ISAW Resources: New Online Content from the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World

Tom Elliott (

This feed aggregator is part of the Planet Atlantides constellation. Its current content is available in multiple webfeed formats, including Atom, RSS/RDF and RSS 1.0. The subscription list is also available in OPML and as a FOAF Roll. All content is assumed to be the intellectual property of the originators unless they indicate otherwise.

November 24, 2017

Ancient World Online (AWOL)

Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae

Preisendanz,  Papyri Graecae Magicae

The first two volumes of Papyri Graecae Magicae have been made available in scans by the Research Archives of the Oriental Institute, Chicago:
The third volume - the indexes to the first to volumes was completed and prepared for printing by Teubner in 1941/2. At some point during the war the plates were destroyed but a few sets of proofs survived. One of those sets is in the Papyrologisch Instituut Leiden ad has now been scanned and made widely available:



An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 90 B3 Ganzak?/Gazaca?/Gazae?

Puente romano de Alconetar

Relocated remains of a 300m-long Roman stone bridge originally located southwest of modern Tourmogon at Alconétar, over R. Tajo in Spain.

Ancient World Online (AWOL)

Newly added to Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Online

Newly added to Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Online

The Oxford Roman Economy Project

[First posted on AWOL 26 November 2012, updated 24 November 2017]

The Oxford Roman Economy Project
The Oxford Roman Economy Project is a research project based in the Faculty of Classics, at the University of Oxford. The project, lead by Prof. Alan Bowman and Prof. Andrew Wilson, was originally funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council for the period from October 2005 to end September 2010, but additional funding through the generosity of Baron Lorne Thyssen now allows it to continue.
The Oxford Roman Economy Project currently consists of:
  1. A research programme on the Roman Economy which includes the development and maintenance of an online database of documentary and archaeological material, the organisation of conferences, seminars and occasional lectures, and the publication of research. The original focus on quantification is now expanded with the aim of also exploring vital parts of ancient life which have not hitherto been much considered in economic terms (e.g. the production and collecting of art; the economics of ancient religion).
  2. A looser constellation of graduate students and visiting researchers who are using material from and contributing material to the project’s website and conferences.
  3. A series, Oxford Studies in the Roman Economy, published by Oxford University Press.
The research programme addresses the fundamentals of the Roman imperial economy and analyses all major economic activities (including agriculture, trade, commerce, and extraction), utilising quantifiable bodies of archaeological and documentary evidence and placing them in the broader structural context of regional variation, distribution, size and nature of markets, supply and demand. The project studies the economy of the Roman world between the Republican period and Late Antiquity, with a particular focus on the period between 100 BC and AD 350, including the era of greatest imperial expansion and economic growth (to c. AD 200), followed by a century conventionally perceived as one of contraction or decline, and then something of a revival under the Tetrarchy and Constantine. Geographically, the project draws on material selected from all over the Mediterranean world. 
The large amounts of data that are studied during the project, which mostly already have been published in some form or another, are stored and organized in a large database, which is currently being made accessible online to the wider scholarly community through this website.
An integral part of the project is a series of conferences addressing particular aspects of the economy, such as urbanization (2007), agriculture (2008), trade (2009), metals, mining and coinage (2010), the economics of Roman art (2011), and urban economic life in preindustrial Europe and the Mediterranean (2012).


Via Herdonitana

A Roman road connecting Herdonia and Ausculum.

Ancient World Online (AWOL)

Follow the Pots

Follow the Pots
The ‘Follow the Pots’ research program explores two interconnected sides of an archaeological looting story: the conventional archaeological investigation of the emergence of prehistoric urbanism and increasing social complexity in the Early Bronze Age of the southern Levant, and the multiple and contested values of this archaeological heritage to multiple stakeholders today.
What this means is that we study how archaeologists, people living in the southern Ghor, looters, middlemen, museum administrators, government officials, antiquities dealers, and collectors think about, acquire, and use pots and other grave goods from the Early Bronze Age (EBA) cemeteries of Fifa, Bab adh-Dhra` and en-Naqa/es-Safi.
Follow the Pots (FTP) emerges from several years of archaeological fieldwork and analysis by Chesson and Kersel, and more broadly the Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain. In this examination of the social lives of archaeological objects, the artifacts have at least two lives as
(1) as grave goods in 5,000 year old tombs; and
(2) as looted and excavated artifacts in the present, where they are launched on new lives as museum pieces, tourist trinkets, and archaeologically studied objects.
FTP arises from our realization that only by integrating ethnography and archaeology can we hope to produce a holistic and cohesive story about the use and reuse of these EBA materials.
Directors: Drs. Morag M. Kersel (Dept. of Anthropology, DePaul University) and Meredith S. Chesson (Dept. of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame) with much-appreciated support and guidance from Dr. R. Thomas Schaub (EDSP, Emeritus Indiana University of Pennsylvania)



Carrhae is a major settlement of Upper Mesopotamia from the Bronze Age onward. The earliest mentions of the site are found in the Ebla tablets (ca. 2300 BC).


An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 45 C2 Ausculum


Zancle was founded as Greek colony in the eighth century B.C.

November 23, 2017

Ancient World Online (AWOL)

Open Access Journal: Newsletter of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities

Newsletter of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities
Editor-in-Chief: Mennat-Allah El Dorry
Co-Editor: Maather Ibrahim Aboueich  
This web page is hosted by the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum



    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 92 E3 Paraetacene

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    Open Access Journal: Routes de l'Orient: Revue d'Archéologie de l'Orient Ancien

    Routes de l'Orient: Revue d'Archéologie de l'Orient Ancien
    ISSN: 2272-8120
    ISSN: 2492-8542
    Routes de l'Orient est une association étudiante à but non lucratif ayant pour objectif principal de promouvoir la recherche en archéologie orientale grâce à la participation active d'étudiants et au soutien d'enseignants et de chercheurs. Routes de l'Orient est intéressée par les autres disciplines actrices de la recherche orientale (épigraphiste, anthropologue, historien, numismate, ...). Elle regroupe des étudiants provenant de différentes universités telles que Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris 4 Sorbonne, l'École pratique des hautes études (EPHE), le Museum d'histoire naturelle ou encore l'École du Louvre et tend à s'ouvrir à d'autres universités françaises et étrangères.
    Routes de l'Orient is a non profit association rallying students in Oriental archaeology, also interesting in others eastern disciplins (history, anthropology, epigraphy, ...). We are actively working together with the help and support of scholars and senior lecturers to share recent research in our field with the broader public. We currently include undergraduates and postgraduates from various Parisian universities (Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris 4 Sorbonne, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), Ecole du Louvre) and hope to extend our membership to other student communities both in France and abroad.
    N° 3 – « Actualité des recherches archéologiques »
    Hors-série n° 2 : « Actualité des recherches archéologiques en Arabie »
    N° 2 – « Actualité des recherches archéologiques »
    N° 1 – « Actualités de la recherche archéologique » 
    Cliquez sur l’image pour ouvrir le document


    Metaurus (river)

    Metaurus fl. (Metauro river) flows from near Monte dei Frati in the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea. The Metaurus was the site of two key battles in antiquity. The first, in 207 B.C., saw the defeat of Hasdrubal Barca by the consuls Marcus Livius Salinator and Gaius Claudius Nero. The second, the Battle of Fano, saw Aurelian defeat the Alamanni in A.D. 271.

    November 22, 2017

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    Demotisches Namenbuch: Suchliste

    Demotisches Namenbuch: Suchliste
    The Institute for Egyptology and Coptology of Ludwig Maximilians University Munich is pleased to announce the publication of “Demotisches Namenbuch: Suchliste” compiled by Dr. Birgit Jordan with the assistance of Sophia Specht, M.A.
    The search list allows looking up all components of demotic personal names included in the “Demotisches Namenbuch”. It is now possible, for instance, to check in which personal names a particular deity is mentioned. The list is not only a useful tool for the identification of personal names in damaged texts but also a good starting point for onomastic studies.
    Mit dieser Suchliste soll die Nutzung des Demotischen Namenbuchs (DN) ein wenig erleichtert werden. Einen großen Teil der Tipparbeit hat dankenswerterweise Frau Sophia Specht (LMU) übernommen.
    (1) Die Liste enthält alle Einträge des DN, auch die Varianten und relevante Verweise, und soll die Suche nach möglichst vielen Bestandteilen, incl. Artikeln (z. B. p# DET SG M [bestimmter Artikel Singular maskulin]) und Präpositionen, ermöglichen.
    (2) Die nach dem traditionellen demotistischen „Alphabet“ vorgenommene Sortierung ignoriert die Bindestriche und die Gleichheitszeichen zum Anschluss von Suffixen; das jeweils folgende Sortierkriterium ist einfach das nächste Zeichen mit Ausnahme von „.t“. Es scheint leider so zu sein, dass der Variationsreichtum eines Umschriftsystems sich umgekehrt proportional zur Zahl der tatsächlich aktiven Forscher auf dem fraglichen Gebiet verhält. Die Umschrift in dieser Liste jedenfalls orientiert sich weitgehend am DN und seinen Idiosynkrasien.
    (3) Mit einem * direkt am Eintrag bzw. einem „H“ vor der Seitenangabe des DN sind Lesungen gekennzeichnet, die das DN auf die Herausgeber der Primäreditionen zurückführt und denen die Autoren des DN nicht immer folgen.
    (4) Einige der Abschnitte des DN tragen Überschriften wie „Fragliches und Zerstörtes“. Einträge aus diesen Bereichen sind in der Suchliste mit einem „F“ vor der Seitenangabe markiert. Die von den Editoren des DN vergebenen „(?)“ und die gelegentlich auf Zeichenebene eingefügten hal- ben Klammern habe ich übernommen.
    (5) Die Übersetzungen folgen den Angaben des DN, außerdem den Hinweisen, die Günter Vitt- mann dankenswerterweise bei der Durchsicht der Liste beisteuerte. Bei den Einwort-Einträgen, die oft griechische und sonst fremdsprachige Einwort-Namen wiedergeben, habe ich auf die Um- schrift bzw. Übersetzung meist verzichtet.
    (6) Pfeilspitzen (>) zwischen den Einträgen geben die Verweise und die Varianten der Namen bzw. (<>) alternative Lesungen oder Umschreibungen gemäß DN wieder.
    (7) Ein „N“ vor der Seitenangabe verweist auf die am Ende der letzten Lieferung des DN zu- sammengefassten Korrekturen und Neulesungen sowie neue Einträge. Die Seitenangabe bezieht sich auf die Seiten des gedruckten DN, auf welchen die Korrekturen und Ergänzungen zu be- rücksichtigen wären.
    (8) Online-Publikationen bieten gegenüber gedruckten Werken den großen Vorteil, Änderungs- wünsche und Korrekturen rasch und vergleichsweise unaufwendig anbringen zu können. Die Liste enthält garantiert noch Fehler oder Unklarheiten, zu deren Meldung und Ausmerzung alle Nutzer hiermit aufgerufen seien.
    Bad Vilbel, 17. Oktober 2017"

    New Open Access Journal: Die Bibel in der Kunst (BiKu) / Bible in the Arts (BiA)

    Die Bibel in der Kunst (BiKu) / Bible in the Arts (BiA) - Das wissenschaftliche Bibelportal der Deutschen Bibelgesellschaft
    Die Zeitschrift bietet Aufsätze zur Wirkungsgeschichte der Bibel in Bildender Kunst, Literatur und Musik. Kürzere Beiträge stellen neuere Bücher und aktuelle Projekte vor.
    The journal presents articles on the reception history of the Bible in visual arts, literature and music. Short articles provide reviews of new books and reports on current research.

    Herausgeberkreis / Editors

    Editorial Board

    • Prof. Dr. Kai Bremer, Kiel (Deutsche Literatur)
    • Prof. Dr. Sabine Griese, Leipzig (Deutsche Literatur)
    • Prof. Dr. Gerhard Langer, Wien (Judaistik)
    • Prof. Dr. Klaus Niehr, Osnabrück (Kunstgeschichte)
    • Prof. Dr. Thomas Noll, Göttingen (Kunstgeschichte)
    • Prof. Dr. Thomas Schipperges, Tübingen (Musikwissenschaft)
    Autorinnen und Autoren schreiben Ihre Beiträge bitte in diese Formatvorlage und schicken den Text als WORD-Datei sowie ggf. Abbildungen als jpg-Dateien an ein Mitglied des Herausgeberkreises (Richtlinien). Alle eingehenden Artikel werden einem peer-review-Verfahren unterzogen.
    Authors are kindly asked to use this style sheet when submitting articles and to forward their manuscripts in the form of WORD files, images as separate JPG or PNG to one of the editors (guidelines). Every article received will be subject to a peer review process.

    Newly Open Access Monograph Series: Papyrologica Bruxellensia

    Association égyptologique Reine Elisabeth publications now available in AWDL
    By Gabriel McKee
    The Ancient World Digital Library and the Association Égyptologique Reine Elisabeth are happy to announce the publication of electronic editions of several of the AERE's publications. The current selection of 7 AERE titles come primarily from the series Papyrologica Bruxellensia, which began in 1962 with T. Reekman's A Sixth Century Account of Hay (P. Iand.inv. 653)This inaugural volume is now available in AWDL, along with:
    Further volumes of Pap.Brux. will be added to AWDL soon and will be listed at this link. The ISAW Library is grateful to the AERE for the opportunity to provide online access to these publications.
    As always, content in AWDL is freely available to read online in full resolution or download in either high- or low-resolution PDF format. In addition to searching for titles, you can also find titles by using the AWDL Atlas, a browsable map of all of the titles available on the AWDL site; by browsing for topics under the “Collections Overview” tab; or looking at individual series in the “Series” tab.

    November 21, 2017

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    Newly Open Access Journal: Archäologischen Anzeiger

    Archäologischen Anzeiger
    ISSN: 0003-8105
    Bild auf der Startseite der Zeitschrift
    Im Archäologischen Anzeiger (AA) werden Kurzbeiträge zu aktuellen Forschungen und Berichte über Grabungsprojekte des DAI sowie von Fachkollegen weltweit publiziert. Schwerpunktmäßig informiert die Zeitschrift über Themen aus dem Mittelmeerraum von der Vorgeschichte bis in die Spätantike, durchaus aber auch über Projekte außerhalb des Kernbereichs der Alten Welt. ISSN: 0003-8105

    Der Archäologische Anzeiger erscheint seit 1889, zunächst als Beiblatt zum Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts (JdI), dann als eigenständige Zeitschrift in verschiedener Ausstattung. Seit Jahrgang 2002 werden jährlich zwei Halbbände veröffentlicht. In den Jahrgängen 2008–2012 erschien zusätzlich zu den beiden Halbbänden mit den Autorenbeiträgen ein Beiheft, das den Jahresbericht des DAI separat enthält. Neu ist seit Jahrgang 2008 der Druck der Zeitschrift in Farbe.

    Digitale Ausgaben


    2. Halbband 2015

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2015

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2014

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2014

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2013

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2013

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2012

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2012

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2011

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2011

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2010

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2010

    [PDFs teilweise verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2009

    [PDFs teilweise verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2009

    [PDFs teilweise verfügbar]


    2. Halbband 2008

    [PDFs teilweise verfügbar]

    1. Halbband 2008

    [PDFs verfügbar]

    Newly Open Access Journal: Chiron: Mitteilungen der Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts

    Chiron: Mitteilungen der Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts
    ISSN: 0069-3715
    Bild auf der Startseite der Zeitschrift
    Mitteilungen der Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik. Im Chiron werden Aufsätze aus dem gesamten Gebiet der Alten Geschichte, einschließlich Epigraphik, Papyrologie und historische Topographie, veröffentlicht.

    Digitale Ausgaben


    Bd. 44 (2014)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 43 (2013)

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    Bd. 42 (2012)

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    Bd. 41 (2011)

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    Bd. 40 (2010)

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    Bd. 39 (2009)

    [PDFs verfügbar]


    Bd. 38 (2008)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 37 (2007)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 36 (2006)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 35 (2005)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 34 (2004)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 33 (2003)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 32 (2002)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 31 (2001)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 30 (2000)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 29 (1999)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 28 (1998)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 27 (1997)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 26 (1996)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 25 (1995)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 24 (1994)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 23 (1993)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 22 (1992)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 21 (1991)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 20 (1990)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 19 (1989)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 18 (1988)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 17 (1987)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 16 (1986)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 15 (1985)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 14 (1984)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 13 (1983)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 12 (1982)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 11 (1981)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 10 (1980)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 9 (1979)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 8 (1978)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 7 (1977)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 6 (1976)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 5 (1975)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 4 (1974)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 3 (1973)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 2 (1972)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]


    Bd. 1 (1971)

    [PDFs noch nicht verfügbar]



    A Bronze Age fortified city located on the Ravi River, inhabited from the fourth through the second millennia BCE, Harappa was one of the most important settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization.

    OSM location of Harappa

    Polygon representing the boundaries of the archaeological site of Harappa, derived from an OpenStreetMap Way.

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)


     [First posted on AWOL 29 March 2009. Updated 21 November 2017]

    ISSN: 1105-1639
    eISSN: 1791-4884
    ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΝΑ SΥΜΜΕΙΚΤΑ is an international peer-reviewed open-access electronic journal published by the Institute for Byzantine Research (IBR) of the National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF). It provides a forum for the publication of original research in the field of Byzantine studies. We invite articles from a broad range of fields within Byzantine studies, and are especially interested in promoting interdisciplinary approaches. ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΝΑ SΥΜΜΕΙΚΤΑ also publishes book reviews in Byzantine Studies. The Ιnternational Editorial Advisory Board appointed every four years as well as the rigorous publication procedures ensure the journal maintains a high standard of scholarship. Taking advantage of the capabilities of open-,source publishing software ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΝΑ SΥΜΜΕΙΚΤΑ provides free access to high-quality scholarly research to everyone, and helps maximize the impact of research. A fully electronic publication management system ensures a speedy process, and offers authors the ability to follow the progress of their manuscripts through the publication process. Revised manuscripts of accepted articles are published immediately upon submission of the final version. Each volume comprises the total of the articles published during the year. A print edition appears at the end of every year. The Greek Documentation Center (EKT), also part of the NHRF, provides publication management and technical support for the electronic publication of BYZANTINA SΥΜΜΕΙΚΤΑ.
    Current volume:

    Table of Contents


    Anagnostis AGELARAKIS

    Ελισάβετ ΜΑΔΑΡΙΑΓΑ



    Giovanna CARBONARO


    Anthony KALDELLIS


    George KARDARAS

    Κωνσταντίνα ΓΕΡΟΛΥΜΟΥ


    Grigorios PAPAGIANNIS

    Book Reviews

    Κωνσταντίνος ΧΡΥΣΟΓΕΛΟΣ
    προσωρ. σελιδαρίθμ



    The capital city of the Khmer empire, founded in the late 9th century by Yasovarman I (889-901). The city was sacked in 1431 by invaders from the Ayutthaya kingdom, and was abandoned excpet for the temple of Angkor Wat, which remained a Buddhist shrine.


    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 26 E5 Acinippo

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    The Bible in Its Traditions

    The Bible in Its Traditions
    The Bible in Its Traditions is a project of the École Biblique et Archéologique Française de Jérusalem, the creators of the Jerusalem Bible.

    The goal of this project

    We intend to create the most extensive and helpful set of notes for the entire bible, with information of interest both to biblical scholars and casual readers.
    Old Testament New Testament Synthetic Notes Bibliographic References



    Troas (or the Troad) is an historical region that occupies the Biga peninsula in northwestern Asia Minor.

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    A Gazetteer of Roman Villas in Britain

    A Gazetteer of Roman Villas in Britain
    Eleanor Scott
    Leicester : Leicester University Archaeological Research Centre, School of Archaeological Studies, University of Leicester, 1993.
    Leicester archaeology monographs, no. 1. 

    November 20, 2017

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    Open Access Journal: POTESTAS: Estudios del Mundo Clásico e Historia del Arte

    POTESTAS: Estudios del Mundo Clásico e Historia del Arte
    ISSN: 1888-9867
    E-ISSN: 2340-499X
    Encabezado de página
     Potestas. Estudios del Mundo Clásico e Historia del Arte es una publicación científica periódica que ofrece investigaciones históricas centradas en el análisis de las relaciones entre la Religión, la Monarquía y el Poder, del mundo clásico al mundo moderno. Su objetivo consiste en la divulgación de propuestas relevantes para la comunidad académica internacional dentro de las disciplinas de la Historia y la Historia del Arte, para lo cual a lo largo de sus nueve años de existencia ha cumplido con su compromiso de publicación de contribuciones originales y de alto contenido científico, siguiendo los parámetros internacionales de la investigación en estas materias.

    See AWOL's List of



    A city of Cilicia with Hittite origins, Hierapolis/Kastabala later became part of the Cilician satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire and, later, part of the Roman empire.


    Hierapolis was a major ancient city in Phrygia located at the site of hot springs in southwestern Anatolia. The site was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.

    Malea Pr.

    Cape Maleas is a cape located in the southeast of the Peloponnese.


    The Roman capital of Creta et Cyrenaica province, then Creta, and later seat of the Archbishop of Crete, Gortyna was a thriving community from the Geometric period to the Middle Byzantine period. The first traces of urban settlement date from the Archaic period. The ancient Greek law code known as the "Gortyn Code" was discovered there in 1884.

    Eleutherna Bridge

    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 60 C2 unnamed bridge (Eleutherna)

    Ag. Triada

    An ancient Minoan administrative center located in south-central Crete, Ag. Triada (or Hagia Triada) was excavated in the early twentieth century by the Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene.


    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 60 A1 Phalasarna

    Pons Chabinae

    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 67 H1 unnamed bridge (Pons Chabinae, Cendere Köprüsü, W Arsameia pros Nymphaio)


    Mallia is a site on the northern coast of Crete that was the location of a major Minoan palatial center of the Middle Bronze Age.

    Imagery location of Minoan palace at Malia

    visible remains of the Minoan palace; verified in Google Earth 2013.


    An ancient Greek settlement near modern Neapoli in the Lasithi region of Crete (about 15km northwest of Agios Nikolaos).

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)

    New Open Access Series: Dotawo Monographs

    Dotawo Monographs
    The Old Nubian Texts from Attiri
    Authors: Vincent W.J. van Gerven Oei (ed.) --- Vincent Pierre-Michel Laisney (ed.) --- Giovanni Ruffini (ed.) --- Alexandros Tsakos (ed.) --- et al. Book Series: Dotawo ISBN: 9780998237572 Year: 2016 Volume: Monograph 1 Pages: 104 Language: English, Old Nubian
    Publisher: punctum books

    Abstract | Keywords | Free access | Buy the book | Export citation

    The Old Nubian Language
    Authors: Eugenia Smagina --- José Andrés Alonso de la Fuente (trans.) Book Series: Dotawo ISBN: 9781947447189 Year: 2017 Volume: Monograph 3 Pages: 82 Language: English, Old Nubian
    Publisher: punctum books

    Abstract | Keywords | Free access | Buy the book | Export citation

    See also: Open Access Journal: Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies 

    Recently Published Open Access Books and Articles at Archaeopress

    Recently Published Open Access Books and Articles at Archaeopress

    Current Approaches to Collective Burials in the Late European Prehistory Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress (1–7 September 2014, Burgos, Spain) Volume 14/Session A25b edited by Tiago Tomé, Marta Díaz-Zorita Bonilla, Ana Maria Silva, Claudia Cunha and Rui Boaventura. xii+128 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white. 374 2017. ISBN 9781784917227. Book contents pageDownload

    The present volume originated in session A25b (‘Current Approaches to Collective Burials in the Late European Prehistory’) of the XVII World Congress of the International Union of the Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences (UISPP), held in Burgos in September 2014.

    Collective burials are quite a common feature in Prehistoric Europe, with the gathering of multiple individuals in a shared burial place occurring in different types of burial structures (natural caves, megalithic structures, artificial caves, corbelled-roof tombs, pits, etc.). Such features are generally associated with communities along the agropastoralist transition and fully agricultural societies of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic.

    For a long time, human skeletal remains exhumed from collective burials were dismissed as valuable sources of information, their studies being limited mostly to morphological assessments and subsequent classification in predefined ‘races’. They currently represent a starting point for diversified, often interdisciplinary, research projects, allowing for a more accurate reconstruction of funerary practices, as well as of palaeobiological and environmental aspects, which are fundamental for the understanding of populations in the Late Prehistory of Europe and of the processes leading to the emergence of agricultural societies in this part of the world.

    The articles in this volume provide examples of different approaches currently being developed on Prehistoric collective burials of southern Europe, mostly focusing on case studies, but also including contributions of a more methodological scope.

    This book is also available to purchase in paperback, priced £25.00.
    Imágenes de centauros en los vasos áticos de figuras negras y de figuras rojas Siglos VIII A.C. – IV A.C. by María Herranz. 298 pages; 15 graphs, 124 tables (all in colour). Spanish text with English summary.. 38 2017. ISBN 9781784916848. Book contents pageDownload
    The centaur, a hybrid being with the body of horse and a human head and torso, first appeared in the mountains of Thessaly. This was the Greek horse-breeding region and it seemed natural for the centaur to have originated there, in the heart of this exclusive heritage of the landed gentry. Centaurs belonged to the spheres of heroic mythology, with clear ties to the values of the aristocracy.

    This book is composed of a catalogue divided into nine chapters. Each chapter comprises catalogue entries for a number of black-figure and red-figure Attic vases. The division into chapters is based on the various types of centaurs and different conflicts, either among themselves or against a hero. In addition to the catalogue is a chapter on images and statistics. Each of these nine chapters corresponds to a section of catalogue entries and statistics, as the information refers to two examples in each section, one in black figures and another in red figures. The highlighted examples illustrate the variety of different vase types (amphorae, lekythoi, etc.) and their chronology (550-500 BC, 500-450 BC). The statistics are likewise divided into black and red figures, and various themes, such as the centaur Pholos and the banquet, or Herakles and Nessos. For each of these themes or groups of examples, a table is given showing the number of vases (amphorae, lekythoi, etc.) and their place in the chronology (550-500 BC, 500-450 BC, etc.).
    This book is also available to purchase in paperback, priced £40.00.
    Macedonian lionesses: Herakles and lion jewelry in elite female dress (c. 325–275 BCE) Taken from Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 2 2017 edited by John Bintliff (Ed. in Chief). Pages 231-251.Download
    By Alexis Q. Castor

    Lions, of all animal quarry, rank among the most daunting and dangerous prey for hunters. Heroes and rulers demonstrated their physical strength in lion hunts and depicted them in historical records and images as a way to affirm their authority. Lions and the iconic lion-slayer Herakles, who was important in Macedonia as the ancestor of the royal Argead clan, became especially prominent in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Macedonian art.
    The Study of East Asian Art History in Europe: Some Observations on Its Early Stages Taken from Bridging Times and Spaces: Papers in Ancient Near Eastern, Mediterranean and Armenian Studies edited by Pavel S. Avetisyan and Yervand H. Grekyan. Pages 89-102.Download
    By Lothar Von Falkenhausen

    Reflections are offered on how East Asian art history was established as a field of study in European academia. Concentrating on Germany (especially Berlin), the early stages of this process from the late 19th century to the post-World War I period are traced and the main protagonists and institutions briefly characterized. The paper ends with a short polemic about the impending reorganization of the East Asian collections within the Berlin State Museums, which risks losing much of the hard-won intellectual gains made in more than one century of serious scholarship and institution-building.
    AP2017: 12th International Conference of Archaeological Prospection 12th-16th September 2017, University of Bradford edited by Benjamin Jennings, Christopher Gaffney, Thomas Sparrow and Sue Gaffney. vi+280 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white (177 plates in colour). Available both in print and Open Access. 362 2017. ISBN 9781784916787. Book contents pageDownload
    This volume is a product of the International Conference of Archaeological Prospection 2017 which was hosted by the School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences at the University of Bradford. This event marked a return to the location of the inaugural conference of archaeological prospection which was held in Bradford in 1995. The conference is held every two years under the banner of the International Society for Archaeological Prospection.

    The Proceedings of 12th International Conference of Archaeological Prospection draws together over 100 papers addressing archaeological prospection techniques, methodologies and case studies from around the world. Including studies from over 30 countries distributed across Africa, North America, South America, Asia and Europe; the collection of articles covers a diverse range of research backgrounds and situations. At this particular ICAP meeting, specific consideration has been given to emerging techniques and technologies in the fields of inter-tidal and marine archaeological prospection, and low altitude archaeological prospection.

    The papers within this volume represent the conference themes of: Techniques and new technological developments; Applications and reconstructing landscapes and urban environments; Integration of techniques and inter-disciplinary studies, with focus on visualisation and interpretation; Marine, inter-tidal and wetland prospection techniques and applications; Low altitude prospection techniques and applications; Commercial archaeological prospection in the contemporary world.
    This book is also available to buy in paperback priced £35.00.
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    The folding cubit rod of Kha in Museo Egizio di Torino, S.8391 Taken from Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Egyptologists, Florence, Italy 23-30 August 2015. Pages 450-456.Download
    By Naoko Nishimoto

    Much may be inferred about item S.8391, a folding cubit rod that belonged to Kha (TT 8, 18th Dynasty), by analyzing the results of the measurement survey conducted in 2011 from the perspective of woodwork. When Schiaparelli discovered the rod, it was folded inside a leather bag with a strap. The extremely rare folding cubit rod was loved by Kha, who was the overseer of works in Deir el-Medina and its related sites, where it was in practical use. This rod folds in half with a simple bronze hinge at the center; there are absolutely no inscriptions. The carved tally marks are only rough divisions into palms and the digits, and compared with other rods, the cubit measure is somewhat long, so the rod’s precision was in doubt. However, a metrological argument concerning the differences in the values of the palms and digits is proposed based on the presumed manner in which the wooden rod was created and actually used. The rod’s total length is 527.6mm, not greatly different from that reported by Senigalliesi in 1961. The size of each measurement interval, which Senigalliesi did not report, suggests how the rod was made. The tally marks are fine white lines; the left-hand palm is 75mm long, which is the common measurement of one palm, subdivided into four digits that vary little in size. Taking this into account, it is unthinkable that the makers lacked the ability to make tally marks accurately. The variations of values were supposedly caused by the process of creating the hinge. The center interval, including the hinge, is especially small, at (36mm + 36mm =) 72mm. For example, if we assume a play of about 3mm, a commonly used value, the center interval would become 36mm + 36mm + 3mm = 75mm. The inclination of the lines and the variations in size indicate that tally marks were etched in the closed position. S.8391 can also be used as a half-cubit measure in a closed position, and the first palm on the left side can measure digits. Traces of trial and error in remaking the hinge were found. In this study, I discovered that the clever hinge that makes this cubit rod possible satisfies two contradictory requirements to realize this rare folding rod. The appearance of this folding cubit rod, with no inscriptions and purely functional design, shows that it took incalculable effort to make it a prized instrument for the owner.
    Mercenaries or refugees? The evidence from the inscriptions of Merenptah on the ‘Sea Peoples’ Taken from Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 2, 2017 (John Bintliff (editor-in-chief), Archaeopress, 2017) by Konstantinos Kopanias. pp.119-134. Journal of Greek Archaeology . Download
    During the fifth regnal year of Merenptah (either 1208 BC or 1219 BC), king Merey of the Rebu/Lebu attacked Egypt, together with his archers and many northern warriors. These northerners were not affiliated with any of the existing minor or major kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, since they are only identified by obscure ethnonyms. Five inscriptions of Merenptah refer to these particular events, but they offer scarce historical information; a sixth one, inscribed on a wall of the Amun temple in Karnak, is the most elaborate one.5 Although the Karnak inscription has often been cited, most scholars usually focus on the parts referring to the ‘Sea Peoples’, which are often examined in isolation and out of their context. The aim of this paper is to re-examine the available evidence.
    Journal of Greek Archaeology Volume 2, 2017 will be published in October 2017. Subscriptions are available now with special reduced rates for private subscriptions and bundle prices available for Volumes 1-2, 2016-2017. Click here to view full information for print and online subscriptions.
    Faience in seventh-century Greece: egyptianizing ‘bric a brac’ or a useful paradigm for relations with Egypt? Taken from Interpreting the Seventh Century BC edited by Xenia Charalambidou and Catherine Morgan. Pages 71-79.Download
    By Virginia Webb

    Egyptianizing objects found in seventh- and sixth-century contexts in east Greece and elsewhere are most often made of faience. There are many problems, both of dating and attribution. I would like to discuss one particular group of faience objects from seventh-century contexts, the small perfume vessels in double vase form (so-called Leopard Spot Group), and will make some comments on the parallel group of small lekythoi, pyxides and alabastra. These are not stray imports brought in on the whim of individuals for dedication or personal use, but the products of an intentionally established industry which was certain of its market, and whose products could be traded widely. These were highly valued objects acceptable both as dedications to the gods and as gifts for the grave. By examining the techniques and decorative motifs, strong links can be made with Egyptian craft traditions and in particular with the iconography of good luck signifiers. A complementary strand is the role of east Greece, in particular Rhodes, as an intermediary in the packaging and onward dispersal of oils. Around 650 BC, the appearance of these specific faience vessel types in east Greece and the west suggests that faience factories had been set up on the same model as for the terracotta aryballoi. It cannot be fortuitous that Egyptian models and techniques found such ready acceptance in the Greek world at this time.

    El Sur de la Península Ibérica y el Mediterráneo Occidental: relaciones culturales en la segunda mitad del II milenio a.C. by Juan Manuel Garrido Anguita. 580 pages; illustrated throughout with 181 plates in colour. Spanish text. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784916459. Book contents pageDownload
    In ancient times, the first communities, societies and civilizations in the Iberian peninsula, according to archaeological evidence, began to develop following a progressive local evolution tempered by the significance of outside contacts. In order to reconstruct our history, resorting to ancient poets, we strive to distinguish reality from myth in the pursuit of a bond of certainty between the data provided by historical and literary sources and the excavated remains. Greek epics, based on the Illiad and the Odyssey, are the basis for the first speculations that link societies all along the Mediterranean coast, from east to west, with a common thread. However, how many times have we been told about mythical places, such as cities of great splendour and unique cultural progress? Did the land which Plato called Atlantis and Adolf Schulten linked to Tartessos truly exist? These answers may never be revealed (they are not at the forefront of research interests nowadays); for the time being, they are lost into a mythical and legendary world. Nonetheless, they remain alive over time.

    Spanish description: En tiempos lejanos, ahora sepultadas bajo la caída de los años, comienzan a formarse las primeras comunidades, sociedades y civilizaciones que se irán desarrollando en la Península Ibérica, por una progresiva evolución local, sin descuidar la atención de los contactos foráneos previa contrastación arqueológica. Refugiándonos en figuras creadas por los antiguos poetas, tratamos de discernir entre lo que comúnmente se ha denominado mito-leyenda y lo real, buscando un vínculo de certeza entre los datos que revelan las fuentes literario-históricas y los vestigios que se desentierran de nuestra primera historia, aquella que tratamos de reconstruir. La épica occidental apoyada en los relatos homéricos de la Ilíada y la Odisea, son la base de las primeras conjeturas que con un hilo, unen a las sociedades que conviven en el Mar Mediterráneo desde Oriente hasta Occidente. Pero ¿cuántas veces hemos oído contar relatos sobre míticas ciudades de gran esplendor e inigualable progreso cultural? ¿Existió aquella tierra denominada por Platón “Atlántida” y que fue asociada por Adolf Schulten a Tartessos? Estas respuestas quizá nunca lleguen a desvelarse (tampoco están en la vanguardia de los intereses de la investigación), por ahora sólo están inmersas en un mundo mítico y legendario, pero es cierto que se mantienen vivas, nostálgicas, con el paso del tiempo.
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    A Crowded Desert: early results from survey and excavation of nomadic sites in north-west Qatar (poster) Taken from Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Volume 47 2017 edited by Julian Jansen van Rensburg, Harry Munt, and Janet Starkey. Pages 43-50.Download
    By Jose C. Carvajal Lopez, Kirk Roberts, Gareth Rees, Frank Stremke, Anke Marsh, Laura Morabito, Andrew Bevan, Mark Altaweel, Rodney Harrison, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Robert Carter, Richard Fletcher & Faisal Abdullah al-Naimi

    This paper presents the results and preliminary conclusions of the 2016 season of the Crowded Desert Project, which aimed to find out about nomadic occupation and its relations with settled peoples in the region. Activities included extensive and intensive surveys and excavations in the area delimited by the areas of Umm al-MāΜ and MulayΉa in the north-west desert of the Qatar peninsula. Conclusions so far complement and expand the ideas developed during the pilot season of the project in 2015, and also provide finer chronological detail and a wider coverage of the area of research than before. The distribution of glass, metal, and pottery recovered showed important chronological differences in the patterns of occupation of the landscape. The paper also presents observed differences in the spatial distribution of features, showing how cairns (presumably pre-Islamic tombs), Islamic burials and cemeteries, and mosques and places of prayer (sing. muΒallā, pl. muΒallayāt) are distributed with respect to the tents and spaces habitation found. Finally, this paper introduces the first stratigraphic and geoarchaeological assessments undertaken in the area. Stratigraphic sequences are hard to find, and often nothing remains of them around any preserved structures. In cases where some have been found, their interpretation is restricted by their poor state of preservation and the constraints imposed by small trenches. A geoarchaeological programme is being developed in the hope of overcoming these problems and providing environmental information that might be useful for the understanding of the history of the region.
    Auxiliaries and their forts: expression of identity? Taken from Roman Frontier Studies 2009 edited by Nick Hodgson, Paul Bidwell and Judith Schachtmann. Pages 229-235.Download
    By Julia Chorus

    Little is known about the origin of the pre-Flavian troops in the auxiliary forts in the Lower Rhine delta (The Netherlands). For the greater part this also applies to the transition phase just after the Batavian Revolt, in the early seventies AD. At that time the forts were all built in timber, so hardly any epigraphic evidence shows up during excavations. Can research on building techniques and their possible background fill a gap in the knowledge on the military occupation in the Rhine delta? When comparing the defences and internal buildings of the forts in the research area and also outside that region, the variety of building techniques is striking. Instead of environmental circumstances this must above all be due to the differences between the soldiers. Comparison with late Iron Age building techniques (fortifications, houses) shows some interesting relations between forts, soldiers, their possible recruitment area and building traditions. The ramparts of the forts, for instance, provide information on their builders and seem to show the origin of the builders/soldiers in the fort. They must have built their forts according to the tradition of their ancestors and meanwhile expressed their identity.
    SOMA 2014. Proceedings of the 18th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology Wrocław – Poland, 24-26 April 2014 edited by Blazej Stanislawski and Hakan Öniz. viii+192 pages; illustrated throughout with 35 plates in colour. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784914950. Book contents pageDownload
    The 18th annual meeting of the Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology (SOMA) was held in Wrocław-Poland, 24th to 26th April 2014.

    Since prehistoric times the Mediterranean has acted as a stage for intense interactions between groups inhabiting regions that are now studied mainly within various sub-fields of ancient studies. In recent years, however, the development of research techniques and analytical models of archaeological evidence have identified similar historical paths that are similar, if not, in some cases, common to these disparate areas of the ancient world from West (Iberian peninsula) to East (Anatolia and Levant), from North (Europe, Black Sea Coast) to South (Maghreb and Egypt).

    The 18th SOMA provided a forum for presentations related to the above-mentioned topics, as well as general themes such as the role of the sea, trade, colonization, even piracy, using archaeological data collected within contexts associated with the Mediterranean Basin and the area referred to as the Ancient Near East, ranging chronologically from the Prehistoric to Medieval periods. This current volume contains 22 papers selected from the 90 presented.
    This book is also available to buy in paperback priced £28.00.
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    The Creation of the First (Divinatory) Dream and Enki(g) as the God of Ritual Wisdom Taken from Ash-sharq - Bulletin of the Ancient Near East: Archaeological, Historical and Societal Studies edited by Laura Battini. Pages 155-161.Download
    By Annette Zgoll

    A close reading of the Sumerian version of the Flood Myth shows the god Enki(g) as the creator of the first divinatory dream. Enki(g)’s wisdom is precisely to be understood in this particular way, as ritual wisdom. In addition, Enki(g)’s/Ea’s trick in order to disclose the secrets of the gods without breaking his oath becomes comprehensible: it uses a clever combination of two different types of oracular devices.

    The Archaeology of Time Travel Experiencing the Past in the 21st Century edited by Bodil Petersson and Cornelius Holtorf. viii+318 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784915018. Book contents pageDownload

    To Download the complete volume scroll down past the contents list, right-click "Download PDF" and save target file to your computer. Individual chapters can be downloaded by clicking on the entry in the contents listing below.

    This volume explores the relevance of time travel as a characteristic contemporary way to approach the past. If reality is defined as the sum of human experiences and social practices, all reality is partly virtual, and all experienced and practiced time travel is real. In that sense, time travel experiences are not necessarily purely imaginary. Time travel experiences and associated social practices have become ubiquitous and popular, increasingly replacing more knowledge-orientated and critical approaches to the past. Papers discuss the implications and problems associated with the ubiquity and popularity of time travelling and whether time travel is inherently conservative because of its escapist tendencies, or whether it might instead be considered as a fulfilment of the contemporary Experience or Dream Society. Whatever position one may take, time travel is a legitimate and timely object of study and critique because it represents a particularly significant way to bring the past back to life in the present.
    Click here to purchase in paperback (£38.00).
    IntroductionChapter 1: The Meaning of Time Travel (Cornelius Holtorf)
    Part One: Emerging Possibilities in Virtual Time TravelsChapter 2: Time Travel Using 3D Methodologies – Visualising the Medieval Context of a Baptismal Font (Nicoló Dell’Unto, Ing-Marie Nilsson† and Jes Wienberg)Chapter 3: The Kivik Grave, Virtual Bodies in Ritual Procession – Towards New Artistic Interactive Experiences for Time Travellers (Magali Ljungar-Chapelon)Commentary: Time Travel Paradoxes and Archaeology (Per Stenborg)Commentary: Taking Us to the Past and the Past to Us (Isto Huvila)
    Part Two: Time Travel as an Educational MethodChapter 4: Use the Past, Create the Future – The Time Travel Method, a Tool for Learning, Social Cohesion and Community Building (Ebbe Westergren)Chapter 5: To Make and to Experience Meaning – How Time Travels are Perceived amongst Participants (Niklas Ammert and Birgitta E. Gustafsson)Commentary: Forming Bridges through Time Travel (Cecilia Trenter)
    Part Three: Living the Distant PastChapter 6: Performing the Past – Time Travels in Archaeological Open-air Museums (Stefanie Samida)

    The Sunshade after the Old Kingdom – Female Attribute with Hathoric Connotation? Taken from Egypt 2015: Perspectives of Research by Mladen Tomorad and Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska. Pages 161-173.Download
    By Lubica Hudáková

    Abstract: The motif of a male sunshade bearer accompanying the tomb owner or his relatives is attested from the early 5th dynasty until the early Middle Kingdom, and in the related depictions the sunshade has a practical shielding function. The gradual abandonment of the motif coincides with the appearance of female sunshade bearers that start to be represented from the First Intermediate Period onwards. The context of the scenes in which these women appear, along with their iconography and associated inscriptions, indicate that the sunshade became a Hathoric attribute some time after the end of the Old Kingdom and fulfilled this function well into the 18th dynasty.

    The Peshdar Plain Project, 2015-2016. A Major Neo-Assyrian Settlement on the Empire’s Eastern Border Taken from Ash-sharq - Bulletin of the Ancient Near East: Archaeological, Historical and Societal Studies edited by Laura Battini. Pages 124-130.Download
    By Karen Radner, Janoscha Kreppner and Andrea Squitieri.

    The Peshdar district is part of the province of Sulaymaniyah in the Kurdish Autonomous Region of Iraq. It is situated directly on the border with Iran (Figure 1). The Peshdar Plain Project was inaugurated in 2015 and aims to uncover the ancient history of this understudied area with a focus on the 9th-7th centuries BC when the Neo-Assyrian Empire controlled the region.
    Continuity and Change in Etruscan Domestic Architecture by Paul M. Miller. xv+272 pages; illustrated throughout in black & white with 9 colour plates. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784915810. Book contents pageDownload
    Etruscan architecture underwent various changes between the later Iron Age and the Archaic period (c. 800-500 BC), as seen in the evidence from several sites. These changes affected the design and style of domestic architecture as well as the use of raw materials and construction techniques. However, based on a supposed linear progression from inferior to superior building materials, explanations and interpretations often portray an architectural transition in Etruria from ‘prehistoric’ to ‘historic’ building types. This perspective has encouraged a rather deterministic, overly simplified and inequitable view of the causes of change in which the replacement of traditional materials with new ones is thought to have been the main factor.

    This book aims to reconsider the nature of architectural changes in this period by focussing on the building materials and techniques used in the construction of domestic structures. Through a process of identification and interpretation using comparative analysis and an approach based on the chaîne opératoire perspective, changes in building materials and techniques are examined, with special reference to four key sites: San Giovenale, Acquarossa, Poggio Civitate (Murlo) and Lago dell’Accesa. It is argued that changes occurred in neither a synchronous nor a linear way, but separately and at irregular intervals. In this monograph, they are interpreted as resulting mainly from multigenerational habitual changes, reflecting the relationship between human behaviour and the built and natural environments, rather than choices between old and new materials. Moreover, despite some innovations, certain traditional building techniques and their associated materials continued into the Archaic period, indicating that Etruscan domestic architecture did not undergo a complete transformation, as sometimes asserted or implied in other works. This study of building techniques and materials, while not rejecting the widely held view of a significant Etruscan architectural transition, argues for a more nuanced reading of the evidence and greater recognition of the nature of behavioural change during the period in question.
    This book is also available to buy in paperback priced £30.00.
    Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.
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    L’arte rupestre dell’età dei metalli nella penisola italiana: localizzazione dei siti in rapporto al territorio, simbologie e possibilità interpretative edited by Renata Grifoni Cremonesi & Anna Maria Tosatti. 276 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. Italian text. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784915575. Book contents pageDownload
    This volume presents the proceedings of the conference “L’arte rupestre dell’età dei metalli nella penisola italiana: localizzazione dei siti in rapporto al territorio, simbologie e possibilità interpretative” that took place in Pisa at the Cantiere delle Navi di Pisa under the aegis of the Soprintendenza Archeologica della Toscana and of the University of Pisa on 15th June 2015. The addressed issues were related to the Post-Pleistocene rock art along the Apennine ridge; in recent years more and more evidence has been identified, which is different from the magnificent evidence found in the Alps such as, for example, the well-known Monte Bego and Val Camonica. This evidence, despite various and peculiar features, can be all related to the iconographic field whose main expressions are anthropomorphic figures, weapons, daggers, halberds and several other symbols, all similarly stylised. A peculiarity of these manifestations is their location in small shelters inappropriate for habitation or in places suitable for supervising mountain and territory roads, bearing comparison to evidence from Western Mediterranean coastal areas. An interpretative possibility has emerged: these sites could have been not only ceremonial places, but also spaces linked to the socio-economic fields or perhaps to the power of communities that occupied these territories.
    This book is also available to buy in paperback priced £38.00.
    Access Archaeology: This imprint is designed to make archaeological research accessible to all and to present a low-cost (or no-cost) publishing solution for academics from all over the world. Material ranges from theses, conference proceedings, catalogues of archaeological material, excavation reports and beyond. We provide type-setting guidance and templates for authors to prepare material themselves designed to be made available for free online via our Open Access platform and to supply in-print to libraries and academics worldwide at a reasonable price point. Click here to learn more about publishing in Access Archaeology.
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    Large Scale Rhodian Sculpture of Hellenistic and Roman Times Η ΜΕΓΑΛΗ ΡΟΔΙΑΚΗ ΠΛΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΣΤΙΚΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΡΩΜΑΪΚΩΝ ΧΡΟΝΩΝ by Kalliope Bairami. xviii+864 pages; 222 plates, 23 in colour. Greek text with 19 page English summary. Available both in print and Open Access.ISBN 9781784915773. Book contents pageDownload

    The Hellenistic society of the Rhodian metropolis, a naval aristocracy (Gabrielsen), dedicated bronze statues of their members in the sanctuaries and public buildings and used marble and -occasionally-lartios lithos to carve portrait-statues originally for funerary use and in a later period also for honorific purposes, figures of deities and decorative sculpture for the houses and the parks. The artists, local and itinerant, from Athens, the islands and the Asia Minor, established artistic workshops on Rhodes, some of them active for three centuries and for more than one generation. The impact of Rhodian art is evident on the islands of the Aegean and the cities of Asia Minor, due to the expansion of the Rhodian Peraia. Together with Pergamon, Rhodes emerges as a productive artistic centre of the Hellenistic era, creating statuary types and combining them with landscape elements. The radiance of its art is evident in the late Hellenistic period in Rome, the new capital of the world, where the Rhodian artists create mythological statuary groups set in grottoes.

    This volume presents the large-scale Rhodian sculpture of the Hellenistic and Roman period through the publication of sixty unpublished sculptures of life size or larger than life size, together with forty-five sculptures already published. The sculptures are grouped according to their statuary type (gods, mortals and portraits), while those unable to be firmly identified due to their fragmentary condition are grouped under the category ‘uncertain identification’. The presentation of the sculptures is further supplemented by a technical description and an analysis of stylistic characteristics according to chronological development. Excavation data, wherever available, are also provided.

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    November 19, 2017

    Ancient World Online (AWOL)


    A. T. ROBERTSON, M.A., D.D., LL.D., LITT.D. 


    Professor of Interpretation of the New Testament in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary Louisville, Ky.
    Digitized by Ted Hildebrandt at Gordon College, Wenham, MA March 2006

    CHAPTER I. New Material 3-30 The Ideal Grammar? 3
    I. The Pre-Winer Period 3

    II. The Service of Winer 4 (a) Winer's Inconsistencies 4 (b) Winer Epoch-Making 4 (c) Schmiedel 4 (d) Buttmann 5 (e) Blass 5
    III. The Modern Period 5 (a) Deissmann 5 (b) Thumb 6 (c) Moulton 6 (d) Other Contributions 6 (c) Richness of Material 7
    IV. The New Grammatical Equipment 8 (a) Comparative Philology 8 1. The Linguistic Revolution 8 2. A Sketch of Greek Grammatical History 8
    3. The Discovery of Sanskrit 10
    4. From Bopp to Brugmann 10 (b) Advance in General Greek Grammar 12 (c) Critical Editions of Greek Authors 13 (d) Works on Individual Writers 13 (e) The Greek Inscriptions 14 (f) Fuller Knowledge of the Dialects 16 (g) The Papyri and Ostraca 17 (h) The Byzantine and the Modern Greek 21
    PAGE (i) The Hebrew and Aramaic 24
    1. The Old View 24
    2. A Change with Kennedy 25
    3. Deissmann's Revolt 25
    4. The Language of Jesus 26
    (j) Grammatical Commentaries 29
    V. The New Point of View 30

    CHAPTER II. The Historical Method 31-48 I. Language as History 31 (a) Combining the Various Elements 31 (b) Practical Grammar a Compromise 32
    II. Language as a Living Organism 33 (a) The Origin of Language 33 (b) Evolution in Language 34 (c) Change Chiefly in the Vernacular 34 III. Greek Not an Isolated Language 36 (a) The Importance of Comparative Grammar 36 (b) The Common Bond in Language 37 (c) The Original Indo-Germanic Speech 38

    (d) Greek as a "Dialect" of the Indo-Germanic Speech 39 IV. Looking at the Greek Language as a Whole 40 (a) Descriptive Historical Grammar 41 (b) Unity of the Greek Language 41 (c) Periods of the Greek Language 43 (d) Modern Greek in Particular 44 V. The Greek Point of View 46
    CHAPTER III. The Koinh<
    I. The Term Koinh< 49 II. The Origin of the Koinh< 51

    (a) Triumph of the Attic 51 (b) Fate of the Other Dialects 52 (c) Partial Koines 53 (d) Effects of Alexander's Campaigns 53 (e) The March toward Universalism 54
    III. The Spread of the Koinh< 54 (a) A World-Speech 54 (b) Vernacular and Literary 56
    1. Vernacular 56
    2. Literary 57 (c) The Atticistic Reaction 58
    IV. The Characteristics of the Vernacular Koinh< (a) Vernacular Attic the Base
    (b) The Other Dialects in the
    (c) Non-Dialectical Changes

    PAGE 60

    64 (d) New Words, New Forms, or New Meanings to Old Words 65
    (e) Provincial Influences (f) The Personal Equation (g) Résumé
    Phonetics and Orthography V ocabulary Word-Formation Accidence
    V. The Adaptability of the
    Koinh< to the Roman World

    CHAPTER IV. The Place of the New Testament in the Koinh< 76-139 I. The New Testament Chiefly in the Vernacular Koinh< 76 (a) Not a Biblical Greek 76 (b) Proof that N. T. Greek is in the Vernacular Koinh< 79 Lexical 80 Grammatical 82 II. Literary Elements in the New Testament Greek 83 III. The Semitic Influence 88 (a) The Tradition 88 (b) The View of Deissmann and Moulton 89 (c) Little Direct Hebrew Influence 94 (d) A Deeper Impress by the Septuagint 96
    (e) Aramaisms 102
    (f) Varying Results 106 IV. Latinisms and Other Foreign Words 108 V. The Christian Addition 112 VI. Individual Peculiarities 116
    (a) Mark 118 (b) Matthew 119 (c) Luke 120 (d) James 123 (e) Jude 124 (f) Peter 125 (g) Paul 127 (h) Writer of Hebrews 132 (i) John 133
    VII. N. T. Greek Illustrated by the Modern Greek Vernacular 137
    PAGE 141-376
    CHAPTER V. Word-Formation
    I. Etymology 143 II. Roots 144 III. Words, with Formative Suffixes 146

    (a) Verbs 146 1. Primary or Primitive Verbs 146 2. Secondary or Derivative V erbs 147
    (b) Substantives
    1. Primary or Primitive Substantives 150 2. Secondary or Derivative Substantives 151

    (a) Those from verbs 151 (b) Those from substantives 154 (g) Those from adjectives 156
    (c) Adjectives 157 1. Primary or Primitive Adjectives 157 2. Secondary or Derivative Adjectives 158
    (a) Those from verbs 158 (b) Those from substantives 158 (g) Those from adjectives 159 (d) Those from adverbs 160
    (d) The Adverb 160 IV. Words Formed by Composition (Composita) 160 (a) Kinds of Compound Words in Greek 161 (b) Inseparable Prefixes 161 (c) Agglutinative Compounds (Juxtaposition or Parathesis) 163
    1. Verbs
    2. Substantives 3. Adjectives 4. Adverbs

    Hypocoristic 171 173 174
    V . Personal Names Abbreviated or
    VI. The History of Words
    VII. The Kinship of Greek Words
    VIII. Contrasts in Greek Words or Synonyms 175

    CHAPTER VI. Orthography and Phonetics
    I. The Uncertainty of the Evidence 177

    (a) The Ancient Literary Spelling 177 (b) The Dialect-Coloured Vernacular 178 (c) The Uncials 179 (d) The Papyri 181
    II. Vowel-Changes 181 (a) The Changes (Interchanges) with a 182
    a and e 183 e and a 184 a andh 184 a and o 184 a and w 184 a and ai 185 a and au 185 ai and e 186
    (b) The Changes with e 187 e and ei 187 e and h 187 e and i 188 e and o 189 e]a<n and a@n 190
    (c) The Changes with h 191 h and i 191 h and ei 192 hi and ei 193 h and ^ 194 h and u 195
    (d) The Changes with i 195 i and ei 195 ei and i 197 i and o 198 i and oi 198 i and u 198
    (e) The Changes with o 199 o and ou 199 o and u 200 o and w 200 w and o 201
    (f) The Changes with u 201 u and eu 201 o and ou 202
    (g) The Changes with w 202 w and ou 202 w and wu* 203
    (h) Contraction and Syncope 203 (i) Diphthongs and Dieresis 204 (j) Aphaeresis and Prothetic Vowels 205 (k) Elision 206 (l) Crisis 208
    III. Consonant-Changes 209 (a.) Origin and Character of the Consonants 209 (b) The Insertion of Consonants 210
    PAGE (c) The Omission of Consonants 210 (d) Single or Double Consonants 211 (e) Assimilation of Consonants 215 (f) Interchange and Changing Value of Consonants 217 (g) Aspiration of Consonants 219 (h) Variable Final Consonants 219 (i) Metathesis 221 IV. Breathings 221
    1. (a)  Origin of the Aspirate 221
    2. (b)  Increasing De-aspiration (Psilosis) 222
    3. (c)  Variations in the MSS. (Aspiration and Psilosis) 223
    4. (d)  Transliterated Semitic Words 225
    5. (e)  The Use of Breathings with r and rr 225
    (f) The Question of Au[tou? 226
    V. Accent
    1. (a)  The Age of Greek Accent 226
    2. (b)  Significance of Accent in the Koinh< 228
    3. (c)  Signs of Accent 229
    4. (d)  Later Developments in Accent 229
    5. (e)  N. T. Peculiarities 230
    1. Shortening Stem-V owels 230 2. Separate Words 231 3. Difference in Sense 232 4. Enclitics (and Proclitics) 233 5. Proper Names 235 6. Foreign Words 235
    VI. Pronunciation in the Koinh< 236 VII. Punctuation 241 (a) The Paragraph 241 (b) Sentences 242 (c) Words 243 (d) The Editor's Prerogative 244
    CHAPTER VII. The Declensions
    I. The Substantive 246

    1. History of the Declensions 246 2. The Number of the Cases 247 (a) The History of the Forms of the Cases 247 (b) The Blending of Case-Endings 249 (c) Origin of Case-Suffixes 250 3. Number in Substantives 251 4. Gender in Substantives 252 (a) Variations in Gender 252
    (b) Interpretation of the LXX 254
    (c) Variations Due to Heteroclisis and Metaplasm 254 5. The First or a Declension 254 (a) The Doric Genitive-Ablative Singular a 254 (b) The Attic Genitive-Ablative Singular 255 (c) Vocative in —a of masc. nouns in — thj 256 (d) Words in —ra and Participles in — ui?a 256 (e) The Opposite Tendency to (d) 256 (f) Double Declension 257 (g) Heteroclisis and Metaplasm 257 (h) Indeclinable Substantives 259 6. The Second or o Declension 259 (a) The So-Called Attic Second Declension 260 (b) Contraction 260 (c) The V ocative 261 (d) Heteroclisis and Metaplasm 261 (e) The Mixed Declension 263 (f) Proper Names 263 7. The Third Declension (consonants and close vowels i and u) 263 (a) The Nominative as V ocative 264 (b) The Accusative Singular 264 (c) The Accusative Plural 265 (d) Peculiarities in the Nominative 267 (e) The Genitive-Ablative Forms 268 (f) Contraction 268 (g) Proper Names 268 (h) Heteroclisis and Metaplasm 269 8. Indeclinable Words 269 II. The Adjective 270 1. The Origin of the Adjective 270 2. Inflection of Adjectives 271 (a) Adjectives with One Termination 271 (b) Adjectives with Two Terminations 272 (c) Adjectives with Three Terminations 273 (d) The Accusative Singular 274 (e) Contraction in Adjectives 274 (f) Indeclinable Adjectives 275 3. Comparison of Adjectives 276 (a) The Positive 276 (b) The Comparative 276 (c) The Superlative 278 III. Numerals 281 1. The Origin of Numerals 281 2. Variety among Numerals 281 (a) Different Functions 281 (b) The Cardinals 281
    (c) The Ordinals
    (d) Distributives in the N. T. (e) Numeral Adverbs

    IV. Pronouns
    1. Idea of Pronouns

    2. Antiquity of Pronouns 3. Pronominal Roots
    4. Classification

    (a) The Personal Pronouns (b) The Intensive Pronoun (c) Reflexive Pronouns
    (d) Possessive Pronouns
    (e) Demonstrative Pronouns (f) Relative Pronouns

    (g) Interrogative Pronouns
    (h) Indefinite Pronouns
    (i) Distributive and Reciprocal Pronouns

    V. Adverbs
    1. Neglect of Adverbs

    2. Formation of the Adverb (a) Fixed Cases
    (1) The Accusative (2) The Ablative
    (3) The Genitive
    (4) The Locative
    (5) The Instrumental (6) The Dative

    (b) Suffixes
    (c) Compound Adverbs
    (d) Analogy
    (e) The Comparison of Adverbs

    3. Adverbial Stems
    (a) Substantives

    (b) Adjectives (c) Numerals (d) Pronouns (e) V erbs
    4. Use of Adverbs
    (a) Adverbs of Manner

    (b) Adverbs of Place
    (c) Adverbs of Time 5. Scope of Adverbs
    (a) Relation between Adverbs and Prepositions (b) Adverbs and Conjunctions
    (c) Adverbs and Intensive Particles
    (d) Adverbs and Interjections

    PAGE 283 284 284 284 284 285 285 286 286 287 287 288 289 290 291 292 292 293 293 294 294 294 295 295 295 295 296 296 296 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 300 300 301 301 302
    CHAPTER VIII. Conjugation of the Verb
    I. Difficulty of the Subject 303 II. Nature of the Verb 303

    (a) V erb and Noun 303 (b) Meaning of the Verb 304 (c) Pure and Hybrid Verbs 304
    III. The Building of the Verb 305 IV. The Survival of – mi Verbs 306 (a) A Cross Division 306 (b) The Oldest Verbs 306 (c) Gradual Disappearance 306 (d) N. T. Usage as to - mi Verbs 307 1. The Second Aorists (active and middle) 307 2. Some - mi Presents 311 3. Some – mi Perfects 319 V. The Modes 320 (a) The Number of the Moods or Modes (Modi) 320 (b) The Distinctions between the Moods 321 (c) The Indicative 322 (d) The Subjunctive 323 (e) The Optative 325 (f) The Imperative 327 1. The Non-Thematic Stem 327 2. The Thematic Stem 327 3. The Suffix – qi 328 4. The Suffix - tw 328 5. The Old Injunctive Mood 328 6. Forms in — sai 329 7. The Form in –son 329 8. First Person 329 9. Prohibitions 330 10. Perfect Imperative 330 11. Periphrastic Presents 330 12. Circumlocutions 330 VI. The Voices 330 (a) Transitive and Intransitive 330 (b) The Names of the Voices 331 (c) The Relative Age of the Voices 332 (d) The So-Called "Deponent" Verbs 332 (e) The Passive Supplanting the Middle 333 (f) The Personal Endings 335 (g) Cross-Divisions 335 (h) The Active Endings 335
    PAGE (i) The Middle Endings 339
    (j) Passive Endings 340 (k) Contract Verbs 341 VII. The Tenses 343 (a) The Term Tense 343 (b) Confusion in Names 344 (c) The Verb-Root 344 (d) The Aorist Tense 345 (e) The Present Tense 350
    1. The Root Class 350
    2. The Non-Thematic Reduplicated Present 350
    3. The Non-Thematic Present with –
    na– and – nu-- 351
    4. The Simple Thematic Present 351
    5. The Reduplicated Thematic Present 351
    6. The Thematic Present with a Suffix 351 (
    a) The i class 351 (b) The n class 352 (g) The sk class 352 (d) The t class 352 (e) The q class 353
    (f) The Future Tense 353 (g) The Perfect Tenses 357
    1. The Name 357
    2. The Original Perfect 357

    3. The k Perfect
    4. The Aspirated Perfects 359 5. Middle and Passive Forms 359 6. The Decay of the Perfect Forms 359 7. The Perfect in the Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative 360 8. The Perfect Indicative 360 9.
    S in Perfect Middle and Passive and Aorist Passive 362

    (h) Reduplication 362 1. Primitive 362 2. Both Nouns and V erbs 362 3. In Three Tenses in Verbs 362 4. Three Methods in Reduplication 363 5. Reduplication in the Perfect 363
    (i) Augment 365 1. The Origin of Augment 365 2. Where Found 365 3. The Purpose of Augment 365 4. The Syllabic Augment 365 5. The Temporal Augment 366 6. Compound V erbs 367 7. Double Augment 367
    VIII. The Infinitive 368 1. No Terminology at First 368
    PAGE 2. Fixed Case-Forms 368
    3. With Voice and Tense 369
    4. No Personal Endings 370
    5. Dative and Locative in Form 370
    6. The Presence of the Article 371
    7. The Disappearance of the Infinitive 371
    8. Some N. T. Forms 371 IX. The Participle 371
    1. The Name 371
    2. Verbal Adjectives 372
    3. True Participles 373
    4. In Periphrastic Use 374

    PART III — SYNTAX CHAPTER IX. The Meaning of Syntax
    377-1208 379-389
    I. Backwardness in the Study of Syntax 379 II. New Testament Limitations 381 III. Recent Advance by Delbruck 383 IV. The Province of Syntax 384
    (a) The Word Syntax 384 (b) Scope of Syntax 385 (c) Construction of Words and Clauses 385 (d) Historical Syntax 386 (e) Irregularities 386
    V. The Method of this Grammar 387 (a) Principles, not Rules 387 (b) The Original Significance 387 (c) Form and Function 387 (d) Development 388 (e) Context 388 (f) Translation 389 (g) Limits of Syntax 389
    CHAPTER X. The Sentence
    I. The Sentence and Syntax 390 II. The Sentence Defined 390

    (a) Complex Conception 390 (b) Two Essential Parts 390 (c) One-Membered Sentence 391 (d) Elliptical Sentence 391 (e) Only Predicate 391 (f) Only Subject 393 (g) Verb not the Only Predicate 394
    PAGE (h) Copula not Necessary 395
    (i) The Two Radiating Foci of the Sentence 396
    (j) Varieties of the Simple Sentence 397 III. The Expansion of the Subject 397 (a) Idea-Words and Form-Words 397 (b) Concord and Government 397 (c) The Group around the Subject 398
    1. Subordinate Clause 398
    2. With the Article 398
    3. The Adverb 398
    4. The Adjective 398
    5. The Substantive 398 (
    a) By an oblique case 398 (b) Apposition 398 IV. The Expansion of the Predicate 400 (a) Predicate in Wider Sense 400 (b) The Infinitive and the Participle 400 (c) The Relation between the Predicate and Substantives 400 (d) The Pronoun 400 (e) Adjectives 401
    (f) The Adverb 401 (g) Prepositions 401 (h) Negative Particles
    ou] and mh< 401
    (i) Subordinate Clauses 401
    (j) Apposition with the Predicate and Looser Amplifications 401

    V. Subordinate Centres in the Sentence VI. Concord in Person
    VII. Concord in Number

    (a) Subject and Predicate
    1. Two Conflicting Principles

    2. Neuter Plural and Singular 3. Collective Substantives
    4. The Pindaric Construction

    5. Singular V erb with First
    6. The Literary Plural (b) Substantive and Adjective
    (c) Representative Singular
    (d) Idiomatic Plural in Nouns (e) Idiomatic Singular in Nouns (f) Special Instances

    VIII. Concord in Gender
    (a) Fluctuations in Gender

    (b) The Neuter Singular
    V erb 403 404 404 Subject 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 410 411
    (c) Explanatory o! e]stin and tou?t ] e@stin 411 (d) The Participle 412 (e) Adjectives 412
    IX. Concord in Case 413 (a) Adjectives 413 (b) Participles 413 (c) The Book of Revelation 413 (d) Other Peculiarities in Apposition 416 (e) The Absolute Use of the Cases (nominative, genitive, ab-
    lative and accusative) 416 X. Position of Words in the Sentence 417 (a) Freedom from Rules 417 (b) Predicate often First 417 (c) Emphasis 417 (d) The Minor Words in a Sentence 418 (e) Euphony and Rhythm 419 (f) Prolepsis 423 (g) Hysteron Proteron 423 (h) Hyperbaton 423 (i) Postpositives 424 (j) Fluctuating Words 424 (k) The Order of Clauses in Compound Sentences 425 XI. Compound Sentences 425 (a) Two Kinds of Sentences 425 (b) Two Kinds of Compound Sentences 426 (c) Paratactic Sentences 426 (d) Hypotactic Sentences 426 XII. Connection in Sentences 427 (a) Single Words 427 (b) Clauses 428 1. Paratactic Sentences 428 2. Hypotactic Sentences 429 3. The Infinitive and Participle as Connectives 431 (c) Two Kinds of Style 432 (d) The Parenthesis 433 (e) Anacoluthon 435 1. The Suspended Subject 436 2. Digression 437 3. The Participle in Anacolutha 439 4. Asyndeton Due to Absence of de< and a]lla< 440 (f) Oratio Variata 440 1. Distinction from Anacoluthon 440 2. Heterogeneous Structure 441
    PAGE 3. Participles in Oratio Variata 442
    4. Exchange of Direct and Indirect Discourse 442 (g) Connection between Separate Sentences 443 (h) Connection between Paragraphs 444 XIII. Forecast 444

    CHAPTER XI. The Cases
    I. History of the Interpretation of the Greek Cases 446

    (a) Confusion 446 (b) Bopp's Contribution 446 (c) Modern Usage 447 (d) Green's Classification 447 (e) Syncretism of the Cases 448 (f) Freedom in Use of Case 448
    II. The Purpose of the Cases 449 (a) Aristotle's Usage 449 (b) Word-Relations 449
    III. The Encroachment of Prepositions on the Cases 450 (a) The Reason 450 (b) No "Governing" of Cases 450 (c) Not Used Indifferently 450 (d) Original Use with Local Cases 451 (e) Increasing Use of Prepositions 451 (f) Distinction Preserved in the N. T 452
    IV. The Distinctive Idea of Each of the Cases 453 (a) Fundamental Idea 453 (b) Cases not Used for One Another 454 (c) Vitality of Case-Idea 454 (d) The Historical Development of the Cases 454 (e) The Method of this Grammar 456
    V. The Nominative Case 456 (a) Not the Oldest Case 456 (b) Reason for the Case 457 (c) Predicate Nominative 457 (d) Sometimes Unaltered 458 (e) The Nominative Absolute 459 (f) The Parenthetic Nominative 460 (g) In Exclamations 461 (h) Used as Vocative 461
    VI. The Vocative Case 461 (a) Nature of the Vocative 461
    (b) Various Devices 462 (c) Use of w# with the Vocative 463 (d) Adjectives Used with the Vocative 464 (e) Apposition to the Vocative 464 (f) Vocative in Predicate 464 (g) The Article with the V ocative 465
    VII. The Accusative Case (a) The Name
    466 466 466
    (b) Age and History
    (c) The Meaning of the Accusative 467 (d) With Verbs of Motion 468 (e) Extent of Space 469 (f) Extent of Time 469 (g) With Transitive Verbs 471 (h) The Cognate Accusative 477 (i) Double Accusative 479 (j) With Passive Verbs 484 (k) The Adverbial Accusative 486 (1) The Accusative by Antiptosis 488 (m) The Accusative by Inverse Attraction 488 (n) The Accusative with the Infinitive 489 (o) The Accusative Absolute 490 (p) The Accusative with Prepositions 491

    VIII. The Genitive (True) Case 491 (a) Two Cases with One Form 491 (b) Name Incorrect 492 (c) The Specifying Case 493 (d) The Local Use 494 (e) The Temporal Use 495 (f) With Substantives 495
    1. The Possessive Genitive 495 2. Attributive Genitive 496 3. The Predicate Genitive 497 4. Apposition or Definition 498 5. The Subjective Genitive 499 6. The Objective Genitive 499 7. Genitive of Relationship 501 8. Partitive Genitive 502 9. The Position of the Genitive 502 10. Concatenation of Genitives 503
    (g) The Genitive with Adjectives 503 (h) The Genitive with Adverbs and Prepositions 505 (i) The Genitive with Verbs 505
    PAGE 1. V ery Common 506
    2. Fading Distinction from Accusative 506

    1. V erbs of Sensation 507
    2. V erbs of Emotion 508
    5. Verbs of Sharing, Partaking and Filling 509 6. V erbs of Ruling 510 7. Verbs of Buying, Selling, Being Worthy of 510 8. Verbs of Accusing and Condemning 511 9. Genitive Due to Prepositions in Composition 511 10. Attraction of the Relative 512 (j) The Genitive of the Infinitive 512 (k) The Genitive Absolute 512 IX. The Ablative Case 514 (a) The Name 514 (b) The Meaning 514 (c) Rare with Substantives 514 (d) The Ablative with Adjectives 515 (e) The Ablative, with Prepositions 516 (f) The Ablative with Verbs 517 1. Verbs of Departure and Removal 518
    1. V erbs of Ceasing, Abstaining 518
    2. V erbs of Missing, Lacking, Despairing 518
    4. Verbs of Differing, Excelling 519
    1. V erbs of Asking and Hearing 519
    2. V erbs with the Partitive Idea 519
    7. Attraction of the Relative 519 X. The Locative Case 520 (a) The Name Locative 520 (b) The Significance of the Locative 520 (c) Place 521 (d) Time 522 (e) Locative with Adjectives 523 (f) Locative with Verbs 523 (g) The Locative, with Substantives 524 (h) The Locative with Prepositions 524 (i) The Pregnant Construction of the Locative 525 XI. The Instrumental Case 525 (a) The Term Instrumental 525 (b) Syncretistic? 526 (c) Place 526 (d) Time 527 (e) The Associative Idea 528 (f) With Words of Likeness and Identity 530 (g) Manner 530
    (h) Degree of Difference 532 (i) Cause 532 (j) Means 532 (k) With Prepositions 534
    XII. The Dative (True) Case 535 (a) Syncretism 535 (b) The Decay of the Dative 535 (c) The Idea of the Dative 536 (d) The Dative with Substantives 536 (e) With Adjectives 537 (f) With Adverbs and Prepositions 537 (g) With Verbs 538
    1. Indirect Object 538 2. Dativus Commodi vel Incommodi (Ethical) 538 3. Direct Object 539 4. The Dative with Intransitive V erbs 541
    5. Possession
    6. Infinitive as Final Dative
    7. The Dative of the Agent
    8. The Dative because of the Preposition 542

    (h) Ambiguous Examples 543
    CHAPTER XII. Adverbs
    I. Special Difficulties 544

    (a) Nature of the Adverb 544
    (b) The Narrower Sense of Adverb 544 II. Adverbs with Verbs 545 (a) Commonest Use 545 (b) N. T. Usage 545 (c) Predicative Uses with gi<nomai and ei]mi 545 (d) With e@xw 546 (e) With Participles 546 (f) Loose Relation to the Verb 546
    1. Adverbs Used with Other Adverbs 546
    2. Adverbs with Adjectives 546
    3. Adverbs with Substantives 547
    4. Adverbs Treated as Substantives 547
    VII. The Pregnant Use of Adverbs 548 VIII. Adverbs as Marks of Style 548 IX. The Adverb Distinguished from the Adjective 549 (a) Different Meaning 549 (b) Difference in Greek and English Idiom 549
    541 541 542
    PAGE X. Adverbial Phrases 550 (a) Incipient Adverbs 550 (b) Prepositional Phrases 550 (c) Participles 551 (d) The Verb Used Adverbially 551
    CHAPTER XIII. Prepositions
    I. The Name 553

    (a) Some Postpositive 553 (b) Not Originally Used with Verbs 553 (c) Explanation 553
    II. The Origin of Prepositions 554 (a) Originally Adverbs 554 (b) Reason for Use Of Prepositions 554 (c) Varying History 555
    III. Growth in the Use of Prepositions 555 (a) Once No Prepositions 555 (b) The Prepositions Still Used as Adverbs in Homer 555 (c) Decreasing Use as Adverbs after Homer 555 (d) Semitic Influence in N. T. 556 (e) In Modern Greek 557
    IV. Prepositions in Composition with Verbs 557 (a) Not the Main Function 557 (b) Preposition Alone 558 (c) Increasing Use 558 (d) Repetition after Verb 559 (e) Different Preposition after Verb 560 (f) Second Preposition Not Necessary 562 (g) Effect of Preposition on Meaning of the Verb 562 (h) Dropping the Preposition with Second Verb 563 (i) Intensive or Perfective 563 (j) Double Compounds 565
    V. Repetition and Variation of Prepositions 565 (a) Same Preposition with Different Cases 565 (b) Repetition with Several Nouns 566 (c) Repetition with the Relative 566 (d) Condensation by Variation 567
    VI. The Functions of Prepositions with Cases 567 (a) The Case before Prepositions 567 (b) Notion of Dimension 567 (c) Original Force of the Case 567
    (d) The Ground-Meaning of the Preposition 568 (e) The Oblique Cases Alone with Prepositions 568 (f) Original Freedom 568 (g) No Adequate Division by Cases 569 (h) Situation in the N. T. 569
    1. Those with One Case 570 2. Those with Two Cases 570 3. Those with Three Cases 570 4. Possibly Four with e]pi< 570
    (i) Each Preposition in a Case 570 VII. Proper Prepositions in the N. T 571
    (a) ]Ana< (b) ]Anti< (c) ]Apo<
    1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
    (d) Dia< 1.
    2. 3. 4.
    (e) ]En 1.
    2. 3.
    4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
    571 572 574
    Original Significance 575 Meaning 'Back' 576 "Translation-Hebraism" in fobei?sqai a]po< 577 Comparison with e]k 577 Comparison with para< 578 Compared with u[po< 579
    580 The Root-Idea 580 'By Twos' or 'Between' 580 'Passing Between' or 'Through' 581 'Because of' 583 584 Old Use of e]n with Accusative or Locative 584 ]En Older than ei]j 585 Place 586 Expressions of Time 586 'Among' 587 'In the Case of,' 'in the Person of' or simply 'in' 587 As a Dative? 588 Accompanying Circumstance 588 'Amounting to,' ‘Occasion,’ ‘Sphere’ 589 10. Instrumental Use of e]n 589 (f) Ei]j 591 1. Original Static Use 591 2. With Verbs of Motion 593 3. With Expressions of Time 594 4. Like a Dative 594 5. Aim or Purpose 594 6. Predicative Use 595 7. Compared with e]pi< and pro<j 596 (g) ]Ek 596 1. Meaning 596 2. In Composition 596
    PAGE Place 597 Time 597 Separation 597 Origin or Source 598 Cause or Occasion 598 The Partitive Use of e]k 599 ]Ek and e]n 599 600 Ground-Meaning 600
    In Composition in the N. T 600 Frequency in N. T. 600 With the Accusative 601 With the Genitive 602 With the Locative 604 The True Dative 605 605 Root-Meaning 605 Distributive Sense 606
    kata< in Composition 606 With the Ablative 606 With the Genitive 607 With the Accusative 607 609 The Root-Meaning 609
    In Composition 609 Compared with aim 609 Loss of the Locative Use 610 With the Genitive 610 With the Accusative 612 (k)
    Para< 612
    1. Significance 612
    2. Compared with
    pro<j 613
    3. In Composition 613
    4. With the Locative 614
    5. With the Ablative 614
    6. With the Accusative 615 (l)
    Peri< 616
    1. The Root-Meaning 617
    2. In Composition 617
    3. Originally Four Cases Used 617
    4. With the Ablative 617
    5. With the Genitive 618
    6. With the Accusative 619 (m)
    Pro< 620
    1. The Original Meaning 620
    2. In Composition 620
    3. The Cases Used with
    pro< 621
    4. Place 621

    3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
    (h) ]Epi< 1.
    2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
    (i) Kata< 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (j) Meta< 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
    5. Time 621 6. Superiority 622
    (o) Su<n 1.
    2. 3. 4.
    (p) [Upe<r
    622 The Meaning 622 In Composition 623 Originally with Five Cases 623 The Ablative 623 With the Locative 624 With the Accusative 624 626 The Meaning 626 History 627 In Composition 627 N. T. Usage 628 628 1. The Meaning 629 2. In Composition 629 3. With Genitive? 629 4. With Ablative 630 5. The Accusative with u[pe<r 632 (q) [Upo< 633 1. The Original Meaning 633 2. In Composition 633 3. The Cases Once Used with u[po< 634 4. With the Accusative 635 5. With the Ablative 635 VIII. The "Adverbial" Prepositions 638
    (n) Pro<j 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
    1. !Ama 638 2. @Aneu 638 3. @Antikru(j) 638 4. ]Anti<pera 638 5. ]Ape<nanti 639 6. @Ater 639 7. @Axri(j) 639 8. ]Egguj< 639 9. ]Ektoj< 640 10. @Emprosqen 640 11. @Enanti 640 12. ]Enanti<on 640 13. !Eneka 641 14. ]Ento<j 641 15. ]Enw<pion 641 16. @Ecw 642 17. @Ecwqen 642 18. ]Ep-a<nw 642 19. ]Epe<keina 642 20. @Esw 642 21. @Ewj 643 22. Kate<nanti 643
    PAGE 23. Katenw<pion 644 24.Kukloq< en 644 25. Kuk< l& 644 26. Mes< on 644 27. Metacu< 645 28.Mex< ri 645 29. @Opisqen 645 30. ]Opis< w 645 31. ]Oye< 645 32. Para-plhs< ion 646 33. Par-ektoj< 646 34. Per< an 646 35. Plh<n 646 36. Plhsio< n 646 37. [Uper-a<nw 646 38. [Uper-ek< eina 647 39. [Uper-e]k-perissou? 647 40. [Upo-ka<tw 647 41. Xar< in 647 42. Xwrij< 647 IX. Compound Prepositions 648 X. Prepositional Circumlocutions 648 (a) Mes< on 648 (b) @Onoma 649 (c) Pros< wpon 649 (d) Stom< a 649 (e) Xeir< 649
    CHAPTER XIV. Adjectives
    I. Origin of Adjectives 650 II. The Adjectival or Appositional Use of the Substantive 651 III. The Adjective as Substantive 652

    (a) Any Gender 652 (b) With Masculine Adjectives 652 (c) With Feminine Adjectives 652 (d) With the Neuter 653
    IV. Agreement of Adjectives with Substantives 654 (a) In Number 654 (b) In Gender 655 (c) In Case 655 (d) Two or More Adjectives 655
    V. The Attributive Adjective 655 VI. The Predicate Adjective 656 VII. Adjective Rather than Adverb 657
    xliii PAGE
    VIII. The Personal Construction 657 IX. Adjectives Used with Cases 658 X. Adjectives with the Infinitive and Clauses 658 XI. The Adjective as Adverb 659 XII. The Positive Adjective 659
    (a) Relative Contrast 659 (b) Used as Comparative or Superlative 660 (c) With Prepositions 661 (d) Comparison Implied by 661 (e) In Absolute Sense 661
    XIII. The Comparative Adjective 662 (a) Contrast or Duality 662 (b) Degree 663 (c) Without Suffixes 663 (d) Double Comparison 663 (e) Without Object of Comparison 664 (f) Followed by 666 (g) Followed by the Ablative 666 (h) Followed by Prepositions 667 (i) The Comparative Displacing the Superlative 667
    XIV. The Superlative Adjective 669 (a) The Superlative Vanishing 669 (b) A Few True Superlatives in the N. T. 669 (c) The Elative Superlative 670 (d) No Double Superlatives 670 (e) Followed by Ablative 670 (f) No "Hebraistic" Superlative 671
    XV. Numerals 671 (a) Eij$ and Prwt? oj 671 (b) The Simplification of the "Teens" 672 (c) The Inclusive Ordinal 672 (d) The Distributives 673 (e) The Cardinal [Epta< 673 (f) Substantive Not Expressed 674 (g) Adverbs with Numerals 674 (h) Ei$j as Indefinite Article 674 (i) Eij$ =Tij 675 (j) The Distributive Use of Eij$ 675
    CHAPTER XV. Pronouns
    I. Personal. Pronouns 676

    (a) The Nominative 676 1. The First Person 677 2. The Second Person 678 3. The Third Person 679
    PAGE (b) The Oblique Cases of the Personal Pronouns 680
    1. Originally Reflexive 680
    Au]tou? 681
    3. Genitive for Possession 681
    4. Enclitic Forms 681 (c) The Frequency of the Personal Pronouns 682 (d) Redundant 683 (e) According to Sense 683 (f) Repetition of the Substantive 684 II. The Possessive Pronouns 684 (a) Just the Article 684 (b) Only for First and Second Persons 684 (c) Emphasis, When Used 684 (d) With the Article 685 (e) Possessive and Genitive Together 685 (f) Objective Use 685 (g) Instead of Reflexive 685 III. The Intensive and Identical Pronoun 685 (a) The Nominative Use of
    Au]toj< 685 (b) Varying Degrees of Emphasis 686 (c) Au]toj< with out$ oj 686 (d) Au]toj< almost Demonstrative 686 (e) In the Oblique Cases 686 (f) Au]to<j Side by Side with the Reflexive 687 (g) [O au]to<j 687 IV. The Reflexive Pronoun 687 (a) Distinctive Use 687 (b) The Absence of the Reflexive from the Nominative 688 (c) The Indirect Reflexive 688 (d) In the Singular 688 (e) In the Plural 689 (f) Article with 690 (g) Reflexive in the Reciprocal Sense 690 (h) Reflexive with Middle Voice 690 (i) The Use of @Idioj 691 V. The Reciprocal Pronoun 692 VI. Demonstrative Pronouns 693 (a) Nature 693 (b) Different Shades of Meaning 693 (c) [O, h[, to< 693 (d) !Oj 695 (e) !Ode 696

    (f) Ou$toj 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
    697 The Purely Deictic 697 The Contemptuous Use of ou$toj 697 The Anaphoric Use 697 In Apposition 698 Use of the Article 700 Article Absent 701 Ou$toj in Contrast with e]kei?noj 702 As Antecedent of the Relative Pronoun 703 Gender and Number of Ou$toj 704 10. The Adverbial Uses of tou?to and tau?ta 704 11. The Phrase tou?t ] e@stin 705 12. In Combination with Other Pronouns 705 13. Ellipsis of Out$ oj 705 14. Shift in Reference 706 (g) ]Ekein? oj 706 1. The Purely Deictic 707 2. The Contemptuous Use 707 3. The Anaphoric 707 4. The Remote Object (Contrast) 707 5. Emphasis 708 6. With Apposition 708 7. Article with Nouns except when Predicate 708 8. As Antecedent to Relative 708 9. Gender and Number 708 10. Independent Use 709 (h) Au]toj< 709 (i) The Correlative Demonstratives 709 VII. Relative Pronouns 710 (a) List in the N T. 710 (b) The Name "Relative" 711 (c) A Bond between Clauses 711 (d) !Oj 711 1. In Homer 711 2. Comparison with Other Relatives 711 3. With Any Person 712 4. Gender 712 5. Number 714 6. Case 714 (a) Absence of attraction normal 714 (b) Cognate accusative 715 (g) Attraction to the case of the antecedent 715 (d) Inverse attraction 717 (e) Incorporation 718 7. Absence of Antecedent 719 8. Prepositions with the Antecedent and the Relative 721 9. Relative Phrases 721 10. Pleonastic Antecedent 722
    PAGE 11. The Repetition of o!j 723 12. A Consecutive Idea 724 13. Causal 724 14. In Direct Questions 725 15. In Indirect Questions 725 16. The Idiom ou]dei<j e]stin o!j 726 (e) !Ostij 726
    1. Varied Uses 726
    2. The Distinction between
    o!j and o!stij 726
    3. The Indefinite Use 727
    4. The Definite Examples 727
    5. Value of
    o!j? 728
    6. Case 728
    7. Number 729
    8. Gender 729
    9. Direct Questions 729 10. Indirect Questions 730
    ( f )
    O i o$ j 731
    1. Relation to
    o!j 731
    2. Incorporation 731
    3. Indirect Question 731
    4. Number 731
    Oi$o<n te< e]stin 732 (g) [Opoio? j 732
    1. Qualitative 732
    2. Double Office 732
    3. Correlative 732 (h)
    !Osoj 732
    1. Quantitative 732
    2. Antecedent 732
    3. Attraction 732
    4. Incorporation 733
    5. Repetition 733
    6. With
    a@n 733
    7. Indirect Questions 733
    8. In Comparison 733
    9. Adverbial 733 (i)
    [Hli<koj 733 (j) [O as Relative 734 VIII. Interrogative Pronouns 735 (a) Tij< 735
    1. Substantival or Adjectival 735
    2. The Absence of Gender 735
    Ti<j = poi?oj 735
    4. Indeclinable
    ti< 736
    5. Predicate Use of
    ti< with tou?to 736
    6. In Alternative Questions 736
    7. The Double Interrogative 737

    8. As Relative 737 9. Adverbial Use 738 10. With Prepositions 739 11. With Particles 739 12. As Exclamation 739 13. Indirect Questions 739 14. Ti<j or ti<j 739
    ( b ) P o i o? j 740 1. Qualitative 740 2. Non-qualitative 740 3. In Indirect Questions 740
    (c) Pos< oj 740 1. Less Frequent than poio? j 740 2. Meaning 740 3. In Indirect Questions 741 4. The Exclamatory Use 741
    (d) Phlik< oj 741 1. Rare 741 2. Indirect Questions 741
    (e) Potapo<j 741
    (f) Pot< eroj 741 IX. Indefinite Pronouns 741 (a) Tij> 741 1. The Accent 741 2. Relation to tij< 741 3. Ti>j as Substantive 742 4. With Numerals= 'About' 742 5. With Substantives 742 6. With Adjectives 743 7. As Predicate 743
    8. The Position of tij 743 9. As Antecedent 743 10. Alternative 743 11. The Negative Forms 743 12. Indeclinable ti 744
    (b) Ei$j = Tij 744 (c) Pa?j = ‘any one' 744 ( d ) [ O D e i n? a 744
    X. Alternative or Distributive Pronouns 744 (a) ]Amfo<teroi 744 (b) !Ekastoj 745
    1. Without Substantive 745 2. With Substantive 745 3. With eij$ 746 4. With Genitive 746 5. Partitive Apposition 746 6. Rare in Plural 746 7. Repetition 746
    PAGE (c) @Alloj 746
    1. Used absolutely= ‘An-other,’ ’One Other’ 746
    2. For Two 746
    3. As Adjective 747
    4. With the Article 747
    5. The Use of
    a@lloj a@llo 747
    6. In Contrast for 'Some - Others' 747
    7. Ellipsis of
    a@lloj 747
    8. The Use of
    a@lloj and e!teroj Together 747
    9. =’Different’ 747 10.
    ]Allo<trioj 748 (d) @Eteroj 748
    1. Absolutely 748
    2. With Article 748
    3. Second of Pair 748
    4. = 'Different' 748
    5. = 'Another' of Three or More 749
    6. In Contrast 749 (e) Other Antithetic Pronouns 750

    XI. Negative Pronouns 750 (a) Ou]deij< 750
    1. History 750
    2. Ou]qei<j 750
    3. Gender 751
    4. Ou]de> ei$j 751
    5. Ei$jou] 751
    (b) Mhdeij< 751 (c) Ou@tij and Mht< ij 751 (d) With Pa?j 752 1. Ou] paj? 752 2. Ou] pa?j 752 3. Mh< -- pa?j 752 4. Ou] mh< -- pa?n 753 5. Pa?j ou] 753 6. Pa?j mh< 753 7. Pa?j ou] mh< 753 8. Ou] pan< tej 753 9. Pa<ntej ou] 753
    CHAPTER XVI. The Article
    I. Other Uses of
    o[, h[, to< 754 II. Origin and Development of the Article 754

    (a) A Greek Contribution 754
    (b) Derived from the Demonstrative 755 III. Significance of the Article 755 IV. The Method Employed by the Article 756
    (a) Individuals from Individuals 756 (b) Classes from Other Classes 757 (c) Qualities from Other Qualities 758
    V. Varied Usages of the Article 758 (a) With Substantives 758 1. Context 758 2. Gender of the Article 759 3. With Proper Names 759 4. Second Mention (Anaphoric) 762 (b) With Adjectives 762 1. The Resumptive Article 762 2. With the Adjective Alone 762 3. The Article not Necessary with the Adjective 763 4. With Numerals 764 (c) With Participles 764 (d) With the Infinitive 765 (e) With Adverbs 765 (f) With Prepositional Phrases 766 (g) With Single Words or Whole Sentences 766 (h) With Genitive Alone 767 (i) Nouns in the Predicate 767 (j) Distributive 769 (k) Nominative with the Article=Vocative 769 (1) As the Equivalent of a Possessive Pronoun 769 (m) With Possessive Pronouns 770 (n) With Au]toj< 770 (o) With Demonstratives 770 (p) With !Oloj, Pa?j ( !Apaj) 771 (q) With Polu<j 774 (r) @Akroj, {Hmisuj, @Esxatoj, Me<soj 775
    @Eteroj 775 776 776 776 1. Normal Position of the Adjective 776
    2. The Other Construction (Repetition of the Article) 776 3. Article Repeated Several Times 777 4. One Article with Several Adjectives 777 5. With Anarthrous Substantives 777 6. With Participles 777
    (b) With Genitives 779 1. The Position between the Article and the Substantive 779 2. Genitive after the Substantive without Repetition of
    the Article 779 3. Repetition of Article with Genitive 780
    (s) With @Alloj and
    (t) Mo<noj
    VI. Position with Attributives

    (a) With Adjectives
    PAGE 4. The Article Only with Genitive 780
    5. Article Absent with Both 780
    6. The Correlation of the Article 780 (c) With Adjuncts or Adverbs 782
    1. Between the Article and the Noun 782
    2. Article Repeated 782
    3. Only with Adjunct 782
    4. Only with the Noun 782
    5. When Several Adjuncts Occur 783
    6. Phrases of Verbal Origin 784
    7. Exegetical questions 784
    8. Anarthrous Attributives 784 (d) Several Attributives with
    Kai< 785
    1. Several Epithets Applied to the Same Person or Thing 785
    2. When to be Distinguished 786
    3. Groups Treated as One 787
    4. Point of View 787
    5. Difference in Number 788
    6. Difference in Gender 788
    7. With Disjunctive Particle 789 VII. Position with Predicates 789 VIII. The Absence of the Article 790 (a) With Proper Names 791 (b) With Genitives 791 (c) Prepositional Phrases 791 (d) With Both Preposition and Genitive 792 (e) Titles of Books or Sections 793 (f) Words in Pairs 793 (g) Ordinal Numerals 793 (h) In the Predicate 794 (i) Abstract Words 794 (j) Qualitative Force 794 (k) Only Object of Kind 794 IX. The Indefinite Article 796

    I. Point of View 797

    (a) Distinction between Voice and Transitiveness 797 (b) Meaning of Voice 798 (c) Names of the Voices 798 (d) History of the Voices 793 (e) Help from the Sanskrit 798 (f) Defective Verbs 799
    II. The Active Voice 799 (a) Meaning of the Active Voice 799
    (b) Either Transitive or Intransitive 799 (c) Effect of Prepositions in Composition 800 (d) Different Tenses Vary 800 (e) The Active as Causative 801 (f) Active with Reflexives 802 (g) Impersonal Active 802 (h) Infinitives 802 (i) Active Verbs as Passives of Other Verbs 802
    III. The Middle Voice 803 (a) Origin of the Middle 803 (b) Meaning of the Middle 803 (c) Often Difference from Active Acute 804 (d) The Use of the Middle not Obligatory 804 (e) Either Transitive or Intransitive 806 (f) Direct Middle 806 (g) Causative or Permissive Middle 808 (h) Indirect Middle 809 (i) Reciprocal Middle 810 (j) Redundant Middle 811 (k) Dynamic (Deponent) Middle 811 (1) Middle Future, though Active Present 813 (m) The Middle Retreating in the N. T. 814
    IV. The Passive Voice 814 (a) Origin of the Passive 814 (b) Significance of the Passive 815 (c) With Intransitive or Transitive Verbs 815 (d) The Passive Usually Intransitive 816 (e) Aorist Passive 816 (f) Future Passive 818 (g) The Agent with the Passive Voice 820 (h) Impersonal Construction 820
    I. Complexity of the Subject 821

    1. The Difficulty of Comparing Greek Tenses with Germanic
    Tenses 821 2. Bad Influence of the Latin on Greek Grammarians 822 3. Absence of Hebrew Influence 822 4. Gradual Growth of the Greek Tenses 822 5. "Aktionsart" of the Verb-Stem 823 6. The Three Kinds of Action Expressed in Terms of Tense 824 7. Time Element in Tense 824 8. Faulty Nomenclature of the Tenses 825

    PAGE 9. The Analytic Tendency (Periphrasis) 826 10. The Effect of Prepositions on the Verb 826 11. "Aktionsart" with Each Tense 828 12. Interchange of Tenses 829 II. Punctiliar Action 830
    1. The Aorist 831 (a) Aktionsart in the Aorist 831 (
    a) Constative Aorist 831 (b) Ingressive Aorist 834 (g) Effective Aorist 834 (b) Aorist Indicative 835 (a) The Narrative or Historical Tense 835 (b) The Gnomic Aorist 836 (g) Relation to the Imperfect 837 (d) Relation to the Past Perfect 840 (e) Relation to the Present 841 (z) Relation to Present Perfect 843 (h) Epistolary Aorist 845 (q) Relation to the Future 846 (i) Aorist in Wishes 847 (k) Variations in the Use of Tenses 847 (l) Translation of the Aorist into English 847 (c) The Aorist Subjunctive and Optative 848 (a) No Time Element in Subjunctive and Optative 848 (b) Frequency of Aorist Subjunctive 848 (g) Aktionsart 850 (d) Aorist Subjunctive in Prohibitions 851 (e) Aorist Subjunctive with ou] mh< 854
    z ) Aorist Optative 854 (d) The Aorist Imperative 855 (<e) The Aorist Infinitive 856 (f) The Aorist Participle 858 (a) Aktionsart 858 (b) [O and the Aorist Participle 859 (g) Antecedent Action 860 (d) But Simultaneous Action is Common also 860

    (e) Subsequent Action not Expressed by the Aorist Participle 861
    (z) Aorist Participle in Indirect Discourse (Comple- mentary Participle) 864 2. Punctiliar (Aoristic) Present 864 (a) The Specific Present 865 (b) The Gnomic Present 866 (c) The Historical Present 866 (d) The Futuristic Present 869 3. The Punctiliar (Aoristic) Future 870 (a) Punctiliar or Durative 870
    (b) The Modal Aspect of the Future 872 (a) Merely Futuristic 873 (b) The Volitive Future 874 (g) Deliberative Future 875
    (c) The Future in the Moods 876 (a) The Indicative 876 (b) The Subjunctive and Optative 876 (g) The Infinitive 876 (d) The Participle 877
    (d) The Periphrastic Substitutes for the Future 878 III. Durative (Linear) Action 879 1. Indicative 879 (a) The Present (o[ e]nestw<j) for Present Time 879 (a) The Descriptive Present 879 (b) The Progressive Present 879 (g) The Iterative or Customary Present 880 (d) The Inchoative or Conative Present 880 (e) The Historical Present 880 (z) The Deliberative Present 880 (h) The Periphrastic Present 880 (q) Presents as Perfects 881 (i) Perfects as Presents 881 (k) Futuristic Presents 881 (b) The Imperfect for Past Time 882 (a) Doubtful Imperfects 882 (b) The Descriptive Tense in Narrative 883 (g) The Iterative (Customary) Imperfect 884 (d) The Progressive Imperfect 884 (e) The Inchoative or Conative Imperfect 885 (z) The "Negative" Imperfect 885 (h) The "Potential" Imperfect 885 (q) In Indirect Discourse 887 (i) The Periphrastic Imperfect 887 (k) Past Perfects as Imperfects 888 (c) The Future for Future Time 888
    (a) The Three Kinds of Action in the Future (futur- istic, volitive, deliberative) 889 (b) The Periphrastic Future 889 2. Subjunctive and Optative 889
    3. Imperative 4. Infinitive 5. Participle
    890 890 891
    (a) The Time of the Present Participle Relative 891 (b) Futuristic 891 (c) Descriptive 891 (d) Conative 892 (e) Antecedent Time 892 (f) Indirect Discourse 892
    PAGE (g) With the Article 892 (h) Past Action Still in Progress 892 (i) “Subsequent” Action 892 (j) No Durative Future Participles 892 IV. Perfected State of the Action 892
    1. The Idea of the Perfect 892 (a) The Present Perfect 892 (b) The Intensive Perfect 893 (c) The Extensive Perfect 893 (d) Idea of Time in the Tense 894
    2. The Indicative 894 (a) The Present Perfect 894 (a) The Intensive Present Perfect 894

    (b) The Extensive Present Perfect=a completed state 895 (g) The Present Perfect of Broken Continuity 896 (d) The Dramatic Historical Present Perfect 896 (e) The Gnomic Present Perfect 897 (z) The Perfect in Indirect Discourse 897 (h) Futuristic Present Perfect 898 (q) The "Aoristic" Present Perfect 898 (i) The Periphrastic Perfect 902 (k) Present as perfect 903
    (6) The Past Perfect 903 (a) The Double Idea 903 (b) A Luxury in Greek 903 (g) The Intensive Past Perfect 904 (d) The Extensive Past Perfect 904 (e) The Past Perfect of Broken Continuity 905 (z) Past Perfect in Conditional Sentences 906 (h) The Periphrastic Past Perfect 906 (q) Special Use of e]kei<mhn 906
    (c) The Future Perfect 906 3. The Subjunctive and Optative 907 4. The Imperative 908 5. The Infinitive 903
    (a) Indirect Discourse 903 (b) Perfect Infinitive not in Indirect Discourse 909 (a) Subject or Object Infinitive 909 (b) With Prepositions 909 6. The Participle 909 (a) The Meaning 909 (b) The Time of the, Tense 909
    (c) The Perfect Tense Occurs with Various Uses of the Participle 910 (d) The Periphrastic, Participle 910
    Introductory 911 A. Independent or Paratactic Sentences 914

    I. The Indicative Mode 914 1. Meaning of the Indicative Mode 914 2. Kinds of Sentences Using the Indicative 915
    (a) Either Declarative or Interrogative 915
    (b) Positive and Negative 917 3. Special Uses of the Indicative 918 (a) Past Tenses 918 (a) For Courtesy 918
    (b) Present Necessity, Obligation, Possibility, Pro- priety in Tenses of the Past 919
    (g) The Apodosis of Conditions of the Second Class 921
    (d) Impossible Wishes 923 (b) The Present 923 (c) The Future 924
    II. The Subjunctive Mode 924 1. Relations to Other Modes 924 (a) The Aorist Subjunctive and the Future Indicative 924 (b) The Subjunctive and the Imperative 925 (c) The Subjunctive and the Optative 925 2. Original Significance of the Subjunctive 926 3. Threefold Usage 928 (a) Futuristic 928 (b) Volitive 930 (c) Deliberative 934 III. The Optative Mode 935 1. History of the Optative 935 2. Significance 936 3. The Three Uses 937 (a) Futuristic or Potential 937 (b) Volitive 939 (c) Deliberative 940 IV. The Imperative 941 1. Origin of the Imperative 941 2. Meaning of the Imperative 941 3. Disappearance of the Imperative Forms 941 4. Alternatives for the Imperative 942 (a) The Future Indicative 942 (b) The Subjunctive 943 (c) The Optative 943 (d) The Infinitive 943 (e) The Participle 944 5. Uses of the Imperative 946 (a) Command or Exhortation 946 (b) Prohibition 947 (c) Entreaty 947 (d) Permission 948
    PAGE (e) Concession or Condition 948 (f) In Asyndeton 949 (g) In Subordinate Clauses 949 (h) The Tenses 950 (i) In Indirect Discourse 950 B. Dependent or Hypotactic Sentences 950 Introductory 950 (a) Use of Modes in Subordinate Sentences 950 (b) The Use of Conjunctions in Subordinate Clauses 951 (c) Logical Varieties of Subordinate Clauses 952
    1. Relative Sentences 953 (a) Relative Sentences Originally Paratactic 953 (b) Most Subordinate Clauses Relative in Origin 953 (c) Relative Clauses Usually Adjectival 954 (d) Modes in Relative Sentences 955 (e) Definite and Indefinite Relative Sentences 956 (f) The Use of
    a@n in Relative Clauses 957 (g) Special Uses of Relative Clauses 960 (h) Negatives in Relative Clauses 962
    2. Causal Sentences 962 (a) Paratactic Causal Sentences 962 (b) With Subordinating Conjunctions 963 (c) Relative Clauses 965 (d)
    Dia> to< and the Infinitive 966 (e) The Participle 966
    3. Comparative Clauses 966 (a) The Relative
    o!soj 966 (b) Relative o!j with kata< 967 (c) Kaqo<ti in a Comparative Sense 967 (d) [Wj and its Compounds 967
    4. Local Clauses 969
    5. Temporal Clauses 970 (a) Kin to Relative Clauses in Origin and Idiom 970 (b) Conjunctions Meaning 'When' 971 (c) The Group Meaning 'Until' (‘While’) 974 (d) Some Nominal and Prepositional Phrases 977 (e) The Temporal Use of the Infinitive 978 (f) Temporal Use of the Participle 979
    6. Final and Consecutive Clauses 980 (a) Kinship 980 (b) Origin in Parataxis 980 (c) Pure Final Clauses 981 (
    a) !Ina 981 (b) !Opwj 985 (g) [Wj 987 (d) Mh<, mh< pote, mh< pwj 987 (e) Relative Clauses 989 (z) The Infinitive 989 (h) The Participle 991

    (d) Sub-Final Clauses 991 (a) !Ina 991 (b) !Opwj 994 (g) Mh<, mh< pwj, mh< pote 995 (d) The Relative Clause 996 (e) The Infinitive 996 (z) Ei] and o!ti 997
    (e) Consecutive Clauses 997 (a) @Ina 997 (b) !Wste 999 (g) [Wj 1000 (d) !Oti 1001 (e) The Relative 1001 (z) The Infinitive 1001
    7. Wishes 1003 8. Conditional Sentences 1004 (a) Two Types 1004 (b) Four Classes 1004 (a) Determined as Fulfilled 1007 (b) Determined as Unfulfilled 1012
    (g) Undetermined, but with Prospect of Determina-
    tion 1016 (
    d) Remote Prospect of Determination 1020 (c) Special Points 1022 (a) Mixed Conditions 1022 (b) Implied Conditions 1022 (g) Elliptical Conditions 1023 (d) Concessive Clauses 1026 (e) Other Particles with ei] and e]a<n 1027 9. Indirect Discourse 1027 (a) Recitative !Oti in Oratio Recta 1027 (b) Change of Person in Indirect Discourse 1028 (c) Change of Tense in Indirect Discourse 1029 (d) Change of Mode in Indirect Discourse 1030 (e) The Limits of Indirect Discourse 1031 (f) Declarative Clauses 1032 (a) !Oti and the Indicative 1032 (b) The Infinitive 1036 (g) The Participle 1040 (d) Kai> e]ge<neto 1042 (g) Indirect Questions 1043 (a) Tense 1043 (b) Mode 1043 (g) Interrogative Pronouns and Conjunctions Used 1044 (h) Indirect Command 1046 (a) Deliberative Question 1046 (b) The Conjunctions i!na and o!pwj 1046 (g) The Infinitive 1046

    PAGE (i) Mixture 1047 (j) The Subordinate Clause 1048 10. Series of Subordinate Clauses 1048
    CHAPTER XX. Verbal Nouns
    I. Kinship 1050 II. The Infinitive 1051

    1. Origin 1051 2. Development 1052
    (a) The (b) The (c) The (d) The (e) The
    3. Significance 4. Substantival
    Prehistoric Period 1052 Earliest Historic Period 1052 Classic Period from Pindar on 1054 Koinh< Period 1054 Later Period 1056
    1056 Aspects of the Infinitive 1058 (a) Case (Subject or Object Infinitive) 1058 (b) The Articular Infinitive 1062 (c) Prepositions 1068 (d) The Infinitive with Substantives 1075 (e) The Infinitive with Adjectives 1076 (f) The Infinitive with Verbs 1077 (g) The Appositional Infinitive 1078 5. Verbal Aspects of the Infinitive 1079 (a) V oice 1079 (b) Tense 1080 (c) Cases with the Infinitive 1082 (d) The Infinitive in Indirect Discourse 1082 (e) Personal Construction with the Infinitive 1085 (f) Epexegetical Infinitive 1086 (g) Purpose 1087 (h) Result 1089 (i) Cause 1091 (j) Time 1091 (k) The Absolute Infinitive 1092 (1) Negatives 1093 (m) @An with the Infinitive 1095
    III. The Participle
    1. The Verbals in --
    toj and —te<oj 1095 2. History of the Participle 1098

    (a) The Sanskrit Participle 1098 (b) Homer's Time 1098 (c) The Attic Period 1098 (d) The Koinh< 1099 (e) Modern Greek 1099
    3. Significance of the Participle 1100 (a) Originally an Adjective 1100 (b) The Addition of the Verbal Functions 1101
    (c) The Double Aspect of the Participle 1101 (d) Relation between Participle and Infinitive 1101 (e) Method of Treating the Participle 1103
    4. Adjectival Aspects of the Participle 1104 (a) Declension 1104 (b) Attributive Participle 1105
    (a) Anarthrous 1105
    (b) Articular 1106 (c) Predicate Participle 1108 (d) The Participle as a Substantive 1108 (e) The Participle as an Adverb 1109
    5. Verbal Aspects of the Participle 1110 (a) V oice 1110 (b) Tense 1111
    (a) Timelessness of the Participle 1111 (b) The Aorist 1112 (g) The Present 1115 (d) The Perfect 1116 (e) The Future 1118
    (c) Cases 1119 (d) The Supplementary Participle 1119 (a) The Periphrastic Construction 1119 (b)ADiminutionoftheComplementaryParticiple 1120 (g) Verbs of Emotion 1121 (d) Indirect Discourse 1122 (e) The Circumstantial Participle 1124 (a) The General Theory 1124 (b) Varieties of the Circumstantial Participle 1125 (g)TheAbsoluteParticipleinSubordinateClauses 1130
    (f) The Independent Participle in a Sentence (g) Co-ordination between Participles
    Ou] and mh< with the Participle
    (i) Other Particles with the Participle

    CHAPTER XXI. Particles
    I. Scope 1142 II. Intensive or Emphatic Particles 1144

    1. Limitations 1144 2. The N. T. Illustrations 1147 (a) Ge< 1147 (b) Dh< 1149 (c) Ei# mh<n, nh< and nai< 1150 (d) Men< 1150 (e) Per< 1153 (f) Toi< 1154 III. Negative Particles 1155 1. The Objective ou] and its Compounds 1155 (a) Origin 1155
    PAGE (b) History 1156 (c) Meaning 1156 (d) Uses 1156 (i) The Indicative 1157 (a) Independent Sentences 1157 (b) Subordinate Clauses 1158 (ii) The Subjunctive 1160 (iii) The Optative 1161 (iv) The Imperative 1161 (v) The Infinitive 1162 (vi) The Participle 1162 (vii) With Nouns 1163 (e) Kai> Ou] 1164 (f) Redundant or Pleonastic Ou] 1164 (g) Repetition of Ou] 1164 (h) The Intensifying Compound Negative 1164 (i) The Disjunctive Negative 1165 2. The Subjective Negative Mh< and Its Compounds 1166 (a) The History of Mh< 1166 (b) Significance of Mh< 1167 (c) Uses of Mh< 1168 (i) The Indicative 1168 (ii) The Subjunctive 1169 (iii) The Optative 1170 (iv) The Imperative 1170 (v) The Infinitive 1170 (vi) The Participle 1172 (vii) Nouns 1172 (d) The Intensifying Compounds with Mh< 1172 (e) Kai> mh< 1173 (f) Disjunctive Use of Mh< 1173 3. Combination of the Two Negatives 1173 (a) Mh> ou] 1173 (b) Ou] mh< 1174 IV. Interrogative Particles 1175 1. Single Questions 1175 (a) Direct Questions 1175 (i) No Particle at All 1175 (ii) The Use of Negative Particles 1175 (iii) Other Particles 1176 (iv) Interrogative Pronouns 1176 (v) Interrogative Conjunctions 1176 (b) Indirect Questions 1176 (i) Pronouns 1176 (ii) Conjunctions 1177 2. Double Questions 1177 (i) Direct 1177 (ii) Indirect 1177
    V. Conjunctions 1177 1. Paratactic Conjunctions 1177 (a) Copulative 1177 (i) Te< 1178 (ii) Kai< 1179 (iii) De< 1183 (iv) ]Alla< 1185 (b) Adversative 1186 (i) De< 1186 (ii) ]Alla< 1186 (iii) Plhn< 1187 ( i v ) M e n< t o i 1188 (v) !Omwj 1188 (vi) Ei] mh< 1188 (c) Disjunctives 1188 (i) @H 1188 (ii) Ei@te-- ei@te (e]a<nte e]a<nte) 1189 (iii) Ou@te--ou@te (mh<temh<te) 1109 (d) Inferential Conjunctions 1189 (i) @Ara 1189 (ii) Gar< 1190 (iii) Oun# 1191 2. Hypotactic Conjunctions 1192 VI. Interjections 1193
    CHAPTER XXII. Figures of Speech
    I. Rhetorical, not Grammatical 1194 II. Style in the N. T. 1194 III. Figures of Idea or Thought 1198 IV. Figures of Expression 1199

    (a) Parallels and Contrasts 1199 (b) Contrasts in Words 1200 (c) Contraction and Expansion 1201 (d) Metaphors and Similar Tropes 1206
    Kaqari<zw or kaqeriz< w 1209 2. Prothetic Vowels hi the N. T 1209 3. Elision 1210 4. Parrhsi<a 1210 5. Assimilation of e]n mes< & 1210 6. Rules for Assimilation of Consonants 1210 7. Metathesis 1210 8. Enclitics and Proclitics 1211 9. Boustrofhdo<n 1211 10. Perfect of o[raw< 1211 11. Augment in the Past Perfect 1211

    12. List of Important Verbs
    13. Ablaut 1220

    PAGE 1223-1248 1249-1290 1291-1376
    (a) New Testament 1291 (b) Old Testament 1361 (c) Inscriptions 1366 (d) Papyri and Ostraca 1367 (e) Greek Literature 1372
    (i) Classical 1372
    (ii) Koinh< 1373 (f) Latin 1376 ADDENDA TO THE SECOND EDITION 1377 ADDENDA TO THE THIRD EDITION 1385



    An archaeological site in the Dikti Mountains of Crete that was the location of a post-Bronze Age 'refuge' settlement of Minoan and Mycenaean peoples.

    Imagery location of Karphi

    visible remains of the archaeological site; verified in Google Earth 2013.


    Lato was an ancient city of Crete, a Dorian city-state located on Mirabello Bay. The principal ruins date to the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. and the city was destroyed ca. 200 B.C.

    GPS location of theater of Lato

    Hellenistic theater at Lato adjoining the Agora and the Prytaneion.

    OSM location of Lato

    Representative location based on OpenStreetMap.


    An ancient settlement on Crete where occupation began ca. 3000 B.C., Phaistos was a major center of the Minoan civilization and continued to be a Greek city of the first millennium B.C.

    Knosos/Col. Iulia Nobilis Cnosos

    A major ancient settlement of Crete located some 5 km southeast of Heraklion, Knossos was occupied from the Neolithic period to the time of the Roman empire.

    Pseira (island)

    Pseira is a small island of the Gulf of Mirabello of the northeastern coast of Crete where the archaeological remains of Bronze Age civilizations have been excavated.

    OSM location of modern coastline of Pseira

    Representative location based on OpenStreetMap.


    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 68 unlocated Phela


    An ancient place, cited: BAtlas 68 unlocated Bethmisona


    Unlabeled feature captured from the Barrington Atlas