Maia Atlantis: Ancient World Blogs

http://planet.atlantides.org/maia

Tom Elliott (tom.elliott@nyu.edu)

This feed aggregator is part of the Planet Atlantides constellation. Its current content is available in multiple webfeed formats, including Atom, RSS/RDF and RSS 1.0. The subscription list is also available in OPML and as a FOAF Roll. All content is assumed to be the intellectual property of the originators unless they indicate otherwise.

October 04, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

La guerre et la Grèce

Sous la présidence de Michel ZINK, Secrétaire perpétuel de l'AIBL, Professeur au Collège de France, Président de la Fondation Théodore Reinach, Jacques JOUANNA et Philippe CONTAMINE, membres de l'AIBL.

Messieurs Jacques Jouanna, Jean-Claude Cheynet, Olivier Picard, membres du laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée interviendront lors de ce colloque

- Télécharger le programme

- Télécharger le bulletin d'inscription

- Pour en savoir plus

August 25, 2014

Laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée

XIVe Congrès de la Fédération Internationale des Associations d'Etudes Classiques

Le laboratoire Orient et Méditerranée sera représenté au XIVe Congrès de la Fédération Internationale des Associations d'Études Classiques au travers des interventions de plusieurs de ses membres.

- Consulter le programme complet des interventions

Après celui de Berlin (2009), ce congrès permettra de réunir les classicisants du monde entier, de faire se rencontrer des chercheurs à différents stades de leur carrière et de dresser un état des recherches actuelles.

Les trois associations françaises membres de la FIEC (l'Association Guillaume Budé, l'Association pour l'Encouragement des Études grecques en France et la Société des Études latines) ont confié l'organisation de cet événement à l'université Bordeaux Montaigne et à l'Institut Ausonius, un centre de recherche très actif et internationalement reconnu dans le domaine des sciences de l'Antiquité.

Pour en savoir plus

August 01, 2014

Ancient Art

Surya Kund, a large stepped tank and geometric marvel, at...





Surya Kund, a large stepped tank and geometric marvel, at the Modhera Sun Temple, Gujarat, India.

Photos taken by Bernard Gagnon.

July 31, 2014

Archaeology Magazine

Graves of Dublin's Viking Warriors

Viking burial dublinDUBLIN, IRELAND—After 15 years of study, archaeologists are ready to release a massive report that collects and presents evidence for the astounding number of Viking warrior burials beneath the streets of Dublin, reports the Irish Central. The burials, which date to between A.D. 841 and 902, represent the “largest burial complex of its type in western Europe, Scandinavia excluded,” says Stephen Harrison, who co-authored the 800-page report. It has long been thought that ancient annals that reported that there were vast numbers of Viking warriors in Dublin were greatly exaggerated, but now the great number of burials, along with the impressive grave goods the Vikings have been found with, are evidence not only that the annals may not have exaggerated as much as previously thought, but also that during the ninth century, Dublin was a wealthy and important city.

 

Investigating Unhealthy Mummies

horus-research-teamLONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA—After studying ancient Egyptian, Peruvian, Native American, and Mongolian mummies, medical researchers with a group known as the HORUS study team have found evidence for narrowing of ancient peoples' arteries due to high build up of fatty deposits, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which can contribute to a number of heart problems. In modern times, atherosclerosis can be caused by smoking, obesity, lack of activity, and other factors that were presumably not present in ancient cultures. Now the Horus study team is proposing that "non-traditional" causes of atherosclerosis could explain the prevalence of the condition among the mummies they have examined. In a World Heart Federation press release, the team points out that chronic infections caused by unhygienic conditions can produce prolonged inflammatory responses that lead to a build up in atherosclerotic plaque. Inhalation of smoke from fires might also cause atherosclerosis. The researchers found that the condition seems to be more common in female mummies, which could be explained by the fact that traditionally women spent more of their time near fires.

José María Ciordia (Pompilo: diario esporádico de un profesor de griego)

Hozando libros

Hozan y gozan los cerdos cuando escarban la tierra con el morro. Así me halla el verano, con la nariz metida de nuevo entre las páginas de un libro. Leer un libro todo seguido, un texto largo, no picotear en internet o los periódicos, es cada vez más sinónimo del verano, porque requiere de recogimiento, y porque impone a su vez un ritmo lento al paso de las horas que es imposible en otras estaciones.

Rose George, una periodista británica de apariencia engañosamente frágil (hela aquí dando una breve conferencia en Singapur), escribió acerca de la marina mercante este Noventa por ciento de todo. La industria invisible que te viste, te llena el depósito de gasolina y pone comida en tu plato (editorial Capitán Swing, ISBN 9788494221354304). Aunque todo el glamour cae habitualmente del lado de la navegación a vela, también cabe enamorarse del mar y navegarlo a bordo de un ruidoso, prepotente y sucio barco a motor. De un amor así da sobradamente fe este libro.

Empieza la autora expresando una extrañeza que yo también sentí hace tiempo: la marina mercante es invisible para el ciudadano común a pesar de que tiene un efecto continuado en su vida diaria, de hecho el noventa por ciento del comercio mundial viaja en barcos. Esa invisibilidad me la expliqué en su día razonando que es mínima la población que se dedica en occidente a esta profesión. No tratamos con marinos mercantes, sobre todo porque son tan pocos… Un monstruo que transporta 15.000 contenedores lleva una tripulación de sólo 13 personas. Como además se reparten en turnos, se puede decir que estos monstruos del mar se mueven casi solos.

El libro está lleno de datos jugosos. Abro por cualquier página y me encuentro con la noticia (p. 27) de que el bacalao escocés que se pesca y se come en Escocia, en medio se ha cortado en filetes en China, porque sale más barato congelarlo, enviarlo por barco al otro lado del mundo, descongelarlo allí, filetearlo a mano al precio de la mano de obra china, volver a congelarlo, enviarlo en barco de vuelta a Escocia y descongelarlo de nuevo, que filetearlo en Escocia pagando el precio de la mano de obra fileteadora escocesa. No sé si me he explicado. Lógico y de locos al mismo tiempo.

Como buena periodista, Rose George humaniza su ensayo para hacerlo mas agradable de leer, presentándolo como la crónica de un viaje que emprende como invitada en el Maersk Kendal, de Rotterdam a Singapur, con un cargamento de… vaya usted a saber qué, pero metido en contenedores. En un capítulo explica la autora precisamente que el formato estandarizado del contenedor ha acabado con la profesión de estibador, y de paso con una parte importante del romanticismo de la profesión.

Datos tontos que me han llamado la atención. Un monstruo portacontendores puede gastar 30.000 euros diarios en combustible (p. 109), y pagar 300.000 dólares por cruzar el canal de Suez (p. 122). Para ahorrar combustible, muchos de ellos navegan a unos 15 nudos, poco más de la mitad de la velocidad que pueden desarrollar, en lo que se llama “navegación lenta” (p. 110). Gracias a estas medidas, y al gigantismo de los buques, se consigue que una prenda de ropa, que viaja del extremo Oriente a Europa, deba sólo 2,5 céntimos de euro al coste del transporte por mar.

La autora dedica un capítulo a la piratería a su paso por la costa de Somalia. Habla entre otros temas de la imprudencia que yo desconocía del capitán Philips, secuestrado cuando iba al mando del Maersk Alabama, y retratado como un héroe en la película reciente y buenísima Capitán Philips de 2013. Y se expresa en duros términos, aunque indirectamente, contra la frivolidad de la Harvard Business School que en 2010 eligió a la piratería somalí como el mejor modelo de negocio del año (p. 166).

Una delicia de lectura, para quien se deleite leyendo sobre estos temas, obviously. Por lo demás, es una pena que el libro, bien impreso y encuadernado, flojee enojosamente por la parte de la edición. Hay erratas brutales, y un traductor que desconoce algo tan básico como el significado del término “armada” en español (ver definición en el DRAE). Traduce en la página 11:

El jefe de la flota británica —que es conocido como el First Sea Lord, a pesar de que el jefe de la Armada no es un Land Lord— dice que en nuestros días sufrimos de ceguera marítima.

The chief of the Royal Navy – who is known as the First Sea Lord, although the Army chief is not a Land Lord – says we suffer from ‘sea blindness’ now.

Resulta curioso que en los títulos de crédito se reconozca la labor de un corrector ortotipográfico. Este, de un nivel parecido al del corrector de texto y el traductor, insiste en que a lo largo de todo el libro se escriba mal, con mayúscula, la palabra “Estado”, que como todo el mundo sabe es un nombre común. Si procede así en atención al peso semántico de la palabra, ¿también acostumbra a escribir con mayúscula la palabra “pene”? Sería raro pero coherente; de hecho un funcionario varón previsiblemente tendrá a ambos en parecida estima.

Camilleri. Disfrutado el libro anterior, hozo y gozo ahora con la última novela traducida de Andrea Camilleri, Juego de espejos. Recomendabilísima.

Luciano de Samosata. Y tengo pendiente para más adelante saborear una novedad editorial que se promete deliciosa. Irene Vallejo, filóloga clásica colaboradora del Heraldo de Aragón, ha versionado las Historias verdaderas de Luciano de Samosata en un libro infantil titulado El inventor de viajes, ilustrado por José Luis Cano. Incluye barcos y griegos, un buen texto y dibujos bonitos como el del Pulgarquero de aquí abajo, así que merece triunfar. Por lo demás, me choca que la editorial Comuniter sea la obra cultural de una empresa que gestiona comunidades de vecinos. Cosas veredes…

Ilustración Pulgarquero de José Luis Cano

Archaeology Magazine

Dark Age Necropolis Unearthed in France

Merovingian-Necropolis-FranceSAINT-AUBIN-DES-CHAMPS, FRANCE—Researchers from France's public archaeology agency INRAP are excavating an early medieval necropolis in Normandy. Dating from the fifth to the seventh centuries A.D., the village cemetery held more than 300 burials and was not included in any surviving records from the time, an era when the Frankish Merovingian dynasty ruled the region. According to an INRAP press release, the team is particularly interested in how the site shows how ordinary people experienced the transition from the pagan beliefs of the Roman Empire to the rise of Christianity. Earlier burials in the cemetery feature skeletons buried with lavish grave goods, such as a woman found wearing pins in the shape of bronze trumpets, and a man buried with twenty objects, including an ax, spear, dagger, and a silver coin placed in his mouth. Later burials do not seem to include as many artifacts, reflecting the growing influence of Christianity, which did not encourage the villagers to take objects with them into the afterlife.

Gods on the Roman Frontier

maryport roman fort templeCUMBRIA, ENGLAND—While digging at the ancient Roman site of Maryport, archaeologists have uncovered the remains of a large, stone circular structure in front of what dig director Ian Haynes of Newcastle University says is “the most north-westerly classical temple in the Roman world to be discovered so far,” according to Culture24. The rectangular temple dates from the second century A.D. and the circular structure associated with it was likely an impressive monument of some kind, perhaps a large, freestanding column. The ancient remains at Maryport were originally found in the late nineteenth century, and much remains to be discovered, says Haynes. The fort at Maryport was a crucial part of the Roman Empire’s border defenses for at least three centuries, and the classical temple would have been a reminder of home for the soldiers stationed on this remote north-west frontier of the vast empire, explains Nigel Mills, the heritage advisor to the Hadrian’s Wall Trust.

 

Open Access Archaeology

Open Access Archaeology Digest #496

Open Access (free to read) articles on archaeology:

Metropolis in Mayfair?
http://bit.ly/1pJrkfG

A Cross-Slab found at St John’s Chapel, Canisbay, Caithness.
http://bit.ly/172kk4K

The excavation of a Quaker burial ground, 84 London Road, Kingston upon Thames
http://bit.ly/YXKzed

An inscribed stone from Burton Dassett, Warwickshire
http://bit.ly/11e9O8p

Learn more about Open Access and Archaeology at: http://bit.ly/YHuyFK

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Another View of Ghost Towns, Process and Product

My colleague Prof. Cindy Prescott generously offered this response to the my conversations with Troy Larson. 

Bill’s previous blog post and Troy’s response raise interesting questions about intellectual property and the relationship between academic and public history. Many researchers in the hard sciences worry constantly about being “scooped.” Historians (and people in the humanities in general) tend to worry far less about this, since we tend to be pursuing lines of inquiry that interest each of us individually, rather than all working toward common goals or on common problems (say, curing cancer). And the nature of historical research and publishing also means that the timeline is much slower — which is perhaps made possible by the fact that we’re less likely to be trying to beat each other to publish the same material.

Academic historians have traditionally staked a claim to their chosen research topics at conferences, which (sometimes) have a shorter lead time than do historical journals, let alone coveted monographs. But in my experience, historians generally value conference presentations for the opportunity that they represent to receive feedback from knowledgeable people who can help us to hone our arguments, more so than as an opportunity to stake a claim to a particular topic. Thus you are willing to share your database, because you believe that other trained scholars will bring their own perspectives to bear on that data and produce interesting arguments that enhance, challenge, or perhaps refute your findings. As an academic historian, you are free to welcome such challenges and refutations, precisely because you have already received the substantial benefit of a Ph.D. diploma and a tenure-track job on the basis of your interpretation of the data.

Likewise, I published a book based on my dissertation that will never make me a single cent, and I’m OK with that, because I didn’t write it to make money. I wrote it so that I could get and keep a job at a university. And I would gladly share the database on which I based part of that book — should it be useful to anyone else without me having to go back and bring order to my crazy notes — because I’d welcome different interpretations of that data. The worst that would happen to me is that someone might publish something that refutes my book and discourages people from buying the remaining stock of my book before it gets remaindered. Either way, I’m not getting any cash out of the deal, and it wouldn’t take away my tenure.

Blogs and other internet materials raise these questions precisely because they welcome engagement by the general public, who do not operate within the terms of academic scholarship. As I understand it, Troy Larson has been willing to share his images and ideas online not only because he’s generous, but also because he seeks to benefit from sharing them with an audience in much the same way that an academic traditionally has benefitted from presenting at academic conferences: (1) he gains an audience for an intended publication, and (2) he gains information and perspectives from others that will strengthen that publication. An academic historian wants very similar things, but ultimately seeks different long-term benefits. Academics, then, can afford to be more generous with data than can public scholars. As faculty at a public university, we’re essentially being paid to do so.

I’m intrigued by your comparison to borrowing from someone else’s class syllabus. For all that we insist on intellectual property rights to our teaching, I think that most academics will willingly share the reading lists for their classes. Indeed, we tend to borrow from one another’s reading lists, seeking the tried-and-true rather than to be cutting edge in terms of reading assignments. I suspect most college instructors would be somewhat more hesitant to share their lectures or active learning assignments, but even these we are more willing to share freely. We tend to think of teaching as a more collaborative experience — perhaps because no one is going to publish my lesson plans or give me tenure on the basis of those lesson plans. But perhaps more importantly, it’s because even someone who had my lecture notes would still have to stand up and deliver that lecture — and it would sound and look different from what I deliver in class.

I think that intellectual property concerns get raised far more often — and appropriately so — when it comes to the realm of online teaching. While a grad student could certainly deliver a lecture drawn from my lecture notes in their own course, that feels different to me than having someone else launch an online course using lectures that I had typed/videotaped/tegrity-ed. Because then they’re not just delivering a lecture based on my content (which in turn is based on information drawn from mainstream textbooks and materials). But my personal objection would come less from their cribbing of my ideas (which I had quite appropriately gathered from published sources in the first place, and in which I generally am not trying to make an original argument), and more from the sense that they are cheating and stealing my work. In other words, my objection comes not from them borrowing my content, but from them using my hard work without me benefitting. Why this is OK when sharing lesson plans but not OK when copying lectures, I’m not entirely sure – especially considering that I generally dislike lecturing, and am far more invested in, and am more proud of, my active learning assignments. I suspect that it is because I tend to view sharing ideas/plans for active learning assignments as part of the larger project of intellectual exchange that is one of my favorite parts of a career in academia (and that sharing tends to strengthen my other favorite part of an academic career: having an impact on student learners). But to copy a lecture wholesale feels like stealing or outsourcing my work (something that might allow the university to replace me and my tenure line with a cheaper teaching assistant or adjunct), rather than engaging in an intellectual exchange. I suspect that non-academic researchers like Troy Larson, who are depending on their information-gathering to make a living, would see someone else using their database more like I would look at someone else delivering my pre-recorded lecture content – particularly if the people using the data are supported by a larger structure such as a public university. While I am fearful of having my material “stolen” (used extensively) by someone who would teach for cheaper (a grad student or adjunct instructor), Troy Larson appears fearful of having his material “stolen” (used extensively) by someone who might be far better paid, but whose paycheck is primarily supported by their other services to a large research university.


Carole Raddato (Following Hadrian)

Art and sculptures from Hadrian’s Villa: Marble relief depicting a youth with his horse

This week’s masterpiece from Hadrian’s Villa is a bas-relief representing a boy with a horse, probably Castor taming his horse, accompanied by a dog.

Boy with horse (possibly Castor), marble relief from Hadrian’s Villa, 125 AD, British Museum © Carole Raddato

Boy with horse (possibly Castor), marble relief from Hadrian’s Villa, 125 AD, British Museum
© Carole Raddato

This marble slab was carved using the flat ancient style in the manner of Greek works of the 5th century BC.  It was found in an area of Hadrian’s villa known as the Pantanello (Little Bog) by Gavin Hamilton in about 1769, and subsequently formed one of the Townley Marbles collection bought by the British Museum. The discoveries at the Pantanello were considerable. Many sculptures and architectural fragments that are now in major international collections were found including a colossal head of Hercules and two busts of Hadrian.

Source


Filed under: Hadrian, Hadrian's Villa, Roman art

Archaeology Magazine

Head of Ice Age Lion Sculpture Found

ice-age-lionVOLGELHERD CAVE, SOUTHWESTERN GERMANY—Archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have unearthed a small fragment of mammoth ivory that is part of a figurine of a lion, reports PhysOrg. The 40,000-year-old sculpture is one of the most famous works of Ice Age art and was originally discovered during excavations in the cave in 1931. According to Tübingen archaeologist Nicholas Conard, the lion was originally thought to be a relief—making it unique for this period. However, with the small fragment of one side of the lion’s head now reattached, it is clear that the figurine is, in fact, three-dimensional. "The site has yielded a wealth of objects that illuminate the development of early symbolic artifacts dating to the period when modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neanderthals,” says Conard, including evidence of the world’s earliest figurative art and music. 

 

Ancient Peoples

Painted wooden cippus showing Horus standing on...



Painted wooden cippus showing Horus standing on crocodiles

Possibly from Memphis, Egypt
Late Period, after 600 BC

A cure for bites and stings

cippus was a type of stela that healed and protected against snake bites and scorpion stings. It was thought that water poured over the cippus gained healing properties. This example is surmounted by the head of the household god Bes, who protected the family from malign forces. Cippi typically show the infant Horus standing on crocodiles and holding dangerous animals such as snakes, scorpions and lions in his hands.

According to myth, the infant Harpokrates (Horus the child) was bitten or stung while in hiding with his mother in the marshes of the Delta. The lament of Isis stopped the celestial boat of the sun-god, who was supposed to be protecting the child. Re sent down his messenger Thoth, who cured the child by reciting a long list of spells. He promised that all that he had done for Harpokrates would be done for any human.

The spells first spoken by Thoth were inscribed on stelae to prevent and cure stings and bites, as well as many other complaints. All manner of conditions of unknown origin, such as convulsions, were attributed to poisoning of the blood. These were regarded as an intrusion of the forces of chaos into the ordered world; the spells were an attempt to combat the unknown.

Source: British Museum

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

God Is My Copilot

God is my copilot

I am sure I am not the only one who thinks that bumper-sticker and license-plate theology is not merely misguided, but actually blasphemous.

AIA Fieldnotes

International Archaeology Day at Pueblo Grande Museum

International Archaeology Day
Saturday, October 18, 2014 - 9:00am - 4:45pm

Kristina Killgrove (Powered by Osteons)

Open Osteological Data - Two Imperial Roman Cemetery Populations

I defended my dissertation, Migration and Mobility in Imperial Rome, four years ago.  Because of my interest in open access and because my NSF grant required a data access statement, I've been thinking for four years about how best to open up all the data I collected.

At first, I was worried about opening up the data because I wanted to get a job.

I got a job in 2012 at the University of West Florida.  

Roman Osteology Database Screenshot
Then I worried about opening up the data because I needed to publish and get tenure, but growing interest in open data among scholars made me conflicted.  So I compromised: I posted all published isotope data as bare-bones Excel files.  But divorcing these data from their larger context didn't sit well with me.

I'm entering my third year at UWF, and I see no reason to hold back the database any longer.  While I'm still a ways from making my tenure case, I've been steadily publishing the plethora of data I generated during my dissertation fieldwork, so I feel confident in my ability to research, analyze, and write on bioarchaeology.  

More importantly, though, I think I'm just done with this project.  

That's not to say there isn't more to write or that there aren't more data to analyze or that I'm not still interested in this time and place.  There's a ton of dental and skeletal pathology data, for example, that I haven't tackled.  But I want to move on to other projects, and at this point I worry that I'm becoming too myopic.  Honestly, Imperial Rome tends to do that -- it sucks you in, making you think it is, was, and ever will be the most important city in the world full of the most important people in history.  Roman imperialism is calling out for more diverse perspectives, though.  The rise in osteological analysis of Romano-British cemeteries, for example, is created a multifaceted Empire.  And new multidisciplinary studies in the Transatlantic slave trade are raising the question of potential comparative work with slavery in the Roman world.  I still love answering questions about population interaction in the past, but I might try focusing that interest on times and places like Medieval Berlin, Greco-Roman Italy, or Pre-Emancipation Southeast U.S.  Still, I am working on skeletons from various time periods at Gabii, so I haven't abandoned Roman bioarchaeology.  And I might yet publish dental pathology data (or enlist a grad student to do it for a thesis)...

At any rate, you can find my Access database on GitHub at this link.  Please use it if you're interested in comparative data sets, if you want to check my work, if you disagree with my interpretations, or if you just like reading databases.  I only ask that you credit me appropriately.  (If you want to collaborate further for a publication, though, I'm happy to do that as well.)

What follows is the repository read-me for more info. Some pictures are posted; more to come as I find the time to wade through and post them. Note that the database is partly embargoed; I feel bad about this, but for various reasons (that I'm happy to explain over a beer, but not here) I will make all the data available within the next year when publications are submitted and/or come out.  Also note that no archaeological context information is available for these two cemetery populations; I didn't dig up these skeletons, so I have only included data that I personally generated.  Someday, I hope to find an alternative to this Access database that I wrote in 2007 (maybe ARK? maybe an app I design?), but I'm not a fan of Osteoware or other non-open methods of recording skeletal data.  A blank version of my database is also available on GitHub.

I hope this database is useful.  While I realize I'm not being fully open with all my data just yet, I hope that this can set a precedent for other bioarchaeologists.  There's nothing more I'd like to see than large-scale, world-wide comparisons of health, diet, disease, and migration in antiquity.

---
Roman Osteology [Read-Me] - https://github.com/killgrove/RomanOsteology

This repository contains my database of published and unpublished data resulting from my research on skeletal remains from two cemeteries in Rome, Italy (Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco). There are also photographs relevant to various publications, each labeled by skeleton number (which is the ID key in the Access database).

In the database, you will find basic demographic information (age and sex), an inventory of each skeleton, skeletal pathology data, records of teeth examined and their pathological conditions, and results of all biochemical analyses undertaken to date (C, N, O, Sr, Pb isotopes; Pb and Sr concentration). Note that adult measurements, subadult measurements, subadult dental data, and nonmetric cranial trait data will be available in the next year, once the relevant publications come out (I'm afraid I have to embargo these raw data for the moment). Data from my work at Casal Bertone and Castellaccio Europarco can be found here; data from Gabii will be posted when possible. No information on the archaeological context of the skeletons (e.g., provenience, grave goods, etc.) is included in this database, as that information is the purview of the Archaeological Superintendency of Rome. Download the database by clicking on the "Download" button (over there on the lower right toolbar) and open with Microsoft Access.

The photographs folder currently includes shots of all individuals with scoreable porotic hyperostosis. Photographs are also available for many of the individuals with enamel hypoplasia, but photographs were not taken of every individual or every tooth with this enamel insult. More photographs will be posted soon, largely related to various pathological conditions (osteoarthritis and fractures among them).

I'm suggesting a CC BY-NC-SA license for these -- that is, feel free to use the data as you see fit for your academic publications; I just ask that you credit me appropriately. To find my own analyses and interpretations, or to get additional context, please see the relevant publications. If you don't have access to them, I will gladly send you a copy of anything published or under review:

[Pathology Data]
  • Killgrove, K. Submitted (July 2014). Imperialism and physiological stress in Rome (1st-3rd centuries AD). Manuscript submitted for edited volume, Bioarchaeology of Contact, Colonialism, and Imperialism, H. Klaus and M. Murphy, eds. University Press of Florida.
[Sr and O Data]
[C and N Data]
[Pb Data]
[Nonmetric Trait Data]
  • Killgrove, K. Submitted (December 2012). Using biological distance techniques to investigate the heterogeneous population of Imperial Rome. Manuscript submitted for edited volume, The Archaeology of Circulation, Exchange, and Human Migration, D. Peterson and J. Dudgeon, eds.

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Latest Release of all EpiDoc code

Latest Release of all EpiDoc code
EpiDoc is an international, collaborative effort that provides guidelines and tools for encoding scholarly and educational editions of ancient documents. It uses a subset of the Text Encoding Initiative's standard for the representation of texts in digital form and was developed initially for the publication of digital editions of ancient inscriptions (e.g. Inscriptions of Aphrodisias, Vindolanda Tablets). Its domain has expanded to include the publication of papyri and manuscripts (e.g. Papyri.info). It addresses not only the transcription and editorial treatment of texts themselves, but also the history and materiality of the objects on which the texts appear (i.e., manuscripts, monuments, tablets, papyri, and other text-bearing objects).

Past Releases

Ancient Peoples

Terracotta flask in the form of a scribe From EgyptNew Kingdom,...



Terracotta flask in the form of a scribe

From Egypt
New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty (about 1550-1295 BC)

This terracotta figure of a scribe depicts him as a very fat man with huge legs, sitting on the ground with one knee drawn up and a papyrus roll spread across his lap.

The figure is a bottle, one of a group of finely made red-ware vessels, sparingly decorated with black paint, that date to the Eighteenth Dynasty. The vessel is not an ink container, as Egyptian inks were kept in dry form. Like his identity, his function, once obvious perhaps, is now a mystery.

Source: British Museum

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

Suda On Line: Final Entry Entered!

I’m not sure how many folks are aware of the Suda On Line (a.k.a. SOL), but it has been a huge project for quite a few folks for the past 16 or so years. Long before the concept of ‘crowdsourcing’ existed, and long before Wikipedia existed, a discussion on the Classics list bore fruit and resulted in the online translation of the Suda. Just t’other day, long-time denizen of said list Jim O’Donnell pointed us to the final paragraph of the page about the history of the project:

A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day. This milestone is very gratifying, but the work of the project is far from over. As mentioned above, one of the founding principles of the project is that the process of improving and annotating our translations will go on indefinitely. Much important work remains to be done. We are also constantly thinking of ways to improve SOL’s infrastructure and to add new tools and features. If you are interested in helping us with the continuing betterment of SOL, please read about how you can register as an editor and/or contact the managing editors.

Indeed, the project was a pioneer in the field of Digital Humanities, and Anne Mahoney wrote an informative piece for Digital Humanities Quarterly about it back in 2009: Tachypaedia Byzantina: The Suda On Line as Collaborative Encyclopedia. Both the history and AM’s article give a rather brief view of how it all came together. If you want to follow the flurry of emails (yes, yours truly was involved … back in my grad student days) to see what a difficult birth it was, check out another page at the SOL: How the SOL was born. If you do read it, I do want to go on record as saying — even though I argued vigorously for it at the time — that I’m extremely happy that we didn’t settle on PDF as a format for the project. We should also pause and remember the many people who were there at the start who aren’t with us today … Ross Scaife, Don Fowler, and James Butrica (if I’ve left some out, please drop me a line).


Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Acta Tulliana (formerly Gazette Tulliana)

Acta Tulliana (formerly Gazette Tulliana)
http://www.tulliana.eu/file/la_gazette.gif

Gazette and Acta Tulliana

For Cicero’s Friends, Tulliana.eu provides a Gazette, which is online, free and open for all, and the Acta Tulliana, a bimonthly report. 

Gazette

Our Gazette, published as a .pdf file, is more a newsletter than an academic review. Papers and notes written by scientific members are not a paid work, and are monitored by the scientific editor, Andrea Balbo.
The main purpose of the Gazette is:
  • a stage for information: open-ed, notes about our organization and the site, books and issues, schedules for conferences coming soon, announcements about ongoing projects or in the next future, etc.
  • a spot for ideas and debates: curiosities and interviews from all points of views (philology, major texts, history, philosophy, rhetorics, linguistics, iconography, and more)
  • an open place: learning and teaching, personal interest ("My Cicero") etc.
The Gazette is published in the three official languages of Tulliana.eu  and in Spanish (in the section Documents > Hispanica).

01. Gazette 2009, 1 :
Français - English - Italiano - Español





Open Access Journal: Illinois Classical Studies

 [First posted in AWOL 11 July 2009. Updated 31 July 2014]

Illinois Classical Studies
ISSN: 0363-1923
http://bks7.books.google.com/books?id=uhlZAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&img=1&zoom=1
Illinois Classical Studies was founded in 1976 by Miroslav Marcovich, Head of the Department of the Classics (1973-77) at the University of Illinois. Professor Marcovich served as editor from 1976-82 and 1988-92. Professors J. K. Newman (1983-87), David Sansone (1992-2000), Gerald M. Browne (2001-2003), and Danuta Shanzer (2004-2011) were subsequent editors of the journal. ICS publishes original research on a variety of topics related to the Classics, in all areas of Classical Philology and its ancillary disciplines, such as Greek and Latin literature, history, archaeology, epigraphy, papyrology, patristics, the history of Classical scholarship, the reception of Classics in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and beyond. ICS has also published thematic volumes on topics such as Greek Philosophy, Euripidean tragedy, Latin poetry, and Byzantium.
IDEALS provides open access to volumes 1 (1976) - 23 (1998) of Illinois Classical Studies (ISSN 0363-1923). Information about current issues and subscriptions can be found at the University of Illinois Press at http://www.press.uillinois.edu/journals/ics.html.

David Gill (Looting Matters)

St Louis Art Museum and the Mummy Mask

Did the US Authorities handle the case of the mummy mask in the St Louis Art Museum in the most appropriate way? I am sure that readers of LM will have views on this.

but there is a more important issue. do we believe the collecting history, the so-called provenance, of the mask supplied by the vendor and presented by the museum? The answer has to be no. The documentation from Cairo seems to be clear that the mask was in Egypt at the time that it is claimed that it was also passing through the hands of dealers and private collectors in Europe.

And if the collecting history is flawed, how comfortable is the museum with the acquisition? Are the officers willing to say that they have full confidence in the collecting history? Or do they have reservations? and if they have reservations, will they consider taking the appropriate professional and ethical action by opening up positive negotiations with the Egyptian authorities?

does the SLAM mask remind us that some museum curators in North America are still operating with the acquisition standards of the pre-Medici period?

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

Cup Used by Perikles?

As folks have probably already seen, the interwebs are burning up with the discovery — apparently — of a cup used by Pericles.  eKathimerini’s coverage seems to embrace all the coverage making it to the English press:

A cup believed to have been used by Classical Greek statesman Pericles has been found in a pauper’s grave in north Athens, according to local reports Wednesday.

The ceramic wine cup, smashed in 12 pieces, was found during building construction in the northern Athens suburb of Kifissia, Ta Nea daily said.

After piecing it together, archaeologists were astounded to find the name “Pericles” scratched under one of its handles, alongside the names of five other men, in apparent order of seniority.

Experts are “99 per cent” sure that the cup was used by the Athenian statesman, as one of the other names listed, Ariphron, is that of Pericles’ elder brother.

“The name Ariphron is extremely rare,” Angelos Matthaiou, secretary of the Greek Epigraphic Society, told the newspaper.

“Having it listed above that of Pericles makes us 99 per cent sure that these are the two brothers,” he said.

The cup was likely used in a wine symposium when Pericles was in his twenties, and the six men who drank from it scrawled their names as a memento, Matthaiou said.

“They were definitely woozy, as whoever wrote Pericles’ name made a mistake and had to correct it,” he said.

The cup was then apparently gifted to another man named Drapetis (“escapee” in Greek) who was possibly a slave servant or the owner of the tavern, said archaeologist Galini Daskalaki.

“This is a rare find, a genuine glimpse into a private moment,” she said.

Ironically, the cup was found on Sparta street, Athens’ great rival and nemesis in the Peloponnesian War that tore apart the Greek city-states for nearly 30 years.

General of Athens during the city’s Golden Age, Pericles died of the plague in 429 BC during a Spartan siege.

The cup will be displayed in the autumn at the Epigraphical Museum in Athens.

The eKathimerini coverage (and others) include a small photo of the cup, but it isn’t easy to see the names. It is somewhat suspicious though (but that’s my nature), so I tracked down the Ta Nea coverage referenced in the article, which provides some important details (and photos). I’ll present to google translate version here … it’s not too bad until towards the end:

A simple wineglass – a black-glazed Skyphos – 5th century BC found in a humble tomb in Kifissia comes to rock the boat of archeology, as not only it is almost certain that it was used by Pericles, but not impossible to bear and the handwritten signature. Which makes the humble vessel as the first tangible evidence of the daily life of one of the most famous personalities of history.
“It is a rare find. A lively authentic element of a private moment “says archaeologist of Second Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Serenity Daskalakis the vessel of only eight centimeters uncovered the foundations of a building under construction on the street at 18 Sparta Ave.
Just two meters below the surface and in a grave not identified bones archaeologist found the vase broken into 12 pieces. When annealed, the surprise was great. On one side below the handle was engraved six names in the genitive: Aristeidou, Diodotou, Daisimou, Arrifronos, Pericles and Efkritou. And all along was mounted on a frame.

NAME-KEY. How do we know that Pericles stated in the vessel is the man who has linked his name with the creation of the Parthenon? “The name Arrifron is very rare and brought his grandfather and elder brother of Pericles. The mention of his name over that of Pericles on the surface of the vase makes us 99% confident that they are the two brothers and entered as Pericles is none other than the man who guided the fate of Athens in the period of highest edge ‘ explains the secretary of Greek Epigraphy Society and editor of archaiognostikis inspection “IOROS” (term), the anniversary edition which published the study’s important findings, Angelos P. Matthew.

“It’s not the first time we have the name of Pericles in full inscription, as he is known only in fragmentary” continues stressing the importance of the find. “Assuming that the Aristides (usual name, but at the time we are talking about the famous politician lived stayed in history as Righteous), Pericles and Arrifron of skyphos identified with eminent Athenians, I see that they do not coincide in politics.

Aristides acted the years 488-478 BC, Pericles the period 460-429 BC But there might be overlap in a social interaction. In 470 BC for example Arrifron would have been 25 years old, 24 and Pericles Aristides around 50, “says archaeologist, which dates the adiakosmito vessel (vessel hijacked and not of great house) using the formula of between 480 and 465 BC .

The six men may be found together in a banquet or pub. And since they drank from the same vessel – something that was common – carved their names in general to show that the glass belongs to them. And periekleisan a framework to make it clear that it was nothing, starting with the largest.
Experts distinguish at least two handwritings, but can not know whether the one hand belongs to Pericles. “It certainly was dizzy from the wine as it is clear that whoever wrote the name of Pericles made a mistake initially and wrote at par and then corrected it,” says Matthew Angel.

OWNER. Whose but the vessel was found in Kifissia? The answer lies at the base of stating a name yet: Runaway, written in nominal rather than in Attic, as other names, but in the Ionic alphabet. Who could it be? “This is a main male name denoting status, brought that someone who left secretly, probably a slave” does the Serenity Daskalakis, which does not exclude the possibility that it was he who served in the banquet men or the owner of the hijacked and they gave him the vase as a keepsake. Gift precious family heirloom that was not separated nor his grave.

Even better, the Ta Nea coverage has some different views of the cup, which includes something that doesn’t seem to be mentioned anywhere: it’s written upside down. I have to include the photo:

periclescup

Ta Nea Photo

Visit the Ta Nea link up there for the ‘runaway’ inscription on the base. If genuine, this would be an amazing find, but there are causes for concern. First of all, scratching names on some black figure piece would be an amazingly simple way to add value to an otherwise boring black figure piece. It is also ‘iffy’ to base ownership on the basis of a collection of names (see, most infamously, in regards to the Talpiot tomb claims as neatly elucidated by Mark Goodacre: The Talpiot Tomb and the Beatles.) But even without that, just looking at it raises questions that need to be answered. If these guys were sharing the cup, why would they need to put ALL their names on it? Has another cup been found with this sort of thing? Getting ‘autographs’ as a keepsake seems to be a modern phenomenon. Why has a box been drawn around the ‘signatures’? Why are they upside down? Perhaps more importantly, if the cup was broken in a dozen pieces, is it just a happy coincidence that the names seem to come from a large unbroken piece? That paleographers distinguish two hands is also suggestive … perhaps that’s your best indicator that this is a ‘value added’ piece? (i.e. the cup originally had the first three names (or whatever) then a more recent hand added some more, then drew a box around things to give the impression it was all done at the same time.)

I think the jury is still out on this one …


Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

SOS SS United States

It's now or never to try to save the fabulous SS United States from the breaker's yard.  The downside is the cost of an refit for commercial use, but the upside is that other sources indicate that the liner has already had dangerous asbestos removed.  If all goes as planned, the liner may end up as an attraction in Brooklyn, New York.  Otherwise, sadly it will likely be scrapped given berthing fees of $60,000 per month.  For more, see the SS United States Conservancy website.

David Gill (Looting Matters)

Museums Association and Northampton

It seems that the Museums Association has reviewed the decision of Northampton Museum and Art Gallery to sell its Egyptian statue to fund future developments. It looks as if the the MA do not consider that Northampton followed the due process to deaccession the statue as outlined in the MA code of ethics, This is probably the first step in the process for the Northampton museum service to lose its accreditation.

Local councillors and officers in Northampton will now have to explain why they took the course of action that they followed.

ArcheoNet BE

De vergeten veldslag – Hoogstraten 11 januari 1814

In tegenstelling tot de rest van België ligt de focus in Hoogstraten dit jaar niet op 1914, maar op 1814, toen de fameuze ‘Slag van Hoogstraten’ plaatsvond. Misschien was jij wel een van de 15.000 bezoekers die in mei getuige waren van de reconstructie van deze veldslag? Nationaal nieuws was het, met zelfs een hilarische reportage in De Ideale Wereld op de koop toe. Voor wie echt alles wil weten over deze intrigerende periode in onze geschiedenis, is er vanaf zaterdag ook de tentoonstelling ‘De vergeten veldslag – Hoogstraten 11 januari 1814’ in het Stedelijk Museum Hoogstraten.

DIn 1814 had in de regio Hoogstraten een veldslag plaats tussen de troepen van de Franse keizer Napoleon Bonaparte en een geallieerd legerkorps dat in hoofdzaak bestond uit Pruisen, Britten en kozakken. Een veldslag die zou bijdragen tot de latere overwinning op Napoleon in Waterloo, 1815. Vreemd genoeg is deze bloedige confrontatie op 11 januari 1814 slechts als een voetnoot in de geschiedenis terechtgekomen. Sterker nog, in gespecialiseerde historische studies over de Napoleontische tijd wordt de ‘Slag van Hoogstraten’ gewoon over het hoofd gezien. Uit recent historisch onderzoek blijkt dat de betekenis van de veldslag bij Hoogstraten niet onderschat mag worden. Deze Franse nederlaag bij Hoogstraten was de eerste in een reeks van confrontaties die later zouden uitmonden in de definitieve nederlaag bij Waterloo in 1815.

vergetenveldslag2Met op de achtergrond historische marsmuziek maak je op de tentoonstelling kennis met Napoleon en zijn tegenstanders in de woelige jaren voorafgaand aan de slag. Je komt alles te weten over de rampzalige campagne naar Rusland en ervaar hoe de macht van de Franse keizer stilaan onder druk komt te staan. Uur voor uur, stap voor stap kan je de Fransen en Pruisen volgen in aanloop vanaf het beleg van Breda (Nederland) tot aan de grote confrontatie bij de kerk in Minderhout (Hoogstraten). Een prachtige maquette van de hand van specialist Jan Huijbrechts toont met historische precisie hoe de verschillende partijen elkaar op 11 januari 1814 daar te lijf gingen tijdens de ‘Slag van Hoogstraten’. Kostuums, medailles en wapens zijn te bewonderen dankzij de bruiklenen van het Koninklijk Museum van het Leger en de Krijgsgeschiedenis (Brussel) en talrijke privé-verzamelaars. Tot slot is er ook aandacht voor de naweeën en gevolgen van deze slag voor de verdere bevrijding van de Zuidelijke Nederlanden met o.a het beleg van Antwerpen.

Op de tentoonstelling is er ook voldoende aandacht voor de lokale geschiedenis. Met de inname van de Zuidelijke Nederlanden en de vereniging met Frankrijk op 1 oktober 1795 werden de Hoogstratenaren citoyens of Franse staatsburgers. We hebben aandacht voor de gevolgen voor de bevolking op maatschappelijk, religieus en cultureel vlak. Dankzij de medewerking van Stadsarchief Hoogstraten tonen we uniek nooit vertoonde archiefstukken en de originele ‘onkostennota’s’ die de Hoogstraatse inwoners aan het stadsbestuur bezorgden in de hoop vergoed te worden voor de geleden schade van o.a. de inkwartieringen van de troepen. Er worden ook archeologische vondsten tentoongesteld. De veldslag zorgde voor een rijk bodemarchief: honderden musketkogels, knopen, kanonskogels, hoefijzers… Wie wil kan ook de lijvige publicatie van Jan Huijbrechts ‘Tussen Antwerpen en Breda …’ – De ‘vergeten’ veldslag van Hoogstraten 11 januari 1814 aanschaffen.

Praktisch: de tentoonstelling ‘De vergeten veldslag – Hoogstraten 11 januari 1814′ loopt van 2 augustus tot 21 december 2014 in het Stedelijk Museum Hoogstraten. Meer info op museum.hoogstraten.be.

Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

US Government Gives Up on Trying to Repatriate Ka Nefer Nefer Mummy Mask

The New York Times is reporting that the US Government is giving up on its effort to repatriate the Ka Nefer Nefer Mummy Mask to Egypt.  It remains to be seen whether ardent repatriations over at the Lawyer's Committee for Cultural Heritage Preservation will now take up Egypt's cause.  However, given the turmoil and military dictatorship there, one might think leaving the Mask in St. Louis may be all for the best anyway, whatever ingenious legal arguments such advocates might come up with at this late date.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Israel and Palestine in Sunday School

I was asked by my Sunday school class to help them understand what is going on in Israel and the Palestinian territories, and how if at all this connects with the Bible. I was going to try to make a video with a brief overview of the history of Israel, providing maps and illustrations. But I have decided that adding yet another video on this topic to what is already on YouTube may not be the best use of my time. There are many – some quite good, most extremely one-sided. But even from the latter you can learn things, at least about how some constituencies view things, provided that you don’t listen to only one side’s perspective. So I will share one video here which at least tries to provide narratives from both sides, encouraging you to seek others, including ones which express views you are inclined to accept and ones which articulate views you are inclined to reject. And then, instead of making my own video, I will offer a few brief points about my own perception, starting with the question of ancient and Biblical connections.

Click here to view the embedded video.

So here are some thoughts and views of mine on this topic:

What is the connection of the current conflict to the Bible? I would say that there is no real connection. Many Christians in North America think that the very existence of the modern state of Israel is a fulfillment of prophecy. But that view depends on a particular problematic way of reading the Bible as focused on the “end times.” This approach wants the present day to be the focus of at least some of the Bible, and thus prefers to say that references to the temple and the Roman empire in works like Revelation are about a rebuilt temple and restored Roman empire, rather than the more natural reading, which is that it refers (as Revelation explicitly states) to realities in its author’s own time.

Despite what you will hear, there is not an endless history of conflict between Jews and Arabs, going back to Isaac and Ishmael. When Jews were persecuted in Christian Europe, they often found a safe haven in predominantly Arab and predominantly Muslim territories.

The modern nation state is a relatively recent phenomenon. When the kingdoms of Israel and Judah existed in ancient times, they were almost always vassal kingdoms within some empire – whether that of Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, or any other.

There was a united Israel for relatively little of the history of the people of Israel. At no point was the nation ethnically and religiously monolithic. There are laws about the treatment of foreigners, and at no point in the history of Israel is a promise given that the nation will possess the land regardless of how they behave. And so the attempt to appeal to the Bible as though it means that one cannot criticize Israel is not merely wrong, it is a diabolical inversion of what the Bible says. Throughout much of ancient Israel’s history, we find people called false prophets saying that God is on their side, and those whom the Bible considers to have been true prophets predicted exile and called the nation to repentance.

But all of the above is at best tangentially related to the realities of modern Israel. Israel is beleaguered and war-torn for the same reasons that places like Northern Ireland, Kuwait, Pakistan, and the former Yugoslavia have been at various times over the past century.  At the end of the colonial era, lines were drawn creating modern nation-states, which typically divided people from others whom they considered their kindred, and lumped them with others that they felt less kinship with. Extracting Israel from world history as though it were not a result of processes we have seen at work elsewhere hinders understanding.

The modern nation of Israel was created to be a homeland and safe haven for Jews who were experiencing not merely persecution but extermination elsewhere. This is one reason why one-state solutions are unappealing to many Israelis. If Jews can potentially become a minority in Israel, it is doubtful whether it can serve this function. I don’t think that anyone who understands the Holocaust can fail to empathize with and appreciate this point.

From the Palestinian side, most Americans should try to put themselves in the shoes of Native Americans, being driven from land that they inhabited for a very long time and given small territories where they exercise limited sovereignty. But imagine that, unlike here, you do not have citizenship, and you are not free to travel outside of your reservation. Some Americans would surely take up arms if others did to them what their ancestors did to others. Others might simply live lives of despair and hopelessness. I don’t think that most people can fail to empathize with and appreciate this perspective, either.

And so we have two sides, and many people who seem incapable of recognizing that both sides have valid points, aims, and grievances, and that there have been atrocities committed by both sides. Usually when someone points this out, the reaction is to emphasize that one side or the other has been far worse. I don’t dispute that, if a tally were made, the balance would not be equal. When is it ever? But that does not appear to me to justify either side simply pressing ahead with business as usual.

A two-state solution confronts the problem that sacred spaces for those who would reside in both states will be found with the other’s state. And so, in my opinion, the only viable two-state solution has to include freedom of movement so that no one in either territory is hindered from going to the other. We have seen borders largely made irrelevant in places like the European Union, and so it is not impossible, but it is unrealistic in the present climate of understandable distrust on both sides in Israel and the Palestinian territories.

I would also note that the Christians of the Holy Land are mostly Palestinian. American Christians often have surprisingly little interest in seeking out and listening to their perspectives, never mind trying to offer help and support for fellow Christians in the region.

Anyone who thinks or speaks as though the interests of a particular constituency makes what people are experiencing in the region on both sides less tragic should not be taken seriously. You can strongly believe that Israel has the right to exist and defend itself. You can also (and simultaneously!) believe that the Palestinians have the right to freedom and mobility and an infrastructure that makes life more bearable. But if believing either or both leads you to consider the deaths of civilians, including children, to be something that is unfortunate but necessary, then I think that your commitment to a particular subset of humanity has come to outweigh your commitment to humanity as a whole. And if that has happened, I would encourage you to rethink your outlook – not necessarily your political commitments, but your view of the value of all human life. Because “never again” is a slogan that should lead us to equally abhor when people say “gas the Jews” and when people say “gas the Arabs.” And I have to believe that it is possible to work for what we consider to be just and right without engaging in acts of injustice that by definition undermine the rightness of our own stance.

These are some of my thoughts on the subject. Feel free to disagree with me, challenge me, or in other ways discuss the subject. That’s what I suspect will be happening in my Sunday school class over the next several weeks, too.

Palestinian tweet

Végh Zsuzsanna and Simon Zsolt (Agyagtábla, papirusz)

Könyvajánló

Sonja Plischke: Die Seleukiden und Iran. Die seleukidische Herrschaftspolitik in den östlichen SatrapienClassica et Orientalia 9. Wiesbaden

Brian A. Brown, Marian H. Feldman: Critical Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Art. Boston - Berlin

Alhena Gadotti: ‘Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld’ and the Sumerian Gilgamesh Cycle. Boston - Berlin

Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen ArchäologieBd 14/Lieferung 1/2.

James A. Armstrong - Hermann Gasche: Mesopotamian Pottery: A Guide to the Babylonian Tradition in the Second Millennium B.C. Disdocs.

Benjamin Mutin: The Proto-Elamite Settlement and Its Neighbors: Tepe Yaya Period IVC. Oxford

Friedhelm Hoffmann - Karin Stella Schmidt (eds.): Orient und Okzident in hellenistischer Zeit. Beiträge zur Tagung „Orient und Okzident – Antagonismus oder Konstrukt? Machtstrukturen, Ideologien und Kulturtransfer in hellenistischer Zeit“. Würzburg 10.–13. April 2008. Verlag PB

Juris Zarins: The Domestication of Equidae in Third-Millennium BCE Mesopotamia. CUSAS 24. CDL Press

Patrick M. Michel: Le culte des pierres à Emar à l’époque hittite. OBO 266. Fribourg

Adam E. Miglio: Tribe and State: The Dynamics of International Politics and the Reign of Zimri-Lim. Gorgias Press
D. T. Potts: Nomadism in Iran. From Antiquity to the Modern Era. Oxford

C.L. Crouch: The Making of Israel. Cultural Diversity in the Southern Levant and the Formation of Ethnic Identity in Deuteronomy. Leiden

Anna H. Bauer: Morphosyntax of the Noun Phrase in Hieroglyphic LuwianBrill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden

David Meadows (rogueclassicism)

New List: Ancient Food Technology

Julie Hrubey of Dartmouth posted this to various lists:

It seems that culinary technologies have been emerging as a subfield
within archaeology for some time now, and that it would be a good time
for those who approach culinary technologies from different scholarly
angles, whether ceramics, palaeoethnobotany, zooarchaeology, fuel
studies, etc., to have a dedicated discussion space. I have initiated
an email mailing list (there will probably also be a Facebook page
shortly, but I’m not quite there yet).

To sign up, go to
<http://listserv.dartmouth.edu/scripts/wa.exe?A0=ANCIENT-FOOD-TECH>
and click on the “subscribe or unsubscribe” link in the bottom right
corner; it should be self-evident from there. The list is conceived
quite broadly, as “a forum for the discussion of the cooking
technologies (including cooking vessels, fuels, etc.) of ancient
Mediterranean and neighboring cultures,” with the hope that
interesting collaborative approaches and pictures of broad culinary
trends will emerge.


Tom Matrullo (Classics in Sarasota)

Giving and taking: Heroides 7 (III)

Mortal action in the ancient epic world is shrouded in murk. Even chosen sons of goddesses like Aeneas have very little notion of what they are doing, or why.

After the Juno-sent rain that brought Aeneas and Dido into the cave, and into what Dido called "coniugium," Jupiter sends Mercury to prompt the Trojan, clarifying his task:
Not such the man
his beauteous mother promised; not for this
twice did she [Venus] shield him from the Greeks in arms:
but that he might rule Italy, a land
pregnant with thrones and echoing with war;
that he of Teucer's seed a race should sire,
and bring beneath its law the whole wide world.
If such a glory and event supreme
enkindle not his bosom; if such task
to his own honor speak not; can the sire
begrudge Ascanius the heritage
of the proud name of Rome?
Non illum nobis genetrix pulcherrima talem
promisit, Graiumque ideo bis vindicat armis;
sed fore, qui gravidam imperiis belloque frementem
Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri
proderet, ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem.
Si nulla accendit tantarum gloria rerum,
nec super ipse sua molitur laude laborem,
Ascanione pater Romanas invidet arces?
Mercury arrives, and:
                                   he saw
Aeneas building at a citadel,
and founding walls and towers; at his side
was girt a blade a-glitter with yellow jaspers

A decorative blade. Virgil's word, stellatus, suggests something studded or bejeweled, in which decor exceeds utility. Clearly not the warrior's. Neither Virgil nor Ovid depict the lovers' exchange of swords, but we need not look far in Heroides 7 for Aeneas's: his sword lies naked, as they say, in Dido's lap:
Adspicias utinamquae sit scribentis imago!     
Scribimuset gremio Troicus ensis adest 
O that you could represent me to yourself as writing this letter!
I write, and on my lap lies a drawn sword.
"How well" -- the irony is palpable -- "are your gifts fitted to my destiny!"
Quam bene conveniunt fato tua munera nostro!
The sword is indeed fitted to the destiny of a queen who, as powerful precursor of Aeneas, has accomplished that which he has yet to do. Bestowing her achievement and her pretty sword upon him, giving him Lordship of her world, un-Aeneases him.

When it becomes clear that Aeneas is leaving ("duty calls"), Dido turns his sword against herself. She takes his gift -- a symbol of his power and willingness to protect her -- and uses it not symbolically, but materially -- as a knife. If the symbolic aura of the gift doesn't apply, then its actual heft can, and will.

Readers of Ovid are familiar with this sort of metamorphosis: a symbolic gift suddenly loses its aura (exchange value, meaning) and "fits" (convenio) another use. The gift takes her life (use value, force), and that of their child. In this case, the sword un-Didos Dido when her Aeneas-annihilating gift is not accepted. There's no middle ground with double-edged gifts.

Of course Dido doesn't perish before leaving Aeneas a gift in turn -- a carmen. We'll turn to it in a coda to this overlong analysis.

American Philological Association

Hercules on the silver screen in 2014

Kellan Lutz and Dwayne Johnson as HerculesThis year’s been a productive one for big-budget hack-and-slash films set in the ancient world.  Besides a disastrous (so to speak) Pompeii and the 300 sequel focused on Themistocles and Artemisia, theatergoers have had the opportunity (some might say the misfortune) to see two movies about Hercules: The Legendary Hercules, starring Kellan Lutz, released in January, and Hercules, starring Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson, released this month.  (For convenience, and for love of portmanteaux, I’ll refer to the latter as Rockules and the former as Herculutz.  Also for convenience, I’m ignoring the mockbuster Hercules Reborn, also released this year.)  I watched and enjoyed them both — your mileage may vary — and noticed overlapping themes in the way each movie characterizes its protagonist as grappling not only with his foes but also with his destiny as a mythic hero.

Needless to say, spoiler alert for both movies, and for the comic book on which Rockules is based (on which, see Gellar-Goad & Bedingham, forthcoming in Electra volume 3).

Kellan Lutz caught his big break through the Twilight movie series, and it wouldn’t be wrong to call Herculutz “Twilight Hercules.”  It’s got a sappy, angsty love story and peddles plenty of flesh.  Dwayne Johnson, on the other hand, is riding a long-running wave of acting success, and picked his Herculean project himself.  In fact, Hercules was the first role he ever wanted to do as a movie actor.  Rockules thus represents a sort of pinnacle for him — one perhaps marked by a moment near the end of the film where Hercules stands triumphantly atop an enemy’s palace promontory as soldiers and subjects acquiesce to his victory, in a visual echo of the conclusion of his first big Hollywood role, the Scorpion King in The Mummy Returns (2001) and The Scorpion King (2002).  Rockules, to its credit, has no love story to speak of.

Kellan Lutz as Hercules

Despite the numerous differences, these two Hercules have much besides their subject in common, particularly their classics-movie clichés and their thematic characterization of the hero.  Herculutz is a pretty bland instantiation of the sword-and-sandal genre, with Hercules cast as a gladiator-cum-rebel leader in a generic hybrid of Kirk Douglas’ Spartacus and Russell Crowe’s Maximus.  In Rockules we get a predictable soldier-training montage, set-piece battle scenes, the screaming inspirational speech before a fight, and scythed chariots.  Both offer the requisite white marble columns and ruins by which the American pop-culture imagination defines ancient Greece.  Both follow the pattern for Hercules movies (from the genre-founding 1958 Steve Reeve flick onward) of telling a story outside or between the Labors, with the defeat of the Nemean Lion looming large as background or prologue.  And both participate in the en-vogue demystification of myths in American cinema, preferring unseen or possibly-nonexistent gods and unpreternatural explanations for mythic creatures: thus in Herculutz, though Hercules’ relationship to his father is paramount, Zeus himself is invisible, and in Rockules, the Lernaean Hydra turns out to be bandits wearing serpent’s-head masks and centaurs turn out to be what cavalry look like when seen in the right shadow or fog (the narrator of Lucretius’ De Rerum Natura would be proud).

Dwayne Johnson as HerculesMore interesting to me is how similar the characterization is of these two otherwise very different Herculeses.  Lutz’ Hercules is short-haired, scruffy, hairy-chested, immaculate, and very Nordic-looking, while Johnson’s is long-locked, fully bearded (made with real yak hair!), scarred, and (besides the depilated torso) looks a lot like an actual ancient Greek warrior/bodybuilder might have.  But each is more tactician than he is brute, as loyal as he is fierce, and less the murderous lonester demigod from myth than the standard action-adventure hero and battle-leader of American cinema.  Moreover, both Herculutz and Rockules dramatize the hero’s identity crisis.  In each movie — and in contrast to the 1958 Hercules and the 1997 Disney Hercules, where the title character give up divine status for mortal romance — the protagonist must struggle with, and ultimately accept, his fate to be a legend and a leader.  Especially striking is that in both Herculutz and Rockules, the climactic moment where Hercules embraces this heroic identity has him using his supernatural strength to break free from stone columns to which he has been chained, swinging his chains to smash enemy soldiers.  (And Lutz later receives a lightning bolt from the sky/dad to aid him in battle, something that The Rock will do in the sequel, if the sequel follows the comic books.)  In each instance, we have a powerful man forced by his circumstances to accept the role of leader and helper of the weak (a modern analogue to his ancient role as alexikakos), despite the personal costs that role brings.

In part, I think that this motif has a generational undercurrent to it, similar to a pattern in recent onscreen treatments of the Titanomachy.  Just as in those Titanomachy stories, the protagonists here have lost-family issues (in Herculutz, Zeus is invisible, and Alcmene is murdered by Amphitryon, the movie’s archvillain, while in Rockules, Hercules is an orphan and his wife and kids were murdered by King Eurystheus).  Similarly, in the Hercules movies just as in the Titanomachies, the character development centers on the half-mortal protagonist’s need to accept his role as heir to power.  Possibly there’s a message for these movies’ target demographic of young adults, that their transition to political dominance in American society will bring with it burdens of obligation and self-doubt?  (Emma Stafford, author of the definitive monograph on Herakles/Hercules, also sees political uncertainty as part of The Rock’s Hercules.)  Possibly, also, the Herculeses’ anxiety over becoming leader and protector reflect concerns about the United States’ role in a world where non-intervention seems to be as dangerous and catastrophic as military intervention.  Reclaiming Hercules — the paragon of the lone wolf — as leader of adventuring parties and of armies could likewise symbolize a repudiation of the libertarian individualism and anti-collectivist egoism that have grown in voice in American political debate over the past decade.

In September’s column, I’ll explore the relationship between Rockules and the Steve Moore Hercules: The Thracian Wars comics on which it’s based.

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Ghosts Towns, Process, and Product on the World Wide Web

I had originally intended to write about the local humanities this morning, but I was distracted by an interesting little discussion on the internet. A local author, Troy Larson, took issues with a website produced for a class offered by Tom Isern, a historian at North Dakota State University. Tom had designed the class, as far as I can recall, to produce a catalogue of North Dakota “Ghost Towns”. Troy Larson is the local expert on North Dakota Ghost Towns and has published a couple of coffee table books on the subject and maintains a remarkable blog called Ghosts of North Dakota. By all means, go and buy his book and surf his blog. They’re both pretty cool things.

Update: Troy has responded to my post here, and, better still, included a link to his original thoughts on the issue here with screen shots.

The website prepared for Tom’s class had a list of ghost towns on it with a series of links to Troy’s blog. From what I gathered, these links were designed to get students started on Tom’s larger ghost town project. In general, Troy has dedicated his blog to photographs with very short historical sketches of the towns with a bit of census information and some notes about local postal service. Most of this information is available in one way or another on the internet. In many cases former and even current residents of these towns make comments on Troy’s blog. In short, Troy’s blog is one of the best points of departure for research on small places in North Dakota. 

The kerfuffle began when Tom’s class page pointed to Troy’s blog as a point of departure for student research on ghost towns. Apparently, the goal of Tom’s class was to produce a book or part of a book on abandoned places in North Dakota. From what I understand that goal has not been achieved yet so there is no final product. The internet, as this blog is ample evidence for, provides access to process, however, and Troy objected to the process that Tom’s class was using to start their research. And then this all hit Facebook and got pretty exciting for a couple of days. 

This is an interesting problem on two levels. First, it demonstrates two fundamentally different ways of viewing information made available on the web. Troy naturally feels protective of the work he has invested into an impressive resource that he generously made available on the web. I can’t really say for sure what Tom’s motives are, but I suspect they were similar to mine when I created an index to my History 101 class that consisted entirely of links to Wikipedia. If a resource is available on the web, I feel pretty comfortable deploying it for whatever schemes or goals I have in mind. (Tom is a sometime reader of this blog and is known to have a wry smile about many things in life, so maybe he’ll post a comment).  

In fact, much of my academic career has been dedicated to creating resources that I hope other people will do more with than I have. For example, I included a catalogue of over 200 churches in my dissertation, and it is available for free for download via Ohio State’s library catalogue. I fully (and optimistically) expected someone to use my catalogue to produce their own studies of Early Christian basilicas in Greece. In fact, I think the enduring value to my work is probably not the analysis (which will always represent strains of thinking grounded in a particular time and place), but the catalogue, which will hopefully represent a resource for the next generation of scholars. David Pettegrew and I have made available a photographic catalogue of houses at the site of Lakka Skoutara in the southeastern Corinthia and our data from our work at Pyla-Koutsopetria on Cyprus.

From what I understand, and please Troy correct me here, is that Troy objects to his project being used as a sources of data for another similar project. Since the internet provides a kind of transparency of process, he was able to see how another group was using his “data” and object prior to the appearance of a final product that may or may not compete with his work. 

Much of the debate on Facebook centered around matters of etiquette. Troy was particularly put out that Tom did not ask for permission to use his content as a point of departure for his class. I’ve had a few scholars ask for permission to use my dissertation catalogue, but this is hardly necessary.

Perhaps a better point of comparison is that I ask people who read and cite my working papers to ask permission by including in bold across every page: “Do Not Cite Without Author’s Permission.” This is largely because most working papers get updated regularly and a more current copy of a paper might exist or the paper gets published and a more stable citation exists for the same content. I suppose Troy could ask people who want to use his content or link to his page to ask permission, but I am not sure that this would do anything but limit the reach and audience of his work.  

The debate is still simmering on Facebook as I write this post and with any luck Troy and Tom will comment here to clarify their positions. What interests me the most is seeing how the relative transparency of the internet has created new social expectations. I think back to my largely pre-internet graduate school days where certain resources like A.H.M. Jones’ Later Roman Empire (1964) or well-acronymed Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium served as guides for many issues in the Late Antique world. Neither Jones nor Khazdan could know, of course, if we were using their work and its hard to avoid the idea that many recent books and encyclopedias on these topics used the exhaustive efforts of Jones and Khazdan as a guide. I wonder whether Troy would have felt different had Tom used a paper syllabus and assigned copies of Troy’s books as a guide for his class? Would Troy have ever even known?

I also wonder whether the relatively small and tight nit community of scholars interested in North Dakota also played a part in how this particular controversy took place? It seems like Troy was particularly offended that Tom didn’t ask or contact him before linking liberally to his blog. The courtesies, much like waving on a lonely rural road in North Dakota, are the kind of thing that happens regularly in small communities where people know one another and both Tom and Troy live in Fargo. I wonder whether Troy would have felt the same way if Tom was a professor at, say, the University of Texas or University of Queensland in Australia?

Finally, it is interesting that some of the rhetoric (and I’ll ask Troy to clarify this, if he thinks I’m mischaracterizing him in any way) is grounded in the difference in how academics and non-academics see resources made available on the web. As we academics explore small, privately produced collections  on the web (many of which are curated by antiquarians like Troy), we will have to think more carefully about how we use these resources both to respect the significant investment of time and energy that they involved and to transfer their value effectively to an academic context.

I’m reluctant to see either Troy or Tom in the wrong here, but this little controversy (by the standards of the internet) reminds us how far we are from understanding how this media works even after in the 25th year of the World Wide Web Era. 


James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Sounds Like a Scam

wpid-Photo-20140730095223.jpg

I have said before that if depicting Jesus’ death as a legal transaction ends up making God seem unjust, you might want to rethink your analogy. Likewise if depicting Jesus’ offer of salvation makes him sound like a Nigerian banker, you might want to rethink your imagery.

 

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

For Sale: "A Genuine Metal Detecting find I have found"



Here for sale is a metal detecting find I have foundThat appears to be sacon in originThis was found on a site that has produced some great saxon and roman finds for me It looks like a saxon penny but maybe slightly bigger maybe made as a medallion or keep sake? Weight 3.0g Cheers Johm
Perhaps the site had been used for an historical re-enactment, or the object was 'planted' for a club dig...Chris Brewchorne informed the seller:

It is a modern copy of an Aethelstan Penny, made by my mate Dave Greenhalgh, aka Grunal the Moneyer, who lives at a settlement in Lincolnshire called Tanvats. It has his 'signature' on the reverse, Grunal on Tanvats. It is not Saxon, not historic, and he sells them for about £1. Its not Silver, its Pewter. Genuine coins weigh 1.5g, not over 3g

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Every house in Norfolk within 200 metres of an archaeological site, find or historic building

Following headline-grabbing discoveries such as the footprints at Happisburgh, the earliest recorded evidence of humans in Northern Europe, and the timber burial circles at Holme - archaeologists say the sheer scale of finds reflect how Norfolk is one of the best endowed heritage locations in the world.

And that, they say brings an economic boost to the county, while evidence even shows those who take an interest in heritage are happier than those who do not.

A new report also reveals that, on average, every house in Norfolk is within 200 metres of an archaeological site, find or historic building, with the county’s ground continuing to provide fascinating glimpses into the lives of our ancestors. Read more.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

No Creativity, so Fixated Old Men Still Dragging the Ancient Coin Trade Through the Mud


Because they really have got no other ideas what they could be doing for collectors, the ACCG Files Reply Brief in Support of its Motion for Reconsideration (Wednesday, July 30, 2014) in the Baltimore illegal coin import stunt case.  Allegedly:
it discusses new Supreme Court case law and old legislative history that should be dispositive in favor of the Guild’s position that the government bears the initial burden of proof on where historical coins subject to forfeiture were “first discovered.”
While I am sure the appeal court will find that very entertaining, what the court has to decide (if anything) is whether those really scrappy bits of over-stripped metal ACCG dealers wanted to import on behalf of collectors are on the Designated List, and was an attempt made to import them  in accordance with current law or not. Nothing else. Surely those resources could have been better spent in finding ways to clean up this market rather than dragging it further down into utter disrepute.

See also:

Sunday, 19 January 2014: 'Wrong-Headedness on the "First Found Principle" of the CCPIA',
Thursday, 23 January 2014: 'The Next US Coin Collectors' Comedy Turn',

Friday, 24 January 2014: 'The "First Found" Fiasco Continues',


and while you are at it to show this sort of thing has been going on far too long -
PACHI Tuesday, 9 November 2010, 'UNESCO 1970 Article 1'


Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Proposta di partenariato per patrimonio culturale europeo

regione-sardegna-logoL’Ufficio di Bruxelles della Regione Sardegna segnala la richiesta di partenariato con scadenza manifestazione di interesse il prossimo 30 settembre. Proponente: Il “Marble and Natural Stone Technology Center” della regione della Murcia (Spagna).

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Full Moon at the Acropolis Museum

The Acropolis Museum celebrates August Full Moon on Sunday 10 August 2014.

The post Full Moon at the Acropolis Museum appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Hurtado on blogging and scholarship

LARRY HURTADO: Scholarly Work and the “Blogosphere.” Excerpt:
Scholarly work intended to have an impact on the field isn’t done in blogging. The amount of data, its complexity, the analysis and argumentation involved, and the engagement with the work of other scholars that forms an essential feature of scholarly work all require more space than a few hundred words of a blog-posting, or a few paragraphs of blog-comment. So, it’s rather unrealistic (not to say bizarre) for some commenters to assume otherwise.
Via James McGrath, who has comments on Larry's post here and who is pretty much in agreement. I agree too. The blog is not a natural format for producing original scholarly work, although sometimes it can be used that way (as noted, for example, here). And this discussion indirectly supports my decision not to allow comments on my blog (although Larry and James, bless them, do allow them).

Antiquity Now

Kids’ Blog! Seeing Ancient Invisible Ink Through Modern Eyes

Invisible ink, such a simple and yet crafty way to keep secrets. You may know that it was used in wars such as the American Civil War, the American Revolutionary War and both World Wars, but did you know it … Continue reading

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Νερό | Water

A group exhibition of contemporary art and photography.

The post Νερό | Water appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Quarantine: History, Heritage, Place

International conference convened by historians, archaeologists and heritage scholars from the University of Sydney.

The post Quarantine: History, Heritage, Place appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Talmudic exegesis of Esther

THIS WEEK'S DAF YOMI COLUMN BY ADAM KIRSCH IN TABLET: When the Talmud Offers Close Readings of Sacred Fictions. Antic embellishments, like Esther being good in bed, help Talmudic rabbis to more fully explicate the text’s divine meaning. Excerpt:
But the rabbis, it turns out, had a different and much greater kind of freedom. To them, every letter and word of the Bible was put there by God, which meant that every letter and word had a meaning. If the same word appeared in a verse in Exodus and again in a verse in Chronicles, then there must be some essential relationship between the two verses that the reader was meant to discover. And the rabbinic reader of the Bible was not even bound by the plain sense of the words: He was free to invent episodes, multiply motives, and add characters, if the result seemed to him a fuller explication of the text’s divine meaning.

This week’s Daf Yomi reading, which brought us to the end of Chapter 1 of Tractate Megilla, offered a master class in this kind of midrashic reading. Over seven pages of Gemara, the rabbis engaged in a chapter-by-chapter, sometimes line-by-line analysis of the Book of Esther, after which the tractate is named. The result is practically a rewriting of the Esther story, full of new details that seem to spring from nowhere but the minds of the rabbis themselves yet are treated as deep truths that the text must have contained from the beginning. At times euphemistic and puritanical, at times surprisingly frank, the rabbis show how they take the ambiguous story of Esther and assimilate it to their own worldview.
The catchword principle is one of the keys to understanding both rabbinic and Second Temple Jewish exegesis of scripture.

Earlier Daf Yomi columns are noted here and links. More posts having to do with exegesis of the Book of Esther up to the present (including Haman as barber) are here and here and links.

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Roman in the Provinces

"Roman in the Provinces: Art on the Periphery of Empire" examines the interaction between local traditions and Roman imperial culture.

The post Roman in the Provinces appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2014.07.45: Shaky Ground: Context, Connoisseurship and the History of Roman Art. Debates in archaeology

Review of Elizabeth Marlowe, Shaky Ground: Context, Connoisseurship and the History of Roman Art. Debates in archaeology. London; New York: 2013. Pp. x, 168. $78.00. ISBN 9780715640647.

2014.07.44: Redefining Dionysos. MythosEikonPoiesis, Bd 5

Review of Alberto Bernabé, Miguel Herrero de Jáuregui, Ana Isabel Jiménez San Cristóbal, Raquel Martín Hernández, Redefining Dionysos. MythosEikonPoiesis, Bd 5. Berlin; Boston: 2013. Pp. ix, 649; 37 p. of plates. $182.00. ISBN 9783110300918.

2014.07.43: Sallust, I: The War with Catiline; The War with Jugurtha (edited and revised; first published 1921). Loeb classical library, 116

Review of J. C. Rolfe, John T. Ramsey, Sallust, I: The War with Catiline; The War with Jugurtha (edited and revised; first published 1921). Loeb classical library, 116. Cambridge, MA; London: 2013. Pp. lxxxviii, 440. $26.00. ISBN 9780674996847.

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Roman in the Provinces

The exhibition "Roman in the Provinces: Art on the Periphery of Empire" at the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn. opens August 22, 2014.

The post Roman in the Provinces appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

The Stoa Consortium

Suda On Line milestone reached

The Suda On Line: Byzantine Lexicography affectionately known as SOL and one of Ross Scaife’s (et al) host of innovative projects has now reached the amazing milestone of 100% translation coverage.

A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day. This milestone is very gratifying, but the work of the project is far from over. As mentioned above, one of the founding principles of the project is that the process of improving and annotating our translations will go on indefinitely. Much important work remains to be done. We are also constantly thinking of ways to improve SOL’s infrastructure and to add new tools and features. If you are interested in helping us with the continuing betterment of SOL, please read about how you can register as an editor and/or contact the managing editors. (http://www.stoa.org/sol/history.shtml)

Although never involved in this project myself, I often use SOL as an example and case study in my teaching. With much discussion nowadays about so-called ‘crowdsourcing’ and ‘community-sourcing’ this is surely the forerunner.

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Corinth Museum Internship

The ASCSA announces a year-long paid internship in the School’s Corinth Excavations starting September 2014.

The post Corinth Museum Internship appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Leutwitz Apollo: What's Happening?


On the publication of a book presenting the statue and its reconstructed collecting history, both I and David Gill looked over the evidence of the origins of the the so-called Leutwitz Apollo currently in the Cleveland Museum of Art and came up with some pretty disturbing discrepancies and a number of quite specific questions were raised which require answers. Cleveland assured observers that they would be holding some kind of a symposium this year to discuss Bennett's book, so far no details have been announced, and the year has half gone.

Then there are the solder tests. They were a key part of CMA's and Bennett's story that the statue and the current base were joined over a century ago, yet ("for some reason" - ahem) those tests are being repeated after I queried them with the original analyst. The results should be available  about now - what were they? Do they support Bennett's 'soldered with old lead' argument or not? Either way, they raise questions about the way the CMA handled the scientific reports of the first set of analyses (details of which were never released).

Then there is the really odd discrepancy between two accounts of the academic relied on as confirming the reconstructed collecting history, the whole story of seeing 'bits in a box on an old estate' is not what the person concerned had written in another, published, account - one cited without comment by Bennett in his publication. 


Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Decades-old amber collection offers new views of a lost world

The massive collection of 20-million-year-old amber found in the Dominican Republic more than 50 years ago yields fresh insights into ancient tropical insects and the world they inhabited.

The post Decades-old amber collection offers new views of a lost world appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Renfrew, Monument Destruction a War Crime


They destroy tombs
wearing masks
Lord Colin Renfrew has criticised the destruction of the Mosques and shrines of Iraq by ISIS militants and compares the loss to the destruction of an English medieval cathedral. He adds:
“It would seem that governments are powerless to intervene militarily. But the loss of Iraq's cultural heritage by deliberate action could be considered a war crime. The United Nations, advised by Unesco, could condemn it, and seek to proffer charges against the perpetrators. Such charges could be implemented when the political situation changes, as in the case of the charges against Slobodan Milosevic and other Serbian leaders recently,” he says. Meanwhile, Sam Hardy, an honorary research associaconflict antiquities.
te in archaeology at University College London, commented on the conservation challenges, saying: “Governments, IGOs [inter-governmental organisations], NGOs [non-governmental organisations] and others may be able to help by documenting looting and destruction (or supporting and processing locals' documentation), to enable prosecution and reconstruction, and by building capacity for conservation and reconstruction at the earliest opportunity in the post-war environment.” Hardy is documenting the damage on his blog,
Buying antiquities from the region without checking that they are not soiurced to ISIS is aiding and abetting war criminals, but utterly irresponsible collectors in the UK and US only laugh.

Gareth Harris, 'Blowing up Mosul's historic mosques is 'a war crime'...', Art Newspaper online: 28 July 2014.

HAPPAH: 520,000 Historical Artefacts “are Stolen from Archaeological Sites in France Every Year”


It is not just undeveloped countries that suffer looting (Collection Driven Exploitation) of their archaeological resource, it happens in Europe too ('', The Connexion, July 30, 2014). Artefact hunting with metal detectors is causing massive damage to the archaeological record in France too: 
Raiders target archaeology digs
Raiders target archaeology digs
July 30, 2014
Raiders on archaeological sites in France are on the rise, experts have warned. An estimated 520,000 objects of historical value go missing from sites across the country every year, said archaeologist Céline Choquenet, who is a member of the [organisation Halte au Pillage du Patrimoine Archéologique et Historique]. “People go to sites every night,” she told France 3. “They head to Roman cemeteries, where there they can find gold, weapons and helmets.” The illegally acquired finds are often then sold to collectors. It can be highly profitable. Some items change hands for thousands of euros, Ms Choquenet said.
Collection Driven Exploitation is a major threat to France’s historic sites, experts say. Jean-David Desforges, head of the association Halte au Pillage du Patrimoine Archéologique et Historique HAPPAH said  recently ('French sites pillaged by wannabe archaeologist', The Local 30 Jul 2014) that:
many objects from ancient Gaul, and Nazi artefacts from World War II were being illegally dug up and sold on by thousands of prospectors using metal detectors. Desforges said many of the "pillagers" come from the UK and France's other neighbouring countries to hunt for archeological treasure and sell it abroad. "In Normandy and part of northern France a lot of English will come over with metal detectors and scour the battle fields from the First and Second World Wars. It is the same along the border with Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany where these people will cross into France to search war battlefields and take what they found back to their country," he said. Every time something is dug up, Desforges says, "France loses part of its history and heritage each time."
The Compteur Happah can be seen here. Current state: 
Nombre d'objets pillés en France aujourd'hui : 94
Nombre d'objets pillés en France depuis le début de cette année : 301,402
Nombre d'objets pillés en France depuis le décret n°91-787 du 19 août 1991 : 11,927,502

See also Metal Detectorists Loot France of Archaeological Treasures

French Artefact Hunter Arrested


A Frenchman is on trial in France accused of looting some of the country’s best historical sites after being caught with thousands of ancient artefacts. He is accused of  using his metal detector to pillage archaeological sites ('French sites pillaged by wannabe archaeologist' The Local, 30 Jul 2014). 
While taking the stand in his own defence this week a Frenchman accused of looting thousands of valuable historical items from some of the country’s most culturally important sites, explained his crime simply. “I always wanted to be an archaeologist, but I couldn’t,” the 60-year-old winemaker told a court in the Paris suburb of Meaux on Tuesday, AFP reported. For years he’d used a metal detector to scour sites that are protected by law, taking home a piece here and a piece there. Until he had a collection of some 2,300 items including coins, pottery, rings and necklaces that prosecutors say is worth tens of thousands of euros. French customs authorities have asked the court to impose a €200,000 fine on the man, who is accused of illegally searching archaeological sites. Judges will decide whether he is guilty at a later date. 
The man was not named in media reports. His activities came to light by pure chance in February 2012 when customs officers pulled him over during a routine check, and found in his car 112 Gallo-Roman coins, which led prosecutors to order a search of the man’s home, where they found a large number of artefacts he'd amassed and hidden away through the years. His collection has since been turned over to the Ministry of Culture.

Apollo of Gaza


Gaza Apollo
The human loss and utter carnage caused by the current war in the Gaza strip has aroused anger around the world. History will judge those who seek peace with bombs and seek to spread terror by attacking civilian targets. This blog however is not about my personal outrage about current events, but portable antiquities issues. So from that point of view, I'd like to invite reflection on what's happening about the Gaza Apollo reportedly held by Hamas. Has that too been shelled and blasted into oblivion? To recap, here are my old posts on this controversial object, linking to other work including by Sam Hardy and Rogue Classicist:
Friday, 31 January 2014: 'Remind you of Something?'
Friday, 31 January 2014: 'Vernon Silver on the "Apollo of Gaza"...'
Monday, 3 February 2014: 'Two Apollos, Two Mysteries
Thursday, 6 February 2014: 'Sam Hardy on Variant Stories About Discovering the Apollo of Gaza'
Saturday, 8 February 2014: 'Apollo of Gaza : Sam Hardy Untangles the Tangled Web'
Tuesday, 11 February 2014: 'Apollo of Gaza: Made in China?'
Friday, 21 February 2014: 'Apollo of Gaza New Photos'
Monday, 24 February 2014: 'Rogue Classicist on the “Apollo” of Gaza'
Sunday, 9 March 2014: 'More from Rogue Classicists on the Gaza Apollo'
Even if I am not at all convinced the thing is an authentic antiquity, it still needs further analysis. That however is the least of the problems of the Palestinians at the moment. 


On this day, seventy years ago, the Warsaw Ghetto looked like this.

Ancient Art

Sumerian headdress, made of gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and...



Sumerian headdress, made of gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and dates to ca. 2600–2500 B.C.

Kings and nobles became increasingly powerful and independent of temple authority during the course of the Early Dynastic period (2900–2350 B.C.), although the success of a king’s reign was considered to depend on support from the gods. A striking measure of royal wealth was the cemetery in the city of Ur, in which sixteen royal tombs were excavated in the 1920s and 1930s by Sir Leonard Woolley. These tombs consisted of a vaulted burial chamber for the king or queen, an adjoining pit in which as many as seventy-four attendants were buried, and a ramp leading into the grave from the ground.

This delicate chaplet of gold leaves separated by lapis lazuli and carnelian beads adorned the forehead of one of the female attendants in the so-called King’s Grave. In addition, the entombed attendants wore necklaces of gold and lapis lazuli, gold hair ribbons, and silver hair rings. Since gold, silver, lapis, and carnelian are not found in Mesopotamia, the presence of these rich adornments in the royal tomb attests to the wealth of the Early Dynastic kings as well as to the existence of a complex system of trade that extended far beyond the Mesopotamian River valley. (met)

Courtesy of & currently located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, via their online collections33.35.3.

July 30, 2014

Archaeological News on Tumblr

French sites pillaged by wannabe archaeologist

A wannabe archaeologist is on trial in France accused of looting some of the country’s best historical sites after being caught with thousands of ancient artifacts. Experts say France is facing an epidemic of archaeological pillaging.

While taking the stand in his own defense this week a Frenchman accused of looting thousands of valuable historical items from some of the country’s most culturally important sites, explained his crime simply.

“I always wanted to be an archaeologist, but I couldn’t,” the 60-year-old winemaker told a court in the Paris suburb of Meaux on Tuesday, AFP reported. Read more.

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

What Antiquity Collectors are in Denial About: Geopolitical Turmoil has Changed the Game


Tom Flynn ‏@Artnose writes (replying to @ChasingAphrodit @kyrikmk @odonnellhugh):
We can no longer do *real* due diligence on antiquities. Geopolitical turmoil has changed the game.
That I suppose begs the question how much real due diligence one thinks has been going on anyway, think "Leutwitz Apollo", Ka Nefer Nefer...

In any case, has not the geopolitical setting of the antiquities market been changing all the time since the 1956 Delhi document, the 1970 UNESCO Convention, and the US ratification of the latter with its cop-out CCPIA in 1983?  Time perhaps to take another look at them too and bring them up to date.
 

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Ice age lion figurine: Ancient fragment of ivory belonging to 40,000 year old animal figurine unearthed

Archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have found an ancient fragment of ivory belonging to a 40,000 year old animal figurine. Both pieces were found in the Vogelherd Cave in southwestern Germany, which has yielded a number of remarkable works of art dating to the Ice Age. The mammoth ivory figurine depicting a lion was discovered during excavations in 1931. The new fragment makes up one side of the figurine’s head, and the sculpture may be viewed at the Tübingen University Museum from 30 July.

"The figurine depicts a lion," says Professor Nicholas Conard of Tübingen University’s Institute of Prehistory and Medieval Archaeology, and the Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment Tübingen. "It is one of the most famous Ice Age works of art, and until now, we thought it was a relief, unique among these finds dating to the dawn of figurative art. The reconstructed figurine clearly is a three dimensional sculpture." Read more.

Archaeology Magazine

Spain Tests Limited Visits to Altamira Cave

 

Altamira-Spain-CavesALTAMIRA, SPAIN—The cave at Altamira, where bison and horses were painted and carved into the limestone some 22,000 years ago, was closed to visitors in 2002 due to the grown of algae-like mold on the cave walls. But as part of a new study, five randomly chosen visitors a week have been allowed to enter the cave wearing special protective suits since late last February. The goal of the study is to determine “if there is a form of public visiting that is compatible with the adequate conservation of Altamira,” José Antonio Lasheras, director of the Altamira museum, told The New York Times. The results of the investigation are due in September. Some scientists are concerned that the experiment will endanger the rock art in order to promote tourism. “All the data indicate the fragility of the cave and its propensity to suffer a fungal infection if it is opened to visits,” said Cesáreo Sáiz Jiménez, a research professor at the Spanish National Research Council. 

 

Dienekes' Anthropology Blog

Wine cup of Pericles found

Wine cup used by Pericles found in grave north of Athens
Experts are "99 per cent" sure that the cup was used by the Athenian statesman, as one of the other names listed, Ariphron, is that of Pericles' elder brother.

"The name Ariphron is extremely rare," Angelos Matthaiou, secretary of the Greek Epigraphic Society, told the newspaper.

"Having it listed above that of Pericles makes us 99 per cent sure that these are the two brothers," he said.
Finding the cup of Pericles is cool, but finding his actual tomb would be even cooler. Thanks to Pausanias and other ancient observers, the location and identity of many of the tombs of ancient prominent Athenians is known.

The Archaeological Review

A Toast to Pericles


This small cup was recently found in a poor mans grave discovered during construction work in northern Athens. The cup has the names of a number of men scrawled into it as a comemoration of what was once a wine symposium.

Most remarkable is the name of the classical Greek statesman Pericles is listed as also is his brother Ariphron among the names, Ariphron being a rare name seems to bring conformation of Pericles presence at this symposium.

Photo: (VIMA)

Archaeology Magazine

Large Slave Quarters Discovered at Maryland Plantation

Slave-Quarters-MarylandCROWNSVILLE, MARYLAND—While looking for the French general Comte de Rochambeau’s 1781 campsite at Belvoir, the plantation home of Francis Scott Key’s grandmother, archaeologists found the brick floor of a large building that may have served as a dormitory-style slave quarters. “The discovery of this is an amazing contribution to understanding African-American life in Anne Arundel County. Up to this point, we did not know they were building slave barracks like this,” county cultural resources planner Jane Cox told The Capital Gazette. The building’s footprint is more than twice the size of most slave quarters. “The foundation of this thing is so massive, we strongly suspect it had two stories,” said county archaeologist All Luckenbach. 

 

American Philological Association

In Memoriam Stephen G. Daitz

We regret to announce the death in June of long-time member Stephen G. Daitz. 

Open Access Archaeology

Open Access Archaeology Digest #495

Todays list of Open Access (free to read) Archaeology articles:

Unpublished Notices of the Times of Edward I, and of his Relations with the Moghul Sovereigns of Persia
http://bit.ly/111Xirg

Recent Discoveries on the First Inhabitants of the Mexicali Valley
http://bit.ly/1qobIQf

A Computer Aided Design Technique for Pottery Profiles
http://bit.ly/1qobJ6P

Learn more about Open Access and Archaeology at: http://bit.ly/YHuyFK

ArcheoNet BE

Vrouw en hond samen in de prehistorie

Vrouwen en honden hadden in het neolithische tijdperk van jagers, vissers en verzamelaars nauw contact met elkaar. Dat suggereren de Leidse osteoarcheoloog dr. Andrea Waters-Rist en collega-onderzoekers na bestudering van een klein biologisch fossiel. Het werd gevonden bij het skelet van een vrouw op een 8000 jaar oude begraafplaats in Zuid-Siberië. De onderzoekers hebben hun conclusies gepubliceerd in het vaktijdschrift Journal of Archaeological Science.

Het eivormige fossiel van ruim 2 bij 3 cm werd aangetroffen op begraafplaats Shamanka II, nabij het Baikalmeer. Het onderzoek wees uit dat het een verkalkte cyste is van een lintwormsoort, de Echinococcus granulosus: de vrouw leed aan Echinokokkose, de ziekte van het meedragen van een parasitaire cyste van de E. granulosus die alleen voorkomt bij honden, wolven en vossen. Nog niet eerder werd de ziekte voor deze periode (of eerder) aangetoond. Voor het doorlopen van de levenscyclus heeft de worm twee gastheren nodig: een planteneter of mens als tussengastheer en een hond, wolf of vos als eindgastheer.

De onderzoekers suggereren voorzichtig dat vrouwen en honden nauw contact hadden met elkaar in het neolithisch tijdperk (een periode uit de prehistorie) omdat de – weinige – tot nu toe gevonden lintwormcystes vaker bij vrouwen dan bij mannen zijn aangetroffen; twee andere parasitaire cystes werden gevonden in een jonge vrouwelijke volwassene op een begraafplaats uit dezelfde tijd als Shamanka II, eveneens gelegen in de regio Lokomotiv. Dit terwijl man en vrouw in principe even bevattelijk zijn voor besmetting. Ook in onze tijd wijzen de cijfers erop dat vrouwen vaker drager zijn van een lintwormcyste. Vrouwen moeten dus ook in de neolithische tijd een wat groter risico op besmetting hebben gelopen. Op basis van de kennis die bestaat over de leefomstandigheden in het neolithische tijdperk, denken de onderzoekers dat vrouwen vaker belast waren met de zorg voor (roedels) gedomesticeerde honden. Deze werden gehouden voor de jacht of voor het hoeden van kuddes.

De eindgastheer waarin de lintworm leeft, scheidt eitjes uit met de uitwerpselen. Die eitjes kunnen in het spijsverteringssysteem van de tussengastheer terecht komen. Bij de herbivoren gebeurt dat als ze planten eten die vervuild zijn met uitwerpselen van besmette carnivoren. Mensen kunnen de eitjes ook binnenkrijgen, door vervuilde bosvruchten te eten en door slechte hygiëne. Zo kan een besmette hond de eitjes door zijn likgedrag over zijn hele vacht verspreiden. Een mens die fysiek contact maakt met een dergelijke hond, kan eitjes binnenkrijgen, en zo gaan fungeren als tussengastheer. Dat de besmetting van de mens weer overgaat op eindgastheer hond, wolf of vos is niet zo groot. In de regel zal het gaan via herbivoren, bijvoorbeeld schapen of herten, die worden bejaagd door carnivoren of waarvan de kadavers door de vleeseters worden aangevreten. Zo kunnen ze een cyste binnenkrijgen en lintwormen ontwikkelen. Dat is de wijze waarop de voortplantingscyclus kan voortbestaan.

De gang van de eitjes door het lichaam van de mens gaat als volgt: de eitjes komen via inname door de mond in het spijsverteringskanaal terecht en in inmiddels getransformeerde vorm in de dunne darm. Daar dringen ze door de wanden heen in de bloedbanen. Vandaaruit kunnen ze worden vervoerd naar een orgaan, het vaakst de lever en de longen, maar ook naar hart, beenderen of hersenen. In het orgaan wordt een blaasje gevormd waarin zich kopjes van lintwormen ontwikkelen. Een mens kan hier ernstig ziek van worden en zelfs overlijden. Door het hoge kalkgehalte in het blaasje verkalkt het in het menselijk lichaam in de loop van de tijd tot een fossiel. Over de ziekte Echinokokkose is veel bekend aangezien er vandaag de dag wereldwijd nog 1 miljoen mensen aan lijden.

Lees meer: Multicomponent analyses of a hydatid cyst from an Early Neolithic hunter–fisher–gatherer from Lake Baikal, Siberia (Journal of Archaeological Science)

Archaeology Magazine

Wine Cup Bearing Famous Names Reportedly Unearthed in Greece

ATHENS, GREECE—The AFP reports that a ceramic wine cup engraved with the names of six men was unearthed in a pauper’s grave in the suburb of Kifissia. Among the names are “Pericles,” and “Ariphron.” “The name Ariphron is extremely rare. Having it listed above that of Pericles makes us 99 percent sure that these two are brothers,” said Angelos Matthaiou, secretary of the Greek Epigraphic Society. Could the cup have been used by the Athenian statesman Pericles, who had an older brother named Ariphron? Matthaiou suggests that the cup was used in a wine symposium, and the six men put their names on the cup as a memento given to a man named Drapetis, who may have been a the owner of the tavern or his servant. “They were definitely woozy, as whoever wrote Pericles’ name made a mistake and had to correct it,” he added.

 

Finland’s Prehistoric Dairy Farmers

BRISTOL, ENGLAND—Scientists from the University of Bristol and the University of Helsinki analyzed residues in ancient cooking pots from “Corded Ware” settlements in Finland and discovered evidence of milk fats dating to 2500 B.C. “This is remarkable evidence which proves that four and a half thousand years ago, Stone Age people must have been foddering and sheltering domesticated animals over harsh winters, in conditions that even nowadays we would find challenging,” Lucy Cramp of Bristol University, told Science Daily. These dairy-consuming farmers, who were probably genetically different from the local hunters and gatherers, have been linked to modern-day Finns.

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Back to the Cave of Altamira in Spain, Still Controversial

ALTAMIRA, Spain — The cave of Altamira in northern Spain contains some of the world’s finest examples of Paleolithic art. For years, visitors came to see the bisons, horses and mysterious signs painted and carved into the limestone as far back as 22,000 years ago. But in 2002 the cave was closed to the public when algae-like mold started to appear on some paintings. The damage was attributed to the presence of visitors and the use of artificial light to help them see the works.

Now Altamira is being partially reopened and in the process reviving the debate over whether such a prehistoric site can withstand the presence of modern-day visitors. Read more.

Ancient Peoples

Limestone model of a town house From EgyptPerhaps Third...



Limestone model of a town house

From Egypt
Perhaps Third Intermediate or Graeco-Roman Period, about 800 BC - AD 200

This model shows us what an ancient Egyptian house might have looked like in the later historical periods. It is always referred to as a ‘town house’, as the vertical storeys suggests that space was confined, in contrast to the spread-out ‘villa’-like structures found in the New Kingdom (about 1550-1070 BC) city of Tell el-Amarna. The house in this model seems to have had two storeys and an accessible roof. The windows are indicated on the first floor by two crossed bars, and on the upper storey with a criss-cross pattern, perhaps representing shutters. The roof would have been used for storage, much like houses in Egypt today.

Source: British Museum

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeological dig finds massive slave quarters in Crownsville

When archaeologists began digging around Rockbridge Academy in May, they expected to find the place where the Comte de Rochambeau camped in September 1781 on the way to Yorktown and the final major battle of the Revolutionary War.

Instead, they stumbled upon something very different.

Slave barracks bigger than ever found before in Anne Arundel County.

“The discovery of this is an amazing contribution to understanding African-American life in Anne Arundel County,” said Jane Cox, county cultural resources planner. “Up to this point, we did not know they were building slave barracks like this.” Read more.

Peter Tompa (Cultural Property Observer)

ACCG Files Reply Brief in Support of its Motion for Reconsideration

The ACCG has filed a reply brief in support for its motion for reconsideration of the Court's order striking its amended answer in the ongoing forfeiture case.   It discusses new Supreme Court case law and old legislative history that should be dispositive in favor of the Guild’s position that the government bears the initial burden of proof on where historical coins subject to forfeiture were “first discovered.”

More information may be accessed here.

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

The Lifespans of the Doctor

Doctor Who lifespans

HT IO9. This measures the lifespans of all the Doctors in one particular measurement: airtime.

I wonder how they would change if we included audiobooks, or if we calculated the purported amount of time they were around…

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Prehistoric dairy farming at the extremes

Finland’s love of milk has been traced back to 2500 BC thanks to high-tech techniques to analyse residues preserved in fragments of ancient pots.

The Finns are the world’s biggest milk drinkers today but experts had previously been unable to establish whether prehistoric dairy farming was possible in the harsh environment that far north, where there is snow for up to four months a year.

Research by the Universities of Bristol and Helsinki, published July 30 in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, is the first of its kind to identify that dairying took place at this latitude — 60 degrees north of the equator. Read more.

Wine cup used by Pericles found in grave north of Athens

A cup believed to have been used by Classical Greek statesman Pericles has been found in a pauper’s grave in north Athens, according to local reports Wednesday.

The ceramic wine cup, smashed in 12 pieces, was found during building construction in the northern Athens suburb of Kifissia, Ta Nea daily said.

After piecing it together, archaeologists were astounded to find the name “Pericles” scratched under one of its handles, alongside the names of five other men, in apparent order of seniority.

Experts are “99 percent” sure that the cup was used by the Athenian statesman, as one of the other names listed, Ariphron, is that of Pericles’ elder brother. Read more.

Archaeological Institute of America blogs

Pomerance Fellowship Spotlight: Daniel Fallu

The 2014 recipient of the Archaeological Institute of America’s Harriet and Leon Pomerance Fellowship, Daniel “Dan” Fallu, thought for a long time that he would become a lawyer. Yet that same drive to solve puzzles, along with a strong desire to travel, eventually led Dan to study archaeology. As an undergraduate student at Dickinson College and an MA/Ph.D. candidate at Boston University, Dan has focused on geoarchaeology and the Bronze Age Agean.

read more

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

La chôra royale du Bosphore

Maslennikov, A. A., éd. (2012) : Царская хора Боспора (по материалам раскопок в Крымском Приазовье). Том 2. / Carskaja khora Bospora (po materialam raskopok v Krymskom Priazov’e). Tom 2. Moscou [La chôra royale du Bosphore (sur la base des fouilles du littoral criméen de la mer d'Azov). Volume 2.]

Ce volume continue la publication des fouilles d’établissements grecs de la fin de l’époque classique et du début de l’époque hellénistique retrouvé sur le littoral criméen de la mer d’Azov. Ils sont considérés par l’équipe de fouilleurs comme faisant partie de la chôra royale des rois bosporans. Dans ce volume, on trouvera les objets préhistoriques en pierre et en silex, la céramique à vernis noir, la céramique peinte, la céramique de cuisine, les statuettes en terre cuite, les graffiti et dipinti, les tuiles timbrées.

On attend la suite

Le sommaire

http://www.triumphbook.ru/arheologiya/antichnaya-arheologiya/978-5-943775-127-1/


Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Crowing over US SLAM Cock-up


According to Lee Rosenbaum ‏@CultureGrrl
SLAM stuck to its guns and won. Feds concede lack of proof that @STLArtMuseum's mummy was stolen, drop restitution case
Well, you can go off people, can't you. "Feds" did not concede lack of proof it was stolen, they saw they'd made a mess of things. As it happens,  it's probably one of the least harmful of the utter messes the USA has got itself into over the past administration. But still annoying as something that should not have happened. And then to see 'cultural' USAns crowing about it... It's up to USA public opinion now, isn't it? Anyone holding their breath? Don't.

PS they haven't got the "mummy", just its face with the name scratched off -  the significance of which SLAM did not see when they were going through the motions of "researching" (sic) its origins. 

Vignette: Museums filled with dodginess are nothing to crow about.

Ancient Peoples

Tile antefix Roman Britain, 2nd-3rd century ADFrom Holt,...



Tile antefix

Roman Britain, 2nd-3rd century AD
From Holt, Clwyd

This object was one of a row of ornate terminals set along the eaves of a tiled roof. It was made in the tilery of the Roman army’s 20th legion, whose emblem of a wild boar decorates the plaque.

Source: British Museum

The Archaeology News Network

Wine-cup used by Pericles found in ancient grave

A cup believed to have been used by Classical Greek statesman Pericles has been found in a pauper's grave in north Athens, according to local reports Wednesday. The cup was likely used in a wine symposium when Pericles was in his twenties, and the six men  who drank from it scrawled their names as a memento, experts say [Credit: To Vima]The ceramic wine cup, smashed in 12 pieces, was found during building construction in the...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Open Access Archaeology

theolduvaigorge: Putslaagte 1 (PL1), the Doring River, and the...















theolduvaigorge:

Putslaagte 1 (PL1), the Doring River, and the later Middle Stone Age in southern Africa’s Winter Rainfall Zone

  • by Alex Mackay, Alex Sumner, Zenobia Jacobs, Ben Marwick, Kyla Bluff and Matthew Shaw 

"Existing data suggest weak human occupation of southern Africas Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) during later Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, the causes of which are unknown. Here we report briefly on the results of recent surveys of alluvial terrace sites of the Doring River in the WRZ, which document occupation over a broad expanse of the later Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Pleistocene Later Stone Age. We then report on test excavations at one terrace site, denoted Putslaagte site 1 (PL1), describe in detail the assemblage of flaked stone artefacts produced from that excavation, and present two OSL ages obtained from 0.8 m to 1.5 m below surface. The results suggest that a) artefact accumulations at PL1 are dense, b) the technological systems documented are characteristically MSA but differ in form from the range of systems known from other excavated sites in the region, and c) that the assemblages accumulated in MIS 3. Taken together with the survey data the results introduce new variation into the later MSA in southern Africa, and imply reorganisation of land use in the WRZ in late MIS 3 rather than abandonment. We suggest that a research emphasis on rock shelter deposits may have produced misleading depictions of regional occupation” (read more/open access).

(Open access source: Quaternary International, in press 2014 via George Washington University)

American Philological Association

In Memoriam Paul B. Harvey

We regret to report the death of long-time member Paul B. Harvey of Penn State.  The Centre Daily Times printed this obituary.

The Archaeology News Network

How the Vogelherd lion got his head back

Archaeologists from the University of Tübingen have found an ancient fragment of ivory belonging to a 40,000 year old animal figurine. Both pieces were found in the Vogelherd Cave in southwestern Germany, which has yielded a number of remarkable works of art dating to the Ice Age. The fragment on the left makes up half the head of the animal figure on the right, s howing that the “lion” was fully three-dimensional, and not a relief as...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

American Philological Association

Postdoctoral Fellowships at Princeton University Society of Fellows

The Princeton University Society of Fellows invites applications for three-year postdoctoral fellowships 2015-2018 for recent PhDs (from Jan. 2013) in humanities or allied social sciences.  FOUR appointments to pursue research and teach half-time in the following areas: Open discipline (two fellowships); Humanistic Studies; Race and/or Ethnicity Studies. Stipend: approx. $80,000.  For eligibility, fellowship and application details, see www.princeton.edu/sfApplication deadline: October 1, 2014

Jim Davila (Paleojudaica.com)

Translation of the Suda completed

AN ARMY OF TRANSLATORS: Suda On Line: Byzantine Lexicography. From the Overview page:
Certain fundamental sources for the study of the ancient world are currently accessible only to a few specially trained researchers because they have never been provided with a sufficiently convenient interpretive apparatus or, in some cases, even translated into modern languages. The Suda On Line project attacks that inaccessibility by engaging the efforts of scholars world-wide in the translation and annotation of a substantial text that is being made available exclusively through the internet. We have chosen to begin with the Byzantine encyclopedia known as the Suda, a 10th century CE compilation of material on ancient literature, history, and biography. A massive work of about 30,000 entries, and written in sometimes dense Byzantine Greek prose, the Suda is an invaluable source for many details that would otherwise be unknown to us about Greek and Roman antiquity, as well as an important text for the study of Byzantine intellectual history.
The project has recently been completed, in the sense that all the entries have been translated, but the work will continue to be revised and developed. From the The History of the Suda On Line page:
At present (July 2014), the family of active and emerita/us SOL contributors comprises over 200 individuals from five continents and more than 20 countries, but geography is not the only aspect that makes this group diverse and eclectic. In addition to research-active university faculty, our roster has included retired professors, scholars in countries where the internet provides an invaluable supplement to meager local resources, and talented classicists who for one reason or another have ended up in careers other than higher education. One of the great benefits of SOL is the opportunity the project gives to such scholars to make a valuable contribution to the field. SOL has also been used to good effect in the classroom. Instructors at several colleges and universities have assigned entries to graduate and advanced undergraduate students for supervised translating and annotating, and hundreds of their contributions are now a permanent part of the database and can be listed as published scholarly works on the students’ CV's. One of our most prolific contributors, Jennifer Benedict (over 4500 translations), did most of her work on the SOL as an undergraduate at William & Mary. Several scholars, including Peter Green, Malcolm Heath and John Melville-Jones, donated translations of entries that they had done previously for other purposes.

A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day. This milestone is very gratifying, but the work of the project is far from over. As mentioned above, one of the founding principles of the project is that the process of improving and annotating our translations will go on indefinitely. Much important work remains to be done. We are also constantly thinking of ways to improve SOL's infrastructure and to add new tools and features. If you are interested in helping us with the continuing betterment of SOL, please read about how you can register as an editor and/or contact the managing editors.
This is a Byzantine-era work, but many of the entries are potentially of interest to ancient Judaism and its reception. For example, see the many results when you run the search term "Hebrew" through the translation search engine.

(Via AWOL.)

The Stoa Consortium

Job: XML db developer for EpiDoc project

Exciting job opportunity for someone with experience in XML databases and EpiDoc projects (part-time, fixed-term, at Oxford but remote working an option):

Part-time XML Research Database Developer
Ioannou Centre for Classical and Byzantine Studies, 66 St Giles, Oxford
Grade 7: £29,837 – £36,661 p.a. (pro rata)

https://www.recruit.ox.ac.uk/pls/hrisliverecruit/erq_jobspec_version_4.jobspec?p_id=114327

The Faculty of Classics seeks to appoint a part-time XML Research Database Developer. This is fixed-term for 12 months. We are looking for a highly motivated individual with a strong interest in Digital Humanities and classical text-editing to build an XML Database backed website for publication, analysis, and editing of EpiDoc TEI P5 XML documents for the I.Sicily project (0.4 FTE) and for the Ptolemaic Egypt project (0.1 FTE).
*We are happy to consider applications from those who would wish to work remotely.*

The postholder will design and implement a native XML Database application for the online publication, analysis, and editing of EpiDoc XML based on open source components; create a testing mechanism for the technical infrastructure for resilient deployment (and redeployment from backup) of the website; develop and maintain the project’s technical infrastructure including XML Database installation and basic Linux server systems administration; and work closely with the IT Consultant and project PI in strategically designing and developing the infrastructure to ensure both reliable behaviour and potential for future expansion of the project.

The successful candidate will have relevant experience of higher education research (preferably in Classics); demonstrable experience of native XML database development; significant experience with multiple web development languages (e.g. XSLT, XQuery, PHP, JavaScript, jQuery, Python, etc.); and experience in maintaining software deployed on Linux servers.

Applications for this vacancy are to be made online. You will be required to upload a CV and supporting statement as part of your online application and supply details of two referees who must be asked to send their references directly to the email address below by the closing date.

Only applications received before 12.00 noon on 18 August 2014 can be considered.
Contact Person: Mrs Brooke Martin-Garbutt
Vacancy ID: 114327
Contact Phone: 01865 288372
Closing Date: 18-Aug-2014
Contact Email: recruitment@classics.ox.ac.uk

Only applications received before 12.00 noon on 18 August 2014 can be considered.

https://www.recruit.ox.ac.uk/pls/hrisliverecruit/erq_jobspec_version_4.jobspec?p_id=114327

James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Psalm Evolution

image

American Mensa via Bob Cargill on Facebook.

The Archaeology News Network

2,000 year old burials discovered in South Kazakhstan

Kazakhstani archaeologists have discovered artefacts of historical significance during excavation of the ancient settlement of Kultobe in South Kazakhstan, tengrinews.kz reports. Burials in one of the mounds  [Credit: © otyrar.kz]The three mounds in Ordabasy district in South Kazakhstan Oblast contained remains of 12 people, including that of a child. They were all buried at different times. A characteristic feature of the...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Bill Caraher (The New Archaeology of the Mediterranean World)

Archaeology and Craft in the 21st Century

It feels very odd to say that a conversation on Twitter spurred me to think a bit more about archaeology as craft. Yesterday a group of archaeologists, mainly in the U.K., and seemingly spurred by Colleen Morgan who began a discussion on the decline of the craft of excavation spurred in part by a rereading of C. Tilley’s well-known article on archaeology as theater. Tilley speaks out against the growing (in 1989) fixation with gathering information in archaeology that privileges excavation (particularly salvage excavations) and manifests itself in the dreadfully scientific site report. The published reports in excavation tend to reduce the complexity of excavations and conform to what Tilley sees as a kind of “strident professionalism” that limits access to meaningful readings of the past. Nowhere is this more evident, at least for Tilley, than in the practice of excavation focused solely on a research question articulated by an archaeologist. Instead, Tilley suggests that archaeologists should entertain the possibility of less scientific excavation to open the process to the voices and hands of the community as a way to generate a truly multi-vocal articulation of the past. Here’s a link to Sarah May’s take on the article.

Tilley’s argument is short, dense, and not entirely convincing, at least in the 21st century. He does, however, identify some of the key problems with scientific excavation characteristic of disciplinary archaeology. The disciplinary tendency to expect (or at least to present) linear progress from data collection to final publication embeds professional archaeological knowledge within a tradition of industrial production that is one with the basic structure of the modern American university. This is the point of departure for many of my observations on archaeology as craft.

At the same time that I was eavesdropping on this Twitter conversation and reacquainting myself with Tilley’s article, I was also reading a pre-publication draft of an article by Sara Perry. I won’t spoil the fun before its 2014 publication, but the title is “Crafting Knowledge with (Digital) Visual Media in Archaeology.” Set aside Collen Morgan’s work, it has reminded me that there are compelling efforts to bridge the gap between digital tools and craft practice. (My efforts were NOT compelling in any way.)

Anyway, these conversations have spurred me to make three observation.

1. Slow. As with everything on this blog, I can’t help but make this conversation about my own work (although Shawn Graham who brought me into the Twitter conversation indulged me as well). My interest in Slow Archaeology has less to do with the pace of archaeological work (either excavation or survey) and more to do with creating an alternative to the kind of method-driven, industrial practices that have emerged as a component of disciplinary archaeology. If methodology promotes a transparent and – as much as possible – linear relationship between field procedures, analysis, and interpretation, then Slow Archaeology advocation complicating this process. Tilley offers one way to complicate the mechanical (if not mechanistic), method driven disciplinary archaeology by making room for practitioners to think about archaeological work outside of atomistic data recovery guided by hypothesis testing. 

Survey archaeology is particularly suitable to this kind of practice because it is largely non-destructive. Walking across a landscape without a notebook or a camera might seem like an effete indulgence of 21st century Western intellectuals or even a lingering expression of colonial dominance (and these critiques are consistent with views of the Slow movement more generally). On the other hand, this practice would promote – even just for a time – a less-structured engagement with the archaeological landscape.

2. Embodied Knowledge. Sara Perry’s article reminded me to read Pamela Smith’s The Body of the Artisan (Chicago 2004). It has been on my “to read” list for about three years, but I think that I need to move toward a more sophisticated understanding of the role the body plays in knowledge production. I was particularly interested this summer in the posture of our team leaders and field walkers. Team leaders consistently presented hunched shoulders over a form on the clipboard and field walkers carry an inclined head toward the ground scanning a narrow swath of the surface to either side of the path.

P1070932

To me, this posture makes clear the shift away from viewing the landscape as a unified space and toward a view of the archaeological universe that privileges distinct bits of data, recorded diligently, and the projected on computer generated maps for analysis. Over the course of our field season on the Western Argolid Regional Project, I encouraged team leaders and students to tilt their heads up from time to time to take in the larger landscape, but the pressures of covering as much ground as possible and documenting the presence of individual sherds on the surface of the ground.

We can contrast that with, for example, the posture that archaeologists have when illustrating a feature. In the photo below, we can see how our two archaeologists are literally part of the object they are illustrating (an Ottoman bridge). Their posture and position (although not necessary when they’re smiling for the camera!) reflects a different engagement with the archaeological object.

P1080331

 

3. Craft and Archaeology in the 21st Century. All of this thinking about craft and archaeology (and a small, but compelling body of recent scholarship) has me thinking that I should run another series of guest blog posts on the topic. That our conversations have begun in Twitter is perfect for this kind of digitally mediated conversation. My growing experience moving text from the blog to more traditional paginated medium (see two soon to appear books based on the Punk Archaeology blog (and conference) and the series of posts on 3D Modeling Mediterranean Archaeology) is itself a manifestation of craft practice and becoming familiar with the tools and technologies required to move documents through the process of publication. 

So, here’s a draft proposal:

Archaeologists have become increasingly interested in the intersection between the growing number of new digital tools, methodologies, and field procedures, and the longstanding traditions of archaeological expertise and practice. This interest reflects both optimism for a more highly visible, transparent, and democratic archaeology, but also a concern for the skills and knowledge that will be lost as archaeology fully embraces its place as a (post)industrial discipline. This conversation is not distinct to archaeology, of course, with scholars across the humanities and social sciences reflecting on the potential of “craft” as a meaningful and familiar way to articulate what we may be losing.

Who would be interested in contributing to this kind of forum? I volunteer my blog to host it and The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota to push out a quick publication. 


James F. McGrath (Exploring Our Matrix)

Jesus and the Aliens

Hemant Mehta shared the image below, offering it as a response to Ken Ham’s silly remarks that we should not be looking for aliens, since they are doomed to hell because God became man and not Klingon:

wpid-Photo-20140724112523.jpg

IO9 also had a piece dealing with the range of Christian responses to the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

It is interesting to consider the narrowness of Ham’s viewpoint in historical perspective, and in view of the fact that aliens are mentioned in the Bible – aliens of a sort that have been in the news a lot lately.

The New Revised Standard Version has 134 instances of the word “alien.”  Many of them say things similar to Exodus 22:21, which reads, “You shall not wrong or oppress a resident alien, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.”

These passages are not addressed to residents of Roswell. They are focused on how one treats people who are of other national, social, ethnic, and religious groups.

And while I would argue that such passages are not irrelevant to the kind of nonsense Ken Ham spouts, they are even more directly relevant to what is going on at the borders of the United States, and in Israel and the Palestinian territories.

Many of us were disheartened by the expressions of hatred which made the news recently, aimed at children seeking to escape extreme danger and hardship in search of a better life. And all of us – whatever our viewpoint – are surely disheartened by the conflicts in the Middle East.

In each instance, we find the commandments in the Bible about aliens being flouted by people who would claim that they are of divine origin. Muslims claim that Jewish and Christian scripture is inspired, and not only the Qur’an. And yet militants who claim to be Muslims ignore the teachings of both the Bible and the Qur’an when they attack Christians and other people of the book living in their midst. Israelis who can find no way to give citizenship and freedom of movement to people in land that they have occupied are likewise ignoring the Bible’s commands. So too are people who consider themselves Christians and treat aliens among them with contempt.

The Bible is not a panacea for problems like war and immigration. But it is certainly worth highlighting when people who claim to adhere to a particular text’s values are behaving as though they did not.

Leviticus 19:34 says, “The alien who resides with you shall be to you as the citizen among you; you shall love the alien as yourself, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.”

How might the situation in Israel change if that were taken seriously? How might Americans along the border with Mexico behave differently if that were taken seriously?

I suspect that if more Jews, Christians, and Muslims took what the Bible and other authoritative sources in their tradition say about this subject, it would at least help lessen the intransigence we are currently seeing.

And if that happened, then presumably if even non-human aliens showed up in our midst, we might be able to welcome them better than Ken Ham is currently recommending.

Paul Dilley (Hieroi Logoi)

The Roman Cult of Mithras by Roger Pearse

cimrm49_fig23

This site, part of Roger Pearse’s Tertullian.org, serves as both an introduction to the history and iconography of Mithraism suitable for undergraduate instruction and an extensive collection of primary sources useful for original research. In particular, all references to the cult in classical literature have been assembled, when possible in English translation. Even more impressively, the “Catalogue of Monuments and Images,” based on Maarten Vermaseran’s 2 volume work Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithraicae (The Hague, 1956), provides images when available of the diverse material sources for Mithraism, from paintings to architectural plans (some of the photographs are by Pearse). This is supplemented by a list of recent discoveries and sometimes their associated images, including the London Mithraeum uncovered in 2013. Although there is no search functionality, when one knows what to look for, or just feels like browsing, this is an exceptionally useful and convenient site. There is also a fascinating section on Mithras items (in some cases their identity is uncertain) for sale on eBay and elsewhere.

http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/mithras/display.php?page=main


The Archaeology News Network

Mycenaean vaulted tomb unearthed in central Greece

A Mycenaean vaulted tomb has been discovered near Amfissa in central Greece during the course of an irrigation project. Found in Amifissa, the vaulted tomb is the first of its kind discovered in Phocis and one  of the few in Central Greece [Credit: To Vima]The tomb presents all the features typical of this type of structure: a long dromos 9 metres in length with stone-built sides,  a deep prothalamos or vestibule and a...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Opinions des anciens philosophes - Opinions of ancient philosophers

Opinions des anciens philosophes - Opinions of ancient philosophers
Cette collection de témoignages vise à rassembler au sein d’une base de données informatique le texte des sources relatives aux philosophes dits présocratiques ou préplatoniciens.

Dans un premier temps, la collecte des témoignages ne sera cependant systématique que pour les philosophes Milésiens (Thalès, Anaximandre, Anaximène) et Eléates (Xénophane, Parménide, Zénon, Mélissos). Cette limitation pratique tient au caractère de « prototype » de cette base de données, qui reste en voie d’élaboration tant pour ce qui concerne les entrées de textes que les formes de leur indexation. Nous la publions seulement à titre de proposition, soumise à la critique.

Une autre partie de ce projet consistant à réunir les principaux textes anciens relevant de la doxographie systématique (qu’il s’agisse d’œuvres complètes, ou d’extraits), des philosophes n’appartenant pas à la période dite présocratique trouvent également droit de cité dans cette base, bien qu’il ne soit aucunement question pour le moment de chercher à réunir exhaustivement les sources les concernant...


This collection of testimonies aims at collecting in a database the text of the sources related to the so-called presocratic philosophers.

This collection of testimonies has been at first limited to Milesian (Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes) and Eleatic philosophers (Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus). This limitation was only a practical one. This web site, and the database attached to it, is only to be considered as a prototype of what an exhaustive collection of testimonies related to presocratic philosophers should look like. The work has not to be considered as a finished one : indexations, at many levels, have not been completed, texts are still lacking, etc.

Any remark or critical comment will be appreciated...



Sources


Outils


Notes


A propos






The Archaeology News Network

Bulgaria's Perperikon excavations funding trimmed

The archaeological excavations of the Thracian city of Perperikon, located in Bulgaria's Eastern Rhodopes will start on August 4, professor Nikolay Ovcharov announced. The ancient city of Perperikon [Credit: BGNES]Ovcharov, who heads the research team, stated that this year the State has allocated BGN 80 thousand for the excavations at Perperikon, while the needed funding amounts to BGN 200 thousand. The research campaign will begin...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Charles Ellwood Jones (AWOL: The Ancient World Online)

Open Access Journal: Aestimatio: Critical Reviews in the History of Science

[First posted in AWOL 15 October 2009. Most recently updated 30 July 2014]

Aestimatio: Critical Reviews in the History of Science
Aestimatio provides critical, timely assessments of books published in the history of what was called science from antiquity up to the early modern period in cultures ranging from Spain to India, and from Africa to northern Europe. The aim is to allow reviewers the opportunity to engage critically both the results of research in the history of science and how these results are obtained.

Radio-Past: Radiography of the past

Radio-Past: Radiography of the past
http://www2.radiopast.eu/wp-content/themes/bluefractal/library/images/bf-logo2.png
The RADIO-PAST Project

The project, which was launched April 1st 2009, will last 48 months and aims at developing so-called “open laboratories for research and experimentation”, where all expertises convey, analysis, and technical activities are performed, experimental techniques and new data processing tested, and formation activities are held. The place chosen for the principal “open laboratory” is the archaeological site of Ammaia in Portugal. Here, the Coordinator Institution (University of Evora) pilots an archaeo-topographical project named “Cidade de Ammaia”, centred around a deserted Roman town. This research is linked to several reference projects, mainly on Roman urban sites in Italy, where several of the partners are active since many years.

The website

This website wants to take Radio-Past online, by offering up-to-date and elaborated information on the aims of the project, the research techniques applied, the partners involved, and the results gained. Using the navigation area above, it is possible to address these specific project topics. Please, feel also free to comment on this Radio-Past project, as your input can be of great value to all the researchers currently involved. As frequently as possible, this site will be updated with more texts, and downloadable maps and pictures.

The Archaeology News Network

Isolated indigenous communities of South America under threat

Indigenous people in the most remote regions of South America are under threat from development, a regional human rights body warned Tuesday, urging that inhabitants these areas be left alone. An indigenous woman of the Yave Sanga ethnics cooks on April 2, 2008 in Boqueron,  Chaco, 500 kilometres north from Asuncion, Paraguay [Credit: AFP/In an 80-page report, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights said these far-flung...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Thibaut Castelli (Spartokos a Lu)

Mégare et les établissements mégariens de Sicile, de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin

Robu, A. (2014) : Mégare et les établissements mégariens de Sicile, de la Propontide et du Pont-Euxin, Berne.

Cet ouvrage issus d’une thèse s’intéresse à la colonisation mégarienne, en cherchant à établir ses causes, mais aussi son histoire, à travers l’étude des fondations des colonies mégariennes en Sicile, en Propontide (Byzance, Chalcédoine, Astacos, Sélymbria) et en mer Noire ( Mésambria, Héraclée du Pont). L’auteur étudie les récits de fondation, mais aussi les relations avec les populations locales telles qu’elles  peuvent apparaître à travers différentes sources. Même si ces fondations n’ont pas été le fait uniquement des Mégariens, elles reprennent dans leur ensemble les institutions de la cité de Mégare, leur métropole.

La présentation et le sommaire sur le site de l’éditeur.

http://www.peterlang.com/index.cfm?event=cmp.ccc.seitenstruktur.detailseiten&seitentyp=produkt&pk=54748&cid=539

 


Noel Tan (The Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog)

Conference: The Future of Preservation

An upcoming conference in Singapore of possible interest to readers.

National Museum of Singapore

The Future of Preservation
10 – 11 September 2014, 9 am – 6 pm
Organised by: Preservation of Sites and Monuments of the National Heritage Board
Venue: National Museum of Singapore
Registration Fee: $20

“The Future of Preservation” is a 2-day conference organised by the Preservation of Sites and Monuments division of the National Heritage Board, involving international speakers and an ASEAN panel.
Distinguished professionals and practitioners with expertise in the field of preservation will share different key approaches and principles that govern best practice, issues of authenticity and integrity, sustainability, and use of technology. The importance of intangible heritage, the place of memory and the role of partners and stakeholders will also be discussed.

Key Speakers:
Dr Stefano de Caro (Director-General, ICCROM)
Dr Birgitta Ringbeck (Advisor to the Minister, Multilateral Culture and Media Policy / World Heritage, Germany)
Dato Zuraina Majid (Commissioner for Heritage, Malaysia)
Dr Eric Zerrudo (Director of the UST Center for Conservation of Cultural Property and the Environment in the Tropics and Director-Consultant of the Metropolitan Museum of Manila, Philippines)
Mr Didier Repellin (Chief Architect for Historic Monuments, France)
Dr Marina Sokhan (Head of Conservation, City and Guilds of London Art School)
Ms Jennifer Dinsmore (Halahan Associates Conservation Consultant, City and Guilds of London Art School)
Mr Mok Wei Wei (Managing Director, W Architects Pte Ltd)
Mr Jean-Francois Milou (Principal Architect and Lead Partner, StudioMilou Architecture)
Mr Garth Sheldon (Managing Director, Architectural Restoration Consultants Pte Ltd)

photo by:

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage, quarto Workshop COSCH

cosch-logoDal 15 al 17 settembre 2014 presso l’Istituto di Matematica dell’Accademia Serba delle Scienze e delle Arti e delle Facoltà di Scienze Matematiche a Belgrado si terrà il 4th Working Group Meeting and Workshop della COST Action TD1201 “Colour & Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH)”.

Colleen Morgan (Middle Savagery)

Faces of Archaeology Published in Archaeologies

 

archaeology_faces

The Faces of Archaeology portrait project that Jesse Stephen and I did at WAC-7 has been published by Archaeologies! It was a fantastic chance to collaborate with a gifted photographer and I’m very pleased with the project, the exhibitions at TAG Chicago and Turkey TAG and the final publication.

From our conclusions:

Ultimately, the Faces of Archaeology project reveals the complexity of representation in archaeology and world heritage practice. While making individual participation in WAC-7 visible through capturing and disseminating portraits of attendees, the authors contended with gender, economic, ethnic, social, political, and ethical considerations that were made explicit through this process of visualization. The authors included their own portraits in the assemblage, with the intention of both de-centering photographic practice and increasing reflexivity by showing authorship and participation (Morgan and Eve 2012). Finally, it is our hope that we can repeat this project at conferences in the future, and the collective face of archaeology and heritage will become even more diverse, complex, and beautiful.

The “online first” version can be downloaded by people who have paid access here:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11759-014-9255-6

There is also a pre-print available here:
Faces of Archaeology at Academia.edu

 


The Archaeology News Network

Decades-old amber collection offers new views of a lost world

Scientists are searching through a massive collection of 20-million-year-old amber found in the Dominican Republic more than 50 years ago, and the effort is yielding fresh insights into ancient tropical insects and the world they inhabited. Sir David Attenborough narrates and appears in a video about the digital curation of a  20-million-year-old amber collection at the Illinois Natural History Survey at Illinois [Credit: Kaitlin...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Végh Zsuzsanna and Simon Zsolt (Agyagtábla, papirusz)

Journal for Semitics 23/1 (2014)

A tartalomból:

Adamo, D T: The African wife of Solomon (1 Kings 3:1; 9:16; 7:8; 11:1)

Andrason, A, & Vita, J-P: The present-future in Amorite

Greeff, C: Dentists and dentistry in ancient Egypt

Evans, A: LmwH: Is it amber or metal?

Greeff, C: Dental diseases and other insults to teeth in ancient Egypt

Van Wyk, S J: Contractual maintenance support of a priestess-sister in three Old Babylonian Sippar division agreements

Farrago

Word-formation in the Oxford Latin Dictionary

The OLD often leaves the impression that Latin words were formed by taking one free-standing word and adding a suffix or another free-standing word.

Examples include:
naufragō ... [as next + -O^3]
naufragus^1 ... [= NAVIFRAGUS]
naufragus^2 ... [prec.]
...
nāuiculārius ... [NAUICLA + -ARIUS]

nāuifragus 'shipwrecking' is an exception: [NAVIS + frag- (FRANGO) + -VS]. Here, at least (other instances have yet to be found), we are told that it is the root frag-, as seen in frango, that is involved.

An accusative in apposition to the whole idea of a sentence

C. Collard on E.Supp.362 refers to the following:
Schwyzer II 617;
Wilamowitz on E.Hrc.59;
Barrett on E.Hipp.753-7 (pp. 307-308;
Kannicht on E.Hel. 35-6 (w. And.103 ff. and Hel.77).

Some scraps from grammarians

Etymologicum Magnum (Kallierges page 259):
Δεύνυσος: Ὁ Διόνυσος. Ἀνακρέων,   
  Πολλὰ δ’ ἐρίβρομον  
  Δεύνυσον.   
Τοῦ ι τραπέντος εἰς ε, γίνεται Δεόνυσος· (οὕτω γὰρ Σάμιοι προφέρουσι·) καὶ συναιρέσει Δεύνυσος, ὡς Θεόδοτος, Θεύδοτος. Ἔνιοι δέ φασιν, ὅτι ἐπειδὴ ἐβασίλευσε Νύσης· κατὰ δὲ τὴν Ἰνδῶν φωνὴν δεῦνος ὁ βασιλεὺς λέγεται.

Apollonius Dyscolus, de Syntaxi §§ 137-138 (Schneider 205, Uhlig 2.2.387):
Ὀφειλόμενόν ἐστι καὶ τῇ συντάξει τῶν ἐπιζευκτικῶν ἐπιστῆσαι, τί δή ποτε τὰ τέλη παρῃτήσαντο τῶν παρῳχημένων φωνῶν· οὐ γὰρ ἐφικτὴ ἡ σύνταξις τοῦ ἐὰν ἔλεγον, ἐὰν πέποιθα καὶ τῶν παραπλησίων, καίτοι τῶν παραθέσεων, ὡς ἔφαμεν, οὐ μεταποιουσῶν τὰ τέλη
τῶν οἷς παράκεινται. 
—138. Φαίνεται δ’ ὅτι τῆς τοιαύτης ἀκαταλληλίας ἐστὶν αἴτιον τὸ μάχεσθαι τοὺς παρῳχημένους χρόνους τῇ ἐκ τῶν συνδέσμων δυνάμει. δισταγμὸν γὰρ τῶν ὡς ἐσομένων πραγμάτων παριστῶσιν, καὶ ἔτι τῶν ὡς τελεσθησομένων, οὓς καὶ ἀποτελεστικοὺς συνέβη καλεῖσθαι· πόθεν οὖν τὸ γεγονὸς τῷ [μὴ] ἐσομένῳ συνοισθήσεται; 

And in case you have ever wondered how a παίς differs from a παιδάριον,... 
De adfinium vocabulorum differentia (= Περὶ ὁμοίων καὶ διαφόρων λέξεων) (fort. epitome operis sub auctore Herennio Philone) 117:

γέρων καὶ πρεσβύτης καὶ προβεβηκὼς διαφέρει,
Ἀλεξίων (fr. 1 Berndt) δηλοῖ ἐν τῇ ἐπιτομῇ τῶν Διδύμου (p. 378 Schmidt) Συμμίκτων λέγων οὕτως· ‘ἐκ τῶν †ἀρίστωνος† Περὶ ἀνθρώπου γενέσεως καὶ αὐξήσεως ἄχρι γήρως. βρέφος μὲν γάρ ἐστι τὸ γεννηθὲν εὐθέως, παιδίον δὲ τὸ τρεφόμενον ὑπὸ τῆς τιθηνοῦ, παιδάριον δὲ τὸ ἤδη περιπατοῦν καὶ τῆς λέξεως ἀντεχόμενον, παιδίσκος δὲ ὁ ἐν τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἡλικίᾳ, παῖς δ’ ὁ διὰ τῶν ἐγκυκλίων μαθημάτων δυνάμενος ἰέναι. τὴν δ’ ἐχομένην ταύτης ἡλικίαν οἱ μὲν πάλληκα, οἱ δὲ βούπαιδα, οἱ δ’ ἀντίπαιδα, οἱ δὲ μελλ{ο}έφηβον καλοῦσιν. ὁ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα ἔφηβος· ἐν δὲ Κυρήνῃ τοὺς ἐφήβους τριακατ{α}ίους καλοῦσιν, ἐν δὲ Κρήτῃ ἀποδρόμους διὰ τὸ μηδέπω τῶν κοινῶν δρόμων μετέχειν. ὁ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα μειράκιον, εἶτα μεῖραξ, εἶτα νεανίσκος, εἶτα νεανίας, εἶτα ἀνὴρ μέσος, εἶτα προβεβηκώςὃν καὶ ὠμογέροντα καλοῦσιν, εἶτα γέρων, εἶτα πρεσβύτης, εἶτα ἐσχατόγηρως.’

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Drawings and journals from the discovery of Tutankhamun on show for the first time

Documents from Oxford University's Griffith Institute which shed light on the discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb have gone on display to the public, many for the first time in their history.

The post Drawings and journals from the discovery of Tutankhamun on show for the first time appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Dinosaurs fell victim to perfect storm of events

Dinosaurs might have survived if the asteroid that killed them had struck slightly earlier or later, scientists say.

The post Dinosaurs fell victim to perfect storm of events appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

DNA find reveals new insights into the history of cattle in Europe

The DNA of a cattle bone shows genetic traces of the European aurochs and thus adds a further facet to the history of cattle domestication.

The post DNA find reveals new insights into the history of cattle in Europe appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Antiquity Now

Bon Appetit Wednesday! Bottle the Taste of Summer with Dandelion Wine

It’s the height of summer in the northern hemisphere where the lazy sun brings us long, hot days of outdoor activities, friends and family, vacations and lots of relaxation. Today it’s just a weed, but once upon a time nothing … Continue reading

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

World’s largest solar boat on Greek prehistory mission

The world's largest solar boat will embark on a Greek mission to find one of the oldest sites inhabited by man in Europe.

The post World’s largest solar boat on Greek prehistory mission appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Archaeology Matters

The Skyphos (Drinking Cup) of Pericles?



A simple black-slip 5th century skyphos (drinking cup) was discovered in a poor grave in Kifissia - a suburb of Athens. What makes the find exeptional are six names etched on the side in the genitive form: Aristidou, Daisimou, Arriphronos, Perikleous, Eukritou (Αριστείδου, Διοδότου, Δαισίμου, Αρρίφρονος, Περικλέους, Ευκρίτου). This allowed archaeologists to speculate not only that this cup of just 12 cm height might have been used by the famous Greek statesman himself, but that the signture on the cup might have been etched with his own hand...

Sources (in Greek):
Ta Nea, 30.07.2014, http://www.tanea.gr/news/culture/article/5145862/ena-pothri-krasi-parea-me-ton-periklh.
To Vima, 30.07.2014, http://www.tovima.gr/culture/article/?aid=619563

Mary Beard (A Don's Life)

Where do half the world's tomatoes come from?

IMG_3490

In this final post from the Turkish coast, let me recommend another couple of sites if you happen to be in the area. First there's Phaselis -- a dinky little Roman town that was given a facelift (like many round IMG_3493here) by Hadrian or in honour of him. Now it combines a handful of archaeological tourists, with rather more bathers, who charmingly get changed, picnic and sprawl among the ruins (which go pretty much right down to the beach).

IMG_3511A nice case of dual use we all thought (though eschewed the bathing opportunities ourselves).

At the other end of the spectrum -- ie very big indeed, though also conveniently located by an appropriately vast beach -- are the ruins of Patara. It's history goes back to Greek period; it was taken by Alexander the Great; but it then became the main town of the "Lycian League" and government seat of Roman Lycia.

An awful lot of it remains unexplored and unexcavated. But there has been some attention from the Turkish parliament, which has paid to restore the Bouleuterion -- the (kind of) parliament building -- of the Lycian League.

This looked pretty dreadful (far too white) from the outside, as I think comes across in this picture (though actually it felt whiter in real life).

IMG_3777

Inside it had been rather elegantly done, with a very nice display of the mosaic on the floor.

IMG_3790

Though it did come as a bit of a shock to see what it looked like up to a couple of years ago.

Pat-bouleuterion-1_small

I should warn potential visitors, however, that the palatial loos on the site were firmly locked. As one member of our party remarked, they probably hadnt been opened since the visiting Turkish parliamentarians used them at the restoration opening ceremony.

IMG_3801

IMG_3765

The reason that the Turkish parliament put all that cash into restoring the talking shop of the Lycian League was presumably to make a statement about its own democratic character. In case you are wondering about the politics that I witnessed, it is true that there were loads of posters everywhere for Erdogan and his party; but I didnt spot any for the opposition. Which presumably tells its own tale.

What I did spot however (all around Patara in particular) were acres and acres of polytunnels. Nothing was growing in them in July, but it was clear that they had nurtured almost exclusively tomatoes.

IMG_3770

They were a complete eye-sore (like they are in the UK, but there were just so many more of them. The rueful reflection was an obvious one: the desire of western consumers to have food out of season, and the desire of the Turkish agriculture industry to make extra money by producing food out of season, has ended up with swathes of its wonderfully beautiful countryside covered in ugly plastic boxes.

It looks like half the world's (out of season) tomatoes come from here.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

2014.07.42: Between Pagan and Christian

Review of Christopher P. Jones, Between Pagan and Christian. Cambridge; London: 2014. Pp. xv, 207. $39.95. ISBN 9780674725201.

2014.07.41: Libanius the Sophist: Rhetoric, Reality, and Religion in the Fourth Century. Townsend lectures/Cornell studies in classical philology

Review of Raffaella Cribiore, Libanius the Sophist: Rhetoric, Reality, and Religion in the Fourth Century. Townsend lectures/Cornell studies in classical philology. Ithaca; London: 2013. Pp. x, 260. $49.95. ISBN 9780801452079.

2014.07.40: The Virgil Encyclopedia (3 vols.)

Review of Richard F. Thomas, Jan M. Ziolkowski, The Virgil Encyclopedia (3 vols.). Chichester; Malden, MA: 2013. Pp. 1,632. $595.00. ISBN 9781405154987.

2014.07.39: Sokrates bei Xenophon: Moral - Politik - Religion. Classica Monacensia, Bd 49

Review of Olga Chernyakhovskaya, Sokrates bei Xenophon: Moral - Politik - Religion. Classica Monacensia, Bd 49. Tübingen: 2014. Pp. xii, 279. €58.00 (pb). ISBN 9783823368632.

All Mesopotamia

We are not advertising but, we couldn’t pass this. The...



We are not advertising but, we couldn’t pass this.

The Ishtar Gate architecture is brilliant!

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Metal Detecting Permits in the USA and UK


Metal detecting permits, advocated for European artefact hunters by Washington lawyer Peter Tompa and his fellows are already needed for artefact hunting in certain areas of the USA. They are also required on certain Crown Estate lands in the UK. Extending the system on the US-proposed model should be fairly simple and could be incorporated into the Treasure Act review. Metal detectorist John Howland from England warmly recommends that everyone abide by them.

Ka Nefer Nefer, Shamed US Government Throws in Towel


The SLAM Bumper sticker, more relevant now than ever before

The shame-faced US Department of Justice will take no further legal action over Egyptian mask in St Louis Art Museum after botched legal moves. Monday was the deadline for the department to ask for a rehearing of the June 12 decision by the 8th U.S. Court of Appeals.
“The Department of Justice will take no further legal action with respect to the mask of Ka-Nefer-Nefer,” U.S. Attorney Richard Callahan said in response to questions from the Post-Dispatch on Monday, the deadline for the Department of Justice if it wished to prolong the court battle. Museum officials couldn’t be reached immediately for comment. According to court filings, both sides are still discussing payment of the museum’s legal fees.
On March 31, 2012, U.S. District Judge Henry Autrey dismissed the government’s forfeiture lawsuit, saying that the Department of Justice failed to claim or prove that the mask was actually stolen. While Judge Autrey knew not how to make sense of the object being documented as in two places at once, thus casting doubt on one or other of the conflicting stories (and not considering why one side would have to have a false story and why and totally unwilling to adjudicate between them in a court of law), the rest of us can come to our own conclusions.  Sleep well Judge Henry, the akh of the Justified before Osiris, Ka Nefer Nefer is not, you should hope you never meet her.



Robert Patrick, 'Ancient Egyptian mask likely to stay at St. Louis Art Museum after feds give up legal fight', Post Dispatch, 28th July 2014.

Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Prehistoric dairy farming at the extremes

Finland's love of milk has been traced back to 2500 BC thanks to high-tech techniques to analyse residues preserved in fragments of ancient pots.

The post Prehistoric dairy farming at the extremes appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

BiblePlaces Blog

Artifact of the Month: Siege of Lachish Wall Relief

(Posted by Michael J. Caba)

This wall relief carving depicts the siege of the Judean city of Lachish, telling the story from the Assyrian point of view. The carving was created in c. 700 BC and was discovered in the 1850s in the ancient city of Nineveh, Assyria. The full original panel measured sixty-two feet in length and was nearly nine feet tall. The events shown on the panel are also recorded in the Bible in 2 Kings 18. The relief now resides in the British Museum.





The close-up photo shown to the right is one of the panels to this long relief. It depicts the battle between the attackers, who are using a battering ram, and the defenders who are shooting arrows and throwing burning torches.




The close-up photo on the left shows Judean captives being led into exile. Other panels (not included here) show victims being impaled and flayed.


All in all, despite its rather gruesome subject matter, the relief represents one of the more magnificent treasures from antiquity. It also provides support for the historicity of the scriptural record.  



For information on similar artifacts related to the Bible, see Bible and Archaeology - Online Museum.

(Photos: BiblePlaces.com. Significant resources for further study: The Context of Scripture, volume 2, page 304; Lost Treasures of the Bible, by Fant and Reddish, pages 173-177.) 

 


Archaeology and Arts: Αρχαιολογία Online

Violent aftermath for the warriors at Alken Enge

Ritual violence was perpetrated on the corpses of the many warriors who fell in a major battle close to the Danish town of Skanderborg around the time Christ was born.

The post Violent aftermath for the warriors at Alken Enge appeared first on Αρχαιολογία Online.

Archeomatica: Tecnologie per i Beni Culturali

Una mostra virtuale racconta il mito di Eracle

sulle-rome-eracleLa mostra digitale "Eracle nell'immaginario etrusco" è stata ideata a margine del progetto "Sulle orme di Eracle", che si svolge dal 9 maggio al 9 novembre, con la cura della Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Etruria Meridionale in collaborazione con la Soprintendenza per il Polo Museale Romano e la Fondazione "Claudio Faina". L'iniziativa, realizzata in cooperazione con il progetto AthenaPlus, utilizza i contenuti della mostra reale, immagini e testi, adattati alla fruizione per il web, ed è anche arricchita di risorse video e audio realizzate appositamente.

Samuel Hardy (Conflict Antiquities)

Does harm to community property indicate either side’s intentions in the current IDF-Hamas conflict?

As I’ve shown with research into targeting and destruction of cultural and community property in the Cyprus Conflict, analysis of the buildings that were targeted by rioters in Greece and querying of the official narrative of those riots, documentation of the Israeli state domicide of the Bedouin village of Al-Araqib, etc., as Christopher Jones has […]

Compitum - événements (tous types)

Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Italy

Titre: Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Italy
Lieu: Oxford University / Oxford
Catégorie: Colloques, journées d'études
Date: 18.09.2014
Heure: 14.00 h - 16.00 h
Description:

Information signalée par Daniele Miano

Workshop: Gods and Goddesses in Ancient Italy

 

With the support of the Faculty Board and of the Institute of Classical Studies, a one day workshop on God and Goddesses in Ancient Italy will take place in Brasenose college, Lecture room XI, on 18 September 2014.

The study of gods of Ancient Italy has proved to be an emerging field in recent years, and an increasing number of scholars is demonstrating that studying how individuals, groups and communities worshipped specific divinities in different ways can provide much in terms of general understanding of the cultural history of the peninsula in antiquity. The workshop will bring together scholars from several European countries, who will present the results of their work on specific divinities and discuss the theoretical and methodological challenges they encountered. It will focus on the Republican period.

The workshop is open to everyone, and attendance is free of charge, but please register by 10 September. To register or to ask further information please write to daniele.miano@bnc.ox.ac.uk.

Programme

10.00 Welcome and introduction
10.10 F. Glinister (UCL) – Getting to know Diana.
10.45 A. Sofroniew (Ashmolean Museum) – Mefitis: a goddess between realms.
11.20 M. Di Fazio (Pavia) – “Tre donne intorno al cor…”. Feronia, Marica, Mefitis: the religious profile of three Italic goddesses.
11.55 coffee
12.10 A. Clark (Oxford) – Honouring honos.
12.45 D. Miano (Oxford) – Italic Fortunae and the conceptual challenge.
13.20 lunch
14.20 C. Santi (Napoli 2) - Castor: a foreign god in the Roman Forum.
14.55 S. Wyler (Paris 7 – ANHIMA)- Loufir/Liber at the crossroads of religious cultures in Pompei (3rd-1st BCE).
15.30 coffee
15.45 F. Santangelo (Newcastle) – The Italic Ceres
16.20 E. Buchet (Rouen) – Beyond Rome : the cult of Vesta in Italy
17.00 Plenary discussion (Chair: John North, ICS)

Lieu de la manifestation : Brasenose college, Oxford
Organisation : Daniele Miano
Contact : daniele.miano@bnc.ox.ac.uk

Paul Barford (Portable Antiquity Collecting and Heritage Issues)

Iraq: Weekend of Destruction


Christopher Jones (Ph.D student at Columbia University in New York) has an interesting blog "the Gates of Nineveh". The latest well-informed post however is not enjoyable read: 'Even More Islamic Heritage Destruction in Iraq', July 29, 2014:
Sadly, it appears that last Thursday’s demolition of the Tomb of the Prophet Jonah in Mosul was only the beginning of a weekend of destruction by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. Several more sites sacred to Sunni Islam have been destroyed in the Mosul area. It seems that ISIS first moved against Shia shrines and mosques in their territory. This is because the Shia, as embodied by Iran and the Iraqi government, are the most immediate threat to ISIS’ goal of establishing a Sunni Islamic caliphate.
First their monuments, then the people perceived as standing in their way? As for what is being done to try to save the cultural property of the region, UNESCO had a meeting:
Aside from banning things that are already illegal and reiterating that sixty year old treaties exist, the main effort of this action plan seems to be to direct resources into potentially moving antiquities that are under threat to other regions for safekeeping. It is not clear if this means taking them out of the country temporarily or moving them somewhere else in Iraq. If ISIS ever makes its long-feared push on Baghdad this sort of plan might have to be put into motion very quickly.


Laura Gibbs (Bestiaria Latina Blog)

Latin Proverbs and Fables Round-Up: July 30

Here is a round-up of today's proverbs and fables - and for previous posts, check out the Bestiaria Latina Blog archives. If you are looking for more fables to read (LOTS more fables), you can download a free PDF copy of Mille Fabulae et Una: 1001 Aesop's Fables in Latin.

HODIE (Roman Calendar): ante diem tertium Kalendas Augustas.

MYTHS and LEGENDS: The art image for today's legend shows Achilles and Chiron; you can also see the legends for the current week listed together here.


TODAY'S MOTTOES and PROVERBS:

3-WORD MOTTOES: Today's 3-word motto is Verba rebus proba (English: Test words with deeds).

3-WORD PROVERBS: Today's 3-word proverb is Duris dura franguntur (English: Hard things are broken by hard things).

RHYMING PROVERBS: Today's proverb with rhyme is: Caecat amor mentes atque interdum sapientes (English: Love sometimes blinds the minds even of the wise).

VULGATE VERSES: Today's verse is Unusquisque propriam mercedem accipiet secundum suum laborem (I Cor. 3:8). For a translation, check out the polyglot Bible, in English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek, at the Sacred Texts Archive online.

ELIZABETHAN PROVERBS: Here is today's proverb commentary, this time by Taverner: Satius est initiis mederi quam fini: Better it is to remedie the beginninges then the endes. Stoppe a disease, saith the Poete Ovide, while it is in the comminge. Medicine is south for to late, whan by long continuance of time the disease catcheth ones strength.

BREVISSIMA: The distich poster for today is Ad Quendam Divitem. Click here for a full-sized view.


And here are today's proverbial LOLcats:



TODAY'S FABLES:

MILLE FABULAE: The fable from the Mille Fabulae et Una widget is Mures et Catus, the story of a tricky cat and a wise mouse.

FABULAE FACILES: The fable from the Fabulae Faciles widget is Testudo et Iuppiter, the story of how the turtle got its shell (this fable has a vocabulary list).

Iuppiter et Testudo

Greek Bible Art - and Latin and English, too. Below is one of my Greek Bible Art graphics; for the individual Greek, Latin and English versions of the graphic, see the blog post: ἀνένεγκον αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ εἰς ὁλοκάρπωσιν. Ibi offeres eum in holocaustum. Offer him there for a burnt offering.



Ancient Art

Details from the Egyptian Tomb of Sennedjem in the necropolis of...









Details from the Egyptian Tomb of Sennedjem in the necropolis of Deir el-Medina. Sennedjem lived in the reigns of Seti I and Ramesses II during the 19th Dynasty.

Photos courtesy of & taken by kairoinfo4u.

July 29, 2014

Samuel Hardy (Conflict Antiquities)

Is the Iraqi News report of the destruction of Imam Yahya Abu al-Qasim Mosque accurate? No.

An old truism has become known as (technology journalist Ian) Betteridge’s Law of Headlines: ‘any headline which ends in a question mark can be answered by the word “no”‘. I think that can basically be extended to the question in your head whenever you first read a headline on Iraqi News. Obviously, Iraqi News reporting […]

All Mesopotamia

fishstickmonkey: Cylinder Seal Mesopotamia, Agade period,...



fishstickmonkey:

Cylinder Seal

Mesopotamia, Agade period, about 2334-2154 B.C.

Tools and Equipment; seals
Jasper
Height: 13/16 in. (2 cm); Diameter: 9/16 in. (1.3 cm)

Archaeology Magazine

Traces of Lincoln's Courthouse Found in Illinois

 

Lincoln-Courthouse-ExcavatedBLOOMINGTON, ILLINOIS—Excavations at the McLean County Museum of History have uncovered part of the footprint of the 1836 courthouse where Abraham Lincoln often worked as an attorney. “They found the corner and now can plot out the exact location. These are the physical remains of an incredibly historical episode in McLean County,” museum director Greg Koos told The Pantagraph. The two-story brick structure replaced a wood-frame building, until it was eventually torn down and replaced in 1868. Archaeologists Christopher Stratton and Floyd Mansberger of Fever River Research also found a line of fence posts, and they recovered pieces of glass, a pipe stem, ceramic pieces, spikes, and nails. The researchers will dig in the four corners of the property, including the site of two early jails.

 

Mary Harrsch (Passionate About History)

Shah Jahan: The Blood Behind the Glitter

A history resource article by Mary Harrsch © 2014 

George Stuart's multimedia sculpture of Shah Jahan
admiring the 56-carat Blue Table Diamond embedded in an
ornamental pin designed for his turban.
 Photographed at
the Museum of Ventura County in Ventura, CA
A few months ago when I visited the "Diamonds Are Forever" exhibit at the Museum of Ventura County in Ventura, California, it was a treat to see George Stuart's latest 1/4 scale sculpture of Shah Jahan, the ruler of the Mughal Empire at its zenith in 1627 CE.  The sculpture, modeled after a miniature painting of the fabulously wealthy Shah serenely contemplating the beauty of the 56 carat Table Diamond,  belies the ruthless nature of this warrior king, however.

Yes, Shah Jahan is the ruler famous for building the breathtaking Taj Mahal as a memorial tribute to his beloved third wife, Mumtaz Mahal.  This is the same Shah Jahan who reveled in wearing a special velvet brocade from Ahmadabad (that only he was allowed to use) and a qaba made of gold with blossoms fashioned from jewels  and fastened with pearls.  This Shah also ordered the interior of his palaces to be decorated with mosaics made from pieces of mirror so candlelight in the evening would produce a shimmering, hypnotic effect and ordered the construction of over a thousand gardens. His elegant palaces were embellished with delicate floral motifs embedded with jewels .  But, love was hardly a hallmark of his rise to power, thanks in part to his fierce Mongol and Turkic forefathers and the complex machinations of the Mughal royal court.

Shah Jahan's ancestry was no ordinary birthright. He was descended from the merciless Mongol invader, Ghengis Khan, on his mother's side and on his father's side the infamous Amir Timur, known as Tamberlane to the Western world. Scarcely less notorious for his barbarism than the Mongols, the Turkish ruler had invaded Hindustan in 1398, massacred its inhabitants and brought back riches beyond his wildest dreams: trays of gold and carved ivory and mounds of jewels – rubies, pearls, emeralds, turquoise, topaz and cat's eye, and diamonds said to be so valuable they might have fed the world for a day. - PBS, The Mughal Dynasty

To gain the Mughal throne, Shah Jahan, originally Prince Khurram, third son of the fourth Mughal emperor, Jahangir, and grandson to the legendary emperor Akbar the Great, would need every ounce of his ancestors' fierce resolve as he ordered the deaths of two (possibly three) brothers, two nephews and all remaining male Timurid cousins to remove any possible contenders to the throne by the time of his succession.



This familial bloodshed was a direct result of Shah Jahan's father, Jahangir, not naming an heir before his death and the lack of primogeniture (succession determined by birth order) in Mughal culture.

The first of Shah Jahan's siblings to fall was his eldest brother, Khusrau Mirza.  Prince Khusrau is said to have had an amiable disposition that endeared him to his grandfather, Akbar, and the liberal party within the Mughal court.  As his father, Jahangir's excessive indulgence in wine and opium became increasingly debilitating, powerful factions within the Mughal court favored Khusrau as the successor to his grandfather, Akbar, instead of Khusrau's father, Jahangir.

Mughal Emperor Jahangir receives a prisoner. Image courtesy of Wikipedia.
The tension at court became so intense  that Khusrau's mother, the Hindu princess Man Bai (later called Shah Begam), her heart torn between her husband and her son, committed suicide on May 16, 1604.  Meanwhile Jahangir reconciled with the aging Emperor Akbar, who then appointed Jahangir his official successor shortly before Akbar's death on October 17, 1605.  This left Prince Khusrau flapping in the wind so to speak.

Now Emperor Jahangir placed Khusrau "under strict surveillance" (imprisoned) in Agra.  But the young prince escaped and fled to the Punjab with only a small contingent of horsemen.   However, on April 27, 1606, Prince Khusrau was recaptured and, after another abortive escape attempt, was blinded by order of his father.

According to Mughal tradition, the blinding of an heir to the throne symbolically blocked the heir from succession.  Normally, this would have protected him from any future heirs fighting to ascend the throne.  But, Jahangir, feeling remorseful for the punishment, asked his physicians to restore Khusrau's eyesight.  According to court sources, the physicians were only partially successful.

Shah Jahan must have surely remembered the reconciliation of his father, Jahangir, with his grandfather, Akbar.  So, in 1617 when a rebellion broke out in the Deccan region of the empire and Jahangir, urged on by Nur Jahan, ordered Shah Jahan to lead a relief army to the area, far from his father's court, the prince refused unless Jahangir agreed to let Shah Jahan take Khusrau with him, claiming his request was a result of "the tender affection he held for him."
Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Prince Khurram entertained by Nur Jahan.
Image courtesy of Wikipedia.

"Shah Jahan was worried, and rightly so, that in his absence, at the very least, various factions would consolidate their power behind his back and, at the most, he would lose what he thought to be the just dessert of his labors.  And so he pressed for Khusrau to accompany him to the Deccan, in the hopes of depriving Nur Jahan of his popular brother as a candidate for the throne." - Ellison Banks Findly, Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India

In 1621, Shah Jahan received word that Jahangir was seriously ill.  Perhaps fearing a death bed declaration of succession, Shah Jahan had his eldest brother secretly strangled (or stabbed through the heart depending on the source) on January 26, 1622 and reported to Jahangir that Khusrau had contracted an illness and died.  The Empress Nur Jahan's father subsequently "died suddenly" in January of that year as well.

 Emperor Jahangir received a second letter, though, from a noble in Burhanpur indicating Khusrau's death may have been planned.

"Upon receiving this second letter, Jahangir became furious and wrote back to the nobles in Burhanpur 'a very angry letter...enquiring why they had failed to write to him the truth...' It was then that Jahangir ordered Khusrau's body exhumed and brought to Allahabad and committed Khusrau's surviving family to the care of his still living father-in-law." -  Ellison Banks Findly, Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India

Jahangir then ordered Shah Jahan to return to court and give a personal account of Khusrau's death to the emperor.  (This would indicate that the exhumation did not reveal any obvious wounds - so much for the "stabbed through the heart" source)  Instead, Shah Jahan gathered his forces and prepared to march against his father.

But in March of 1622, Shah Abbas I of Persia besieged and captured Qandahar fort.  This direct challenge to Mughal supremacy required a swift response.  Empress Nur Jahan urged her husband to order Shah Jahan to lead a relief army to Qandahar.

Detail from painting of Shah Abbas I of Persia at court.  Image courtesy of
Wikipedia.
"...we assume that Nur Jahan intended these orders to place Shah Jahan in a difficult situation;  if he refused to go, he would be denounced as a rebel and crushed, most likely, by the imperial armies; but, if he left the Deccan for Kandahar he would lose the base of power he had spent so long in cultivating.  Moreover, if he was far off in Kandahar fighting and Jahangir died, Shah Jahan might miss his chance for the throne."  -  Ellison Banks Findly, Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India

Rather than incur his father's wrath again, Shah Jahan simply delayed using the monsoon season as an excuse.

Shah Jahan feared that in his absence Nur Jahan would attempt to poison his father against him and convince Jahangir to name Shahryar the heir in his place. It was this fear which forced Shah Jahan to rebel against his father rather than fight against the Persians." - Vidya Dhar Mahajan,  Jahangir. Muslim Rule in India (1970: 5th ed.)

17th century painting of a Mughal couple.  The prince in this painting resembles
Shah Jahan's youngest brother, Prince Shahryar.  Prince Shahryar married the
daughter of the powerful Empress Nur Jahan who hoped to have a grandson that
would eventually rule the Mughal Empire.
 Image courtesy of Wikipedia.

But to test his brother's influence at court,  Shah Jahan petitioned his father for ownership of a "jagir" (lands awarded for military success) assigned to Shahryar, now son-inlaw to Nur Jahan and Jahangir's latest favorite son, and sent a force to procure them. Shahryar sent a force to defend his lands and the two forces fought, resulting in many deaths on both sides.  Jahangir was so enraged that he awarded the disputed lands to Shahryar and appointed Shahryr to command the Qandahar expedition, declaring Shah Jahan "unworthy of all the favours and cherishing I had bestowed on him."

In response, Shah Jahan marched toward Agra, the location of the Mughal treasury.  But his father anticipated this move and had the fort of Agra reinforced then ordered his second eldest son, Parviz (also spelled Parwez or Parvez), and the emperor's trusted and experienced general Mahahbat Khan to lead the imperial armies against Shah Jahan.  The imperial armies routed Shah Jahan's forces at Baluchpur and Shah Jahan was forced to retreat.

Once back in the Deccan, Shah Jahan began to cultivate alliances with the Golconda Sultanate (not under the control of the Mughal) and representatives of the new English factories of the south.  Reinforced and rearmed, Shah Jahan marched northeast and conquered the Mughal province of Orissa.  He then turned his sight on Bengal governed by Ibrahim Khan, Nur Jahan's uncle.  Following a bloodbath known as the battle of Rajmahal, Shah Jahan's forces hunted down and killed Ibrahim Khan on April 10, 1624.

In this detail of a hunting scene from the Jahan Nama, Shah Jahan is depicted firing a matchlock rifle, a weapon widely
used in Mughal warfare.  Image courtesy of Wikipedia.
When Shah Jahan advanced to take Allahabad, however, the imperial forces under Prince Parviz and Mahabat Khan intercepted him and Shah Jahan fled back to Golconda where he was once more reinforced.  Shah Jahan and his allies laid seige to Burhanpur but they were again thwarted by the forces of Prince Parviz and Mahabat Khan.  Then Shah Jahan fell seriously ill.  Fearing his cause lost, Shah Jahan appealed to his father for forgiveness.

"At the instance [insistence] of Nur Jahan, Jahangir replied in March of 1626 that if Shah Jahan surrendered Rohtas and the fort of Asir and sent his sons Dara Shikoh and Arangzeb to court, he would give him full forgiveness and the province of Balaghat."   Ellison Banks Findly, Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India

Mughal painting of Prince Paraviz with a holy man c. 1610


In October 1626, Jahangir was notified that Prince Parviz had died of delirium tremens (the DTs - according to one source or alcohol poisoning according to another source) in Burhanpur.

The DTs are triggered by the withdrawal of alcohol from a severely addicted alcoholic.  (Before modern medical interventions were developed, the DTs resulted in death in about 35% of the cases.)  Although Prince Parviz was known to be a longtime alcoholic, it would be highly doubtful that the prince would have refused alcohol himself.   He was superior in rank to anyone else at Burhanpur since the prince's co-commander Mahabat Khan had been sent to govern distant Bengal by the constantly scheming Empress Nur Jahan.  So, who would have forcefully withheld alcohol from him?

Alcohol poisoning, on the other hand, would have been more logical, but it would also have been easy to imitate with other available concoctions.

Shah Jahan's "exile" province of Balaghat made Shah Jahan the geographically closest member of the royal family to Prince Parviz.  So, this is why some historians think Shah Jahan could have been instrumental in accelerating this brother's demise as well.

Anyway, this now left only Shah Jahan's youngest brother, Shahryar, as the remaining impediment to the throne.

By now badly enfeebled, Emperor Jahangir died October 28, 1627 while returning to Lahore from Kashmir.  Neither remaining heir apparent were present, but Shah Jahan's father-in-law, Asaf Khan, quickly confined Nur Jahan (his sister) and dispatched a messenger to Shah Jahan.  In the meantime, Asaf Khan got the majority of court nobles in the emperor's camp to proclaim Dawar Bakhsh, the young son of the ill-fated Khusrau, emperor, solely as a place holder for Shah Jahan.

Then Asaf Khan gathered his forces and marched on Prince Shahryar at the palace in Lahore.

Painting of a Mughal commander approaching a fortified city.

"Shahryar used the seven million rupee treasure in Lahore fort to mibilize a large, disheveled, army of hastily assembled mercenaries.  He was easily defeated by Asaf Khan just outside Lahore.  Captured alive in Lahore Fort, Shahryar was made to submit formally to Dawar Bakhsh and then imprisoned and blinded." - John F. Richards, The Mughal Empire

Within twenty days Shah Jahan received the news of his father's death and set out for Agra.

"On the way to Agra, Shah Jahan sent a firman to Asaf Khan, written in his own hand, to do away with all potential contenders to the throne - Shahryar, Dawar Bakhsh and his brother Gahrasp, and Daniyal's two sons [Daniyal was a deceased brother of Jahangir]." - Abraham Eraly, The Mughal Throne: The Saga of India's Great Emperors

So, on the night of February 2, 1628, all of the remaining Mughal princes were seized and put to death.

Sadly, the Shah's own offspring took this lesson to heart and in turn Shah Jahan's second son, Aurangzeb, ended up defeating and ordering the executions of his three brothers as well.

A poignant watercolor of Shah Jahan's son Shah Shua as a child.  Image courtesy
of Wikipedia.


When Shah Jahan was a youth, his grandfather, the famous Akbar the Great, had insisted that Shah Jahan study Turkic language and culture. In the case of the Ottoman Empire that meant Mehmed II's law, passed in 1477 that codified fratricide:  "For the welfare of the state, the one of my sons to whom God grants the sultanate may lawfully put his brothers to death."

Mehmed II only had to slaughter an infant half brother and its mother since the rest of his brothers were already dead by the time he ascended the throne.  But when Mehmed III became Sultan, the law justified his slaughter of 19 brothers by strangulation with a ritual bowstring.

Apparently, Shah Jahan was a very good student.

Archaeology Magazine

Family Will Pay for Utah Rock Art Repairs

 

Pregnant-Buffalo-PictographPRICE, UTAH—Repairs to the protected Nine Mile Canyon Pregnant Buffalo rock art panel reportedly will be paid for by the family of the juveniles who defaced it. The two juveniles carved their initials and the date into the rock face over Memorial Day weekend, which was reported to the authorities by concerned citizens. The Bureau of Land Management estimates that the restoration will cost $1,500. “I hope people try to think about the consequences and the effect their actions have on history,” one of the youths told The Standard Examiner after a BLM law enforcement officer met with the family.

 

Erosion Exposes Human Remains on Kwajalein Atoll

MANJORO, KWAJALEIN ATOLL—The Yomiuri Shimbun reports that rising seas and coastal erosion have exposed human bones on the Marshall Islands. The bones are thought to be the remains of Japanese soldiers killed during fierce fighting between American forces and the Imperial Japanese Army in early 1944. Michael Terlep, chief archaeologist at the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office, examined the bones with a representative of the U.S. government. They concluded that the bones have Asian characteristics, and bullets and Japanese military artifacts were found with the bones. If the remains are confirmed to be Japanese, they will be repatriated. An estimated 20,000 Japanese soldiers are thought to have been killed on the Marshall Islands or in the surrounding ocean during World War II.

Open Access Archaeology

Open Access Archaeology Digest #494

Open Access (free to read) articles on archaeology:

On the difference of plan alleged to exist between churches of Austin Canons and those of Monks; and the frequency with which such churches were parochial
http://bit.ly/176Wffy

The virtual museum of landscape
http://bit.ly/1o9FZ2d

Playful agents, inexorable process: elements of a coherent theory of iteration in anthropological simulation
http://bit.ly/19lZdiN

Antiquities at Buda-Pest
http://bit.ly/10LCJEt

A cinerary urn from Kirklands, Kirkoswald, Ayrshire
http://bit.ly/YlUBQE

Learn more about Open Access and Archaeology at: http://bit.ly/YHuyFK

Archaeological News on Tumblr

Archaeological dig uncovers 1836 courthouse footprint

BLOOMINGTON — Archaeologists on Monday uncovered part of the footprint of the 1836 courthouse where Abraham Lincoln often worked as an attorney.

The discovery by archaeologists Floyd Mansberger and Christopher Stratton came about an hour after an excavator started digging on the south side of the McLean County Museum of History. It was the first day of a two- to three-week archaeological search before construction starts on a new entrance into a planned tourism center on the lower level of the history museum.

"They literally found where the courthouse was," said Greg Koos, the museums’ executive director. "They found the corner and now can plot out the exact location. These are the physical remains of an incredibly historical episode in McLean County." Read more.

Archaeology Magazine

Macabre Ritual Site Unearthed in Denmark

 

Danish-Bog-Burial-Macabre

 

ARHUS, DENMARK—In 2012, the remains of an entire army were discovered in the bogs near the Alken Enge wetlands in East Jutland. Archaeologists from Aarhus University, Skanderborg Museum, and Moesgaard Museum have examined the 2,000-year-old bones, and found that the soldiers’ remains were collected some six months after death, desecrated, and cast into Mossø Lake in what was likely a religious ritual. “We have found a wooden stick bearing the pelvic bones of four different men. In addition, we have unearthed bundles of bones, bones bearing marks of cutting and scraping, and crushed skulls,” project manager Mads Kähler Holst of Aarhus University told Phys.org. The human bones were mixed with the remains of slaughtered animals and clay pots that probably contained food.