. Maybe you can outrun your prey. Perhaps you sport an undetectable disguise. Or maybe you develop a death-defying resistance to your prey's heart-stopping defensive chemicals that you can store in your own body to protect you from predators. A juvenile...

    [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

    Jim Davila (

    Bonner, The Last Empire of Iran

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Compitum - publications

    C.A.L.M.A. 6.4, Hugo Pictavinus - Iacobus Angeli de Rubeo Scuto


    C.A.L.M.A. 6.4, Hugo Pictavinus - Iacobus Angeli de Rubeo Scuto, Florence, 2019.

    Éditeur : Sismel - Edizioni del Galluzzo
    pp. 373-496
    ISBN : 978-88-8450-923-9
    92 €

    Source : Sismel - Edizioni del Galluzzo

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Doctor Who: Ascension of the Cybermen

    The episode “Ascension of the Cybermen” would have grabbed me even if it had not used religious terminology, but that aspect makes it all the more interesting to someone like me. The language of ascension is of course closely associated with the depiction in the Acts of the Apostles of Jesus literally going up into […]

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    Shock of the Old

    Rock art of Sulawesi. Source: Archaeology Magazine 202003/04via Archaeology Magazine, March/April 2020: A short feature on the rock art of Sulawesi.

    วิชาทฤษฎีทางโบราณคดี กับการทำงานทางโบราณคดีในปัจจุบันของประเทศไทย | Survey on the Current Status of Theoretical Archaeology in Thailand

    The survey is in Thai, but is quite easy to understand using Google Translate. If you have a few minutes, please help Nattha Chuenwattana with this survey on Thai archaeology and archaeological theory.

    ἐν ἐφέσῳ: Thoughts and Meditations

    SBL Cognitive Linguistics Call for Papers

    The SBL Cognitive Linguistics & Biblical Interpretations session call for papers is out. The theme session looks like […]

    Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

    World’s oldest art under threat from cement mining in Indonesia

    Leang Bulu' Sipong. Source: 20200221via The Guardian, 21 February 2020: I remember visiting the Maros region a few years ago to visit some of the rock art sites, and hearing some of the blasting nearby. The danger to the sites by mining was highlighted in an earlier story.

    Replica of 19th century royal gift on display

    Bunga Emas at the Malay Heritage Centre. Source: Straits Times 20200219via The Straits Times, 19 February 2020: The bunga emas is a replica of one in the Grand Palace in Bangkok, but the one in Bangkok is not available for public viewing.

    Tourists behaving badly, Bagan porn shoot and beer party edition

    Bagan. Source: The Irrawaddy, 20190214via The Irrawaddy, 14 February 2020: Two instances of tourists behaving badly atBagan - the first is a porn video being shot at one of the temples, and the second is a beer party at a sunset spot. The latter party has been caught and fined.

    February 23, 2020

    Calenda: Histoire romaine

    Les voies de l'archéologie aérienne

    Depuis la fin de l’année 2017 nous nous sommes retrouvés, entre archéologues aériens œuvrant sur un large territoire allant du Limousin à la Bourgogne, autour de la réalisation d’une exposition partenariale. Au fil d’une dizaine de réunions à Moulins, Montluçon, Saint Just Saint Rambert et Clermont-Ferrand le projet a pris forme. Les premiers échanges ont abouti au choix du thème « Les voies de l’archéologie aérienne ». L’objectif ainsi fixé permettait d’évoquer tant l’évolution de la méthode de recherche qu’un volet particulier concernant les réseaux routiers et tout spécialement celui de l’Antiquité Gallo-romaine. Un catalogue regroupant le contenu des panneaux et des articles complémentaires a vocation à compléter harmonieusement cette exposition sous le regard d’un comité scientifique.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie

    [First posted in AWOL 25 January 2010. Updated 23 February 2020]

    Rheinisches Museum für Philologie
    ISSN: 0035-449X
    Die Zeitschrift wurde 1827 unter dem Titel „Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, Geschichte und griechische Philosophie“ von Barthold Georg Niebuhr, August Böckh und Christian August Brandis gegründet und erschien unter diesem Namen bis 1829/32. Von 1832/33 bis 1839 wurde die Zeitschrift unter dem Titel „Rheinisches Museum für Philologie“ von Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker und August Ferdinand Naeke weitergeführt. Seit 1842 erscheint die „Neue Folge“ des „Rheinischen Museums für Philologie“. Erstherausgeber waren Friedrich Ritschl und Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (vgl. auch C.W. Müller, Das Rheinische Museum für Philologie 1842–2007. Zum Erscheinen des 150. Bandes der Neuen Folge, RhM 150, 2007, 1–7).

    Das „Rheinische Museum für Philologie“ ist die älteste, bis heute erscheinende altertumswissenschaftliche Fachzeitschrift. Seit ihrer Gründung veröffentlicht sie wissenschaftliche Beiträge zu Sprache, Literatur und Geschichte des griechischen und römischen Altertums und seiner Rezeption in den Sprachen Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch, Italienisch und Latein. Sie ist international verbreitet, und die im „Rheinischen Museum für Philologie“ veröffentlichten Artikel sind jeweils drei Jahre nach Erscheinen der Druckfassung kostenfrei im Internet abrufbar.

    Alle eingesandten Beiträge werden von wenigstens zwei Experten begutachtet, die dem Herausgebergremium angehören oder extern hinzugezogen werden. Für weitere Auskünfte wende man sich an den Herausgeber unter:
    Rheinisches Museum für Philologie (Neue Folge) 
    Open access to volumes 1 (1842) -  160 (2017)

    Band 160 (2017)



    Rheinisches Museum für Philologie

    Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, Geschichte und griechische Philosophie

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #Thelxinoe ~ Classics News for February 22-23, 2020

    Hodie est a.d. VII Id. Mart. 2772 AUC ~ 30 Gamelion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

    In the News

    In Case You Missed It 

    Greek/Latin News

    Fresh Bloggery

    Fresh Podcastery

    Quid sit tempus quod dicitur “Carnevale” accipientis, et unde ipsum nomen (fortasse) natum sit.

    Landscape Modery

    Book Reviews

    Professional Matters


    ‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

    Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

    If it thunders today, it portends deformity for humans and destruction for birds.

    … adapted from the text and translation of:

    Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Ogham 3D Pilot Project

    Ogham 3D Pilot Project
    Ogham stones are among Ireland's most remarkable national treasures. These perpendicular cut stones bear inscriptions in the uniquely Irish Ogham alphabet, using a system of notches and horizontal or diagonal lines/scores to represent the sounds of an early form of the Irish language. The stones are inscribed with the names of prominent people and sometimes tribal affiliation or geographical areas. These inscriptions constitute the earliest recorded form of Irish and, as our earliest written records dating back at least as far as the 5th century AD, are a significant resource for historians, as well as linguists and archaeologists.

    Jim Davila (

    Sifting a new Temple Mount heap

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Parables in Changing Contexts (ed. Poorthuis & Ottenheijm)

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    Anti-Judaism and the Gospel of John: Enoch Seminar Colloquiuum at #AARSBL19

    Here I am returning to a session that I didn’t manage to blog about at AAR/SBL in November. The Enoch Seminar meets before as well as during the conference, and this year had a session dedicated to Adele Reinhartz’s book Cast Out of the Covenant: Jews and Anti-Judaism in the Gospel of John. She is critical of […]

    Jim Davila (

    Were Miriam, Aaron, and Moses originally siblings?

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    February 22, 2020

    Compitum - événements (tous types)

    La conversion à l'époque patristique

    Titre: La conversion à l'époque patristique
    Lieu: Université de Metz / Metz
    Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
    Date: 11.03.2020 - 12.03.2020
    Heure: 16.30 h - 18.30 h

    Information signalée par Jacques Elfassi

    La conversion à l'époque patristique

    Metz, 11-12 mars 2020

    11 mars Matin

    9h 30 : Marie-Anne VANNIER, Le rôle constitutif de la conversion chez les Pères

    10h : Lorenzo PERRONE (Université de Bologne), Origène et la conversion


    11h : Gérard NAUROY (UL, Académie Nationale de Metz), Circonstances et modalités de la conversion chez Ambroise de Milan, de l'empereur Gratien à Fritigil, la reine des Marcomans

    11h 30 : Otto WERMELINGER (Université de Fribourg), La conversion d’Eutropia, la belle-mère de Constantin


    14h 30 : Jacques ELFASSI (UL), Nouvelles sources d’Isidore de Séville. Sent. II, 7-10

    15h : Nathalie RAMBAULT (CNRS Lyon), Jean Chrysostome et la conversion


    16h : Gina DERHARD (Université de Münster), Les métaphores de la conversion chez les Pères latins

    16h  30 : Jaime GARCIA (Université de Burgos), Le caractère paradigmatique de la conversion d’Augustin

    17h : Gérard RÉMY (UL), La conversion, comme urgence pour Augustin prédicateur

    17h 30 : Alberto AMBROSIO (LSRS), La symbolique du vêtement blanc comme expression de la conversion chez Cyrille de Jérusalem


    12 mars Matin

    9h : Michel VAN PARYS (Collègue grec, Rome), Les conversions des Pères du désert

    9h 30 : Lisa CREMASCHI (Bose), Marie l’Égyptienne et la conversion

    10h : : Philippe MOLAC (IPT), L'exil forcé de juillet 381, ou l'épreuve de la conversion chez Grégoire le Théologien


    11h : Jean-Jacques DUPONT (ICT), De la conversion par Benoît de Nursie à la conversion chez Benoît de Nursie

    11h 30 : Jean EHRET (LSRS), L’expression poétique de la conversion


    14h 30 : Antoine NIVIERE (UL), L’influence des Pères dans l’expression de la conversion dans la littérature russe

    15h : Christian HANNICK (Université de Würzburg), L’expression poétique de la conversion chez Grégoire de Narek

    15h 30 : Pause

    16h 30 : Antoine LAMBRECHTS (Chevetogne), Vladimir et la conversion de la Russie

    17h : Silvia BARA BANCEL (UL, Université Comillas Madrid), Henri Suso et la conversion

    17h 30 : Workshop de jeunes chercheurs

    Vallery WILSON (UL), La conversion d’après le Peri archon d’Origène

    Liang ZHANG (UL), La conversion chez Grégoire de Nysse

    Patrick MULLER (UL), La conversion chez Nicolas Cabasilas

    Jean-Louis SOHET (Collège San Lorenzo, Rome), La figure de la conversion au cours des siècles


    Date(s) : 11/03/2020 - 12/03/2020
    Lieu : Metz, Institut européen d’écologie
    Organisatrice : Marie-Anne Vannier

    Sources : Ecritures

    The Archaeology News Network

    Remains of 72 pre-Hispanic Guanche natives found on Gran Canaria island

    Amateur archaeologists have found the mummified ancient remains of 72 pre-Hispanic 'Guanche' natives in the holiday island of Gran Canaria.The remains, of 62 adults and 10 newborns, were found in the Valley of Guayadequeon on the island of Gran Canaria, part of the Spanish Canary Islands. Credit: Central European News (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Archaeologist Veronica Alberto and culture councillor Javier...

    [[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

    BiblePlaces Blog

    Weekend Roundup

    Israel is moving forward on plans to extend the high-speed train line to a station near the Western Wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.

    Restoration work has begun on the floor of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

    Two ritual baths south of Jerusalem are overflowing with water following the winter rains.

    $1.3 million has been given to support marine archaeological research off Israel’s coast.

    Volunteer applications are being accepted for excavations at Tell Keisan this coming September.

    A BBC documentary describes the discovery of a hoard of silver decadrachm coins in Gaza, and what happened to them next.

    Egypt has sentenced the brother of an ex-minister to 30 years in jail for smuggling antiquities.

    Iran’s Basij Resistance Force is apparently threatening to destroy the historic tomb site of Esther and Mordecai, located in Hamedan.

    Wayne Stiles was at Colossae last week and he reflects on the significance of the site and Paul’s letter to the church.

    An archaeology park featuring a Roman theater is being developed in Ankara.

    Debate continues over whether a skull unearthed 120 years ago near Pompeii belonged to Pliny the Elder.

    Italian archaeologists have found underneath the Roman Forum an ancient shrine and sarcophagus that was likely dedicated to Romulus.

    A conference on “Sheshonq (Shishak) in Palestine” will be held in Vienna on March 6-7.

    Ferrell Jenkins answers questions about the six water jugs at the wedding of Cana.

    Herod Antipas, ruler of Galilee during Jesus’s ministry, is the subject of the latest archaeological biography by Bryan Windle.

    To listen to the latest episodes on The Book and the Spade, see this page.

    HT: Agade, Ted Weis, Keith Keyser, Explorator

    Gezer Solomonic gate from northeast, mjb1902200736

    This week on our Facebook/Twitter/Instagram streams we featured sites related to Israel’s kings, including this one of the gate at Gezer that was built by King Solomon’s administration.

    L’Association Française pour l’étude de l’âge du Fer (Le Blog de l'AFEAF)

    AFEAF 2020 – Programme prévisionnel / Provisional programme

    [English below] Vous trouverez, ci-joint, le programme prévisionnel du prochain colloque de l’AFEAF, qui se tiendra à Lyon du 21 au 23 mai 2020 : Nous vous adressons également le formulaire d’inscription en français ou en anglais, le bulletin d’adhésion à l’association (règlement à part), ainsi que la liste des...

    Jim Davila (

    The Song of Moses or the Song of Miriam?

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Review of Mylona & Nicholson (eds.), The Bountiful Sea

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Review of Sherwood (ed.), with Fisk, The Bible and Feminism

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

    #CFP Recovering Female Interpreters of the Bible: Society of Biblical Literature #AARSBL20

    Two calls for papers from the Recovering Female Interpreters of the Bible program unit, for the Society of Biblical Literature annual meeting in November: “Historical Women Interpreting Scripture through Music and the Arts.” We seek papers on the following topics 1)“Historical Women Interpreting Scripture through Music and the Arts.” Through the ages, countless women interpreted scripture […]

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues) 200,000 Archaeological Artefacts on Sale in One Week in January

    This weekend I am doing some stakhanovite editing of a text on the trade in North African lithics that is supposed to go in a volume on North African prehistory that I am collaborating in. The first draft of my text has to be shortened by half and has to have a new bit written at the beginning and end... I have just chucked this bit out and it took half a day to get the data together. It's not very satisfactory as a text anyway. The point is however pretty interesting.
    The scale of the online commerce in antiquities [as a whole, not just the lithics PMB] is enormous, but it is difficult to count absolute numbers, because of the way different sellers list items using various terms and listing them in different sections of the larger websites. On in the first week of January 2020 for example, the search engine reveals that in that week, there were a total of at least 196,936 archaeological artefacts on sale. This includes just over 72,000 antiquities (and ‘antiquities’) in the section of the portal specifically dedicated to antiquities (over 23,000 of them were of metal). There were about three hundred North African stone artefacts listed here. In the numismatic section, there were 104,800 ancient and medieval coins on sale (excluding an additional several tens of thousand of examples from SE Asia and the Far East that I did not count). More artefacts and pseudo-artefacts can be found in the ‘collectables’ section (mainly under ‘cultures and ethnicities’). Here were found the bulk of the Native American lithic items (19,520) and several hundred North African stone artefacts. Another 616, mostly North African arrowheads were being sold in the ‘rocks and minerals’ section.
    Among the antiquities, 3800 items were marketed as Palaeolithic and Neolithic objects, the bulk of which were stone tools from various sources in Europe, MENA and SE Asia. It seems that a substantial proportion of these were in fact not ancient artefacts (this is a general problem with the indiscriminate internet market of portable antiquities, neither buyers nor sellers can distinguish between authentic and fake – and for some sellers fakes are easier, and less risky in legal terms, to market). Together with the ‘collectables’ a total of 20,611 out of 192,750 portable antiquities (10.7 %) were lithic artefacts. While the bulk of this material comes from collecting in the USA and, though to a much lesser extent, Canada, the North African material forms a substantial portion of this group of items.
    My paper was intended to be making the point that the discussion of artefact hunting and collecting (Collection-driven exploitation of the archaeological record) should not by any means be restricted to metal detecting, and I was going to do this by investigating one bit of the trade in lithics. The original plan has had to be changed and the focus of the article will be shifted to the effects of this trade on the archaeological record (I'll try and use the rest elsewhere).

    Note that the figure 193,975 refers to items being offered for sale at one time on only one of the several eBay portals (not including results from the various national ones). It also does not include other online selling plaes, catawiki, Faceboox, Sixbid etc etc. This trade is massive. 

    Illegal Metal Detecting in Hockley Woods Reported on Facebook

    Hockley Woods, Essex,
    Site of Special Scientific
    Interest (wikipedia)
    Today on Facebook Fudgeworld 'metal detecting' page
    David Coates 5 hours in hockley woods. Never again
    Jimmy Young How did you get permission for them woods? As they are protected
    David Coates Just asked the local ranger guy he said if I don’t see you then I don’t no about it
    Which I guess means that he thinks that this is legal. It seems detectorists consider that its just "somebody's permission" they need, rather than the actual landowner. But - as David Coates should know - Rochford Council has a blanket ban on all metal detecting and particularly on Hockley Woods which is a SSSI.

    Right, and who is going to report him? A 'Responsible metal Detectorist'? A British archaeologist, the PAS maybe? Or the bloke in Poland? Or... maybe nobody, and he'll get away wiv it - as they all do.

    By the way, the ("If I doesn't see ya, then I dont no abowt it") ranger too should be reported, for aiding and abetting. But of course Coatsey did not akchully rite 'is name down fur ferther refrince.

    Once again, let us return to my misgivings about a 'policy' (I use the term loosely) that is based on a pious hope that these people can be educated in 'best practice' when it is clear that there is among them a hard core of individuals that seem from present evidence to be in effect ineducable. So what are we to do to stop them destroying the heritage? Ideas, PAS? 

    Compitum - événements (tous types)

    Conférences - projet AgroCCol

    Titre: Conférences - projet AgroCCol
    Lieu: ENS Lyon / Lyon
    Catégorie: Séminaires, conférences
    Date: 16.03.2020
    Heure: 14.00 h

    Information signalée par Sarah Orsini

    Conférences - projet AgroCCol


    Le lundi 16 mars, à partir de 14h (ENS de Lyon, D8-003), aura lieu un atelier du projet ANR AgroCCol, qui sera consacré aux regards des archéologues sur les textes anciens. Nous aurons le plaisir d'y entendre deux conférences, suivies de discussions :

    - Georges Raepsaet (professeur émérite, Université Libre de Bruxelles) : « La moisson de l'épeautre avec un vallus (Pline HN 18, 296) ou vehiculum (Palladius 7,2) »
    - Clémence Pagnoux (membre de l'École française d'Athènes) : « Les Grecs sont-ils des mangeurs d'orge ? Etat des lieux des données carpologiques et écrites relatives aux céréales en Grèce ancienne »

    Vous y êtes chaleureusement invité.e.s !

    Résumés :
    - G. Raepsaet :
    Les modes opératoires et les outils de la moisson, de la faucille à la grande faux, sont connus par les textes, l'iconographie et l'archéologie, font l'objet de commentaires nombreux depuis l'Antiquité et alimentent même, depuis quelques années, des thèses doctorales définissant des typologies raisonnées des outils de coupe. Une machine plus élaborée, ignorée de Columelle, est mentionnée par Pline (HN 18, 296) et Palladius (7,2). Appelée parfois moissonneuse ou vallus, son usage semble limité à la Gaule. Emblème d'une technologie productive efficace pour les uns, gadget gaspilleur pour les autres, la moissonneuse gallo-romaine fascine les historiens de l'agriculture depuis le XVIIIe siècle. Elle a fait l'objet de plusieurs expérimentations dont les plus récentes, réalisées par une équipe interdisciplinaire au Domaine de Malagne (Rochefort, Belgique), tendent à valider son efficacité dans la moisson de l'épeautre. Son fonctionnement implique un attelage à brancard, à une tête, utilisée en propulsion aux traits, une « première » dans l'agriculture européenne. Il induit une pensée combinatoire originale.

    Clémence Pagnoux :
    Depuis les travaux de M.-C. Amouretti, de nouvelles données carpologiques conduisent à poser de nouveau la question de l'importance de l'orge, traditionnellement considérée comme la céréale principale en Grèce ancienne, mais également de s'interroger sur l'importance relative des différentes espèces de blé. Un inventaire des données carpologiques disponibles combiné à l'étude des noms qui sont donnés aux céréales dans la littérature grecque permet d'approcher ces questions.

    Entrée libre.
    Adresse : ENS de Lyon - Salle D8 003.
    19 allée de Fontenay ou 15 parvis René Descartes - 69007 Lyon
    Transport : métro B (arrêt Debourg).

    Pour en savoir plus :
    Contact : maelys.blandenet[at]

    Lieu de la manifestation : Ens de Lyon ; Salle D8 003 ; 19 Allée de Fontenay, 69007 Lyon
    Organisation : Maëlys Blandenet
    Contact : maelys.blandenet[at]

    Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

    András Riedlmayer and Serbian Nationalist War Crimes Against Culture

    Mostar Bridge
    András Riedlmayer, a bibliographer at Harvard’s Fine Arts Library, knows more about the destruction of that region’s cultural heritage during the Yugoslav Wars from 1991 to 2001 than almost anyone, and has helped set a precedent of prosecuting this kind of destruction as a war crime (Anna Burgess, 'Harvard librarian puts this war crime on the map', The Harvard Gazette February 21, 2020):
    In 1992, when he read about the burning of the National Library, Riedlmayer knew it was an attack on more than physical objects. It was what he later testified to being “cultural heritage destruction”: intentional and unnecessary destruction of sites and records that act as a community’s collective memory. The crime comes from a desire to not only kill individuals who are part of an ethnic or religious group, Riedlmayer explained, but to erase their existence, “remove any evidence that they were ever there to begin with, and give them no reason to come back.” In the case of the Balkan region, cultural heritage destruction was part of attempted ethnic cleansing by the Serbian nationalist government led by Milosevic. The nationalists came to power amid destabilization in the former Yugoslavia and began targeting Bosnian Muslims, Kosovar Albanians, and other non-Serbs. They destroyed everything from ancient mosques to property records

    Archaeology Magazine

    Underwater Archaeologists Return to Wreckage of HMS Erebus

    HMS Erebus EpaulettesNUNAVUT, CANADA—Parks Canada underwater archaeologists under the direction of Marc-André Bernier have recovered more than 350 artifacts from the living quarters in the lower deck of the HMS Erebus, according to a CBC Canada report. The Erebus and the HMS Terror set sail from England under the command of Sir John Franklin in 1845 in search of the Northwest Passage. Franklin, his crew of 128 men, and both ships were lost in the Canadian Arctic sometime after 1848. Erebus was discovered in the shallow waters of Wilmot and Crampton Bay in 2016, but bad weather has prevented archaeologists from a detailed investigation of the wreckage until this past fall. The recently recovered artifacts include a lieutenant’s epaulettes decorated with twisted, gold-plated silver wires; a leather coat sleeve; navigational instruments; table service for the captain’s table; an eau de toilette bottle; a hairbrush; an accordion; and a lead stamp marked with the name of the captain’s steward. No logs or diaries have been found so far, but the researchers have recovered a wooden pencil case, four kinds of pencils, and a quill with a full feather and a pointed end. Bernier said diaries and logs with clues to what happened to the expedition may yet be found in the officers’ quarters. For more, go to "Canada Finds Erebus," one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2014.

    Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

    Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: February 21

    Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables. You can keep up with the latest posts by using the RSS feed, or you might prefer to subscribe by email.

    HODIE: ante diem nonum Kalendas Martias

    Pica certat cum luscinia.
    A magpie is competing with the nightingale.

    Quanta sit in rebus mora, nil curato, gerendis;
    Sat cito confectum, quod bene fiet, erit.

    Mente manuque.
    By thought and hand.

    Necessitas dat ingenium.
    Necessity bestows ingenuity.


    Navigantes et Gubernator
    Latin version and English version(s)

    Cervus Oculo Captus


    February 21, 2020

    Archaeological News on Tumblr

    Tomb of Rome's mythical founder Romulus unearthed

    A tomb that was buried thousands of years ago and revered by ancient Romans as the resting place of...

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Gods in Color: Polychromy in Antiquity

    Gods in Color: Polychromy in Antiquity
    1/30 – 2020/8/30 
    Museum exhibitions of ancient Greek and Roman sculptures are striking for the dominance of pure white marble. But looks can be deceiving. These figures of gods and heroes were once richly clothed in vivid colors! We’ve known this for centuries – so why does the image of whiteness still persist?
    For many years the Liebieghaus has dedicated itself to unraveling the mystery of the original polychromy of ancient sculptures. Indeed, the museum has taken the lead in this area of research.
    Vinzenz Brinkmann’s reconstructions are made in collaboration with the archaeologist Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann and give current viewers a vibrant picture of the former polychromy of the sculptures. The exhibition Gods in Color has been touring the world in one form or another since 2003 – a testament to its popularity and success – and originally went on show at the Liebieghaus in Frankfurt am Main in 2008.

    The exhibition now returns to Frankfurt with new findings and reconstructions never before displayed. The juxtaposition of color reconstructions with selected masterpieces from the Liebieghaus allows viewers to experience the history of these brightly painted sculptures first-hand.

    Roger Pearse (Thoughts on Antiquity, Patristics, putting things online, and more)

    Did Pope Gelasius create St Valentine’s Day as a replacement for the Lupercalia?

    Something weird has begun to happen over the last couple of years.   Twitter is filling up with claims that “Christmas is really pagan”; the same for Easter (!), St Valentine’s Day – indeed for every single Christian holiday.  This is new, and started maybe in 2018, and now has become very commonplace.  The object is without a doubt to diminish the Christian significance of American holidays.  I get the impression that this may be part of the anti-Trump reaction.  It is clearly orchestrated, and obviously a nuisance.

    This year I came across the claim that St Valentine’s Day is really the Lupercalia (!), and that Pope Gelasius I abolished the Lupercalia and created St Valentine’s Day instead.  One website calling itself “” claims:

    In the late 5th century A.D., Pope Gelasius I eliminated the pagan celebration of Lupercalia and declared February 14 a day to celebrate the martyrdom of Saint Valentine instead, although it’s highly unlikely he intended the day to commemorate love and passion.

    And the same website on another page:

    Lupercalia survived the initial rise of Christianity but was outlawed—as it was deemed “un-Christian”–at the end of the 5th century, when Pope Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentine’s Day.

    Google helpfully puts these pages at the very top of the search results if you look for information.  They seem to be drawing on an article which otherwise appears a bit further down, National Public Radio, The Dark Origins of Valentine’s Day, Feb. 13, 2011, which claims:

    Later, Pope Gelasius I muddled things in the 5th century by combining St. Valentine’s Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals. But the festival was more of a theatrical interpretation of what it had once been. Lenski adds, “It was a little more of a drunken revel, but the Christians put clothes back on it. That didn’t stop it from being a day of fertility and love.”

    Lenski is “Noel Lenski, a historian at the University of Colorado at Boulder”.  Of course he may well have been misrepresented by this journalist.  But is this true?  Did Gelasius establish St Valentine’s Day on February 14?

    In a 1931 article,[1]William M. Green indicates that Cardinal Baronius must take some responsibility for all this.

    … in almost all the discussions of the institution it is said that Pope Gelasius in 494 converted the pagan festival into the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin (=Candlemas). This conjecture of Cardinal Baronius[4] was based on the fact that Gelasius had suppressed the pagan festival, and that the quadragesima Epiphaniae (February 14), the earliest form of the Christian festival, so nearly coincided with its date, February 15. Usener and later writers on Christian ritual [5] have recognized Baronius’ mistake…

    4. C. Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastici (Barri-Ducis; L. Guerin, 1864-83), IX, 603.
    5. H. Usener, Weihnachtsfest (Bonn: Cohen, 1889), p. 318; T. Barnes, “Candlemas” in Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (New York: Scribner’s, 1908-190; L. Duchesne, Christian Worship5 (London: SPCK, 1923), p.271.

    So the modern idea that the Lupercalia turned into St Valentine’s Day is itself a bastardisation of an older idea, that the Lupercalia turned into Candlemas.

    We do know that Gelasius did abolish the Lupercalia.  In Letter 100, to Andromachus, in the Collectio Avellana he explicitly says so, and defends his action to his noble correspondent by attacking the remains of the Lupercalia as a degraded superstition.  (I was unaware until now that an edition of this exists in the Sources Chretiennes series, 65).[2]

    Another article by Jack B. Oruch is more forthright:[3]

    The idea that Valentine’s Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present.22 Most of those who offer this now traditional explanation cite no sources or refer only to Butler or Douce. But John W. Hales, in the most substantial and reasonable article written about Valentine’s Day, correctly pointed out that the Lupercalia never involved the pairing of lovers or a lottery.23 As far as I can determine, the first suggestions of a lottery of lovers on Valentine’s Day occur in the fifteenth century in poems of Lydgate and Charles d’Orleans, discussed below; the only known attempt to suppress the practice and substitute the names of saints was that of St. Francis de Sales early in his career as bishop at Annecy (1603).24 Butler’s ideas were prompted, in all probability, by a confused knowledge of the date of this isolated event; a less charitable explanation would attribute his remarks to wishful or pious fantasy.

    The most complex version of this story – one that links the Lupercalia, Valentine, and Chaucer – has recently been put forth by Alfred L. Kellogg and Robert C. Cox[4]… According to Kellogg and Cox, the process by which St. Valentine became a “fertility figure” was an indirect and accidental one. They report: “When, in 495, Pope Gelasius finally abolished the Lupercalia, his procedure followed the accepted pattern. He set in its place a Christian festival of comparable meaning and almost exact date – the Purification of the Virgin, or Candlemas, celebrated on February 14” (p. 112). Then, after the date of the observance of Candlemas was “transferred from February 14 to February 2” (to accord with the fixing of the date of Christ’s birth at December 25), Valentine in some unknown way inherited the associations of the Virgin Mary with purification and fertility. Unfortunately, the account thus far is based upon faulty assumptions and misunderstood data.

    Informed scholarship offers nothing to support the claim that Gelasius I “baptized” the Lupercalia by supplanting it with the Feast of the Purification…. Other medieval writers [than Bede] gave different explanations of the origin of the Feast of the Purification, but not until the unfortunate conjectures of Cardinal Baronius in the sixteenth century was the particular pagan festival behind Candlemas. said to be the Lupercalia.29 While the church did supplant some pagan customs with Christian ones, in the present case the similarities between the Lupercalia and Candlemas appear to be fortuitous and negligible. To suggest a place for St. Valentine in a history already marked by so much speculation is pointless.

    Which is pretty direct.  There’s simply no evidence, apparently, of any connection with St Valentine.

    I’m not quite clear how we discover what the early evidence is for the celebration of a saint’s day.  It appears that we must look at early service books, and this is rather an area outside of my knowledge.

    The so-called Gelasian Sacramentary does indeed have prayers in natali Valentini, Vitalis et Feliculae on xvi Kal. Martias, i.e. 14th February.  (How interesting to see natalis used to indicate an anniversary, rather than a  birthday!).[5]  This has reached us in a Vatican manuscript (Ms. Reg. 316), written around 750 at the nunnery of Chelles near Paris.  The prototype was probably composed in Rome between 628-715.[6]

    I do wonder how we could find out when the feast of St Valentine was first celebrated!

    UPDATE: I have just heard from Dr Lenski, disclaiming any responsibility for the mangled comments attributed to him in that NPR article.

    1. [1]William M. Green, “The Lupercalia in the Fifth Century”, Classical Philology 26 (1931), 60-69.  JSTOR.
    2. [2]Gélase Ier : Lettre contre les Lupercales et Dix-huit messes du Sacramentaire léonien. SC65, 1960.
    3. [3]Jack B. Oruch, “St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February”, Speculum 56 (1981). 534-65.  JSTOR.
    4. [4]25. “Chaucer’s St. Valentine: A Conjecture,” in Alfred L. Kellogg, Chaucer, Langland, Arthur: Essays in Middle English Literature (New Brunswick, N.J., 1972), p. 108.
    5. [5]H.A.Wilson, The Gelasian Sacramentary. Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae, Oxford, 1894, p.167.
    6. [6]Joseph M. Lynch, Christianizing Kinship, p.29. Google Books.

    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Open Access Journal: Ancient Narrative

    [First posted in AWOL 11 March 2013, updated 21 February 2020 (new URL)]

    Ancient Narrative
    Online ISSN: 1568-3532
    Print ISSN: 1568-3540

    As the name Ancient Narrative indicates, the areas of interest of the new journal are: Greek, Roman, Jewish novelistic traditions, including novels proper, the "fringe", as well as the fragments; narrative texts of the Byzantine age, early Christian narrative texts - and the reception of these works in modern literature, film and music. Ancient Narrative encourages approaches which range from editorial and philological work on these texts, and literary-theoretical studies, to theological, sociological, cultural and anthropological approaches. No particular area or methodology is preferred. The audience of our journal will thus comprise not only those who are working mainly in classical or religious studies, but all those who are interested in the birth and development of narrative fiction in all its aspects, from antiquity to the modern times.

    Ancient Narrative (AN) is first and foremost an electronic journal, in which selected articles will be discussed during a period of several months. At the end of the year the authors have the opportunity to revise their articles. A volume containing all revised articles of the past year will appear both in print and on the website.
    AN also publishes special, theme-oriented issues. Your suggestions for such issues are very welcome.

    AN is the electronic continuation of the Petronian Society Newsletter (ed. Gareth Schmeling) and the Groningen Colloquia on the Novel (eds. Heinz Hofmann and Maaike Zimmerman). Therefore, AN will, besides full articles, publish bibliographical information as well as brief notes on relevant subjects. The editors will also invite specialists for reviews, which will be published in the electronic journal and in the annual printed volume of AN.

    2020: AN 17, preliminary version


    The Archaeology News Network

    Leopard 'Guardian of Dead' painted on sarcophagus lid discovered in Aswan

    Archaeologists with the Egyptian-Italian Mission at West Aswan (EIMAWA) have released the first images from a necropolis they discovered a year ago, including that of a leopard's face in vivid colour painted on the wooden lid of a sarcophagus, a sort of "guardian" of the dead. Virtual rendition of the painting of the leopard face [Credit: University of Milan]The mission, led by Egyptologist Patrizia Piacentini of Milan State...

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    Archaeologists discover lost city that may have conquered the kingdom of Midas

    Archaeologists from the Oriental Institute have discovered a lost ancient kingdom dating to 1400 BC to 600 BC, which may have defeated Phrygia, the kingdom ruled by King Midas, in battle. A tip from a local Turkish farmer led archaeologists to this stone half-submerged in an irrigation canal. Inscriptions from the 8th century BC are still visible [Credit: James Osborne]University of Chicago scholars and students were surveying a site...

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    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum: Bibliography of the *Grammatici Latini *(1855-2018)

    Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum: Bibliography of the *Grammatici Latini *(1855-2018)
    While waiting for the imminent reopening of the website* Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum* (*CGL*) in the framework of the project directed by Professor Alessandro Garcea, we are pleased to announce that the bibliography of the *Grammatici Latini *(1855-2018) is now available at the link By way of links to specific web-pages there appear bibliographical information on : grammarians, grammatical texts, cited authors, thematic sections, *generalia*.

    Best regards,

    Manuela Callipo
    [Posted on the CLASSICISTS listserve]

    Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

    Friday Varia and Quick Hits

    It’s a busy-ish weekend with some typesetting, a massive number of corrections on a set of page proofs, and the almost-done North Dakota Quarterly issue strewn across 50 or so emails. There’s also the first two T20I matches between South Africa and Australia, and, more importantly, the heavy weight championship of the world.  

    Hopefully, I’ll also have time to get a few long walks in Grand Forks’ Late-February answer to the Halcyon Days and nudge my way through a small stack of student papers. Without being one of those guys, I’m pretty excited about the weekend.

    With any luck, your weekend will be every bit as full and enjoyable, and just maybe this little gaggle of quick hits and varia will help:

    IMG 4724

    IMG 4720

    David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

    #Thelxinoe ~ Classics News for February 21, 2020

    Hodie est a.d. IX Id. Mart. 2772 AUC ~ 28 Gamelion in the third year of the 699th Olympiad

    In the News

    In Case You Missed It

    Classicists and Classics in the News

    Greek/Latin News

    Public Facing Classics

    Fresh Bloggery

    Fresh Podcasts

    The tour of the Persian Empire continues. This time I’m going through the empire within the empire to dissect Assyria and Babylonia. Within these two satrapies, there were many important administrative districts and geographic divisions including Judea, Palestine, Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Akkad in addition to Assyria and Babylon themselves. With hindsight’s 20/20 this was obviously one the most important parts of the empire, and we’ll go through it in detail.

    Juvenal’s Satires, produced some time in the decades around 100 CE, mercilessly mock some of the more colorful aspects of Roman life.

    Caligula built a 3-mile long bridge over the Bay of Naples. Why? So he could ride over it to prove someone wrong. Then he marries his third and last wife, Caesonia. Then he fires two consuls for not celebrating his birthday and starts a general purge of governors who are called back to Rome and, in some cases, charged with majestas. There’s conspiracy in the air.

    Dramatic Receptions

    Professional Matters


    ‘Sorting’ Out Your Day:

    Today on the Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar:

    If it thunders today, it portends abundance.

    … adapted from the text and translation of:

    Jean MacIntosh Turfa, The Etruscan Brontoscopic Calendar, in Nancy Thomson de Grummond and Erika Simon (eds.), The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press, 2006. (Kindle edition)

    The Archaeology News Network

    Frozen bird turns out to be 46,000-year-old horned lark

    Scientists have recovered DNA from a well-preserved horned lark found in Siberian permafrost. The results can contribute to explaining the evolution of sub species, as well as how the mammoth steppe transformed into tundra, forest and steppe biomes at the end of the last Ice Age. The 46,000-year-old horned lark found in Siberia [Credit: Love Dalen] (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); In 2018, a well-preserved...

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    Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

    The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew

    The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume 1

    The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume 2

      Geoffrey Khan
    The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume 1
    These volumes represent the highest level of scholarship on what is arguably the most important tradition of Biblical Hebrew. Written by the leading scholar of the Tiberian Masoretic tradition, they offer a wealth of new data and revised analysis, and constitute a considerable advance on existing published scholarship. It should stand alongside Israel Yeivin’s ‘The Tiberian Masorah’ as an essential handbook for scholars of Biblical Hebrew, and will remain an indispensable reference work for decades to come.
    —Dr. Benjamin Outhwaite, Director of the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit, Cambridge University Library

    The form of Biblical Hebrew that is presented in printed editions, with vocalization and accent signs, has its origin in medieval manuscripts of the Bible. The vocalization and accent signs are notation systems that were created in Tiberias in the early Islamic period by scholars known as the Tiberian Masoretes, but the oral tradition they represent has roots in antiquity. The grammatical textbooks and reference grammars of Biblical Hebrew in use today are heirs to centuries of tradition of grammatical works on Biblical Hebrew in Europe. The paradox is that this European tradition of Biblical Hebrew grammar did not have direct access to the way the Tiberian Masoretes were pronouncing Biblical Hebrew.

    In the last few decades, research of manuscript sources from the medieval Middle East has made it possible to reconstruct with considerable accuracy the pronunciation of the Tiberian Masoretes, which has come to be known as the ‘Tiberian pronunciation tradition’. This book presents the current state of knowledge of the Tiberian pronunciation tradition of Biblical Hebrew and a full edition of one of the key medieval sources, Hidāyat al-Qāriʾ ‘The Guide for the Reader’, by ʾAbū al-Faraj Hārūn. It is hoped that the book will help to break the mould of current grammatical descriptions of Biblical Hebrew and form a bridge between modern traditions of grammar and the school of the Masoretes of Tiberias.

    Links and QR codes in the book allow readers to listen to an oral performance of samples of the reconstructed Tiberian pronunciation by Alex Foreman. This is the first time Biblical Hebrew has been recited with the Tiberian pronunciation for a millennium.

    The Tiberian Pronunciation Tradition of Biblical Hebrew, Volume 1
    Geoffrey Khan | Forthcoming February 2020
    762 pp. | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
    Semitic Languages and Cultures vol 1 | ISSN: 2632-6906 (Print); 2632-6914 (Online)
    ISBN Paperback: 978-1-78374-675-0
    ISBN Hardback: 978-1-78374-676-7
    ISBN Digital (PDF): 978-1-78374-677-4
    DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0163
    Subject codes: BIC: HRCG (Biblical studies and exegesis), CFF (Historical and comparative linguistics), CFP (Translation and interpretation); BISAC: REL006020 (RELIGION / Biblical Biography / General), LAN009010 (LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Historical & Comparative)

    Doug's Archaeology: Investigating the Profession and Research

    My Chemical Romance: Keeping our Theoretical Heads in the Face of Seductive Methodological ‘Certainties’

    This part of my series of posts on conference presentations, that I have filmed. This is another one from the TAG conference:

    Session Info

    Over the past twenty years, archaeology has benefited from a raft of new and improved scientific dating methods, allowing us to be more precise than ever before about the dates of significant events and practices in the past. Through the increased use of sophisticated techniques including radiocarbon, archaeomagnetic, dendrochronological and luminescence dating, and with the application of statistical methods such as Bayesian approaches or quantum theory, we have ever more data available to inform us. While all these methods and approaches have been taken up by the discipline, they are not without theoretical ramifications. This session aims to assess the impact of this numerical revolution on archaeological interpretations, asking whether our wider theoretical approaches have caught up with these new forms of data, questioning the implications of the blind acceptance of statistics, and examining the effects on our narratives of the past. How can we compare sites and areas with significant differences in the levels of chronological information available? Is there a danger that proposed statistical models become the unchallenged status quo? What kinds of data are these scientific methodologies producing, what are they not telling us, and how does this affect our research outputs? When do these techniques and approaches become problematic for historical interpretations? Do we have adequate training in archaeology to ensure a robust understanding of these complex mathematical models? Further, how do we address the construction of new categories of interpretive data from dating summaries e.g. ‘outliers’ and ‘residuality’? As well as scientific dating, there will be relevant implications for other new scientific analyses (such as DNA and genetics research). Papers explore this broad theme, providing case studies or commentaries on archaeological research where chronologies have provided theoretical challenges or opportunities.

    Organisers: Susan Greaney (Cardiff University/English Heritage), Anne Teather (UCL) and Emily Wright (University of Cambridge)

    How Many Hands Has a Clock? Integrating chronological records: A semiotic approach

    Some of the main chronological problems that archaeology is facing in the 21st century date back to the very birth of this discipline. Many have argued that such issues will be resolved through the acquisition of new data and the progressive improvement of dating methods. I present the hypothesis that such controversies might instead originate from theoretical and historical issues. Borrowing some tools from semiotics (C.S. Peirce) and from the logicistic approach to archaeological theory (J.C. Gardin), dating methods can be dissected in their epistemological components. Different dating methods are built on peculiar – and sometimes conflicting – models, which rely on theories and are based on units of analysis whose integration can lead to some inconsistencies in results. Moreover, both dating methods and chronological controversies are historical entities. Some of the main chronological controversies have been objects of research for more than a century. When data are understood to be (at least in part) dependent on the intellectual context that generated them (Kuhn), long-lasting chronological controversies appear to be a crucible of different approaches about historical change, time and the very nature of the discipline. Expecting a flawless consistency to come from an addition of new dates would be unrealistic. While this does not undermine the validity of the methods, it does corroborate the view of perspectival realism on scientific ‘truth’ (M. Massimini).

    Maria Emanuela Oddo (IMT School for Advanced Studies, Lucca)



    It is now ten years since the publication of the chronologies of early Neolithic long barrows project (Bayliss and Whittle 2007), which can be credited with bringing to wide attention the possibilities of using Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates to produce robust and precise chronological models. Since then, the methodology has been applied widely in British and Irish archaeology, initially to the early Neolithic and more recently to other periods such as the Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon. A recent volume of World Archaeology (Pettit and Zilhao 2015) was dedicated to reviewing the rapid spread of Bayesian approaches and reflected concerns from a number of period experts and dating specialists that flawed models were being published and uncritically accepted by the wider discipline. In particular, the responsibility of archaeologists in rigorously selecting and clearly justifying the archaeological samples and their association information (priors) was highlighted, and the need for archaeologists and statisticians to work together to refine and model alternative interpretations of the archaeological evidence was emphasised. This paper takes the critique one step further, particularly discussing how these models affect the sort of narratives that we construct for the past and what they can mean for the ‘hermeneutic spiral’ of understanding. The late Neolithic henge monument of Mount Pleasant in Dorset will be used as an example in this discussion, with an exploration of previous theoretical narratives of this monument and how they relate to our changing understanding of the chronology of the site. ‘Events’, such as the start and end of construction of a monument, or duration of use of a cemetery, are the easiest questions to define, but are they our only research questions? What about the rates of change and the tempo of processes? How easy is it to compare between sites or map changes in material culture? Similarly, once Bayesian models are published, how are these being used in the construction of archaeological narratives? Are our discussions of human agency, memory and history becoming more nuanced to reflect the new precision? Archaeologists have a responsibility to use the models from these dating projects responsibly and wisely, with a good understanding of the methodologies behind them.

    Susan Greaney (Cardiff University/English Heritage)

    Revealing a Prehistoric Past: Evidence for the deliberate construction of a historic narrative in the British Neolithic

    Over the past decade, event based narratives have become a norm in discussions of the British Neolithic. Statistical analyses of radiocarbon dates, combined with a detailed approach to individual contexts, have produced chronological resolutions that have enabled a greater understanding of the construction and use of some monuments. While these have been informative, they include interpretive nomenclature with terms such as ‘outliers’ and ‘residuality’ applied to data that does not agree with other data. Not only are these terms untheorised and their meanings unclear, they could be said to create a ghetto for dates that are not useful for Bayesian analysis, or any other analysis. This paper argues that this position is inadvertently ignoring evidence of wider cultural understandings. In particular, evidence of the deliberate inclusion of already old bone in Neolithic deposits has been identified, in dates rejected from Bayesian statistical analyses. This is argued to represent a cultural practice that may suggest a complex social reinforcement of Neolithic beliefs at their time of deposition that created a manufactured history of domesticity for Neolithic people.

    Anne Teather (UCL)

    Good, Bad or Absolute? Is Culture History Evil?

    In the current research paradigm of British archaeology, we are accustomed to keeping in line with the consumer, innovation-driven spirit of the Western Zeitgeist. Students of archaeology are taught at the very beginning of their education that there are certain approaches to study that are now safely to be archived as a thing of the past. The culture historical approach is one of these; outdated, non-concrete and relative in a manner, which does not serve the contemporary strive for narrating generational histories in prehistory. The use of relative chronologies in line with a culture-historical paradigm is, however, still a main axis of archaeological investigation in a number of European countries. The mode of thinking in which British archaeology is presently grounded, thus often clashes with particular practices and could be seen as severely restricting the engagement of British archaeologist in these fields of research. My talk will examine the inevitable clash of approaches when attempting to analyse the Bulgarian Neolithic through a British methodological perspective. Matters of absolute and relative chronologies will be discussed in light of my own research of the problematic impasse between Neolithic chronologies in the southern Bulgaria/northern Greece area. The paper will aim to answer whether we can reconcile the ‘evil’ relative and ‘good’ absolute in order for British prehistorians to remain relevant parties in south-eastern European scholarship.

    Kathy Baneva (Cardiff University)

    Bad Timing: Problems with chronologies and narratives by numbers in Mediterranean prehistory

    Big picture research, successfully carried out in the Mediterranean through the framework of connectivity (Horden and Purcell 2000; Broodbank 2013), hinges on understanding broad historical narrative, the ‘absolute’ chronology of events and degrees of contemporaneity. Unfortunately, work on the chronology of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Mediterranean is beset with problems – long-term, tied to the nature of the archaeological evidence, inherent in the practices used to collect and analyse data, and, perhaps most disappointingly, the product of zealous self-assurance and disciplinary in-fighting regarding interpretation. During this period, the region has more than one ‘High vs. Low Chronology’ debate. This paper will address the separation of ‘time-as-experience’ and ‘time-as-narrative’ approaches which impact on how we reconcile archaeological evidence at many different scales. The ‘certainties’ offered by techniques including Radiocarbon dating and Bayesian analysis will be discussed in the context of archaeologists’ own subjectivity and stratigraphic methodology. There is no ‘absolute’ chronology; there is only time relative to its material perception and the circumstances of its measuring. Despite this, narratives by numbers offer an essential counter to our discipline’s blind adherence to labels of time that have outgrown their original efficacy.

    Emily Wright (University of Cambridge)

    The Archaeology News Network

    Fossilized insect wing gives clues about Labrador's biodiversity during the Cretaceous

    A fossilised insect wing discovered in an abandoned mine in Labrador has led palaeontologists from McGill University and the University of Gdansk to identify a new hairy cicada species that lived around 100 million years ago. Maculaferrum blaisi is the first hemipteran insect (true bug) to be discovered at the Redmond Formation, a fossil site from the Cretaceous period near Schefferville, Labrador [Credit: Alexandre V....

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    ArcheoNet BE

    ABO zoekt erkend archeoloog


    Voor de verdere uitbouw van zijn archeologisch team in Oost- en West-Vlaanderen (standplaats Gent) is het consultancybureau ABO momenteel op zoek naar een erkend archeoloog (type 1). Kandidaten hebben ervaring met de opmaak van (archeologie)nota’s en met het leiden van veldwerkprojecten.

    Solliciteren kan via

    Jim Davila (

    Videos on the Aramaic DSS

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    Schiffman lecture series on DSS in Baltimore in March

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    Ancient mikvehs still filling

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>

    Review of Ulrike Steinert (ed.), Assyrian and Babylonian Scholarly Text Catalogues: Medicine, Magic and Divination

    <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>